Volume 44, Number 3 (November, 2012)

By | July 14, 2014

1. Sushanta Saha, R. S. Antil, B. N. Saha and D. S. Dahiya [Effect of neem cake and N on the yield and uptake of nutrients by wheat]. Crop Res. 44(3): 251-254 (2012). Directorate of Research Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741 235 (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

A greenhouse experiment was conducted in rabi 2009 to study the effect of neem cake (NC) at various N levels on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. The dry matter yield of wheat increased significantly with the application of NC up to 0.125% and N upto 60 mg/kg. Wheat responded to N application up to 60 mg/kg added N in absence of NC. However, in presence of NC, the dry matter yield of wheat increased significantly up to 60, 60 and 20 mg N/kg when NC was applied at 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%, respectively. The uptake of NPK by wheat increased significantly with increasing levels of N up to 60 mg/kg and neem cake upto 0.125%. Available N, P and organic C content of post-harvest soil samples increased with the increasing levels of N and NC. But the available K content of soil decreased with the application of N and increased with the application of NC.

2. Sumesh Chopra, Jaspal Singh and Satpal Singh [Nitrogen content and uptake studies in wheat-mentha intercropping system under different crop establishment methods]. Crop Res. 44(3): 255-260 (2012). PAU Farm Advisory Service Scheme, Gurdaspur (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during winter to summer seasons of 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gurdaspur (Punjab) on silty clay loam soil to study the nitrogen content and its uptake in wheat-mentha intercropping system under different crop establishment methods. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications having 10 treatments comprising two (T1), three (T2) and four (T3) rows of wheat with 20 cm row spacing and two rows of mentha on outer side of wheat rows covering a total width of 67.5, 135 and 135 cm in flat situation, respectively. Similar pattern was also followed in T6, T7 and T8 where two, three and four rows of wheat were grown with 20 cm row spacing and two rows of mentha on outer side of wheat rows on the bed top covering a total width of 67.5 (37.5 cm top+30 cm furrow), 135 (105 cm top+30 cm furrow) and 135 (105 cm top+30 cm furrow) cm, respectively. Sole wheat and mentha crops were sown under T4 and T5 in flat and T9 and T10 in bed situation, respectively. Wheat was sown in November and mentha suckers were intercropped in February under different treatments. Planting methods did not have any significant impact on N content of wheat and mentha whether sole or in intercropping system which indicated that component crops were not competitive. In intercropping system, wheat and mentha in 2 : 2 rows ratio on 67.5 cm bed (T6) recorded maximum nitrogen uptake of 203.3 and 216.5 kg/ha during 2006-07 and 2007-08, respectively, which was significantly higher over all the intercropping systems except T1 during first year. In the same planting method, intercropping of mentha with three or four rows of wheat did not differ significantly but these row arrangements were significantly lower than mentha intercropping with two rows of wheat.

3. S. Sridevi* and M. Venkata Ramana [Soil quality and yield sustainability of maize-onion cropping system under organic farming]. Crop Res. 44(3): 261-268 (2012). AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : sridevi_karlapudi@yahoo.co.in, sridevikarlapudi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Attempts were made to evaluate the changes in soil quality under continuous organic farming for seven years. Field experiments were initiated in 2003 at College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar to evaluate the impact of organic farming practices in comparison to chemical farming on soil quality and yield of crops in maize-onion crop sequence. The experiment had six treatments viz., a pure organic treatment wherein the entire RDF was supplied through vermicompost (33%), FYM (33%) and neem cake (33%) on N equivalent basis and organics along with biofertilizers Azatobacter and PSB, an integrated treatment 50% FYM+50 chemical fertilizers and a pure inorganic treatment where the entire recommended dose of nutrients was supplied through mineral fertilizers. After seven years, there was an improvement in soil bulk density with organic treatments when compared to inorganic treatments. The organic treatments registered higher organic carbon content when compared to inorganic treatment and INM treatment. Build-up of available N was not prominent but, a very significant build-up of soil available phosphorus, potassium and micronutrients was noticed, with organic nutrition. Activity of enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphates and acid phosphates also enhanced with organic treatments. Dehydrogenase activity was highest in organics+biofertilizers treatment followed  by pure organic treatments. Alkaline phosphates activity was highest in INM treatment followed by organic and mineral fertilizer treatments, while activity of acid of phosphates was highest in organics+biofertilizers treatment. This prominent change in soil quality also resulted in improved yield of maize-onion cropping system under organic farming over years.

4.VINOD KUMAR WASNIK, A. P. K. REDDY AND SUDHANSHU S. KASBE [Performance of wintermaize under different rates of nitrogen and plant population in Southern Telangana region]. Crop Res. 44(3): 269-273 (2012). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during winterseason (rabi2008) to study the influence of different rates of nitrogen and plant populations on growth, yield, grain quality and economics of cultivating hybrid winter maize in Southern Telangana region. Growth characters like plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production/plant and yield attributes such as cob length, cob girth, shelling percentage, test weight, weight of cobs and protein content increased significantly with increase in nitrogen level from 150 to 250 kg/ha. Increase in plant population density from 67,000 to 1,11,000 plants/ha recorded increase in plant height, leaf area index, while it caused decline in dry matter/plant, cob length, cob girth, shelling percentage and test weight. Days to silking and physiological maturity were inversely proportional to nitrogen level, while these were found directly proportional to plant population. Grain yield with 250 kg N/ha boosted significantly by 12 and 6% over 150 and 200 kg N/ha, respectively, while stover yield increased by 8 and 4%. Plant population of 1,11,000 recorded significant increase in grain yield by 26, 18 and 10% over 67,000, 87,000 and 89,000 plants/ha, while stover yield increased at 22, 19 and 5%. Net returns (Rs. 48089) and benefit : cost ratio (3.79) were significantly superior with 250 kg N/ha+1,11,000 plant population over other combinations.

5. K. P. SURESH NAIK*, NARAYANA S. MAVARKAR**, T. BASAVARAJ NAIK, N. KRISHNAMURTHY AND M. S. DINESH [Production potential and economics of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by farm yard manure and biodigester liquid manure under southern transitional zone of Karnataka]. Crop Res. 44(3): 274-278 (2012). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sureshpnaik@gamil.com; **mavarkarns@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2010 under rainfed condition on red sandy loam soil to study the effect of farm yard manure and biodigester liquid manure on production potential and economics of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) at Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences (Bengaluru), Bhavikere, Karnataka. There were totally 13 treatment combinations comprasing different levels  of farm yard manure (FYM) (7.5, 10 and 12.5 t/ha) and biodigester liquid manure equivalent  (75, 100, 125 and 150 kg N/ha) compared with control (FYM 7.5 t/ha+RDF : 100 : 50 : 25 kg NPK/ha). Application of FYM at 12.5 t/ha+biodegester liquid manure equivalent at 150 kg N/ha recorded significantly higher  grain weight (105.2 g/cob), number of seeds/cob (421.0), number of rows/cob (15.1), cob girth (15.6 cm), cob length (17.0 cm), grain yield (56.2 q/ha), straw yield (108.9 q/ha), harvest index (0.38), gross returns (Rs. 46,391/ha), net returns (Rs. 34,989/ha) and B : C (3.1) and it was on par with application of  FYM at 10 t/ha+biodegester liquid manure equivalent at 150 kg N/ha  recorded  higher  grain weight (104.3 g/cob), number of seeds/cob (420.4), nimber of rows/cob (14.5), cob girth (14.3 cm), cob length (15.5 cm), grain yield (55.1 q/ha), straw yield (107.0 q/ha), harvest index (0.37), gross returns (Rs 45,105/ha), net returns (Rs. 33,930/ha) and B : C (3.0) and Control (FYM 7.5 t/ha+RDF : 100 : 50 : 25 kg NPK/ha) recorded grain weight (103.3 g/cob), number of seeds/cob (418.3), number of rows/cob (13.9), cob girth (14.0 cm), cob length (14.7 cm), grain yield (56.2 q/ha), straw yield (108.9 q/ha), harvest index (0.38), gross returns (Rs. 44,766/ha), net returns (Rs. 32,566/ha) and B : C (2.7) as compared to the remaining treatments.

