Volume 20, No. 4 (December, 2019)

By | January 4, 2020

1. Ghassab H. Tarawneh* [Response of barley varieties to salt stress at different growth stages in arid environment of Jordan]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 667-675 (2019). Department of Plant Production Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, P. O. Box 7, Karak, Jordan *(e-mail : ght75@mutah.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Barley is a major crop grown under harsh environments, where water and salt stress are limiting factors which determine barley growth, development and yield. A total of 14 barley genotypes were exposed to salinity stress at different stages of plant growth (germination, seedling stage, vegetative phase and maturity). The experiment included three six-rowed (Rum, Acsad 176 and Athroh) and 11 two-rowed barley varieties (Yarmouk, Muta’, Tadmor, Arta, Morocco 9-75, WI 2291, Zanbaka, Harmel, Furat 2, Er/Apm and local barley landrace). Barley genotypes were irrigated with 150 mM NaCl (stress treatment) and tap water (no stress treatment or control). A group of genotypes was identified at different growth stages as salt-tolerant using salinity susceptibility index (SSI) as an indicator for salt tolerance. The most tolerant varieties at germination phase were Tadmor, ER/Apm and Harmel with SSI values -0.38, 0 and 0.12, respectively. The most tolerant varieties at seedling stage were Acsad 176, Athroh, Muta’a, Morocco 9-75, Furat 2 and local landrace with SSI ranged from 0.41-0.59, while Morocco 9-75, WI 2291 and Furat 2 were the most salt-tolerant varieties at vegetative phase and displayed the lowest SSI values (0.66, 0.75 and 0.69, respectively). Based on biological yield, the most tolerant varieties were Morocco 9-75, Yarmouk and ER/Apm with minimum reductions in biological yield (reductions= 30.3, 44.3 and 48.5%) and consequently the lowest SSI values (0.51, 0.74 and 0.81, respectively). Based on grain yield, the most tolerant varieties were Athroh (SSI=1.78) followed by Harmel (SSI=1.92) and Muta’a (SSI=1.78), where they displayed minimum reductions in grain yield under salt stress. It is worth mentioning that Morocco 9-75 salt tolerance rank remained consistent and unchanged during different stages of plant development even though it gave low grain yield under salt stress (0.46 g/plant) with medium SSI value (2.18) as compared with other varieties. Therefore, it might be concluded that this variety harbors a potential gene for salt tolerance at different stages of development.

2. K. Pavani and P. M. Shanmugam* [Maximization of rice yield in sodic soil through combined application of gypsum and organic amendments]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 676-684 (2019). 1Department of Agronomy Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute Navalur Kuttapattu-620 009, Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : pms73@tnau.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to enhance rice yield in sodic soil through application of gypsum with organic amendments during rabi season of 2016-17 at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India. Treatments are control, gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation, gypsum @ 25% GR + dhaincha incorporation + distillery yeast sludge @ 5 t/ha , gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + distillery yeast sludge @ 5 t/ha, gypsum @ 25% GR + dhaincha incorporation + sugarcane trash compost @ 10 t/ha, gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + sugarcane trash compost @ 10 t/ha, gypsum @ 25% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha, gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha, gypsum @ 25% GR + dhaincha incorporation + pressmud @ 10 t/ha and gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation+ pressmud @ 10 t/ha. Productive tillers, filled grains/panicle, unfilled grains/panicle, panicle length, fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight were higher with application of gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha. Application of gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha produced higher grain yield (5683 kg/ha) and registered yield increase ranging from 13.0 to 38.9% over the other treatments. Post-harvest soil available N, P, K, micronutrients, pH and ESP were higher with application of gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha. Higher net returns of Rs. 56,349/ha with B : C ratio of 2.41 were realized in application of gypsum @ 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha followed by application of gypsum @ 25% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha. In terms of yield enhancement and monetary returns, application of gypsum @ 25 or 50% GR + dhaincha incorporation + poultry manure @ 5 t/ha was superior over other organic amendments under sodic soil conditions.

3. H. L. NGUYEN AND D. H. TRAN* [Field evaluation of newly introduced hybrid rice cultivars in Central Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 685-689 (2019). University of Agriculture and Forestry Hue University, 102 Phung Hung Street, Hue City, Vietnam *(e-mail : tdanghoa@hueuni.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Two field experiments were conducted in summer-autumn 2017 and winter-spring 2017-18 seasons in Central Vietnam to evaluate the performance of six newly introduced hybrid rice cultivars to select appropriate cultivars for this region. Growing time, plant height, number of tillers per plant, number of productive tillers per plant, 1000-grain weight and yield were investigated. The results indicated that all tested cultivars belonged to short growth duration, ranging from 104 to 121 days and intermediate height plant ranging from 102.9 to 123.4 cm. The yield of three potential cultivars of LC 270, Q. uu 6 and Arize 6129 was from 7.7 to 8.2 t/ha in the summer-autumn and from 7.9 to 8.1 t/ha in the winter-spring season. Thus, these cultivars were considered to incorporate into the rice variety structure of Central Vietnam.

4. S. KRISHNAPRABU* [Nutrient content, quality and water productivity of pearl millet in response to integrated nutrient management]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 690-694 (2019). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : prabu1977krishna@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Experimental Farm, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu to study the effect of cultivars and integrated nutrient management on nutrient content, quality and water productivity. On the basis of experimental data, significant improvements were recorded in the nutrient content, quality and water productivity. Highest nutrient content, protein content, protein yield and water productivity were observed in cv. PHB-3 compared to other cultivars. With respect to integrated nutrient management, 75% RDF+biofertilizers @ 5 kg/ha incubated with vermicompost @ 500 kg/ha recorded highest nutrient content, protein content, protein yield and water productivity over the rest of the treatments.

