Volume 54, Number 3&4 (May & July 2019)

By | July 27, 2019

1. Kayode S. Ogunleye*, Onyinye S. Okeke, Maryjane O. Umego and Ogbonnaya U. Ogbonnaya [Extraction behaviour of cadmium in biochar amended soils]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 59-64 (2019). 1Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria *(e-mail : kayode.ogunleye@fuoye.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in soils from fallow (A) and rice cultivated field (B) both below detection limit, indicated a plausible ‘pristine’ nature of the sites. The soils were individually spiked with 10 mg/kg CdCl2.H2O and other fractions were amended with oilseed rape biochars (OSR) produced at 550oC and 700oC in triplicates and then incubated for 60 days. During cultivation in soil B, mycorrhical fungi were inoculated in the field and this led to increased levels of phosphates (219.33 mg/kg) compared to the fallow soil A (5.33 mg/kg). The biochars slightly differed in physico-chemical properties and their influence on extraction behaviour of Cd was tested. Following 60 days ageing period, mean values followed the order of HNO3 > EDTA > CaCl2 in the soil samples. However, OSR550 significantly reduced the EDTA (1.48 mg/kg) and CaCl2 (0.86 mg/kg) extractable fractions which represent the potentially mobile and mobile fractions, respectively of Cd in soil A. The phosphate content of soil B ensured the precipitation of Cd to reduce the mobile fractions as well. Nevertheless, biochar showed to reduce mobile fractions much more than the naturally acquired phosphate soils. Biochar production showed to be a valuable tool to mitigate mobility of toxic Cd content in phosphate deficient soil.

2. Vimal N. Patel*, K. C. Patel and V. P. Parmar [Residual effect of silicon and sulphur fertilization on growth and yield of wheat under rice-wheat cropping sequence]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 65-69 (2019). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : vn9101@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted on effect of silicon and sulphur on yield and chemical composition on rice and its residual effect on wheat in loamy sand soil during the kharif and rabi seasons for two years 2016-17 and 2017-18 at Regional Research Station Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with factorial concept, comprising 12 treatment combinations of four levels of silicon (Si) (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg/ha) and three levels of sulphur (S) (0, 20 and 40 kg/ha) with three replications and were applied to rice as a basal along with recommended dose of fertilizer (120 : 40 : 00 kg NPK/ha) and the residual effect of treatments was studied in wheat crop. Residual effect of applied Si @ 450 kg/ha along with S @ 40 kg/ha significantly increased the number of tillers per meter in row length, plant height, grain and straw yields of wheat over control. But it was at par with 300 kg Si/ha along with 20 kg S/ha in case of number of tillers per meter in row length, plant height and it was at par with 300 and 150 kg Si/ha in case of grain and straw yields of wheat.

3. N. M. THESIYA*, D. M. DAMASIA AND R. P. BAMBHAROLIA [Effect of integrated nutrient management on grain yield, quality and nutrient content and uptake of little millet under little millet-greengram cropping sequence]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 70-74 (2019). Krishi Vigyan Kendra Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai-394 730 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : nmthesiya@nau.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif and rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at Rajendrapur Farm, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai (Dist. Dangs), Gujarat to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management in little millet on production potential of succeeding greengram crop under little millet-greengram cropping system. The treatment consisted of integrated nutrient management viz., T1–100% RDF, T2–50% RDN through chemical fertilizer+50% RDN through biocompost, T3–50% RDN through chemical fertilizer+50% RDN through vermicompost, T4–75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through biocompost, T5–75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through vermicompost and Azotobacter and PSB applied each 2 l/ha for all treatments to little millet in kharif season as main plot treatments replicated four times in randomized block design. During rabi season each main plot treatment was split into four sub-plot treatments with four levels of recommended dose of fertilizers viz., S1–Control, S2–50% RDF, S3–75% RDF and S4–100% RDF to greengram resulting in 20 treatment combinations replicated four times in split plot design. The experiment was conducted on same site without changing the randomization of the treatment for the successive year. The application of RDF i. e. 40 kg nitrogen through 100% RDF or 75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through vermicompost along with recommended dose of 20 kg P2O5 reported promising effect on nutrient content and uptake, quality and yield of little millet in little millet-greengram cropping sequence under south Gujarat condition.

4. ARGHA GHOSH*, SUSHANTA SARKAR AND SAFIUDDIN AHMED KHAN [Effects of agro-climatic factors on yield components of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.)]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 75-81 (2019). Department of Agricultural Meteorology and Physics Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : ghoshargha4@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted during rabi (winter) season of the year 2016-17 with grass pea (Variety : ‘Prateek’) sown on nine dates from 26th October to 21st December at weekly interval at Instructional Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal to study the effect of agro-climatic factors on the yield components viz., number of pods per plant (PP), number of grains per pod (GP) and test weight of grains (TW). PP showed positive association with air temperatures during vegetative phase (Tmax : 0.70*; Tmin : 0.70* and Tmean : 0.70*). Significant positive correlations were observed between TW and average daily maximum temperature and diurnal temperature range during the post-flowering phase (Tmax : 0.71* and Trange : 0.75*). Number of pods per plant could be predicted at the end of vegetative and reproductive stages with 69.9 and 70.1% predictability, respectively. On the other hand, test weight of grains could be predicted at the end of reproductive phase with 94.8% predictability.