6. K. P. SURESH NAIK*, NARAYANA S. MAVARKAR**, T. BASAVARAJ NAIK, N. KRISHNAMURTHY AND B. S. SOWMYALATHA [Effect of farm yard manure and biodigester liquid manure on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under rainfed condition]. Crop Res. 44(3): 279-282 (2012). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sureshpnaik@gamil.com, **mavarkarns@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2010 under rainfed condition on red sandy loam soil to study the effect of farm yard manure and biodigester liquid manure on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under rainfed condition at Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences (Bangalore), Bhavikere, Tarikere taluk. The experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. There were totally 13 treatment combinations comprising different levels farm yard manure (7.5, 10 and 12.5 t/ha) and biodigester liquid manure equivalent (75, 100, 125 and 150 kg N/ha) compared with control (FYM 7.5 t/ha+RDF : 100 : 50 : 25 kg NPK/ha). Application of FYM @ 12.5 t/ha+biodigester liquid manure equivalent @ 150 kg N/ha recorded significant increase in growth attributing characters like plant height (187.0 cm), number of leaves per plant (12.30), leaf area (4118.2 cm2/plant), leaf area index per plant (1.78), leaf area duration (68.5 days) and dry matter accumulation (360.8 g/plant) and yield attributing characters grain weight per cob (105.2 g), number of seeds per cob (421.0), number of rows per cob (15.1 g), cob length (17.0 cm), grain yield (55.1 q/ha) and stover yield (108.9 q/ha) compared with remaining  treatments.

7. G. SASHI KALA, M. V. S. NAIDU AND K. SREENIVASULU REDDY [Effect of dairy factory effluent on dry matter production, yield and  uptake of nutrients in greengram and pearl millet crops]. Crop Res. 44(3): 283-287 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati-517 502 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A pot culture experiment was conducted during rabi 2009 at S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh to study the effect of dairy factory effluent on dry matter production, yield and nutrient uptake by greengram and pearl millet crops. The dry matter production, yield and N, P, K and S uptake by greengram and pearl millet crops increased with increase in the levels of dairy factory effluent application from DFE0 to DFE3.0. The uptake of K and S was higher in pearl millet crop, whereas the uptake of  N and P was higher in greengram crop. The interaction effect between crops and levels of dairy factory effluent on yield, dry matter production and uptake of N, P, K and S was found to be significant  at all stages of crop growth.

8. SUSHIL KUMAR*, M. YAKADRI AND S. S. RAO [Effect of nitrogen levels and planting geometry on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) growth, stalk and grain yields1]. Crop Res. 44(1&2): 33-36 (2012). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : sushilangrau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season of 2010 on sandy loam soil to study the influence of weeds on yield of rainy season pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend. and Stuntz]. Hand weeding at 35 days after sowing was found most effective in reducing weed population, dry weight of weeds and maximum yield of pearl millet. Atrazine 0.50 kg/ha applied as pre-emergence was also equally effective. Increase in dose of atrazine treatment significantly reduced the yield of kharif pearl millet.

9. A. L. JAT, J. X. MASSEY, PUSHPENDRA SINGH and h. k. sumeriya [Response of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cultivars to weed management]. Crop Res. 44(3): 292-294 (2012). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology-313 001, Udaipur (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was undertaken at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan). Response of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cultivars to weed management was found out during kharif 2010. Results showed that the weed free treatment gave significantly higher earhead weight, grain weight/earhead, weight of 1000 grains and grain, stover and biological yields and net returns. While the B : C ratio was highest under intercropping with cowpea+1 HW. The corresponding increases in grain, stover and biological yield due to weed free were of the order of 103.46, 23.77 and 38.37% over weedy check. Among cultivars, CSH 16 gave higher grain yield, net return and B : C ratio. CSV 20 recorded higher stover and biological yield. Minimum weed density and dry matter at harvest were recorded under intercropping with cowpea+1 HW.

10. B. R. Mutkule, M. S. Shinde, A. R. Gaikwad, V. R. Patil and S. R. Gadakh [Seasonal dry matter accumulation and its partitioning trend in sweet sorghum genotypes]. Crop Res. 44(3): 295-297 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India

ABSTRACT

Eighteen sweet sorghum genotypes including two checks (CSV 19SS and SSV 84) were studied for dry matter positioning in kharif and rabi2009. The results revealed that the proportion of dry matter accumulation diverted to stalk (stem) was substantially greater in kharif than rabi season. The post rainy crop gave 18.9% less total dry matter than kharif season. The genotypes RSSV 106, CSV 19SS, RSSV 138, RSSV 167, RSSV 82 and RSSV 99 during kharif season, while the genotypes RSSV 138 and RSSV 167 during rabi produced the higher total dry matter. The sweet sorghum genotypes accumulated higher dry matter during kharif season and translocated 13.33, 56.25 and 30.42% for leaf, stem and panicle development, respectively. During rabi season, it translated 10.85, 50.58 and 38.57 for leaf, stem and panicle development, respectively.

11. S. R. Gadakh, M. S. Shinde, U. D. Chavan, A. R. Gaikwad and V. R. Patil [Phule Panchami (RPOSV 3) : A new grain poppingrabi sorghum variety]. Crop Res. 44(3): 298-300 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India

ABSTRACT

Phule Panchami (RPOSV 3) is a new grain popping rabi sorghum variety developed from local land races and was found to be superior in popping over M 35-1, Local-1 and Local-2. It recorded better popping per cent (97.7) as compared to M 35-1 (58.79), Khandesh Local-1 (82) and Jabalpur Local-2 (63). The pops were of extra large whitish colour and fully opened with high expansion volume. It also recorded higher (87.4%) and lower unpopping grain percentage (8.8) on weight basis over the checks. As regards processing losses during popping, it recorded lowest losses (3.8%). Based on nine tests, it gave a mean grain and fodder yield of 1376 and 3808 kg/ha, respectively. Being the higher pop yielder and better quality of pops, RPOSV 3 was characterized as medium group (118-120), mid tall plant height (186 cm) with better biochemical traits viz., starch, protein, total sugars, free amino acid and hectoliter weight. It had high degree of tolerance charcoal rot (26.1%) and moderately tolerance to shootfly (DH % 41.6). The variety RPOSV 3 was therefore, released under the name, Phule Panchami and recommended for western Maharashtra for exclusively special purpose like popping.