5. M.M. ABDELATY, A.H. ZAKI*, IBRAHIM M. EL-SHERBINY AND A.A. FARGHALI [Alginate-pectin-zeolite composites for controlled release of fertilizers and antifungal agents]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 695-700 (2019). 1Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences Beni-Suef University, Egypt *(e-mail : ayman_h_zaki@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Maximizing the advantage from controlled release techniques was achieved using alginate-pectin hydrogel micro particles by ionotropic gelation method to control the release for both of chemical fertilizer (urea) and antifungal (copper sulfate). The formula of hydrogel was supported by one of metals clay (Zeolite) in different ratios 1% and 5%. The release and swelling studies were investigated and the micro-particles were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the presence of zeolite elongate the time of release for urea and micro-particles gave good results as an antifungal through microbiology test.

6. Vadim pliushchikov, Maryam Bayat, Meisam Zargar*, Marsel Akhrarov, Elchin Orujov and Nasser Said Hassan [Common lambsquarters response to the ALS inhibitor herbicides]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 701-705 (2019). 1Department of AgroBiotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, 117198 Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) is a worldwide weed species growing in cropping system. Two trials were performed between 2015 and 2016 to evaluate applications of ALS inhibitor herbicides for common lambsquarters control and crop safety in spring wheat. The formulated mixture of the (iodosulfuron/mesosulfuron/antidote mefenpyr-diethyl) and tribenuron provided the highest value of labsquarters reduction in both the experiments. Results indicated that poor labsquarters control was attained when triasulfuron was applied at the rate of 20 g a. i./ha. In both the experiments, effective control of labsquarters resulted in substantial increases in wheat yields with the average value of Rs. 7700 kg/ha. Hence, the formulated combination of (iodosulfuron/mesosulfuron/antidote mefenpyr-diethyl) and tribenuron provided the highest level of labsquarters suppression and these herbicides were consistently associated with the highest wheat yield response. It can be concluded that these active ingredient combinations can effectively be applied in wheat for common lambsquarters control in spring growing season. Mentioned research evaluated some ALS inhibitor herbicides that were effective for use in wheat production.

7. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan as edible coating layer on quality of litchi fruits during preservation]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 706-711 (2019). Faculty of Natural Sciences Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenphuocminh@tdmu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, is a natural carbohydrate that has various applications owing to its superior characteristics. Litchi is very delicate in nature and highly perishable, which accounts for its low shelf life. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) highly perishable due to rapid loss of bright red peel colour which turns brown within few hours. Pericarp browning considerably reduces the shelf life and value of litchi fruits. In our current study, the effect of CMC layer-by-layer coating with chitosan for enhancing the shelf life and quality of litchi fruit under ambient storage condition was evaluated. This research was conducted from 2018 to 2019 in the scientific laboratory of Soc Trang Nanotech Ltd. Results clearly revealed that 2.0% CMC as the first layer and 1.5% chitosan as the second layer were appropriated to control pericap browning as well as maintain firmness, total soluble solid and total titratable acidity of litchi fruit during preservation.

8. Debashis Mandal*, Vanlalruatfeli and Amritesh Chandra Shukla [Shelf life got extended in salicylic acid treated and waxed Cavendish banana]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 712-718 (2019). 1Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Mizoram University, Aizawl-796 004 (Mizoram), India *(e-mail : debashismandal1982@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Worldwide banana is mostly traded in ambient condition and suffers a high extent of post-harvest losses due to that; which shortens the shelf life of the crop. The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of salicylic acid along with chitosan, carboxymenthyl cellulose and waxing on shelf life of Cavendish banana at ambient storage. It was found that salicylic acid along with wax treated fruits had minimum physiological weight loss (4.42%) and fruit decay (5.56%) at 8 DAS with high retention of fruit ascorbic acid (11.65 mg/100 g fruit weight) and extended the shelf life by five days over control (8.75 days).

9. D. Kurniadie* and U. Umiyati [Effect of rainfastness of herbicide potassium glyphosate to control weeds of oil palm]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 719-724 (2019). 1,2Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, 45363, Indonesia *(e-mail : denny.kurniadie@unpad.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

Weeds becomes an undesirable plant grown in oil palm area that affects plant growth and development, therefore, it must be removed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rainfastness of herbicide potassium glyphosate 440 g/l in controlling dominant weeds of oil palm plantation. The weeds, namely, Ageratum conyzoides, Borreria alata, Paspalum conjugatum and Imperata cylindrica at the same fresh weight having 2-3 leaves were planted in a plastic and store in the green house for one month, then moved out into plot size of 4 x 4 m and the herbicide was applied with the following rainfall intervals : (a) 4 h (b) 3 h, (c) 2 h, (d) 1 h before rainfall applying, (e) directly rainfall applied after herbicide application, (f) apply herbicide without any rainfall and (g) without application of herbicide and without rainfall. The results showed that the interval needed between herbicide application and rainfall was different among weed species. Broad leaf weed species, such as Ageratum conizoides required rainfree period 0-1 h, whereas Borreria alata required rainfree period of 2 h. Weed grass species : Imperata cylindrica and Paspalum conyugatum required rainfree period of 3 h.

