Volume 20, No. 2 (June, 2019)

By | July 3, 2019

1. H. S. SHOBHA DEEPAK*, S. M. GOPINATH, A. G. SHANKAR and RAMESHRADDY [Studies on foliar application of zinc as bio-fortification strategy to enhance grain zinc content in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 249-255 (2019). 1Department of Biotechnology Ponnaiyah Ramajayam Institute of Science and Technology, Vallam, Tanjavur-613 403 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : hsshobhadeepak@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a concern for nearly half of the world population. Biofortification through foliar Zn application is an approach to reduce human Zn deficiency. Knowledge available on effect of foliar applied zinc towards biofortification efficiency and bioavailability of rice grain is limited. Pot experiment with rice was conducted to study the effect of foliar applied zinc along with soil application of recommended dose of N : P : K : Zn for rice. Two contrasting groups of four cultivars each with respect to seed zinc based on previous screening were selected (high seed zinc types and low seed zinc types). Zinc was applied in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O foliar application at vegetative stage and at reproductive stage in three different doses (recommended dose, 10% lower than recommended dosage and 10% higher than recommended dosage). Results suggest that foliar zinc application is effective in enhancing grain zinc when applied with recommended dose of soil zinc fertilizer irrespective of inherent zinc acquisition capacity by roots. Stem had higher Zn accumulation at 65 DAS indicating translocation of foliar applied zinc. At 50% panicle initiation stage, there was higher zinc in leaf compared to stem and developing grain implying Zn movement from stem to seed. Zn analyzed at different stages of grain filling till harvest showed an increase in Zn content both in high and low zinc types. Higher seed Zn was observed in long duration varieties. Using long duration varieties for foliar biofortification could be an effective strategy to overcome Zn deficiency.

2. Saddam A. Al-Dalain, Adel H. Abdel-Ghani, Farah Al-Nasir, Ghaid J. Al-Rabadi*, Rasha Aldmour, Jawad A. Dalaeen and Ziad B. Al-Rawashdeh [Response of different Jordanian barley cultivars to different levels of potassium fertilizer in arid and semi-arid areas]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 256-261 (2019). 1Department of Animal Production Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Mutah, Karak, 61710, Jordan *(e-mail : ghaid.rabadi@mutah.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

A field work experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of six different barley cultivars (Athroh, Rum, Yarmok, Mutah, Acsad 176 and local landrace) and three levels of potassium (K) application grown (0, 10 and 20 kg/ha) at two different ecosystems on barley production and morphological parameters. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with split plot arrangement of treatments (K application level as a main plot and barley cultivars as sub-plot) with three replications. The investigated parameters included production and phenological traits : plant height at maturity, grain yield , biological yield, straw yield, number of spikes per plant, 100-kernel weight, average spike weight, days from emergence to heading (time needed for 50% of spikes to be fully emerged from flag leave), days of emergence to maturity (time needed for 50% of peduncles to change in colour to yellow), number of kernels per spike, number of spikes per meter, grain filling period (days) and harvest index. Results showed that different barley cultivars possessed different response under different growing locations. Mutah cultivar had the best performance among other cultivars at Rabba location. However, at Ghweer location, both Athroh and Yarmok cultivars had the best performance. This study also revealed that K application levels did not influence any of production parameters except for number of spikes per unit area (higher at high K application level). From this study, it can be concluded that under specific experiment growing conditions, barley cultivars had different responses at different locations with no significant influence of K application on growth and production parameters.

3. Abbas Mossa Kashmer, Razaq Lifta Attiya Alselawy*, Susan Mohammed AlRubaye and Manar Abed Falhi Hasan [Influence of seed size and salinity on germination and seedling development of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. ‘Rabee’]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 262-265 (2019). Agriculture College University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq *(e-mail : razzaq.ateha@uokerbala.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted using factorial complete random design (CRD) to study the effect of five seed size treatments (26, 24, 22, 20 and 18 mm diameter) of maize cultivar ‘Rabee’ graded by sieves specialized for this purpose, and eight salt concentration treatments viz., 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 dS/m in addition to the control treatment. The results showed that seed germination increased significantly with increasing seed size, whereas the salt concentrations did not reduce the seed germination significantly. The interaction between the two factors also did not affect germination. The number of normal seedlings decreased significantly when the seeds were small, however, the salt concentrations did not affect number of seedlings. This study showed a positive relation between seed size and plumule length, while this trait was negatively affected by increasing salt concentration. The interaction between the seed size and salt concentration had a significant effect on plumule length as well as radical length. On the basis of this, it can be concluded that the seeds of larger size are able to germinate even under the conditions of relatively saline stress.