12. S. R. Gadakh, M. S. Shinde, V. R. Patil and A. R. Gaikwad [Effect of hybrids and growth stages on green cane yield, brix and juice yield of sweet sorghum]. Crop Res. 44(3): 301-303 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of sweet sorghum hybrids and growth stages on green cane yield, brix and juice yield in sweet sorghum. The hybrid ICSA 675 x SSV 74 (61.1 t/ha) produced significantly the highest green cane yield, while the hybrid ICSA 675 x SSV 74 (18376 l/ha) produced significantly higher juice yield than the check CSH 22 SS (13857 l/ha). As regards brix, ICSA 731 x ICSV 93046 (15.5%) hybrid exhibited more brix than the check CSH 22 SS (14.4%). As regards growth stages, the results indicated that maximum green cane yield and juice yield were recorded at dough stage than flowering and physiological maturity. In respect of brix, maximum brix was recorded at physiological maturity than flowering and dough stages. The interaction indicated that the hybrids ICSA 675 x SSV 74 (67.7 t/ha) and ICSA 474 x SSV 74 (67.5 t/ha) at dough stage produced significantly higher green cane yield than rest of the hybrids and rest of the growth stages.

13. THAKAR SINGH AND AMRIK SINGH [Performance of transplanted canola varieties in relation to age of nursery seedlings and inter-row spacings under late sown condition]. Crop Res. 44(3): 304-310 (2012). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of nursery age and inter-row spacing on growth and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties under late sown condition during rabi 2009-10. Among different varieties, Hyola PAC 401 produced maximum mean seed yield (15.8 q/ha) which was 11.4 and 26.5% higher than varieties GSL-1 and GSC-6, respectively. The optimum age of transplanting the nursery seedlings for variety GSC-6 was 30 days and it was 45 days for GSL-1 and Hyola PAC 401. Row to row spacing of 30 and 45 cm produced statistically similar mean seed yield in transplanted as well as in direct seeded crop.

14. Y. S. PARAMESWARI, A. SRINIVAS and MADHU MOGULOjU [Yield and oil content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as influenced by nitrogen and boron nutrition]. Crop Res. 44(3): 311-313 (2012). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030  (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on sunflower hybrid MSFH-8 to study the effect of nitrogen in relation to boron nutrition on sunflower yield during summer 2009. The results of the experiment indicated significant influence of treatments on seed yield, stalk yield and harvest index, oil content and oil yield. Increasing levels of nitrogen from 60 to 120 kg/ha in combination of boron spray at different concentrations resulted in significant improvement in final seed yield. Maximum seed yield, stalk yield, harvest index and oil yield were observed with 120 kg N/ha+0.2% boron spray, while minimum was found with 60 kg N/ha+0.1% boron spray. But with the increasing levels of nitrogen from 60 to 120 kg/ha irrespective of boron spray decreased the oil content. The highest oil content was recorded by 60 kg N/ha+0.1% boron spray (40.3%) and the lowest oil content was observed by 120 kg N/ha+0.2% boron spray (38.0%).

15. MADHU MOGULOJU, M. VENKATA RAMANA AND Y. S. PARAMESWARI [Effect of pre-emergence herbicides on weed control, seed yield and returns of soybean (Glycine max)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 314-317 (2012). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment on chemical weed control in soybean was conducted during kharif 2008 to evaluate the efficiency of different herbicides. Two hand weedings at 15 and 35 days after sowing (DAS), and among herbicidal treatments, application of metribuzin both @ 650 g a. i./ha and at a lower dose of 500 g a. i./ha were found effective in reducing weed density and weed dry matter at 30 and 60 DAS, resulting in higher weed control efficiency over other herbicides. With the highest seed yield of 1636 kg/ha  and haulm yield of 2358 kg/ha hand weeding at 15 and 35 DAS was found superior to all other chemical weed control treatments except the application of metribuzin @ 650 g a. i./ha which recorded a seed yield of 1523 kg/ha and weed index value of 6.9%. This was found at a par with same herbicide applied at a lower dose of 500 g a. i./ha (1415 kg/ha). The highest gross returns and net returns were obtained with hand weeding at 15 and 35 DAS, but benefit : cost ratio was highest with metribuzin @ 650 g a. i./ha as pre-emergence (2.27) followed by same herbicide @ 500 g a. i./ha as pre-emergence applications (2.15).

16. SHAILENDRA SINGH, NEELAM CHOPRA, K. S. REDDY and LEELAVATI [Influence of sulphur and boron on yield attributes and yield of soybean]. Crop Res. 44(3): 318-321 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry JNKVV College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at College of Agriculture, Indore, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, during kharif2007 and 2008 to study the effect of sulphur and boron fertilization on yield attributesand yield of soybean. The experiment was laid out in a factorial combination of S and B following factorial randomized block design replicated thrice. There were 25 treatment combinations consisting of five rates of both S (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S/ha) and B (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg B/ha). The results of the experiments revealed that application of 30 kg S/ha recorded better yield attributes viz., branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight and higher yield than the other treatments. Similarly, application of boron at 1.0 kg/ha recorded better yield attributes and higher yield of grain and straw.

17. D. B. Khot, S. D. Munde*, V. D. Khanpara and R. D. Pagar [Impact of weed control treatments on weed flora, nutrient uptake by weeds and blackgram crop]. Crop Res. 44(3): 322-325 (2012). Department of Agronomy Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001(Gujarat), India *(e-mail : smunde5009@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Experimental site constituted by monocot weedsviz., Panicum colonum L., Brachiaria spp., Eluropus villosus L., Commelina benghalensis L., Eragrostis major Host.,dicot weedsviz., Amaranthus viridis L., Digeria arvensis Forsk, Indigoflora glandulosa L., Euphorbia hirta  L., Boerhavia diffusa  L., Celosia argentea  L., Leucas aspera Spreng and Portulaca oleracea L. and sedgesviz., Cyperus rotundus L., weed free condition and application of pendimethalin 1 kg/ha pre-emergence+1 HW+IC at 40 DAS proved effective in reducing total weed density and dry weight of weeds and recorded significantly highest uptake of  N, P and K by crop and lowest uptake by weeds.

18. D. B. Khot, S. D. Munde*, V. D. Khanpara and R. D. Pagar [Evaluation of new herbicides for weed management in summer blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 326-330 (2012). Department of Agronomy Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : smunde5009@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2010 on medium black clayey soils to study the weed management in summer blackgram (Vigna mungo L.). An application of pendimethalin 1 kg/ha pre-emergence+1 HW+IC at 40 DAS was found most effective in reducing weed population (viz. monocot, dicot and sedges weeds) and resulted in less dry weight of weeds (204 kg/ha), higher WCE (85.91%), higher herbicidal efficiency index (46.08%) as well as lowest WI (7.92%) and it was closely followed by oxyfluorfen 0.18 kg/ha pre-emergence+1 HW+IC at 40 DAS. Pendimethalin 1 kg/ha pre-emergence+1 HW+IC at 40 DAS and oxyfluorfen 0.18 kg/ha pre-emergence+1 HW+IC at 40 DAS were found equally effective in yield parameters and yield over other treatments. Two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS were found statistically at par in these parameters.

19. H. D. Sathe and D. B. Patil [Effect of planting geometry and phosphate management on growth and growth attributes of semi-rabi pigeonpea]. Crop Res. 44(3): 331-334 (2012). Section of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during the semi-rabi season of 2010 to study the effect of planting geometry and phosphate management on growth and growth attributes of semi-rabi pigeonpea with split plot design. The treatments consisted of four planting geometry levels viz., S1 (45 × 15 cm), S2 (45 × 30 cm), S3 (60 × 15 cm), S4 (60 × 30 cm) and four levels of phosphate management viz., P1 (100% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer), P2 (100% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB), P3 (75% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB) and P4 (50% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB). Results showed that all growth parameters viz., height of plant, number of branches/plant, number of leaves/plant, leaf area/plant, leaf area index and dry matter/plant (g) were significantly influenced due to spacing. The highest values of all growth characters were observed with the spacing of S4 (60 × 30 cm), except plant height and leaf area index which were significantly influenced by the spacing of 45 × 15 cm and had the highest value. Days to 50% flowering was not influenced by the spacing. In case of phosphate management, all the growth characters viz., height of plant, number of branches/plant, number of leaves/plant, leaf area/plant, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation were significantly influenced due to application of phosphate levels and recorded highest with 100% RDP through fertilizer+PSB over any other. Days to 50% flowering was not influenced by phosphate management.

