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1. R. K. MAITI, V. P. SINGH, P. WESCHE-EBELING AND E. SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA [Advances in research on jute production and quality-A review] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 207-256 (2002). Departamento de Quimica y Biologia Universidad de las Americas Puebla Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, Mexico (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)
The paper makes a review of advances of research conducted during recent decades on various aspects of jute particularly morphology and taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, growth, biochemistry and quality.
Research advances on sorghum for resistance to drought, high and low temperature and salinity and the mechanisms of resistance
2.. R. K. MAITI, V. P. SINGH, P. WESCHE-EBELING AND E. SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA [Research advances on sorghum for resistance to drought, high and low temperature and salinity and the mechanisms of resistance] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 257-281 (2002). Department of Chemistry and Biology Universidad de las Américas-Puebla, A. P. 391 Santa Catarina Mártir, Puebla, C. P. 72820, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)
The article makes a review of advances of research conducted during recent years on various aspects of sorghum particularly drought resistance, temperature and salinity resistance and mechanisms of resistance.
3.R. K. MAITI, V. P. SINGH, P. WESCHE-EBELING AND E. SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA [A review on recent advances in research on ramie (Boehmeria nivea Gaud)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 257-281 (2002). Departamento de Quimica y Biologia Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72820, Puebla, Mexico (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)
This review paper presents the results of studies made by different workers on various aspects of ramie (Boehmeria nivea Gaud) crop particulary on genetic resource, breeding, morphology, anatomy, cytology, physiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, biotic stress factors, tolerance to abiotic stress, cultural practices, mineral nutrition, productivity, fibre extraction and quality. The information provided in this paper may be useful for students, teachers and research workers who are engaged in the teaching, research and extension activities on ramie crop.
4.A. B. OLANIYAN AND E. O. LUCAS [Effects of periodic reduction in density of planting on yield of maize genotypes in south-western Nigeria] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 315-321 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Field experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 at Ibadan and Ilora in south-western part of Nigeria to determine the effect of periodic reduction in the density of maize planted at 80,000 to 53,333 plants/ha (which is the recommended density in south-western zone of Nigeria) on both open-pollinated and hybrid maize genotypes. The experimental design used was factorial fitted to randomized complete block and replicated three times. Results of the experiment indicated that reduction of plant density from 80,000 to 53,333 plants/ha at any stage after flowering did not significantly affect morphological parameters, dry matter and grain yields of both open-pollinated and hybrid maize genotypes. Optimum grain yield was obtained at 80,000 plants/ha and it was higher than the grain yield of maize planted at 53,333 plants/ha by 23 and 27% at Ibadan and Ilora, respectively. From the results, one can suggest that the hybrids genotypes could be planted at 80,000 plants/ha without any deleterious effect on grain yield. At both the locations double and single cross hybrids gave similar grain yields, however, they outyielded open-pollinated genotypes at Ibadan by 10% and by 13% at Ilora.
5. A. K. MEDHI, T. K. BORBORA AND R. DAS [Effect of foliage pruning on yield, yield attributes and foliage yield of rice under deep water situation in North Bank Plain Zone of Assam] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 322-324 (2002). A. A. U. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lakhimpur-787 001 (Assam), India
A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 1999 and 2000 to study the effect of pruning on two long duration bao rice varieties viz., Maguribao and Padmanath. Foliage pruning was detrimental to yield and yield attributes when pruned at later stage (120 DAG). It increased grain sterility percentage. Effects were more pronounced when leaves were pruned two times. However, grain yield was at par in early prunings (80 to 100 DAG). Same trends were also observed in foliage and straw yield. Yield response was more in Padmanath compared to Maguribao. Study revealed that the foliage pruning could be done at an early stage (<100 DAG) and the produced foliage could be used as supplement for cattle ration.
6.P. JANAKI AND T. M. THIYAGARAJAN [Partitioning of nitrogen to grain in transplanted rice : Nitrogen harvest index] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 325-331 (2002). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
Nitrogen harvest index (NHI) is a measure of N partitioning that provides an indication of how efficiently the plant utilizes acquired N for grain protein production. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different N application strategies and planting density on the partitioning of total crop N towards grain production. The two field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in June-September with rice genotype ASD 18 at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Wetland Farm in Coimbatore, India. Sowing and transplanting dates of the crop were same in both the years. The trials were located in two different fields and the soils of the two fields differed mainly in organic carbon and KMnO4-N contents. In the year 1999 significantly less N was partitioned to grains when compared to 1998 and this higher NHI favoured higher grain yield potential in 1998. The NHI decreased with increased planting density that indicates the timing of N uptake was factor influencing NHI in rice. The partitioning of N to grains was not influenced by the various N application strategies, however, the effect was modified by the soil-year variations.