10. Maryam Bayat*, Elena Chudinova, Meisam Zargar, Marina Lyashko, Kalisa Louis and Frehiwot Kebede Adenew [Phyto-assisted green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its antibacterial and antifungal activity]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 725-730 (2019). Department of AgroBiotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, 117198, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : maryambayat1313@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has broad applications in different areas. Green synthesis is an alternative to conventional physical and chemical methods. In our research, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized by the use of leaf extract of strawberry plants under different parameters. ZnO NPs biosynthesis was confirmed with UV-visible spectrophotometer and then characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The significant antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of ZnO NPs was attained. The synthesized ZnO NPs indicated antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Botrytis cinerea pathogens. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were tested against P. aeruginosa. The results indicated that ZnO nanoparticles synthesized with strawberry leaves extract showed antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The most effective concentrations were 26 and 42 mg/ml for non-calcinated and calcinated ZnO NPs, respectively. Different ZnO NPs concentrations caused inhibition in the fungal growth of B. cinerea, and the inhibition enhanced with the increase in the concentration of NPs. Overall, the results showed a rapid, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and convenient method for ZnO NPs synthesis, which could be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against bacterial and fungal diseases.

11. Maryam Bayat*, Elena Pakina, Tamara Astarkhanova, Abdul Nasir Sediqi, Meisam Zargar and Valentin Vvedenskiy [Review on agro-nanotechnology for ameliorating strawberry cultivation]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 731-736 (2019). Department of Agro-Biotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, 117198, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : maryambayat1313@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Strawberry production is appreciated in all over the world because of its attractive fruits and nutritional characteristics. It is of great commercial value, in this study, we reviewed and investigated using agro-nanoparticle based products and their application for managing strawberry fungal disease. The use of nanotechnology technique in materials science and biomass conversion technologies used in the agricultural sector is fundamental in the production of food, feed and fuels. The demand for food is projected to increase exponentially in the near future, while natural resources such as land, water and soil fertility are limited. Indiscriminate application of chemicals causes environmental pollution, emergence of resistant agricultural pests, pathogens and loss of biodiversity. Nanoparticle production has received great attention from chemists and biologists who wish to use them for developing a new generation of nano fertilizers and nano pesticides. Synthesis of nanoparticles involves several numbers of chemicals, and biological methods consisting chemical reduction in aqueous or non-aqueous solution, micro emulsion, template, chemical and microwave assisted. Using nanoparticles in plant growth and for controlling diseases is a rather recent phenomenon. Nonetheless, trends in research have been moving towards exploring the biological effects of nanoparticles on higher plants.

12. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Parameters affecting the osmotic dehydration of gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) fruit]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 737-741 (2019). Faculty of Natural Sciences Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenphuocminh@tdmu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Gooseberry fruit (Phyllanthus acidus) is rich in antioxidants including ascorbic acid, minerals, amino acids and phenolic compounds. Amla is highly perishable in nature. The storage and shelf life of the fruits can be increased by adopting appropriate strategy. Among the different drying methods available, osmotic dehydration is one of the most simple and inexpensive alternate processes. It is an energy-saving and low capital investment process that offers a way to make available this highly perishable and valuable crop. Our present research focused on the effect of soaking time and temperature and sugar concentration during osmotic dehydration of gooseberry fruit. This research was conducted from 2018 to 2019 in the scientific laboratory of Soc Trang Nanotech Ltd. Results revealed that gooseberry fruits should be dehydrated by immersion in sugar solution 60oBrix in 2.5 h at temperature 50oC before the final drying at 65°C for 18 h in oven chamber. From this approach, the added value of gooseberry fruits would be improved.

13. S. KAMALAKANNAN*, R. MANIKANDAN, K. HARIPRIYA, R. SUDHAGAR AND S. KUMAR [Effect of zinc sulphate and biofertilizers on yield attributes and yield of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 742-747 (2019). Department of Horticulture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : kamalhort@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was laid out in a farmer’s field at Keela Thanneerpalli village, Kulithalai block, Karur district, Tamil Nadu during the year 2018. The treatments comprised different combinations of farm yard manure (FYM), recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM). The results revealed that the maximum values for the yield and its attributes viz., number of fruits/plant (16.95 and 16.67), fruit length (11.96 and 11.90 cm), fruit grith (1.71 and 1.68 cm), single fruit weight (16.65 and 16.24 g), fruit yield (270.90 and 267.40 g/plant) and fruit yield/plot (26.41 and 25.40 kg) during first and second season, respectively) were recorded in the plots which received the application of FYM + RDF + ZSB + VAM + 40 kg ZnSO4/ha. This treatment was closely followed by the treatment combination FYM+RDF+ZSB+VAM+30 kg ZnSO4/ha and found to be on par with the best treatment.

14. N. Mutshekwa*, P. W. Mashela and M.S. Mphosi [Effects of irrigation interval on vegetative growth and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 748-752 (2019). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : mutshekwan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is widely grown under arid-warm regions under irrigation, but with limited empirically based information on irrigation interval, with farmers irrigating the crop every other day. The objective of this study was to determine the irrigation interval for optimising okra productivity under arid-warm regions in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Hardened-off okra seedlings were transplanted under field conditions and subjected to 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12- and 14-day irrigation interval, with 2 000 ml tapwater/seedling using drip irrigation throughout the study. At 59 days after transplanting, irrigation interval had highly significant effects on plant variables, contributing from 62 to 80% in total treatment variation of the respective variables. Relative to 2-day irrigation interval standard, effects of 8-day irrigation interval for plant variables were significantly higher than those at lower or higher intervals, where productivity was significantly reduced. In conclusion, results in the current study suggested that 8-day irrigation interval was suitable for okra production under the existing conditions.