4. Udayakumar Sekaran*, R. Santhi, P. Dey, S. Meena and S. Maragatham [Validation of soil test and yield target based fertilizer prescription model developed for pearl millet on Inceptisol]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 266-274 (2019). 1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : udhayagri307@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Soil test crop response (STCR) based fertilizer prescription for desired yield target of pearl millet was developed under integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) on Periyanaickenpalayam soil series (Vertic Ustropept) of Tamil Nadu, India. The present study was undertaken to validate the developed fertilizer prescription equations (FPEs) through field experiment in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu. The results emanated from the validation experiment proved the validity of the FPEs for pearl millet by recording the aimed yield targets within±10% variation. Among the treatments, STCR-IPNS-4.0 t/ha of pearl millet has proved its superiority and recorded a yield increase of 59.8, 18.7 and 89.3%, respectively over blanket, blanket plus farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t/ha and farmer’s practice. The increase in response ratio due to STCR-IPNS-4.0 t/ha over blanket, blanket plus FYM @ 12.5 t/ha and farmer’s practice was 1.0, 0.9 and 1.5 kg/kg, respectively, and that of benefits : cost ratio was 0.65, 0.28 and 0.79, respectively. Soil test-based fertilization resulted in increased yield, economic returns, protein content, protein yield, and either built-up or sustenance of soil fertility and the magnitude of built-up was higher with STCR-IPNS as compared to STCR-NPK alone, blanket recommendations, farmer’s practice and control.

5. Adebola Ajidahun and Erick Sebetha* [Effects of cultivars, nitrogen fertilizer rate and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 275-284 (2019). Food Security and Safety Niche Area Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences North-West University, Mafikeng Campus Private Bag X 2046, Mmabatho, 2735, South Africa *(e-mail : Erick.Sebetha@nwu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer rate and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum planted under different environmental conditions. Field experiment was carried out during the 2016-17 and 2017-18 planting seasons at two locations of North West Province, South Africa. The experimental design was a split-split plot arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The main plot factors were high and low plant densities. The nitrogen fertilizer rates were 0, 100 and 150 kg/ha as the sub-plot factor. The sub-sub plot factors were two sorghum cultivars, PAN 8625 and PAN 8816. Parameters measured for yield were panicle length, panicle mass/ha, 1000-grain mass, biomass yield and grain yield. Cultivar, plant density and location had significant effect (P < 0.05) on sorghum panicle mass/ha, grain and biomass yield. Sorghum cultivar PAN 8625 produced a higher grain yield than PAN 8816. The differences observed in sorghum panicle mass/ha were attributed to dissimilarities in panicle weight and seed size among the cultivars planted. The study concluded that PAN 8625 was better than PAN 8816 in terms of yield production. Mafikeng is a good production location for sorghum.

6. Kekhriedelie Miachieo, Homraj Sahare*, Rishu Sharma, Poonam kumari and Thaneshwari [Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of greengram (Vigna radiata L.) under Punjab condition]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 285-288 (2019). School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University Jalandhar-Delhi G. T. Road, Phagwara-144 411 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : homraj.sahare@rediffmail.com; homrajsahare82@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2017 in the field of Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) followed by six treatments i. e. T1 (Control), T2 (100% RDF), T3 (50% RDF+50% FYM), T4 (50% FYM+50% compost), T5 (50% FYM+25% poultry manure+25% compost) and T6 (50% RDF+25% FYM+25% poultry manure) with three replications. The organic sources were farm yard manure, poultry manure and compost along with the combination of inorganic fertilizer i. e. recommended dose of fertilizer–RDF (20 : 40 : 20 NPK). The results showed that organic manure and inorganic fertilizer in combination increased morphological parameters greengram viz., plant height, number of leaves and number of branches over the control treatment.

7. Lourembam Chanu Bonita, G. A. Shantibala Devi* and Ch. Brajakishor Singh [Physical and cooking characteristics of some lima bean cultivars grown in north-east India]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 289-295 (2019). 1Plant Physiology Laboratory Department of Life Sciences Manipur University, Imphal, Manipur-795 003, India *(e-mail : bonitalourembam@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Seeds of 10 lima bean cultivars were evaluated for physical and cooking characteristics. Physical properties of seeds were studied as they were necessary to design equipment and facilities for seed processing. 100-seed weight and length, breadth and thickness of seeds varied significantly. Density ranged from 1.10±0.07 to 1.33±0.02 g/ml. Porosity, equivalent diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, seed volume and surface area also showed significant variation among the cultivars. Hydration and swelling capacities ranged from 0.34 to 1.61 g/seed and 0.41 to 2.00 ml/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds varied from 43 to 90 min. Gruel solid loss and water uptake ratio ranged from 2.00 to 10.84% and 1.88 to 2.23, respectively. Correlation among the different characteristics was also studied.