7. R. K. SRIVASTAVA, DINESH SAH AND RAJESH SINGH [Studies on varying mode of tillage operations, seeding rates and fertility levels on yield of wheat var. HUW-234 under puddled rice-wheat sequence] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 332-334 (2002). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences, B. H. U., Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
A field experiment on wheat was conducted to assess the effect of mode of tillage operations, seeding rates and fertility levels at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh during rabi seasons of 1997-98 and 1998-99. Conventional tillage operations were found to be superior to zero tillage in respect of effective tillers m-1, spikelets spike-1 and yield. Fertilizer dose 125% of the recommended was also found effective in increasing yield attributes and yield of wheat. Maximum yield was obtained from higher seed rate and tillage by cultivator.
8.P. NALAYINI, O. S. KANDASAMY AND C. KAILASAM [Watkinson’s weed model for the weeds grown under interspecific cotton hybrid ‘TCHB-213’] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 335-337 (2002). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
The estimated Watkinson’s weed model revealed that the competition coefficient values increased with N application and hence the rate of yield loss due to weeds increased with the progressive increment in N application. The rate of yield loss was more at 30 DAS than at 60 DAS. Even though the rate of yield loss per unit quantity of weed DMP was higher under the treatment which recorded relatively lesser weed DMP, the actual yield loss was lesser under the treatment which recorded the lowest weed DMP.
9. V. C. REDDY, S. B. YOGANANDA, S. SESHADRI REDDY, K. P. VEERANNA AND BINEET MISHRA [Influence of chemical weed control on weed dynamics in field bean] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 338-344 (2002). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
A field experiment was conducted during summer at Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore to study the weed dynamics as influenced by various herbicides as compared to control. Significantly lower total weed population (3.95/0.25 m2) and weed dry weight (3.15 g/0.25 m2) was observed in hand weeded twice. Among the herbicides, fluchloralin @ 1.0 and 1.25 kg ha-1 and metolachlor 0.75 kg ha-1 produced lower total weed population and weed dry weight. Further they also reduced the number of monocots, sedges and dicot weeds and dry weight. However, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Acanthospermum hispidum were not controlled effectively by any of these herbicides. Infact, their population was increased by 58-61, 42-62 and 60-85%, respectively. Weed control efficiency was higher in hand weeded twice (84.1%) followed by fluchloralin 1.0 and 1.25 kg ha-1 (58 and 53.9%) and metolachlor 0.75 kg ha-1 (52%) which ultimately resulted in higher seed yield.
10. G. MANICKAM, G. KATHIRESAN, P. SRIDHAR AND B. RAJAMANICKAM [Studies on the efficiency of phosphobacterin on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) yield and quality in north-eastern region of Tamil Nadu] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 345-347 (2002). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam (T. N.), India
Field experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of phosphobacterin addition on sugarcane yield and quality. Results of the experiments revealed that under high soil phosphorus status, application of 50% of recommended phosphorus (31.5 kg/ha) alongwith phosphobacterin @ 10 kg/ha gave comparable cane yield to that of application of 100% of the recommended phosphorus (63.0 kg/ha).
11.K. LAKSHMIKANTHAN, JOSE MATHEW, N. N. POTTY AND A. KARTHICK [Source vs. efficiency variation of silica management in wet rice] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 348-352 (2002). Department of Agronomy Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur-680 656 (Kerala), India
A study was conducted to understand the source and efficiency of silica on wet land rice. The treatments consisted three different sources of silica, namely, sodium silicate, fine silica and rice husk combined with two levels of silica (250 and 500 kg ha-1) and two levels of potash (52.5 and 70 kg ha-1) and a control. Application of sodium silicate reduced the growth rate in the beginning but surpassed other sources subsequently. Sodium silicate recorded the maximum grain yield of 6644 kg ha-1 followed by fine silica (6282 kg ha-1) and rice husk (6113 kg ha-1). Insoluble fine silica and rice husk tended to increase the content of all elements, while soluble sodium silicate tended to reduce Ca, Fe and Mn contents at maximum tillering and panicle initiation stage. Variability in source effect of silica seemed to be due to the variation in the reactivity of the source consequent of solubility and the degradability to manifest their specific effects.