15. Zoliswa Mbhele and Nontuthuko Rosemary Ntuli* [Basal NPK and top-dressing N fertilizer requirements for improved growth and yield of Cucurbita argyrosperma in South Africa]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 753-762 (2019). Department of Botany, Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Zululand, Empangeni, South Africa *(e-mail : NtuliR@unizulu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Cucurbita argyrosperma has edible shoots, flowers, fruits and seeds that are rich in nutrients and minerals. However, it is scarcely grown by local farmers in South Africa. This study aimed at establishing fertilizer requirements for its improved growth and yield under large scale farming. Plants were grown under different quantities of 2 : 3 : 4 (30) NPK basal fertilizer and nitrogen (LAN at 28% N) top-dressing. Shoots and leaves of C. argyrosperma plants treated with 300 NPK basal fertilizer at varying nitrogen top dressing, grew faster from 42 to 49 days after planting (DAP). Plants treated with the same fertilizer combinations had thicker stems, numerous leaves, higher leaf total chlorophyll content, heavier fresh shoots, numerous staminate and pistillate flowers, at 49 DAP. At harvest, the same fertilizer treatments resulted in higher number, mass and size of fruits and seeds. The majority of traits had positive correlation amongst each other but shoot moisture content correlated negatively with all traits. Almost all traits were positively defined in both principal component analysis and scatter plot. In a scatter plot, fertilizer treatments grouped themselves based on NPK basal fertilizer, with 300 NPK fertilizer at varying nitrogen being defined positively.

16. N. C. MNCWANGO, S. MAVENGAHAMA, N. R. NTULI AND C. M. VAN JAARSVELD* [Effect of colchicine concentration and treatment duration on the morphological traits of Corchorus olitorius species]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 763-773 (2019). 1Department of Agriculture University of Zululand, Private Bag X 1001 Kwa-Dlangezwa, 3886, South Africa *(e-mail : VanJaarsveldC@unizulu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Polyploidy was induced in Corchorus olitorius L., a traditional leafy vegetable, which is also consumed by the rural community at KwaMbonambi. Corchorus seeds were treated with colchicine at four different concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 g/l) for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h, respectively. For the control, treatment seeds were imbibed in water only. After germination in petri dishes, seedlings were transplanted to seedling trays and then to plastic pots and kept under shade cloth at the University of Zululand. There were three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design. Several morphological traits were measured and data were subjected to ANOVA, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Significant (P<0.05) variation was observed among all traits measured, with all traits decreasing in value as the colchicine concentration and treatment duration increased, with the exception of stem girth. Of all traits measured, only the leaf chlorophyll content of plants treated with 0.025 g/l colchicine for two hours was significantly (P<0.05) higher than for the control treatment. The principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) contributed more than 80% of the total variation. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were positive and significant (P<0.05) for the majority of studied traits. Clustering pattern showed a close relationship between the C. olitorius plants treated with low colchicine concentrations and shorter treatment durations. A similar trend was also observed in the biplot. Colchicine treatment induced sufficient variability among treatments to be useful in future breeding programmes.

17. Yousif Ali Abdulrahman* [Effect of electric current severity and shock timing of corms on vegetative growth, flowering and corm yield characteristics of two cultivars of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) plant]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 774-781 (2019). Horticulture Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences Duhok University, Duhok 273, Iraq *(e-mail : yousif.abdulrahman@uod.ac)

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in the Greenhouse of Horticulture Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Duhok University, Iraq during spring season of 2019 to investigate the effect of electric current severity and shock timing of corms on the vegetative, flowering and corm growth characters of Gladiolus grandiflorus. The treatments including three levels of electric current severity (AC 6, 8 and 10 amp.) and three timings of electric shock (1, 3 and 5 min) were tested on corms of two cultivars of gladiolus (Bimbo and Sapporo). A special electric apparatus was designed for this purpose. The corms were first soaked for 3 h in 1% NaCl solution, and then soaked in fresh water for the same period of 3 h before planting. The corms of cv. Bimbo which were exposed to low current for a short period treatment (T1) i. e. 4 A × 1 min significantly reduced sprouting time of vegetative growth to 12 days and flowering date to 68 days, increased the number of lateral branches (2.75 lateral branches/plant), largest leaf area (191.35 cm2), chlorophyll content (59.65 SPAD), longest spike flower (12.50 cm), highest number of florets in spike flower (27.85 flowers/spike) and highest dry weight of corms (19.81 g). However, the treatment T15 (6 A × 3 min) significantly increased the plant height (128.95 cm), dry weight of vegetative parts (12.09 g) and diameter of corm (6.13 cm).