20. H. D. Sathe and D. B. Patil [Effect of planting geometry and phosphate management on quality and economics of semi-rabi pigeonpea]. Crop Res. 44(3): 335-337 (2012). Section of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during the semi-rabi season of 2010 to study the effect of planting geometry and phosphate management on quality and economics of semi-rabi pigeonpea with split plot design. The treatments consisted of four planting geometry levels viz., S1 (45 x 15 cm), S2 (45 x 30 cm), S3 (60 x 15 cm), S4 (60 x 30 cm) and four levels of phosphate management viz., P1 (100% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer), P2 (100% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB), P3 (75% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB) and P4 (50% recommended dose of phosphate through fertilizer+PSB). Results showed that protein content was not influenced due to spacing but protein yield was significantly influenced due to spacing and was recorded highest with medium spacing of 60 x 15 cm. In case of phosphate management protein content was not influenced significantly due to application of phosphate but protein yield was significantly influenced due to application of phosphate and was recorded highest with application of 100% RDP through fertilizer+PSB. From economic point of view, spacing 60 x 15 cm and application of 100% RDP through fertilizer+PSB gave maximum gross monetary return, net monetary return and B : C ratio.

21. J. Ubah, O. Fagbola* and S. E. Aladele [Growth of two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] varieties as influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl.) application under screen house conditions]. Crop Res. 44(3): 338-343 (2012). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture & Forestry University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria *(e-mail : fagbola8@yahoo.co.uk)

ABSTRACT

The fragile nature of the tropical soils and several reports on its degradation have raised the need for a sustainable management that will increase production while maintaining a healthy soil and environment. There is possibility of varied responses by crop varieties to soil management strategies. Hence, the growth of two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties (IT97K-499-35 and IT97K-390-2) as influenced by soil amendment was determined in a screenhouse trial at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan. A factorial combination of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation (with and without) and Tithonia diversifolia application (with and without) in a complete randomized design was used with three replications. Growth, yield and nutrient uptake parameters were determined and analysed using ANOVA. At eight weeks after sowing, IT97K-499-35 with tithonia application and mycorrhizal inoculation was significantly (P£0.05) higher compared to the treatment without soil amendments. The application of tithonia without mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased the pod dry weight and Ca uptake of IT97K-499-35 compared to that of IT97K-390-2 with similar treatments. However, the soil amendments significantly increased (P£0.05) percentage root colonization of the two cowpea varieties compared to their respective control. The combined application of T. diversifolia and mycorrhizal fungi inoculationhad a positive impact on the performance of cowpea. However, varied responses of the two cultivars to soil amendments call for screening of more cultivars to identify those with effective synergy to soil amendments in tropical low fertile soils.

22. R. K. Upadhyay, D. D. Patra, S. K. Tewari and Hari Baksh [Effect of farm yard manure, vermicompost, chemical fertilizer and integrated weed management on yield, yield contributing characters and quality of mint (Mentha arvensis L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 344-348 (2012). RP-RDS International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patancheru-502 324, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant (CIMAP), Lucknow, India, during 2009-10 to ascertain the response of farm yard manure (FYM), vermicompost (VC), inorganic input and integrated weed management on yield and yield contributing characters of mint (Mentha arvensis). The results revealed that application of 40 : 20 : 20 kg NPK/ha+FYM @ 5 t/ha+VC @ 2 t/ha in conjunction with hand weeding at 30, 60 and 90+pendimethalin @ 1 l a. i./ha as pre-emergence (T5W4) recorded the highest fresh herb yield of mint (240.5 q/ha) and it was at par with T2W4 (230.5 q/ha) as compared to others and the lowest was found in T1W1. Almost same trend as of oil yield (kg/ha) was observed with respect to oil content (%) and oil yield (kg/ha) of mint.

23. S. B. DEVARANAVADGI, PRADEEP RATHOD, S. L. MADIWALAR AND S. Y. WALI [Evaluation of carbon sequestration potentials of tree species planted in different planting methods in non-arable lands of northern dry zone of Karnataka]. Crop Res. 44(3): 349-352 (2012). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur-586 001 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur (Karnataka) during 2004 to 2011 to evaluate the carbon sequestration potentials of four different tree species planted in four different planting methods in non-arable land of northern dry zone of Karnataka. Results of the study indicated that crescent method of planting recorded highest plant growth during 4th, 5th and 6th year of planting which was overtaken by pit method during 7th year. The total biomass production (11.38, 23.38 and 36.88 t/ha) and amount of above ground carbon sequestration (5.69, 11.69 and 18.44 t/ha) during 4th, 5th and 6th year, respectively, was highest in crescent method. But during 7th year of planting, pit method recorded highest biomass (46.62 t/ha) and carbon sequestration (26.34 t/ha). Among the species, Dalbergia sissoo recorded the highest biomass (20.50, 38.16, 54.71 and 81.06 t/ha) and carbon sequestration (10.25, 19.08, 27.36 and 40.23 t/ha), respectively, during 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th year of planting followed by Azadirachta indica. Hence, D. sissoo in crescent method of planting followed by pit method was most suitable for non-arable lands of northern dry zone of Karnataka under rainfed situation with higher potentials of carbon trading.

24. K. M. RAJANNA AND M. N. NARASIMHA REDDY [Standardization of height of limb pruning to rejuvenate cashew]. Crop Res. 44(3): 353-355 (2012). Agricultural Research Station, Chintamani-563 125, Kolar Distirct (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to rejuvenate cashew plantations by limb pruning. The trees of Ullal-1 variety at Agricultural Research Station, Chintamani were limb pruned at different heights of limbs during September, 2006. The treatments showed significant variation in the nut yield during all the three years. Among the different heights of  pruning, the trees pruned at 1½ m height from the main stem recorded the highest nut yield/tree (3.15 kg) and cumulative nut yield (5.44 kg/tree from three harvests) followed by 1 m and lowest was recorded in 3 m height under maidan parts of Karnataka, August-September are the ideal months to take up limb pruning. Limb pruning of trees at 1½ m height proved to be the most effective for rejuvenation and obtained higher yields of unproductive cashew plantations of improved varieties/hybrids of cashew under maidan parts of Karnataka.

25. C. N. BYANNA and I. N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA [Standardization of recipe for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) beverage from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) var. sathgudi using sugar substitutes and its storage]. Crop Res. 44(3): 356-362 (2012). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The investigation on standardization of recipe for preparation of ready-to-serve beverage from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) var. sathgudi using sugar substitutes was conducted in the processing laboratory in the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November 2009 to June 2010. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomised design with three replications and six treatments viz., fructose, aspartame, sucralose and their combination with cane sugar (sucrose) with 18% juice and 0.2% acidity. The RTS beverage with sucrose was the control. Sugar substitutes were used in place of sugar based on sugar equivalents. The prepared RTS beverages were stored up to six months and analysed for chemical composition and sensory quality attributes at 0, 3 and 6 months intervals at ambient conditions. In sensory evaluation, RTS with fructose, 50% sucrose+50% fructose, 50% sucrose+50% sucralose were on par with RTS prepared from sucrose and thus were rated as best recipes. During storage period, the TSS, acidity and reducing sugars increased, while pH, total sugars, non-reducing sugars and ascorbic acid decreased. The RTS beverage had storage stability up to six months.