12. S. SESHADRI REDDY, Y. H. YADAHALLI, V. K. KIRAN KUMAR, O. KUMARA AND B. BORAIAH [Effect of fertilizer, gypsum and boron application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in sunflower hybrids] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 353-358 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
The effect of fertilizer, gypsum and boron on growth, yield and nutrient uptake was studied in sunflower hybrids during the kharif season at Agronomy Field Unit, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore. KBSH-44 recorded significantly higher dry matter and related growth attributes over the other hybrid KBSH-1. The treatment 125% RDF recorded significantly higher dry matter and related attributes and was on par with 125% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1, 100% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1 and 100% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1+boron indicating that gypsum and boron didn’t act upon the growth. Hybrid KBSH-44 recorded higher seed yield (1997 kg ha-1) and linked attributes and nutrient uptake as compared to KBSH-1. Similarly, 125% RDF treatment recorded significantly higher seed yield (2102 kg ha-1), yield attributes and nutrient uptake and was found on par with 125% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1 pointing out the non-significant role played by gypsum on yield and nutrient uptake. But the treatment 100% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1+boron was superior over the treatment 100% RDF+500 kg gypsum ha-1 indicating that boron is important not only in increasing the yield but also to increase the nutrient uptake. All the interaction effects were found non-significant.
13. S. S. CHAUHAN, J. M. DIGHE AND R. A. SHARMA [Studies on nitrogen and phosphorus balance in black clay soil under rainfed sorghum] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 359-362 (2002). J. N. K. V. V. College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted using different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, applied through urea and single super-phosphate under rainfed conditions to different sorghum genotypes grown on black cotton soils to evaluate the N and P balance. The highest nitrogen gain (121.14 kg N/ha) was found in plots planted to sorghum SPV-1231 supplied with 80 kg N and 17.6 kg P/ha, while phosphorus gain (11.28 kg P/ha) was highest due to sorghum genotype MLSH-14 fed with 40 kg N and 8.8 kg P/ha.
14. SUNDAR SINGH AND S. S. CHOUDHARY [Phosphorus, zinc and soil interaction on the uptake of zinc and iron by wheat (Triticum durum)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 363-368 (2002). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001 (Raj.), India
A pot experiment was carried out during rabi season (1999) on two soils to study the effect of P, Zn and soil on yield and its interaction effect on uptake of nutrients. Treatments consisted of P, Zn and soil @ 0, 10 and 20; 0, 5, 10 and 15 kg ha-1 and sandy clay loam (S1) and clay loam soil (S2), respectively. Wheat crop (var. Raj.-1555) responded significantly to the addition of P and Zn with soil. The highest straw and grain yield, grains/ear and test weight were recorded with the application of 20 kg P and 10 kg Zn ha-1 with clay loam soil (S2). Uptake of P, Zn and Fe by grain and straw was significantly influenced due to P and Zn application with the soils. Uptake of these nutrients was noted higher with P an Zn application.
15.RITA DAHIYA AND R. S. MALIK [Influence of Sesbania aculeata on soil hydrothermal environment under ratoon sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 369-375 (2002). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
Extreme temperature and deficiency of soil moisture limit the crop production in arid and semi-arid region. Therefore, effects of Sesbania aculeata as ‘in situ’ green mulch (GM) and sugarcane trash mulch (SM) on soil hydrothermal properties were studied. The field experiments were conducted at soil research farm of CCSHAU, Hisar, India to quantify the comparative effects of GM @ 4 t ha-1 and SM @ 6 t ha-1 as main treatments and different doses of inorganic N and P fertilizers as sub-treatments in split plot design for the two years 1997-98 and 1998-99 at ratoon sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under shallow water table condition. The GM and SM had increased soil moisture content 24.6 and 16.9% as compared to unmulched in two years. The ‘in situ’ saturated hydraulic conductivity was increased significantly under SM and GM by 22.8 and 10.5% as compared to unmulched. The GM and SM had decreased the maximum soil temperature as compared to unmulched during summer season. The results of the study demonstrate that application of Sesbania aculeata mulch can moderate soil temperature during summer season and conserve soil moisture in semi-arid region.