18. Aigul Kalihozhaevna Madenova*, Makpal Nurzhumaevna Atishova, Alma Myrzabekovna Kokhmetova, Kanat Galymbek and Gulzira Izmuhanovna Yernazarova [Identification of carriers of resistance to common bunt (Tilletia caries) of winter wheat]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 782-790 (2019). 1Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology Almaty, Timiryazev Street 45, 050040, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : madenova.a@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

Common bunt, Tilletia caries (D. C.), is one of the most significant biotic restraints in wheat production around the world. Using phytopathological and molecular methods, the identification of Bt -genes in 43 Kazakh and foreign winter wheat cultivars was carried out. The phytopathological evaluation of resistance to common bunt on an infectious background allowed selecting a number of resistant cultivars to T. caries (D. C.). The cultivars Ati, Bereny, Koros, Hajnal, Feny, Pilis, Petur, Szala, Vitorlás, Rege, Raba, Rozi, Akbiday, Azharly, Batyr, Bezostaya 1, Bulava and Almaly showed levels of resistance. Intermediate resistant cultivars : Bekes, Kalasz, Mentor, Goncol, Csillag, Garaboly, Alihan, Adyr, Altynshash, Arap, Bogurnaya 56, Botagoz and Derbes. Moderately susceptible cultivars were Tisza, Futar, Alatau, Aliya, Aktereksky, Ania and Daulet. The susceptible cultivars were Szemes, Akdan, Anara, Bayandy and Dana. Molecular screening of wheat samples for the presence of Bt9 and Bt10 resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers FSD/RSA and Xgpw 7433 was carried out. Bt9 gene in four cultivars of wheat (Bereny, Petur, Raba and Akbiday) was detected, and Bt10 in seven cultivars (Ati, Bereny, Koros, Petur, Batyr, Almaly and Bezostaya 1) was identified. Because of phytopathological and molecular studies, common bunt resistance carriers of wheat cultivars Bereny, Petur, Raba Akbiday, Ati, Koros, Batyr, Almaly and Bezostaya 1 were identified. The most valuable donors of resistance to T. caries were the cultivars Bereny and Petur, in which two resistance genes (Bt9 and Bt10) were identified. The results for MAS-breeding to increase resistance to common bunt of wheat cultivars can be used.

19. Bogaleng M. Masemola, Abe Shegro Gerrano*, Kwasi Yobo and John Derera [Phenotypic characterization of mycotoxin resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 791-797 (2019). 1University of Kwa Zulu Natal Private Bag X01, Scottville Pietermaritzburg, South Africa *(e-mail : agerrano@arc.agric.za)

ABSTRACT

Understanding the genetic variation among ear rot/mycotoxin resistant maize inbred lines would greatly aid in breeding high yielding and stable ear rot and mycotoxin resistant hybrids. This study was executed with the objective to characterize ear rot resistant maize inbred lines using phenotypic traits. Experiments were conducted at Ukulinga and Makhathini Research Stations in South Africa. Genetic variability study revealed a significant difference among the mycotoxin resistant inbred lines for Aspergillus ear rot, Fusarium ear rot and other selected secondary traits except for husk cover. Plant height, ear height and primary tassel branches recorded higher heritability estimates (81.6, 81.2 and 82.8%, respectively) compared to all the traits. The principal component analysis clustered the ear rot resistant inbred lines into five groups over the quadrants based on their phenotypic characteristics within the family. The information generated from this study will assist in developing local hybrids with high resistance to ear rots and mycotoxin contaminations, which attribute better agronomic performance.

20. D. H. TRAN* AND T. G. NGUYEN [Development of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) on different brassica cultivars in Central Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 798-801 (2019). Faculty of Agronomy University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University 102 Phung Hung Street, Hue City, Vietnam *(e-mail : tdanghoa@hueuni.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

The cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) is a serious insect-pest on brassicas and other crucifers. Previous study has indicated that biology of H. undalis depends on host plant. The development time and survival rate of immature stages, longevity and fecundity of the cabbage webworm were investigated on three cultivars of brassica such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), leaf mustard (Brassica integrifolia) and pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis). Developmental time from first instar larva to adult and life cycle of the webworm reared with pak choi were longer than those with leaf mustard and India mustard. Longevity and fecundity of the adults on pak choi were lower than those on leaf mustard and India mustard. The results indictated that pak choi was the less suitable host plant followed by leaf mustard and Indian mustard. Thus, the development of resistance plant cultivars should be intended as an integrated pest management measure in the control of H. undalis.

21. QAIS K. ZEWAIN*, KAREEM A. HASSAN AND SALAM F. ALI [Comparative performance of several novel organic formulations against root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. on eggplant crop under greenhouse condition]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 802-808 (2019). 1Plant Protection Department College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq *(e-mail : qzewin@tu.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

This field trial was conducted in Erbil, Iraq under plastic house condition to evaluate the effectiveness of several novel organic formulations by its field recommended doses : Nemadead, Trevigo 20 SC, Trichozone and Propolis, in comparison with Oncal (Aminoforacarb) 5% G as a standard chemical nematicide on root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. on eggplant crop under greenhouse conditions. The results showed significant effectiveness of these formulations in reducing both of gall index and numerical density of nematode in the soil by high rates reached up to 69.5 and 97.61%, respectively, for Nemadead treatment which was superior to the efficacy of the standard nematicide 55.5 and 91.62%, respectively. The results showed also the effective role of these formulations in improving the whole studied vegetative and root growth characteristics of eggplant crop by significant rates compared with standard nematicide and inoculated control treatment. Using of these tested organic formulations (Tervigo 20% SC, Nemadead and Trichozone) by its recommended application timing and rates could present good effective and relatively low cost alternatives for chemical nematicides in term of improving crop yield quantity and quality as well as human health and environment conservation.

