1. B. R. ARUNKUMAR*, G. N. THIPPESHAPPA, H. M. CHIDDANANDAPPA AND K. T. GURUMURTHY [Impact of biochar, FYM and NPK fertilizers integration on aerobic rice growth, yield and nutrient uptake under sandy loam soil]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 111-117 (2019). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Navile, Shivamogga-577 225 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was carried out during summer season of 2018 on sandy loam soil at Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Navile, Shivamogga, Karnataka to study the effect of biochar, FYM and NPK fertilizers integration on growth and yield of aerobic rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 16 treatment combinations comprising four levels coconut shell biochar (2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha) and two levels of FYM (5 and 10 t/ha) which were applied alone and in combinations to soil. The recommended dose of fertilizer (100 : 50 : 50 kg/ha) was applied commonly to all the treatments except absolute control with three replications. The results showed that combination of 8 t coconut shell biochar/ha and 10 t FYM/ha with recommended dose of fertilizers significantly enhanced the plant height, number of tillers/hill, number of panicles/hill, number of grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight as compared to RDF alone and RDF+FYM 10 t/ha applied treatments, at all the growth stages. This reflected in significant marked effect on increased grain (6184 kg/ha) as well as straw (7724 kg/ha) yields and total uptake of macro-nutrients by aerobic rice crop in the 8 t coconut shell biochar and FYM 10 t/ha with RDF applied treatment.
2. Navneet Kaur*, S. S. Mahal and K. S. Saini [Phenology and heat unit requirement of summer moongbean under different dates of sowing and irrigation schedules]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 118-125 (2019). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during the summer season of 2014 to study the phenology and heat unit requirement of summer moongbean under different dates of sowing and irrigation schedules. Sowing on 20th March took increased number of calendar days (71.9 days) to harvest, while minimum (64.8 days) were noted under 30th March sowing. Among different sowing dates, the higher growing degree days (GDD), heliothermal units (HTU) and photothermal units (PTU) were reported under 10th April sowing at harvest stage (1258.00C day, 13779.60C day hour and 16908.30C day hour). Sowing on 20th March recorded higher seed yield, biological yield, heat use efficiency (HUE) and photothermal use efficiency (PUE). Among different irrigation schedules, IW/CPE ratio of 1.2 recorded higher GDD, HTU and PTU (1280.50C day, 13120.90C day hour and 17274.10C day hour). Seed yield and biological yield were also maximum under IW/CPE ratio of 1.2. HUE and PUE recorded non-significant differences under various irrigation schedules.
3. D. Kumari Manimuthu Veeral* and Giri Nayakanti [Effect of integrated organic nutrient management (INM) practices on plant architecture and yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 126-130 (2019). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of integrated organic nutrient management (INM) practices on plant architecture and yield of sesame under irrigated condition during summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at farmer’s field in Sirkali, Tamil Nadu. The experiment consisted of 12 treatment combinations viz., T1–Control, T2–Farm yard manure @ 12.5 t/ha+50% RDF, T3–Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha+50% RDF, T4–Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray)+50% RDF, T5–Dasagavya @ 3% (foliar spray)+50% RDF, T6–Amirthakaraisal @ 3% (foliar spray)+50% RDF, T7–T2+Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray), T8–T2+Amirthakaraisal @ 3% (foliar spray), T9–T2+Dasagavya @ 3% (foliar spray), T10–T3 + Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray), T11–T3 + Amirthakaraisal @ 3% (foliar spray) and T12–T3 + Dasagavya @ 3% (foliar spray) were tested in randomized block design with three replications. The study revealed that application of farm yard manure @ 12.5 t/ha+50% RDF + Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray) significantly increased the growth components of sesamum plant height (41.63, 75.04 and 116.50 cm), DMP (641.70, 1329.76 and 2763.16 kg/ha) at 30, 60 DAS and harvest stage, respectively. Similarly, the LAI (6.67) at flowering stage also recorded the highest in the same treatment and was followed by vermicompost @ 5 t/ha+50% RDF+Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray). The yield attributes like number of branches/plant (26.89), number of capsules/plant 44.82 and 125.01 at 60 DAS and harvest stage, respectively, number of seeds/capsule (83.69), 1000-seed weight (4.03 g) and seed yield (1013 kg/ha) were significantly increased with the application of farm yard manure @ 12.5 t/ha+50% RDF+Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray) followed by application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha+50% RDF+Panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray). From the above study, it could be concluded that application of farm yard manure @ 12.5 t/ha+50% RDF + panchagavya @ 3% (foliar spray) was best suited for attaining higher seed yield with improved soil fertility over the long run.