26. Satish Kumar, R. K. Roy, S. K. Tewari and A. K. Goel [Evaluation of performance of gerbera varieties growing in naturally ventilated polyhouse in Lucknow]. Crop Res. 44(3): 363-365 (2012). Botanical Garden CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to study the performance of gerbera varieties growing in naturally ventilated polyhouse in Lucknow. Seven varieties viz., Salvadore, Silvester, Goliath, Zingaro, Sunway, Dana Ellen and Rosaline were grown on same type of growing media comprising soil and sand : FYM : rice husk (2 : 1 : 1) ratio. Planting was done in beds (26.0 × 0.75 × 0.60 m) in two rows (0.30 x 0.30 m) at a distance of 0.30 m between plants. Plant growth parameters and flower characteristics were evaluated. The results revealed that the variety Rosaline recorded maximum plant height (33.67 cm), number of leaves/plant (31.33), leaf length (21.67 cm), leaf breadth (10.33 cm) and number of suckers/plant (11.00) followed by Dana Ellen and Silvester. Rosaline recorded minimum days (45.00 days) for bud initiation and days taken to first flower since planting (52.67 days) followed by Dana Ellen. Highest values for stalk length (61.00 cm), flower stalk diameter (1.99 cm) and flower diameter (11.63 cm) were recorded in Rosaline.

27.S. Gogoi, Milu Rani Das, P. Bora and N. Mazumder [Effect of foliar application of nutrients on fruit and seed production of brinjal (Solanum melongena)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 366-369 (2012). Horticultural Research Station Assam Agricultural University, Kahikuchi, P. O. Azara, Guwahati-781 017 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

A plant nutrition experiment was conducted during 2009-10 and 2010-11 to study the effect of foliar application of nutrients on plant growth, yield and quality of fruit and seed of brinjal var. JC-1. Foliar sprays of urea 1% and two micronutrients (boron 0.25% and multiplex 0.25%) were applied alone or in combination with APSA-80 (adjuvant) at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting of seedlings. The maximum plant height (62.93 cm), number of branches (6.36) and leaves (55.67) per plant were recorded with boron (0.25%)+APSA-80, followed by multiplex (0.25%)+APSA-80. Earliest flowering and fruiting (72 and 94 days, respectively) were also recorded with boron (0.25%)+APSA-80 resulting in highest number of fruits per plant (8.63) and total yield (356.55 q/ha). All the foliar sprays increased the seed yield per fruit over untreated plants, with the highest (8.50 g/fruit) recorded in boron (0.25%)+APSA-80. The highest seed viability was also observed with boron (0.25%)+APSA-80 compared to other treatments. Calculation of production economics revealed boron (0.25%)+APSA-80 to be the most remunerative with a benefit : cost ratio of 4.07 and 4.63 for fruit and seed production, respectively, against 3.65 and 3.10 in untreated control.

28. Mainu Hazarika, Deepa B. Phookan, Hemendra Choudhury and Pinki Saikia [Effect of different levels of NPK on yield and quality parameters of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 370-374 (2012). B. N. College of Agriculture Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali, Sonitpur-784 176 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam during 2009-10 to find out the  most suitable combination of NPK to produce the highest yield with  the best fruit quality of watermelon .The treatments studied were T1 (50 kg N, 35 P2O5 and 50 kg K2O), T2 (60 kg N, 40 kg  P2O5 and 60 kg K2O), T3  (70 kg N, 45 kg  P2O5 and 70 kg K2O), T4 (80 kg N, 50 kg  P2O5 and 80 kg K2O), T5 (90 kg N, 55 kg  P2O5 and 90 kg K2O), T6 (100 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O) and a control without fertilizer application (T7 ) which were replicated three times. The result of the study revealed that the yield, yield attributing characters and fruit quality of watermelon were significantly affected by the different treatments tested. The highest number of female flowers per vine (14.50), number of fruit per vine (2.43), fruit weight (5.91 kg), fruit yield per vine (14.31 kg), fruit yield per hectare (357.67 q) and the lowest male : female flower ratio (10.49 : 10) were recorded in treatment T5. The same treatment also produced the highest ascorbic acid content (5.14 mg/100 g). However, the highest fresh and dry weight of the vine (3.56 kg and 9493.52 g) respectively and TSS (9.30%) were observed in case of T6 which was at par with T5. The 90 kg N, 55 kg P2O5 and 90 kg K2O/ha (T5) could be suggested as the best fertilizer treatment combination for watermelon in agro-climatic condition of Assam which also maintained the highest benefit : cost ratio of 5.47 : 1.

29. N. Chamundeswari, K. Raja Reddy, Y. Suryanarayana and P. V.   Satyanarayana [Genetic divergence studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 375-379 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Sixty four rice germplasm lines were evaluated to study the degree and magnitude of genetic diversity by using Mahalanobis D2 technique. Based on genetic distance values all the genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Cluster I was the largest one with 23 genotypes followed by cluster V with 11 genotypes and clusters II and VIII (8 genotypes). The trait days to 50% flowering contributed maximum towards genetic divergence followed by iron content, grain yield per plant, gel consistency and test weight. Cluster I had highest mean values for days to 50% flowering, number of tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant; cluster VI had highest mean values for grain dimensions and chemical quality traits, while cluster VII recorded higher values for hulling, milling, head rice recovery, volume expansion ratio and lesser values for kernel breadth and kernel breadth after cooking which are desirable. Grain yield per plant was highest in cluster IV which was separated by higher distance from clusters III and VIII.

30. M. Girija Rani*, D. Adilakshmi, P. V. Satyanarayana, Y. Suryanarayana  and K. S. N. Prasad [Phenotypic and genetic analysis of RILs for drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 380-385 (2012). Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station Maruteru-534 122, West Godavari District (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : girija_aprri@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Drought is one of the abiotic stresses limiting yield both in lowland and upland rice ecosystem. Varietal development through conventional breeding is slow due to poor understanding of genetic control of drought resistance. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with drought resistance traits will provide an opportunity for breeding of rice varieties for drought prone areas. Forty drought resistant and susceptible recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from IR 64 and lalankada 41 were phenotypically screened under no stress, lowland stress and upland stress conditions for drought and genotyped with 53 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering 12 chromosomes.  Two QTLs for ear bearing tillers per plant co-segregating with markers RM 202 (chromosome 11) and RM 19382 (chromosome 6) , 1 for SPAD at drought recovery at RM 280 on chromosome 4 and 1 for leaf drying at RM 14565 on chromosome 3 were identified using composite interval mapping which explained individually 19.2 to 26.8% phenotypic variation.  These traits correlated with yield enhancement coupled with high heritability. QTLs associated with these traits may be useful for indirect selection for grain yield under drought through marker assisted selection.

31. G. R. Chougule, H. D. Mehta and S. A. Patil [Heterosis for qualitative and quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 386-390 (2012). National Agricultural Research Project Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-394 650 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

Heterosis in rice was studied in a set of four lines and 10 testers with their 40 hybrids. The magnitude of heterosis varied from cross to cross for all the characters studied. High heterotic effects were observed for days to 50% flowering, panicles per plant, plant height, panicle length, grains per panicle, grain yield per plant, 1000-grain weight, L/B ratio and amylose content. It was observed from the present study that heterotic response for grain yield per plant was mainly due to high heterotic response observed for panicles per plant, panicle length and grains per panicle.