16. S. K. KAUSHAL, S. KUMAR AND R. G. UPADHYAY [Response of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, development and seed yield of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) under mid-hill conditions of H. P.] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 376-379 (2002). Department of Plant Physiology CSK Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India
Field experiment conducted during 2000 with randomized block design revealed that significantly maximum plant height was recorded with 15 kg N+30 kg P2O5/ha at various growth stages. 50% flowering and maturity period was also influenced by fertilizer application over control. The significantly highest number of branches/plant, number of berries/plant, size of berry and number of seeds/berry were recorded over control by various doses of fertilizers. Highest seed yield (1089.0 kg/ha) was recorded in 15 kg N+60 kg P2O5/ha, while minimum was in control.
17. MD. ABU HASAN, AVIJIT JANA, C. P. SURESH AND P. K. CHATTOPADHYAY [Studies on the effect of different soil moisture depletion levels and mulching on yield and fruit quality of litchi cv. Bombai] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 380-384 (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchards Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India
The experiment conducted at the Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98 on litchi cv. Bombai with different soil moisture regimes [40, 60 and 80% available soil moisture (ASM) depletion level] and mulches (black polythene, rice straw and dried banana leaves) significantly improved the yield of litchi over unirrigated plants without mulching. Irrigation at the lowest ASM depletion level (40%) and use of black polythene mulch produced highest yield (60.8 kg/plant and 9.48 t/ha) as against the lowest yield of 32.2 kg/plant and 5.0 t/ha under unirrigated plants without any mulches. Maintenance of highest soil moisture regime (irrigation at 40% ASM depletion level) was also found to improve the total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugar content of fruit. An increase in the ASM depletion level considerably reduced the TSS and sugar content and increased acidity content. A gradual reduction in consumptive use and daily consumption of water was observed with an increase in the ASM depletion level. Irrigation at 40% ASM depletion level and use of black polythene mulch was most effective in enhancing daily consumption of water and water use efficiency.
18. M. A. SHANKAR, M. JAYARAMAIAH, B. T. RANGASWAMY, ANITHA PETER, B. S. LINGAPPA AND G. B. MALLIKAR JUNA [Intercropping of pulses and oilseed crop in S13 mulberry under irrigated condition] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 385-389 (2002). Main Research Station University of Agricultural Sciences,GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
An experiment was conducted to study the performance of S13 mulberry with pulses like cowpea, greengram, blackgram and soybean and an oil seed (groundnut) as intercrops in irrigated condition at the Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore. Significant difference was observed in the number of leaves and leaf yield per hectare of S13 mulberry. The land equivalent ratio was higher with blackgram as intercrop (1.90) and the benefit : cost ratio with groundnut (2.15) was higher as compared to the pure mulberry crop (1.84). The quality parameters of mulberry mainly in terms of its moisture content of leaf, chlorophyll a, b and total, micro and micro-nutrient status were not altered significantly by growing these intercrops. Further, the bioassay conducted revealed non-significant differences in mature worm weight and post-cocoon parameters when the worms were fed with mulberry leaf obtained from the plots grown alongwith different intercrops.
19. C. P. SURESH, BIDHAN ROY AND M. A. HASAN [Leaf N, P and K contents and their correlation with yield of Dwarf Cavendish banana (Musa AAA) in relation to N and K nutrition] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 390-397 (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India
Foliar nutrient status of Dwarf Cavendish banana (Musa AAA) cv. Giant Governor under the influence of different levels of nitrogenous and potassic fertilizer was studied at different stages of growth alongwith their correlative relationship with yield. Increasing doses of applied nutrients (nitrogen and potassium) enhanced the nutrient content of leaf. The nutrient content of leaf gradually decreased as the crop advanced towards harvest. Combined application of nitrogenous and potassic fertilizer exhibited better accumulation of nutrients in leaf at all the stages of growth. Highest accumulation of N, P and K was observed at vegetative stage with application of 300 g N/plant and potassium yield of banana exhibited positive association with leaf nitrogen at vegetative, shooting, harvesting stage, leaf phosphorus at vegetative and leaf potassium at vegetative, shooting and harvesting stages except leaf phosphorus at harvest. Leaf phosphorus content at harvest had negative correlation with yield.