4. S. B. Pandey*, R. C. Nigam and Lal Singh [Yield, yield attributing characters and nitrogen uptake of lentil as influenced by phosphorus and sulphur levels in Gangetic alluvial soil of Uttar Pradesh]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 131-134 (2019). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2016-17 and 2017-18 on loam soil at Kulbhashkar Ashram P. G. College Farm of Allahabad to study the interaction effect of phosphorus (0, 40, 60 and 80 kg P2O5/ha) and sulphur application (0, 30 and 60 kg S/ha) on yield attributing characters, yield and N uptake of lentil. All the growth attributing characters, except plant height, increased up to 80 kg P2O5/ha application, but significant increase was noticed up to 60 kg phosphorus only. Likewise phosphorus, sulphur application also improved growth characters up to highest level of sulphur application (60 kg/ha) but significant increase was noted only up to 30 kg sulphur/ha, except total number of branches per plant during 1st year. Yield and yield attributing characters of lentil increased with every incremental doses of phosphorus and sulphur both, up to the highest level of phosphorus and sulphur used but significant increase was registered at 60 kg P2O5/ha and 30 kg S/ha, either of the years. Phosphorus application increased nitrogen uptake significantly up to 60 kg P2O5/ha in grain, while in straw it increased significantly up to 80 kg P2O5/ha. Sulphur application increased nitrogen uptake significantly up to its highest dose in grain and straw both during both the years of experimentation.
5. D. Kumari Manimuthu Veeral* and P. Kalaimathi [Effects of different levels of industrial wastes on nodulation pattern and biological properties of soil]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 135-138 (2019). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Investigations were undertaken in the farmer’s field, Ariyalur district of Tamil Nadu during rabi and summer seasons of 2015-16 on lateritic soil to evaluate the effects of graded levels of lignite flyash (LFA) on nodulation pattern of groundnut and biological properties of soil. The results of the field experiment revealed that among the various graded levels of LFA evaluated, combined application of LFA @ 5 t/ha+FYM @ 10 t/ha + RDF had recorded the highest results in terms of their ideal physico-chemical characteristics, the magnitude of nutrient contents and their availability, and microbial population and nodulation pattern of groundnut during both the seasons. Application of LFA @ 5 t/ha+FYM @ 10 t/ha+RDF recorded the highest count of bacteria (36.80 and 38.30 million/g of soil), actinomycetes (1.46 and 1.58 million/g of soil) and fungi (15.25 and 16.45 million/g of soil) in post-harvest soil during rabi 2015 and summer 2016, respectively. LFA in combination with FYM gave better results than LFA applied alone. Increased dose of LFA application was found to be inhibiting the multiplication of different groups of microbes.
6. Huda Hazim Altaae* [Using nested PCR to detect the non-defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae on olive orchard]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 139-142 (2019). Department of Plant Protection College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae infects olive at any time point of its life cycle. The severity of verticillium wilt on olive trees depends upon the virulence of the pathogen isolates. Isolates of V. dahliae infecting cotton and olive showed cross virulence, which was classified into defoliating (D) and non-defoliating (ND) pathotypes based on their ability to completely defoliate the plant or only cause wilt (i. e. no defoliation). In recent years, several different types of molecular techniques have been used for identifying V. dahliae isolates in a wide range of hosts or virulence. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was used in this study for the detection and quantification of verticillium wilt pathogens. The incidences of V. dahliae on olive in different areas of Iraq and Jordan were investigated. The samples from the same trees were used to detect the type of pathogenic strain [defoliating pathotype (D) versus non-defoliating pathotype (ND)] using PCR with specific primer pairs. The isolates showed positive results using nested PCR reactions, proving the existence of V. dahliae pathogen in tested olive trees in Iraq. The results confirm that the pathotype of V. dahliae is from the ND type. This is the first report which showed the existence of ND V. dahliae in Iraq.
7. KAJAL RAI, PRACHI SINKAR1, KALLATHI KUMAR AND SYAM P. K. JEEPIPALLI* [Estimation of aluminum levels in local banana (Musa) fruits : A pan India study]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 143-146 (2019). 1Analytical Chemistry Division, Thyrocare Technologies Limited D37/1, TTC, MIDC, Turbhe, Navi Mumbai-400 703, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Aluminum toxicity spawn metabolic dysfunctions brain, bone diseases in the human body. Aluminum affects plant growth and metabolism. All over the world, banana fruit is the commonly available table fruit. Considering the hazardous effects of Al, this study was postulated as estimation of banana aluminum levels in local banana fruits across the country. Microwave assisted acid digestion was used to homogenize banana samples with subsequent analysis by ICP-MS technology. Banana fruits from all the 59 districts were detected to fall in Al mean range of 165.54 to 539.97 ng/g. Bahraich district from Uttar Pradesh had higher banana aluminum levels and Tirunalveli from Tamil Nadu had lower banana Al levels. Considering the hazards of Al, preventive measures were recommended to maintain minimum levels of Al in the food products.