22. SUDARJAT*, R. MELIANSYAH AND P. PITRIA [Preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) towards host plants]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 809-814 (2019). 1Department of Plant Pests and Diseases Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, 45363, Indonesia *(e-mail : sudarjat@unpad.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci is one of the main pests in vegetable crops, which is a poliphagus and has more than 600 species of host plant. This study purposed to determine B. tabaci preference on some host plants, which were tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, beanstalk, red beans, soya, Ageratum, knob grass and prickly amaranth. Research carried in the screen house, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, from August 2011 to January 2012. The experiments used randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications. Observation variables were population density of B. tabaci nymphs and imago and trichome form of host plant that was used in the experiment. The results showed the highest population density of B. tabaci nymphs which were 1318.6 nymphs at eggplant and 588.33 nymphs at red beans, meanwhile no nymph was found at paper plants. Population density observations of B. tabaci imago on eggplant and red beans for each were 76.33 and 114.33 imago. On trichome observation, visually B. tabaci preferred leaves with a high density trichome.

23. N. P. Minh*, V. M. Nhut and N. K. Phuong [Microwave vacuum drying behaviour on quality of dried Piper betle leaf]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 815-821 (2019). 1Faculty of Food Technology-Biotech Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam *(e-mail : minhnp@donga.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Herbs are mainly preserved by air drying. Air drying becomes inefficient in respect of energy consumption, drying time and dried product quality. In microwave vacuum drying, water boiling point inside product can be decreased, therefore, allowing product to be dried at a lower temperature. This will have less negative effect to the phytochemical components and indirectly to maintain the desired quality of dried material. Piper betle is one of the invaluable medicinal plants where its leaves have been used for many medicinal purposes such as ailments, infections and as a general tonic. Chief constituent of the leaves is the volatile oil. Betel oil contains two phenols : betelphenol (chavibetol) and chavico. During rainy season, betel leaf is perishable quickly. Drying is an essential approach to process betel leaf to avoid spoilage for further use with higher value addition. In our current study, the effect of microwave-vacuum drying technique on quality of P. betle leaves was evaluated. This research was conducted from 2018 to 2019 in the Scientific Laboratory of Can Tho University, Vietnam. Results clearly revealed that the raw P. betle leaves should be blanched in hot water at 100oC in 30 sec, primarily dried under convective dryer at 50oC in 4 h, deeply dried under microwave vacuum dryer in pressure of 400 mbar at 60oC within 10 min to get the final safety moisture content 8%. By this approach, the most phytochemical components such as total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin could be maintained in an effective manner. Microwave vacuum drying can save energy and preserve product quality of medicinal and aromatic plants in general and P. betle leaves in particular.

24. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Effectiveness of drying and roasting to antioxidant inside lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 822-825 (2019). Faculty of Natural Sciences Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenphuocminh@tdmu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Lotus seed has numerous therapeutic profits by its phytochemical characteristics. It contains high levels of ?avonol compounds with high antioxidant potential. Raw lotus seed has short shelf-life during storage which adversely affects its aroma, texture, antioxidant properties. Microwave vacuum drying can be used efficiently for food dehydration. Objective of this study focused on the effectiveness of drying, roasting and storage to antioxidant inside lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed. Different technical parameters of microwave vacuum drying and roasting were verified. This research was conducted in 2019 in the Labone Scientific Laboratory. Results showed that lotus seed should be dried under microwave vacuum dryer at 15 W/g power and roasted at 125oC for 15 min. Under PET/AL/PE zipper bag at ambient temperature, total phenolic content inside the dried roasted lotus seed was nearly intact during 12 months of preservation.

25. Fouad A. SalmaN*, Khalid A. Mutar and Zainb H. Alewi [Influence of foliar application of arginine and phenylalanine on growth and essential oil content in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 826-830 (2019). 1Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Iraq *(e-mail : fouad.alibraheemi@uokufa.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

An experimental trial was conducted during the winter season of 2017-18 at Agriculture Faculty, University of Kufa, Iraq. The experiment included two factors. The first factor included three cultivars of dill plant (Iraqi local, Turkish local and Iranian Local), while the second factor included foliar application of amino acids at 50 mg/l for each arginine and phenylalanine on vegetative growth. Randomized complete block design (R. C. B. D.) was used as a factorial experiment in a split-plot design with three replicates for each treatment. Duncan’s multiple range test was adopted to compare mean with a probability of 0.05% level of significance. The results showed that the interaction between Iranian local cultivar and arginine significantly increased most growth parameters including plant height, dry weight, total chlorophyll and yield. The essential oil recorded superior with 0.994% in Iranian local, while the major phellandrene and limonene components recorded 37.49 and 18.01 in Turkish local. The arginine and phenylalanine application increased phellandrene, limonene and dillapoil.

26. KYOUNG-SUN SEO AND KYEONG WON YUN* [Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf extract from wild and planted Thuja orientalis]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 831-834 (2019). 1Jangheung Research Institute for Mushroom Industry Jangheung 59338, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : ykw@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

Thuja orientalis is used as a herbal medicine in Korea and China. This study conferred the antimicrobial activity of wild and planted Thuja orientalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method against eight strains. The ethyl acetate fraction of wild and planted T. orientalis leaves showed more antimicrobial activity as compared to the water fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction of wild T. orientalis revealed stronger antimicrobial activity than the fraction of planted T. orientalis, while the antimicrobial activity of the water fraction did not show the difference between wild and planted T. orientalis. The present study showed that there was little difference of antimicrobial activity between wild and planted T. orientalis.