5. Jnana Bharati Palai*, Jagadish Jena and Sagar Maitra [Prospects of underutilized food legumes in sustaining pulse needs in India–A review]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 82-88 (2019). 1,3Department of Agronomy M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology & Management CUTM, Paralakhemundi-761 211 (Odisha), India *(e-mail : jnana@cutm.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

Exploring rate of global population led to fast depletion of natural resources. It has become primary importance in India like horse gram, khesari, rice bean, tepary bean, moth bean, adzuki bean, winged bean and jack bean diversify the current agricultural systems in order to achieve food security. About 45 legume crops have been reported to be taken as food source by around 550 tribal societies in India. Different underutilized legumes are cultivated. These underutilized legumes make an important contribution in the diet of the rural habitats particularly during adverse conditions like dry season, drought and famine. Most of the known underutilized legumes contain adequate quantities of essential amino acids, protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), essential minerals, vitamins and dietary fibers compared to other legumes, along with presence of some beneficial bioactive substances. Exploring underutilized legumes as a source of feed, food and pharmaceutically important compounds to provide primary data which can be applied to overcome malnutrition-associated complications and can be able in sustaining pulse needs in India.

6. A. Sarkar*, A. Ghosh, S. Pradhan, P. K. Tarafdar and S. K. De [Determination of thermal use efficiency of potato and broccoli grown under different strength of jute agro textile]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 89-93 (2019). 1Department of Soil and Water Conservation Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : anwesha.swc@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of various strength of jute agro textiles (gram per square meter or GSM) on yield and thermal use efficiencies of broccoli and potato, a field experiment was conducted at the Regional Research Station, New Alluvial Zone, Nadia, West Bengal from November, 2016 to February, 2017. Five treatments viz., T1–800 GSM, T2 –600 GSM, T3–400 GSM, T4–200 GSM jute agro textiles (JAT) and T5–Control were used for the experiment in a randomized block design. Accumulated thermal indices viz., Growing degree days (GDD) or Heat unit (HU), Heliothermal units (HTU) and Photothermal units (PTU) and their efficiencies HUE, HTUE and PTUE, respectively, were computed. Crop yield as well as thermal and radiation use efficiencies increased for each treatment but T1 showed highest yield and thermal use efficiencies for both the crops (HUE : 2.091 g/m2/day0C; HTUE : 0.320 g/m2/0C h; PTUE : 0.194 g/m2/0C h for broccoli and HUE : 10.772 g/m2/day 0C; HTUE : 1.674 g/m2/0C h; PTUE : 0.987 g/m2/0C h for potato). Results revealed that various strength of JAT greatly influence thermal accumulation and utilization in broccoli and potato.

7. Worku Kebede* Kebebew Assefa, Bulti Tesso and Mitiku Asfaw [Study of broad sense heritability and genetic advance for grain yield and yield components of drought tolerant tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] genotypes]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 94-100 (2019). 1Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia *(e-mail : workukebede121@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability is a pre-requisite to crop improvement. The objective of the present study was to assess and quantify the genetic variability, estimate heritability and genetic advance for yield and yield contributing characters of drought tolerant tef genotypes based on agro-morphological traits. A total of 49 tef materials [(42 drought tolerant tef advanced lines, the parents of the advanced lines (Dtt2, Dtt13, Quncho and the cultivar Kaye Murri), two varieties (Tsedey and Simada) released for low moisture area and a local check cultivar from each location)] were planted in 7 x 7 simple lattice design at Melkassa and Alemtena in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Important agronomic data were collected and subjected to analysis using statistical analysis software (SAS). The combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) over locations showed significant location and genotype main effects (P0.01) for most of the traits. The genotype x location interaction effect was not significant (P> 0.05) for all traits evaluated, except for days to physiological maturity and number of primary panicle branches per main shoot. Phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for the characters such as days to physiological maturity, number of fertile tillers per plant and days to seedling emergence showed very small difference demonstrating that the observed variations for these traits were mostly due to genetic factors with little impact of environment. High heritability and genetic advance were noted for panicle length and days to heading signifying the ease of phenotype-based selection for the improvement of those traits.

8. J. Alfred Daniel*, K. Ramaraju, S. Manickavasagam, H. Sankararaman, M. Ayyamperumal and J. Gowri Prakash [Diversity of certain Chalcidoidea from three rice growing zones of Tamil Nadu, India]. Crop Res. 54 (3&4) : 101-109 (2019). 1 and 2Department of Agricultural Entomology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, India *(e-mail : danieljalfred@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Surveys were conducted to explore the Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eucharitidae and Torymidae (Chalcidoidea : Hymenoptera) fauna in rice ecosystems of Tamil Nadu during 2015-16 in three different rice growing zones viz., western zone, Cauvery delta zone and high rainfall zone. Aphelinus abdominalis, Eriaphytis orientalis and Marietta leopardina are the three species of Aphelinids collected in the present study and a total of 15 aphelinids were collected. Seventeen individuals that constitute six species of Encyrtidae viz., Anicetus ceroplastodis, Callipteroma sexguttata, Homalotylus sp., Homalotylus indicus, Ooencyrtus sp. and Prochiloneurus pulchellus were collected in the present study. Only one individual of Chalcura deprivata was collected under the family Eucharitidae. A total of 10 torymid individuals were collected under two species, namely, Chrysochalcissa indica and Podagrion opisthacanthum.

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