8. ABREHAM MULATU, AKLOK ZEWDE AND TESSEMA ASTATKIE* [Productivity of nationally released tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties in southern Ethiopia]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 147-151 (2019). 1College of Agriculture and Natural Resource Wolkite University, P. O. Box 07, Wolkite, Ethiopia *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the major and well accepted fruit vegetable crops worldwide. A field experiment was conducted in Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia during 2016 cropping season to investigate the adaptability and performance of nationally released tomato varieties and to identify the best performer variety. A randomized block design was used to compare the performance of four varieties (viz., Chali, Cochoro, Fetan and Metadel). The results of the statistical analysis showed that the varieties varied in terms of all growth and yield attributes. The plant height of Metadel variety was higher than that of the other varieties. Metadel variety had significantly larger number of fruits per cluster, fruit diameter and individual fruit weight than those of the other varieties, which resulted this variety to be the best performer in terms of marketable fruit yield giving 48 t/ha. Cochoro variety was the least performer yielding 33.51 t/ha. There was no significant difference between the mean yields of Fetan and Chali varieties. The evidence of this study suggests that among the four recently released tomato varieties, Metadel variety is the best performer and is recommended in the southern part of Ethiopia.
9. Divya Pant*, Subarna Sharma Acharya and Ankur poudel [Correlation coefficient and path analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under reproductive drought stress in mid hill of Nepal]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 152-157 (2019). 1Tribhuwan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar, Lamjung, Nepal *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
An experimental trial on eight rice genotypes was designed at the field of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung, Nepal under randomized complete block design with three replications from June-November 2017 to study the nature and extent of correlation among yield and yield attributing characters under reproductive heat stress. Grain yield was significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight (r=0.838**), SPAD reading (0.815*), relative water content (0.803*), harvest index (0.771**) and number of filled grains per panicle (0.719*) suggesting an instrumental role of these traits as “selection criteria” for yield improvement. The grain yield had negative non-significant association with the number of non-effective tillers per m2 (-1.05), sterility % (-0.378) and panicle length (-0.52). While the positive non-significant association with grain yield was exhibited by flag leaf area (0.161), the number of effective tillers per m2 (0.173), number of tillers per hill (0.634), plant height (0.110) and days to 50% anthesis (0.63*). The path coefficient analysis of different traits revealed highest positive direct effect of the number of tillers per hill (0.7220) followed by days to 50% flowering, SPAD reading, number of filled grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length and harvest index upon yield. However, relative water content, sterility %, the number of effective, non-effective tillers per m2 and plant height expressed negative direct effect upon grain yield. Relative water content (pivotal drought parameter) had negative direct effect upon yield but its residual positive effect was justified via other traits such as tiller number, SPAD reading, days to 50% flowering and number of filled grains per panicle.
10. C. Ayisha Banu, K. P. Sathyakala and E. M. Manogem* [Evaluation and screening of growth disrupting juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb on the development and metamorphosis of Spodoptera mauritia Boisd. (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)]. Crop Res. 54 (5&6) : 158-164 (2019). 1Division of Insect Endocrinology Department of Zoology, University of Calicut-673 635 (Kerala), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Spodoptera mauritia is a pest that causes severe damage to rice crops. In the present study, the effects of juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb were evaluated against S. mauritia. The 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th instar larvae and pupae were exposed to a wide range of concentrations of fenoxycarb and thereafter observed for the insecticidal activities of the compound. The calculated LD50 values of 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th instar larvae and pupae for fenoxycarb were 0.04, 0.13, 0.19, 0.64 and 0.004 µM, respectively. Higher concentrations of the compound were found to disrupt metamorphosis of S. mauritia. The significant difference in larval mortality, larval duration, pupation, pupal mortality and adult emergence in comparison to their control was recorded. Almost 100% suppression of adult emergence at higher doses of 5.00 and 10.00 µM fenoxycarb was seen. The morphogenic abnormalities and other effects indicated that fenoxycarb behaved as insecticides that severely hampered normal growth, development, metamorphosis and reproduction of S. mauritia.