20. C. P. SURESH AND M. A. HASAN [Fruit quality of Dwarf Cavendish banana (Musa AAA) as influenced by nitrogen and potassium nutrition] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 398-402 (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India
The present experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98 to evaluate the response of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 g N/plant) and potassium (200, 300, 400 and 500 K2O/plant) on fruit quality of Dwarf Cavendish banana cv. Giant Governor. An increase in the levels of nitrogen and potassium from 100 to 300 g N and 200 to 400 g K2O/plant considerably improved the fruit size and total soluble solids (TSS), sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruit. Application of 200 g N/plant in combination with 400 g K2O/plant was found most effective in improving fruit size, TSS, sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruit. Increased application of potassium was found to reduce the acidity content of fruit.
21. G. S. RANA, R. K. SHARMA, S. P. GARG AND S. K. BHATIA [Effect of different storage conditions on shelf life of kinnow] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 403-405 (2002). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different storage conditions on shelf life of kinnow fruits. It was observed that fruits stored in polythene bags had minimum (4.0%) physiological loss in weight loss, whereas it was maximum (20.6%) in fruits packed by using paper lining as cushioning material after 77 days of storage. There was no decay loss upto 28 days of storage. Minimum (7.5%) decay loss was recorded in paper lining and it was maximum (12.5%) when individual polythene packing was done.
22. KUSUM KUMAR DEKA, N. K. MOHAN AND K. S. PRASAD [Evaluation of shelf life of cabbage in cold storage packed with different packing materials] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 406-410 (2002). A. A. U. Horticultural Research Station Kahikuchi, Azara, Guwahati-17 (Assam), India
Two sets of experiments were conducted during 1995-96 to find out the suitable packing materials for storing hybrid ‘Hema’ cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Linn.) in cold storage. Freshly harvested green cabbages were packed in gunny bags, bamboo baskets and polythene bags (transparent). To compare the performance, a lot of cabbage heads were stacked open (without packed) inside cold storage. The average temperature and humidity maintained at the cold storage was 3.5ºC and 76% R. H., respectively. The cabbage heads were aimed to store for a minimum period of 50 days. The weight loss was minimum in polythene bag (7.13%) followed by gunny bag (20.18%), bamboo basket (21.15%) and without packing (33.89%). The chlorophyll content and retentions of original colour (green) were higher in gunny bag followed by bamboo basket and least in control. The percentage of damage was lowest in gunny bag (6.01%) and the highest in polythene bag (11.72%). Considering the weight loss and retention of the original colour, the gunny bag may be considered as the best packing material for storing cabbages in cold storage for a short period.
23. P. SHARMA AND P. C. DEKA [Identification of tea hybrids by leaf and pollen isozyme analysis] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 411-415 (2002). Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India
Five isozymes were tested for identification of hybrids between Cambod type (Camellia assamica subsp. Lasiocalyx) and Assam type (Camellia assamica) tea cultivars. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and esterase (EST) were found to be effective in determining the hybrid nature of the progenies. Both young leaves and pollens can be used effectively for isozyme analysis. This technique has potentiality to ascertain the nature of origin of many unknown tea cultivars.
24. ABHAY DASHORA AND A. K. NAGDA [Genetic variability and character association in Spanish bunch groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 416-420 (2002). Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Raj.), India
Twenty-two germplasm lines with one local check were evaluated in randomized block design with four replications during kharif 2000 to study variability, association and path analysis for yield and its component traits. Observations were recorded on seven characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, shelling per cent, 100-kernel weight (g), dry pod yield per plot (g), kernel yield per plot (g) and oil content (%). Significant differences for all the traits were observed. 100-kernel weight, dry pod yield and kernel yield had high genetic advance and genetic gain alongwith high estimates of heritability, suggesting predominance of additive gene effects. High heritability was accompanied with low genetic advance for the traits days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, shelling per cent, 100-kernel weight and oil content. The dry pod yield exhibited significant association with shelling per cent and kernel yield. Path analysis revealed that shelling per cent and kernel yield were major components for dry pod yield.