32. V. Ram Reddy, Farzana Jabeen and M. R. Sudarshan [Genetic divergence in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 391-393 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The genetic divergence among 50 genotypes of maize was estimated by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic for 11 characters.  The genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Cluster III was the  largest with 20 genotypes  followed  by cluster  I (12 genotypes), cluster II (8 genotypes), cluster  IV (4 genotypes), cluster VIII (3 genotypes) and cluster V, VI and  VII  containing one genotype each. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups.  The  highest inter-cluster distance  was observed between clusters II and VI followed by clusters II and V, clusters II and VII, clusters I and VI, clusters I and VII and clusters IV and VI suggesting more variability in genetic make up of the genotypes included in these clusters. The highest intra-cluster distance was noticed in cluster VIII and lowest in clusters V, VI and VII. The clusters V, VI and VII contained only one genotype and hence, its intra-cluster distance was zero. The cluster VII had highest mean value for grain yield per plant followed by clusters VI and V. Based on the inter-cluster distances genotypes present in clusters I, II, IV, V, VI and VII can be used as parents for hybridization programme to develop potential hybrids.

33. K. T. VENKATESHA*, H. SHIVANNA, K. V. VIJAY KUMAR AND K. T. PANDURANGE GOWDA [Identification of superior general and specific  combiners for drought tolerance based on SCMR, SLA, ASI and D13C in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 394-399 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding G. K. V. K. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : venki_gpb@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to assess the general combining ability effects of parents and specific combining ability effects of hybrids for drought tolerant and grain yield traits in maize and explore their use in moisture stress tolerance hybrid development. Previously identified 10 drought tolerant lines and seven drought susceptible testers (these parents were identified based on four drought tolerant traits viz., SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), specific leaf area (SLA), anthesis silking interval (ASI), carbon isotope discrimination (D13C) were crossed in line x tester design. Seventy F1s generated by crossing these were evaluated. The ratio of sca/gca variance revealed that there was preponderance of non-additive gene action in the expression of all the traits under study. Inbred lines viz., SKV-70, CML-407 among lines and SKV-57 and SKV-19 among testers were good general combiners for drought tolerant, yield and yield attributing characters. Among the hybrids, NAI-156 x SKV-5, NAI-147 x SKV-19 and CML-407 x SKV-19 exhibited highest significant sca effects for drought tolerant traits and NAI-148 x CML-322, NAI-156 x SKV-57, CML-249 x HKI-1040 for yield and yield attributing traits. The conditional probability of crosses with higher specific combining ability was higher when at least one of their parents had high general combining ability.

34. K. HARIPRASANNA*, P. RAJENDRAKUMAR and J. V. PATIL [Parental selection for high heterosis in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]–Combining ability, heterosis and their inter-relationships]. Crop Res. 44(3): 400-408 (2012). Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Combining ability analysis is routinely used to identify the best combiners among a group of genotypes and superior hybrid combinations along with type of gene action controlling the expression of a quantitative trait. Eighty-four sorghum hybrids generated by crossing seven cytoplasmic male sterile lines and 12 fertility restorers in Line × Tester fashion were evaluated for grain yield and related traits in a replicated trial along with standard checks. Significant heterosis values were observed for all the traits studied, and hybrids displayed up to 139% grain yield advantage over better parent and 76% over standard check. Variances due to general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) were significant for days to flowering, panicle length and grain yield indicating role of both additive and non-additive gene action, while plant height and 100-seed weight were completely under additive genetic control. For grain yield 27B, RS 673 and CB 33 were good combiners, while for panicle length 27B, 296B, 2077B, RS 673 and Indore 12 were good combiners among parents. Analysis of combining ability status indicated that combinations of parents with non-significant gca can also result in hybrids with significant sca as well as heterosis for grain yield and other traits. Significant correlations were found between per se performance of hybrids and sca, per se performance and heterosis, and sca of hybrids and heterosis. The study demonstrates that superior hybrid combinations can be identified through appropriate field evaluation, and estimation of combining ability as a tool to identify suitable parents among a set of genotypes has to be relooked at.

35. R. Vinaykumar, B. N. Jagadeesh, Sidramappa Talekar* and M. R. Gururaja Rao [Heterosis studies for juice yield and its contributing traits in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]]. Crop Res. 44(3): 409-412 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Agricultural College, G. K. V. K., Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : siddu.talekar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to assess the extent of heterosis for juice yield and its attributing traits in 72 hybrids of sweet sorghum developed by crossing four lines with 18 testers in line × tester mating design during kharif2008 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bengaluru. The mean sum of squares of parents vs. hybrids was significant for cane weight and juice extraction per cent, indicating presence of heterosis for these traits. None of the crosses was superior for all the traits studied. However, the cross ICSA 102 × E 36-1 was the best as it had highest mean performance for economically important characters like cane weight, juice volume and juice yield. Majority of the crosses exhibited significant better parent heterosis for days to 50% flowering, stem girth, nodes per plant, cane height, cane weight, mean internodal length, juice volume, juice extraction per cent and juice yield indicating predominance of non-additive gene action in the genetic control of these traits. Most of the hybrids expressed significant standard heterosis for all the characters over the check NTJ 2.

36. OM VIR* AND SHEIKH M. SULTAN [Analysis of qualitative and quantitative G x E interaction to assess the performance of genotypes of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in  rainfed conditions of  Kashmir valley]. Crop Res. 44(3): 413-417 (2012). Regional Centre, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Rangreth, Old Air Field, Srinagar-190 007 (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : omvir2007@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To detect the presence of qualitative and quantitative g x e interactions the  33 genotypes of mustard were evaluated for eight quantitative traitsduring rabi 2005-06, 2006-07,  2007-08 and 2008-09 and data were subjected to regression analysis and also the analysis to detect the presence of qualitative and quantitative G x E interactions. The presence of qualitative and quantitative G x E interaction was trait and genotypic specific and on the basis of that the behaviour of genotypes with respect to their performance was determined. The 12 genotypes, namely, IC-241657, EC 365604, IC 261702, IC 310803, IC 261720, IC261681, EC 367883, EC 383412, IC 261764, IC 310805, IC 312486 and IC 261736 were identified to be significantly above average  and also significantly superior to the check Pusa Jaikisan in terms of mean seed yield. The performance of three genotypes, namely, IC 261720, IC 261681 and IC 261736  was identified to be stable using regression analysis and also qualitative and quantitative G x E interaction analysis concept. Six genotypes, EC 365604, IC 261702, IC 310803, EC 383412, IC 261764 and IC 312486 were identified to be instable using both techniques i. e. regression analysis and qualitative and quantitative interaction analysis. The genotype IC 310805 was identified to be stable one using regression analysis, whereas it failed to qualify the stability test of qualitative and quantitative interaction analysis  concept. The genotypes IC 241657 and EC 367883 exhibited instability for seed yield using regression analysis techniques, whereas their performance was stable by qualitative and quantitative interaction concept. Thus, genotypes had specific adaptability to the specific environment rather than possessing general adaptation.