27. Thanh M. Nguyen* and Senaratne L. Ranamukhaarachchi [Study on the mycelium growth and primordial formation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on cardboard and spent coffee ground]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 835-842 (2019). 1Faculty of Applied Sciences Ton Duc Thang University, No 19, Nguyen Huu Tho Street Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenmaithanh@tdtu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Cultivation of edible mushrooms on urban wastes represents one of the most economically and cost-effective organic recycling processes. An effective tool to identify necessary nutrients for the production of fruiting bodies on the specialty substrates is mycelium growth. Hence, mycelium of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) were experimentally evaluated on cardboard and spent coffee ground (SCG) substrates for the mycelial growth rate, density and primordial formation. Studies were carried out using five different substrate formulations viz., 100% cardboard (TS1), 100% SCG (TS2), 50% cardboard+50% SCG (TS3), 70% cardboard+30% SCG (TS4) and 30% cardboard+70% SCG (TS5). The efficiency of different yeast extract concentrations (i.e. 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 g/l) as a supplement in potato dextrose agar media (PDA) on P. eryngii growth was also determined. The concentration of 1 g/l of yeast extract showed the best effects on mycelial growth and primordia formation of P. eryngii, while high concentration of yeast extract (5-50 g/l) did not show any beneficial influence. Combination between cardboard and SCG, especially substrate formulations of 30% cardboard+70% SCG increased mycelial density and number of primordial formations of P. eryngii compared to the substrates of cardboard or SCG alone. The results revealed a potential opportunity for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms, especially P. eryngii for utilization of different recyclable residues as well as urban generated wastes reduction.

28. M. MBOUCHE, T. A. SOKAMTE, A. TALAKA, N. L. TATSADJIEU* AND R. NDJOUENKEU [Characterization of tea produced from the leaves of two varieties of Ipomoea batatas]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 843-851 (2019). National School of Agro-Industrial Sciences Department of Food Science and Nutrition University of Ngaoundere, P. O. Box 455, Ngaoundere, Cameroon *(e-mail : tatsadjieu@yahoo.fr)

ABSTRACT

This study consists of analyzing the phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of green tea infusions of two varieties of Ipomea batatas and two commercial green teas. Green tea was obtained after withering, fixing, rolling, and drying of I. batatas leaves. Phytochemical screening was performed using characteristic tests, total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents, as well as antioxidant activity were performed using spectrophotometric assays. The hedonic test was used to assess sensory properties. The results obtained demonstrated the presence of free quinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and phenols in all the samples analyzed. Variation ranges of flavonoids, phenolics and proanthocyanidins were 7.24±0.11 to 11.67±0.18 mg CE/g, 10.95±0.09 to 46.63±0.93 mg GAE/g, and 3.04±0.16 to 3.17±0.08 mg CE/g, respectively. These last two chemical groups were higher in the infusion of brand 1 green tea, which was correlated with its high antioxidant activity measured using the PAP test (PAP value=80.96±0.49 mg BHTE/g). The infusion of green tea of I. batatas variety 1 exhibited the lowest antioxidant activity measured using the DPPH tests (IC50=5.08±0.04 mg/ml), FRAP (FRAP value=12.16±0.20 mg BHTE/g) and PAP (PAP value=33.31±0.01 mg BHTE/g). The sensory analysis revealed that brand 2 green tea presented the highest scores for appearance and colour and there was no significant difference in odour, taste and overall acceptability among all tea samples. The results of this study showed that green tea infusion produced from I. batatas could be used in the development of green tea, natural source of antioxidants and they had interesting potential to prevent non-communicable diseases.

29. SE JI JANG, KYU HWAN HYUN AND YONG IN KUK* [Growth characteristics of an exotic plant Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. under different environmental conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 852-858 (2019). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the differences in germination and growth of Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. under various temperatures, seeding depths and levels of shading and soil moisture so that more effective methods of weed management might be developed. Because I. hederacea can remain dormant for over one year, our best results were obtained when seeds were soaked in sulfuric acid for 15 min in order to break the dormancy. The ideal temperature for germination of I. hederacea was between 25°C and 35°C which produced the highest levels of germination (70%). In lower temperature conditions at 15°C, I. hederacea seeds also germinated at 33%. The germination rate of I. hederacea was the highest at 72-84% at 1, 2 and 3 cm seeding depths. However, the germination rate was still 3% when seeds were planted at 20 cm. In addition, mesocotyle lengths increased as seeding depths increased. I. hederacea seeds germinated at a higher rate in 20% shade condition than in non-shade condition (control). Although germination rates were reduced by increasing shade levels, germination rates under 90% shade condition were still as high as 50%. Germination rates were 73-93% in soil with 30, 60 and 80% moisture and even in poor germination conditions where the soil was at 100% saturation, seeds still germinated at a rate of 13%. Overall, I. hederacea had potentail for germination and growth under bad environmental conditions. Due to the germination and growth characteristics of I. hederacea, this weed I. hederacea may be difficult to control in crop fields.

30. Maryam Bayat, Albert Engeribo, Zaur Meretukov, Abdegaliyeva Aigerim, Allen Godwin Temewei, Tatiana Dubrovina and Meisam Zargar* [Response of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) to chemical weed control programs]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 859-863 (2019). 1Department of Agro-Biotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, 117198 (Moscow), Russia *(e-mail : Zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

The most common broadleaf weed infesting the experimental site in both the years was common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L). Two field trials were performed in south of Russia in two growing seasons 2014 and 2015 for illustrating the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicide combinations in spring wheat cultivars. Common lambsquarters suppression was appropriate with metsulfuron and whole herbicide including metsulfuron. The lowest common lambsquarters suppression was for aminopyralid/florasulam, common lambsquarters had average response to the other tested treatments. Metsulfuron+fluroxypyr applied in spring wheat had the greatest result for wheat grain yield enhancement. Hence, metsulfuron and treatments involving metsulfuron caused the highest common lambsquarters reduction in comparison with other treatments examined in the experiments, and consistently maintained favourable spring wheat yields for both the years. Metsulfuron can improve common lambsquarters resistance to herbicides in wheat field of Russian Federation prairies.