25. M. RIZWANA BANU, A. KALAMANI AND S. ASHOK [Induced mutations in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] frequency and spectrum of viable mutations] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 421-425. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India
A comparative study was made in CO 6 and VBN 1 varieties of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to study the induction of mutation through frequency and spectrum of viable mutations. The mutagens used were five doses each in physical mutagen (gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (Ethyl methane sulphonate). The induction was characterized by the occurrence of morphological deviants in the earlier days and aberrants in the later stages. The frequency of viable mutations was influenced by general genetic architecture of the plant. Maximum mutability was observed in CO 6 than in VBN 1. But the mutation spectrum induced was quite broader in VBN 1 than in CO 6. Among the mutagens, gamma rays were more successful to induce high frequency as well as broader spectrum of viable mutations than EMS indicating the efficiency of physical mutgens.
26. SUDESH, R. K. YADAVA AND O. P. S. RANA [Combining ability effects in bread wheat involving ‘gigas’ spike genotypes as testers] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 426-431 (2002). Department of Genetics CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
The combining ability analysis involving four ‘gigas’ genotypes as testers with 10 diverse lines of wheat was conducted for 13 morphological characters related to spike, grain and yield. The results indicated that HD 2009M and SG 8809 among testers and PBW 343, WH 542 and DI 9 among the lines were good combiners for most of the characters studied. Higher sca effect has been indicated for grain yield per plant in cross UP 2338 x HD 2009M followed by Raj 3765 x HD 2009M and PBW 343 x SG 15. Most of the cross combinations involved either both or one of the parents with good combining ability revealing the importance of additive as well as non-additive type of gene action. The appropriate breeding strategy for improving the yield and other characters have been discussed.
27. SUNDEEP KUMAR AND L. C. PRASAD [Variability and correlation studies in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 432-436 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences, B. H. U., Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, expected genetic advance and character association of grain yield and its contributing characters were studied in 20 genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at B. H. U. Farm, Varanasi during 1999-2000. Wide genetic variability was observed in all 20 genotypes of barley for almost all characters. Relatively high GCV and PCV were recorded for grain number per ear, spike length, chlorophyll content, HI and 1000-grain weight. Grain number per ear, grain yield per plant and chlorophyll content had high genetic advance as percentage of mean alongwith high heritability. Correlation studies revealed that grain yield per plant showed significant positive genotypic correlation with grain number per ear, number of tillers, biological yield, harvest index and chlorophyll content. On the other hand, grain number per ear showed significant positive correlation with number of tillers and biological yield. Significant and positive genotypic correlation was also observed between chlorophyll content and grain yield per ear, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index.
28. R. S. BARGE, S. D. UGALE, G. C. SHINDE AND S. S. MEHETRE [Study of inheritance pattern of temperature sensitive genic male sterility in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 437-440 (2002). Department of Botany Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India
The present investigation was carried out during summer 1999 at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, district Ahmednagar with an objective of studying inheritance of thermosensitivity in pearl millet. Four F1 hybrids developed by utilizing four temperature sensitive genic male sterile lines and four diverse restorer lines were fertile indicating recessive control of the temperature sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS). However, F2 generation showed segregation for fertility : sterility in the ratio of 3 : 1. Thus, the classical Mendelian segregation indicated that the temperature sensitive male sterility (TGMS) was under control of single recessive gene designated as tgms.
29. B. K. BORAH, S. K. DUTTA AND K. K. SARMAH [Dispersion pattern of Megacopta cribrarium (Fab.) nymphs on pigeonpea] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 441-445 (2002). Regional Agricultural Research Station Shillongani, Nagaon-782 001 (Assam), India
Dispersion pattern of Megacopta cribrarium (Fab.) nymphs was studied on pigeonpea (var. T-21) during kharif 1996 and 1997. The nymphs followed contagious dispersion pattern during both the years. The tendency of colony formation by the nymphs was confirmed by two models viz., Iwao’s patchiness regression and Taylor’s power law. Environmental heterogenity and active behaviour of the larvae were the causes for clumping of the nymphs.