37. A. P. MALKAPURE, R. O. DEOTALE, D. J. JIOTODE, P. N. DAWANE and A. T. KAKDE [Feeding preference of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on different hosts]. Crop Res. 44(3): 418-422 (2012). Entomology Section Dr. PDKV College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The study on feeding preference of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on different hosts was studied at Insectory of Entomology Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, under laboratory conditions during the 2010-11. In feeding preference study, there were different treatments or host plants tested for feeding preference of Z. bicolorata, from that T1–(Parthenium leaves) was found to be the most preferred host of Z. bicolorata and others may be stated as non-preferred hosts i. e. T2Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), T3Helianthus annuus (sunflower), T4Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), T5Tagetes erecta (marigold), T6Guizotia abyssinica (niger) and T7Xanthium strumarium (gokharu) leaves. The weight of consumed food for 1st, 2nd 3rd, 4th instars and adult beetles in T1–(Parthenium leaves) was recorded as 28.11, 56.63, 111.93, 72.84 and 7.80 mg/day/10 ind., respectively. The maximum food was consumed by 3rd instar (111.93 mg/day/10 ind.), followed by 4th (72.84 mg/day/10 ind.), 2nd instar (56.63 mg/ day/10 ind.), 1st instar (28.11 mg/day/10 ind.) and adult beetles (7.80 mg/day/10 ind.), respectively. Treatments T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 recorded as 0.00 mg/day/10 ind., in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively, weight of consumed food for all instars and adult beetles. Consumption index (CI) in treatment (T1Parthenium leaves) was calculated as 0.129, 1.038, 2.192, 0.91 and 0.12 mg/day/10 ind., respectively. CI in other treatments was negligible. The highest CI in all the treatments was observed for 3rd instar followed by some meagre changes in respect of 2nd, 4th, 1st instars and adults.

38. INDU BALA, RAMA KALIA*, BHUPENDER KUMAR and R. G. UPADHYAY [Screening of chickpea genotypes against wilt/root rot complex under different environments]. Crop Res. 44(3): 423-426 (2012). Department of Crop Improvement CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : rama.cskhpkv@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Wilt/root rot complex caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri/Rhizoctonia bataticola is most destructive and widely distributed disease in India and causes severe losses in yield. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to screen 25 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) including three checks under natural epiphytotic conditions for their reaction against wilt/root rot complex diseases in two different environments. In Env. I, highest yielding genotype ICCV-96904 was found resistant and superior over Himachal Chana-1 (check) which was moderately susceptible. Other check i. e. HPG-17 was showing resistance, whereas Himachal Chana-2 was moderately susceptible in the same environment. In Env. II, highest yielding genotypes viz., L-HR-5 and L-113 were found moderately resistant over HPG-17 (check) which was showing complete resistance. The reduction in seed yield per plant in late sown environment was observed to be 33.54% as disease incidence was more in this environment. Env. I was identified as representative environment as compared to Env. II.

39. PRAMOD DASHORA [Improvement of stubble sprouting in winter initiated ratoon of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under south-eastern Rajasthan condition]. Crop Res. 44(3): 427-431 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sugarcane Agricultural Research Staiton, Ummedganj, Kota -324 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during 2007 to 2011 involving three cycles of sugarcane plant-ratoon at Agricultural Research Station, Kota to enhance the stubble bud sprouting under low temperature conditions by winter management techniques on growth yield and quality of the sugarcane. Results revealed that the highest mother shoots (98.09Í103/ha), shoots (281.05Í103/ha), cane length (225 cm) and ratoon cane yield (54.8 t/ha) as well as sugar yield (7.76 t/ha) were recorded with application of 60 kg K2O/ha+25 kg ZnSO4/ha before 30 days of ratooning along with irrigation water. This was closely followed by application of 60 kg K2O/ha before 30 days of ratooning. The physical properties of the soil like bulk density, infiltration rate and organic carbon were improved by the application of 20 t/ha fresh sulphitation pressmud at ratooning which was closely at par with the application of 25 kg ZnSO4+SPMC (fresh) @ 10 t/ha at ratooning. The highest N and P uptake occurred in the T3 treatment followed by T8, whereas K uptake was found to be higher in T7. The treatment consisting of application of 60 kg K2O+25 kg ZnSO4 before 30 days of ratooning along with irrigation water fetched the highest net profit of Rs. 119.17 × 103/ha. Results suggested an improvement in stubble bud sprouting and subsequent re-growth of stubble in winter initiated ratoon by nutrient application, which may help in enhancing ratoon productivity.

40. PRAMOD DASHORA [Productivity and sustainability of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes under various planting seasons and fertility levels in south-east Rajasthan]. Crop Res. 44(3): 432-436 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sugarcane Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj, Kota-324 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during cropping seasons of 2008-09 to 2010-11 at Kota to evaluate different sugarcane genotypes (COPK-05191, COPK-05192 and CO-05011) under three levels of NPK (150 : 45 : 30, 200 : 60 : 40 and 250 : 75 : 50)  in two seasons (spring and summer). Genotype COPK-05191 recorded highest cane yield and commercial cane sugar (CCS) across the season. Individual cane weight increased significantly upto 200 : 60 : 40 NPK/ha. Genotype COPK-05191 gave better yield and net profit, hence could be adopted in the region for optimizing sugar productivity and regulating crushing schedule at factory level. Fertility level of 200 : 60 : 40 NPK/ha was optimum for growth and cane yield during spring as well as summer planting.

41. BHUVANESHWARAGOUDA R. PATIL, S. K. DESHPANDE, MALAGOUDA PATIL, S. S. JYOTIBA AND B. M. KHADI [Combining ability studies in GMS based diploid cotton with special reference to fibre quality traits]. Crop Res. 44(1&2): 437-446 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Combining ability analysis using line x tester design was conducted during 2009-10 between 18 lines and three testers to generate a total of 54 hybrids. The estimates of gca and sca variance components revealed that non-additive components were predominant for all the characters. The estimates of general combining ability effects indicated that lines GMS-2, Mi-GMS, GAK-09A, RGMS-2, SGMS-2, GAKA-423, 8401-GMS and GAK-15A and tester Jayadhar were the  best general combiners for seed cotton yield per plant and some other yield contributing characters. The line RGMS-3 was the best general combiner for 2.5 per cent span length, fibre strength and micronaire value. There were seven cross combinations which were best specific combinations for seed cotton yield per plant. Among them, the cross GAKA-423 x H-221 had highest magnitude followed by GAK-09A × H-221 for seed cotton per plant. The crosses GMS-2 × H-221, GAK-09A × H-221, GAKA-423 × H-221 and RGMS-2 × DDhC-11 were best combinations for bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant together. The cross GMS-7 × Jayadhar was best combination for fibre strength, whereas the crosses GMS-2 × Jayadhar and Hi-GMS × H-221 were found the best combinations for micronaire value. The cross combination GMS-4-1 × DDhC-11 was best when 2.5% span length, fibre strength and micronaire were considered together. The crosses, which showed highest significant positive sca effects for seed cotton yield, had cross combinations of high × high, high × low gca parents indicating genetic interaction of additive × additive, additive × dominance or dominance × dominance interactions.

42. RAJESH GERA, MEENU WALIA, VARUN KUMAR AND SNEH GOYAL [Microbial diversity of soils under different cropping systems in semi- arid zones of Haryana]. Crop Res. 44(3): 447-455 (2012). Department of Microbiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

Soil management practices such as crop rotation and crop production inputs affect soil microbial communities. In this study, we made an attempt to demonstrate distinctive effects of specific crop rotation on microbial communities by determining microbial populations and BIOLOG assay in their rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. Effect of eight different crop rotations (being popularly adopted in Haryana, India) was studied on soil microbial communities. Increase in number of diazotrophs was observed in the rhizosphere of cotton-wheat rotation, while total bacteria and P-solubilizers were maximum in pearl millet+clusterbean-wheat rotation on their respective media after one month of sowing during summer and winter seasons. On the basis of carbon-source utilization pattern using BIOLOG assay, these cropping patterns also had maximum microbial activity at all the stages of plant growth. Cluster analysis based on quantitative and qualitative utilization of a carbon source revealed more microbial diversity during summer season as compared to the winter season. The rhizospheric samples collected after the harvest formed entirely different sub-cluster as compared to the samples collected before sowing and after one month of sowing, clearly indicating the changes in the microbial community after the harvest of crop.