31. N. P. Minh*, T. H. Thong, N. T. T. Trang and L. Q. Thuan [Investigation of pickled baby corn (Zea mays L.) fermentation]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 864-868 (2019). 1Faculty of Food Technology Biotech, Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam *(e-mail : minhnp@donga.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Baby corn (Zea mays L.) is a monoic annual plant belonging to maideas tribe and the grass family of Gramineae. It is a vegetable with good nutritional characteristics with a short post-harvest shelf-life in the ambient environment. Baby corn is rich source of fibre, protein, vitamin C, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. It has high content of fermentable reducing sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose could serve as substrates for lactic acid fermentation thus transforming from a perishable product to more stable and value-added one. Baby corn has a great potential and great demand in international market mainly because of its freshness, taste, nutrition, free from pesticides and its multiuse. The consumption of lactic acid fermented vegetables helps enhance balanced human nutrition. Lactic acid fermentation retains all the natural plant ingredients while improving the quality, taste and aroma. Objective of this study focused on a lactic acid fermentation from baby corn by penetrating on the effect of various parameters such as blanching pre-treatment, salt : sugar immersion, fermentation to physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of pickled baby corn. Results showed that baby corn should be blanched in hot water at 95oC in 5 sec with 0.20% citric acid; fermentation in 8.0% : 2.0% salt : sugar solution in 12 days to achieve a pleasant flavour and firmness of pickled baby corn. Pickled baby corn would be easily accepted in cuisine. Production of pickle from this vegetable can improve the added value as well as to reduce post-harvest losses from this valuable source.

32. Nesrine H. Youssef* [Role of chitosan and some plant parts wraps as alternative interior edible coat surrounding semi-hard cheese in inhibiting fungal growth and mycotoxins migration]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 869-879 (2019). Microbiology and Mycotoxins Labs Regional Center for Food and Feed (RCFF) Agriculture Researches Center, Alexandria, Egypt *(e-mail : nesrine_hassan66@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Food packaging is a part of food preservation concept. Exposed surfaces of cheese are vulnerable to mold contamination from several sources. Thus, cheese spoilage is generally confined to molds. Two mycotoxigenic fungal isolates were used in this study Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium verrocosum, a new method was applied in this study as a safe alternative composite coat to conventional internal coat (EVOH) in semi-hard cheese (Gouda). The new chitosan composite coat is based on chitosan /potato starch and/or thyme and safflower powders. These new coats are adjusted for thickness homogeneity, using the standard methods of ASTM with certain modification. This study aimed at investigating the effects of these wraps and the conventional coat on fungal growth and mycotoxins migration to cheese. Our results illustrated that the use of chitosan coat alone or enriched with HPPs succeeded in controlling the growth of the tested fungi invading cheese and significantly reducing the mycotoxins migrated amounts to cheese. The addition of this plant material (HPPs) ameliorated the capability of EVOH to reduce fungal growth and the majority of the tested mycotoxins migration amounts. Our results may achieve a significant impact on shelf-life extension and cheese safety during transport and trade when the addition of HPPs is applied.

33. Sundus A. Alabdulla* [Effect of foliar application of humic acid on fodder and grain yield of oat (Avena sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 880-885 (2019). Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq *(e-mail : mohammed_195152@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out at the farm of Field Crops Department, Agriculture College, University of Basrah, Iraq during two winter seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 to study the effect of spraying humic acids (0, 3, 6 and 9 g/l) at two growth stages (Tillering and 50% flowering stage) on the fodder and grain yield of oat cv. Shaffaa. Split plot design arranged by RCBD was used with three replications, stage of spraying was placed in the main plots, while foliar humic acid concentrations in the sub-plots. The best concentration of humic acid was 6 g/l which achieved the highest green fodder yield (50.6 and 54.4 t/ha), dry fodder yield (16.9 and 18.6 t/ha) and grain yield (6.19 and 5.97 t/ha) for both the growing seasons. Spraying at tillering stage was more efficient for increasing fodder and grain yield as compared to spraying at 50% flowering stage. The interaction was significant, plants that sprayed at tillering stage with concentration of 6 g/l of the humic acid were more potential for most studied characteristics. Therefore, humic acid @ 6 g/l during tillering growth stage proved most suitable for obtaining optimum yield of oat.

34. S. E. GARAMON* [Sequestration of hazardous Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution using low-cost agro-wastes : Activated carbon prepared from rice and barley husks]. Res. on Crops 20 (4) : 886-891 (2019). Chemistry Department, College of Science and Arts Qurayat, Jouf University, Sakaka 72388, Saudi Arabia *(e-mail : salwechem@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon prepared by chemical activation for Rice Husk (RH) and Barley Husk (BH) as a low-cost adsorbent. The activation and carbonization of these adsorbents increase the presence of carbon pores. The adsorption experiments were done by using various values of initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentration of the adsorbate for raw and activated adsorbents. The results demonstrated that both activated carbon rice husk (AC-RH) and activated carbon barley husk (AC-BH) were highly effective as adsorbents in the removal of Brilliant Green dye. Generally, the maximum percentage removal of Brilliant Green by AC-RH, AC-BH, RH and BH was found to be 94, 90, 76 and 65%, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to study the equilibrium results. The experimental results fitted good to the Freundlich isotherm.

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