30.R. MOHAN BABU, K. SEETHARAMAN AND E. G. EBENEZAR [Efficacy of Trichoderma viride Pers. ex. S. F. Gray in problem soils against black gram root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid.] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 446-453 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies T. N. A. U. Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India
Trichoderma viride Pers. ex. S. F. Gray was tested in vitro for its efficacy in the problem soils viz., sandy, black hard pan, saline, sodic, alkaline, red crusted soil, acid soil and normal soil in suppressing the growth of black gram root rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid. Black gram (cv. CO 5) plants were raised in pots in the above mentioned problem soils in six sets of treatments. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soils such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, population density of Trichoderma sp. at 15-day intervals upto 75 DAS, and effect of T. viride in the problem soils on the disease incidence were studied. It was observed that acid soil had the maximum total organic carbon (1.934%), total nitrogen content (0.161%) and the population density (74 x 104 cfu g-1 oven dry soil). The biocontrol efficacy of T. viride (TNAU) commercial (seed treatment) was the maximum 60 DAI in acid soil which showed the minimum (12%) root rot incidence as compared to soil application of T. viride (TNAU) commercial (14%). In acid soil, seed treatment of T. viride (TNAU) commercial plus pathogen inoculation, the minimum (22%) disease incidence was recorded as compared to soil application of T. viride (TNAU) commercial plus pathogen inoculation (34%). In uninoculated control and in inoculated control of acid soil, the root rot disease incidence was 26 and 82%, respectively.
31. M. S. GAIKWAD, B. D. GITE, N. G. SAUDAGAR AND P. S. KADAM [Evaluation of bio-control agents against charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) of sorghum] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 454-460 (2002). Sorghum Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India
The field experiment was conducted to examine the impact of various bio-agents and two fungicides in RBD, during kharif 1998 using variety CSH-9. For disease development, mass culture of Rhizoctonia bataticola and recommended dose of FYM i. e. @ 25 cl/ha was added in the experimental plot before sowing. At earhead formation stage of the crop growth, the tooth pick method was adopted in all the treatments. The evaluation of various bio-agents and the fungicides viz., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg of seed, Pseudomonas fluorescence and V. A. M. @ 10 g/kg of seed and thiram and carbendazim both the fungicides @ 3 g/kg of seed were used as seed dresser. The methyl cellulose @ 1.5 g/10 ml of water for one kg of seed was used as sticker. The influence of the bio-agents and fungicides was examined on the field, on plant emergence, final plant stand, per cent incidence of charcoal rot and its effect on grain and fodder yield. The maximum reduction of charcoal rot of sorghum was recorded in treatment with T. harzianum followed by T. viride. Similar effect of these antagonists was observed in respect of lodging, mean number of nodes crossed and mean length of spread, in var. CSH-9. Maximum grain and fodder yield was also recorded by the same antagonist. It could be concluded from the study that the seed treatment with bio-agents and the fungicides reduced the charcoal rot diseases of sorghum to the maximum extent and found to be safer and cheaper in the charcoal rot disease management.
32. V. THIRUMURUGAN, S. VIJAYABASKARAN AND A. RENGADURAI [Influence of zinc, phosphorus and phosphobacteria on seed quality of soybean (var. CO 1)] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 461-462 (2002). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India
Combined application of zinc sulphate @ 25 kg ha-1 with phosphorus @ 80 kg ha-1 and phosphobacteria @ 2 kg ha-1 significantly influenced the quality characteristics of soybean (var. CO 1). Both oil and protein contents of soybean were found to increase with better utilisation of zinc and phosphorus.
33. SAMIRAN SARKAR, RAM PRAKASH AND L. S. YADAV [Cost of operation of bullocks, power tiller and tractor in paddy growing area of north-east India] Res. on Crops 3 (2) : 463-466 (2002). Department of Agricultural Engineering North-Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Nirjuli-791 109 (Arunachal Pradesh), India
The study pertaining to cost of operation of bullocks, power tiller and tractor carried out in paddy growing area of north-east India during 1999-2000 revealed that there was no investment on insurance and tax for bullocks. The expenditure incurred on repair and maintenance for them was almost negligible (Rs. 0.14/h). Comparing percentage of cost of various components to total cost of operation, it was found that percentage of repair and maintenance for power tiller was more (13.99%) than same of tractor (12.60%). The same percentage for labour was 38.19, 15.10 and 11.46% for bullocks, power tiller and tractor, respectively, which revealed that bullock operations were most labour intensive, followed by power tiller and tractor.