43. K. G. Banuprakash, R. Narayana Reddy and M. T. Lakshminarayan [Adoption of bivoltine silkworm rearing practices by sericulturists in Karnataka]. Crop Res. 44(3): 456-460 (2012). Farmers’ Training Institute G. K. V. K., University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Sericulture is integrated with grain and vegetable cultivation with the farmers of Kolar district in Karnataka state. Considering the importance of increasing the production of bivoltine cocoons both sericulture scientists and extension workers have been advocating a good number of silkworm rearing practices for general adoption by the farmers. It was observed that there had been a slow or poor adoption of practices by the bivoltine silkworm rearers. Hence, the present study was carried out in five villages of Bangarpet taluk in  Kolar district of Karnataka state during 2009-10 to analyze the adoption level of bivoltine silkworm practices by sericulturists and to find out the constraints faced by them in the adoption of bivoltine silkworm rearing practices. Pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect relevant information from 50 bivoltine silkworm rearers. The results revealed that as high as 76% of the sericulturists belonged to high/medium overall adoption levels of bivoltine silkworm rearing practices.  Education, mass media use,  participation in training programme, extension agency contact and extension participation of the sericulturists had significant to highly significant association with the adoption level of bivoltine silkworm rearing practices. A majority of 3/4th of the sericulturists had encountered the problems such as, bivoltine  silkworms more prone to various  diseases (98%), high risk involved in practising bivoltine silkworm rearing (90%), non-availability of quality disinfectants (82%) and quality silkworm seeds (76%) in the adoption of improved bivoltine rearing practices.

44. Sharon Aravind, G. Balakrishnamurthy and P. Jansirani [Influence of fertigation treatments on growth and yield of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) during off season]. Crop Res. 44(3): 461-465 (2012). Department of Spices & Plantation Crops Horticulture College & Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) plays an important role as a condiment in the culinary preparation of South Indian dishes and its demand is ever growing throughout the year especially during winter season when its availability is low and the price is high. Hence, a field experiment was conducted to study the influence of fertigation on growth, yield and quality parameters of curry leaf during off season. The study was laid out in randomised block design with different doses of straight and water soluble fertilizers given through soil and drip, respectively. In addition, biofertilizers viz., Azopirillum and Phosphobacteria and foliar spray of 3% Panchagavya were given. Among the treatments, T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) produced tallest plants (68.12 cm), while the treatment T7–Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers) produced the maximum number of secondary branches (27.86) and leaves (19.66). The treatment T6 (Application of Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) recorded the maximum fresh leaf weight with petiole per rachis (2.12 g), fresh leaf weight without petiole per rachis (1.78 g), fresh leaf yield per plant (665 g), highest net income of Rs. 1,80,062/ha and benefit : cost ratio of 1 : 3.09.

45. Syed Zameer Hussain, A. H. Rather, H. R. Naik, Baljit Singh and shivani pathania [Design, fabrication and evaluation of low cost pear harvesters]. Crop Res. 44(3): 466-469 (2012). Division of Post Harvest Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-Kashmir Shalimar, Srinagar (J & K), India

ABSTRACT

The survey of various post-harvest practices/operations conducted in major pear growing districts of Kashmir region during 2008-09 revealed that post-harvest losses were in the range of 22-25% with highest average loss of 9.8% at the time of harvesting. An attempt was made to reduce these harvesting losses. The four types of low cost harvesters were developed and evaluated. It was found that clutch type harvester with cutting scissors and adjustable handle length (H-III) was most efficient and superior over other three harvesters because of its light weight, ease of separating stalk, smooth flow of harvested fruit into the net and negligible mechanical damage to the fruit. A minimum cumulative physiological loss in weight (8.05%) was recorded in the samples harvested by such harvester compared to the maximum of 15.15% in samples harvested with harvester having half round shaped fixed cutting blade (H-IV). Besides the fruits harvested by H-III were found firmer as they retained fruit firmness of 9.66 lbs/sq. inch after 20 days of ambient storage from an initial value of 11.50 lbs/sq. inch.

46. K. Madhusudhana Reddy, D. Vijay Kumar, B. Ravindranatha Reddy1 and V. Munuswamy [Performance of Ananta groundnut planter at farmer’s fields in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh]. Crop Res. 44(3): 470-472 (2012). Agricultural Research Station, DCMS Buildings, Kamalanagar, Anantapur-515 001 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Feasibility testing of Ananta groundnut planter was conducted in the farmer’s fields of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh in comparison with local practices (tractor drawn seed drill and bullock drawn seed drill) for sowing of groundnut during the kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12. The field performance of Ananta groundnut planter was quite satisfactory. Seed to seed distance obtained in a row was 9.9 cm and seed rate found was 106 kg/ha. Field capacity was 0.45 ha/h with field efficiency of 72% at the speed of operation 2.6 km/h. Man-h/ha required for sowing were only 2.22. Both tractor operated local seed drill and bullock drawn local seed drill did not give recommended output values for sowing of groundnut crop.

47. L. S. YADAV [An ergonomic study to match anthropometric dimensions of tractor operators with their seat in occupational condition of tea plantations in north-east India]. Crop Res. 44(3): 473-478 (2012). Department of Agricultural Engineering North-Eastern Regional Institute of Science Technology Deemed University (under MHRD, Govt. of India), P. O. Nirjuli-791109 (Arunachal Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

An ergonomic study to match anthropometric dimensions of tractor operators with their seat was carried out during 2010-12 on tea plantations, located in Lakhimpur and Sonitpur districts of Assam. A seat bearing maximum body weight (75 kg) of driver, absorbing shocks, jerks, jumps, etc. of rooty and stony undulating field was essentially required. Occupational environment  having poor visibility during rainy season needed tractor operator of higher standing height. Keeping in view poor visibility due to rain and presence of shade trees and requirements of fields, comfortable height, width, depth and elbow rest height were found as 39 cm with 8 cm vertical adjustment, 36 cm with 5 cm each left and right side adjustment, 40 cm with 5 cm each forward and rearward adjustment (3/4 of their thigh length) and 23 cm with 10 cm adjustment in vertical plane, respectively. Concave back rest with little rearward inclination, concave seat pan sloping back side, 5 cm thick seat cushion and water proof hood fitted with sunshade were also needed for their comfort, safety and efficiency.

48. N. S. Dodiya and C. L. Khatik [Inbreeding effects on seed yield in isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)]. Crop Res. 44(3): 479-480 (2012). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

Inbreeding effect on seed yield was studied in 150 S1 lines derived from 30 genetic stocks of isabgol. Open pollinated genotypes manifested higher seed yield than their most of the S1 lines studies. Maximum (47.78%) and minimum (1.00%) inbreeding depression was recorded by the S1 line of genotypes HI-9 and MIB-124, respectively. The S1 line of the genotypes MIB 123, RI 158, J 16, PB 62, RI 130, RI 157 and DM 11 exhibited higher seed yield and least inbreeding depression suggested the preponderance of additive gene action and as such disease cultivars could be improved by selection.

********