8. SYED ABUL HASSAN HUSSAINY, R. BRINDAVATHY AND R. VAIDYANATHAN* [Influence of intercropping and different levels of irrigation on the performance and nutrient dynamics of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 296-300 (2019). Oilseeds Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tindivanam-604 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : vaidyanathan.tnau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2017 and 2018 to study the influence of intercropping under different levels of irrigation on the performance and nutrient dynamics of groundnut. Groundnut intercropped with blackgram resulted higher in number of matured pods per plant (9.04), a shelling per cent of 70.1 and sound matured kernel of 92.9% with an estimated yield of 11.3 g/plant over 7.6% over the sole crop of groundnut. Irrigation scheduling with IW/CPE ratio of 0.75 increased the matured pods per plant which eventually increased the estimated yield to 9.72 g/plant. Higher nutrient uptake by the crop was compensated when groundnut was intercropped with legume crop blackgram. Soil bacteria (58.3×106 CFU/g), fungi (22.7×103 CFU/g) and actinomycetes (14.5×104 CFU/g) were recorded under groundnut+blackgram intercropping system. Soil biological properties increased with increased irrigation supplied to the crop but the same could not increase the performance of the crop. From the study, groundnut+blackgram intercropping system with irrigation scheduling at IW/CPE ratio of 0.75 enhanced the productivity, with lesser nutrient draining as compared with the nutrient uptake maintaining the long term soil productivity.

9. SE JI JANG, DO JIN LEE AND YONG IN KUK* [Soybean growth and yield reductions caused by Quamoclit coccinea at varying densities]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 301-305 (2019). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the occurrence levels of Quamoclit coccinea in South Korea’s Jeonnam province and to better understand how the densities of Q. coccinea contribute to yield reduction in soybean crops. In 2016, Q. coccinea had an occurrence rate of 8.45% in 71 farmlands across Jeonnam province. In 2017, however, the Q. coccinea occurrence rate had risen to 45.7% in 35 farmlands across Jeonnam province. Although Q. coccinea growth rate and seed production varied significantly from region to region, in this study we observed Q. coccinea growing rapidly over short periods of time and posing a significant threat to soybean crops. Compared with the control, soybean shoot fresh weight was reduced by 12, 23, 37 and 45% in crops with Q. coccinea densities of 1, 5, 10 and 20 plants per m2, respectively. Soybean yields were reduced by 30, 69, 80 and 92% in crops with Q. coccinea densities of 1, 5, 10 and 20 plants per m2, respectively. Soybean crops impacted by Q. coccinea also had notably reduced yield components such as pod numbers, 100-weight and ripening rates. Our study clearly showed Q. coccinea capacity for destruction in soybean crops, however, further studies are needed in order to determine how to best combat this troublesome weed species and prevent it from spreading further.

10. MOCH. ARIFIN*, PANCADEWI SUKARYORINI AND TRI MUJOKO [Application of Streptomyces to improve quality of vermicompost]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 306-312 (2019). 1Department of Soil Science University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran East Java Surabaya 60294, East Java, Indonesia *(e-mail : arifin.agro@upnjatim.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

Utilization of Streptomyces microorganisms in the vermicompost process is an alternative to improve the quality of vermicast. The objective of the present study was to investigate the improvement in the quality of vermicompost due to use of Streptomyces in the worm feed. The experiment was designed using a complete factorial randomized design with destructive sampling at each weekly observation. The treatment had two factors. The first factor was the use of Streptomyces (S) with two levels : S0, no Streptomyces added and S1, Streptomyces added. The second factor was the addition of various organic materials (M) with three levels : M1–Plant compost, M2–Fermented cow manure and M3–A 1:1 mixed ratio of crop compost and cow dung. The treatment was carried out by a combination of the two factors with as many as six treatments. The experiment was repeated in triplicate, with 18 total experimental pots. The results demonstrated that the addition of Streptomyces microorganisms in the vermicompost process had a significant effect on the first week. Addition of Streptomyces had no significant effect on total C-organic and N-total in the vermicast, while various organic media had significant effects on vermicast C-organic levels. The SEM results indicated that addition of Streptomyces in the vermicompost process provided a increase in rough surface area in the vermicompost organic media. The need for a microorganism in large-scale applications of organic plant fertilizers as an alternative to current methods should prompt continuation of research into the effects of microorganisms on the vermicompost process.

11. TAHANI JAWAD MOHAMMED ALI*, MANAR ISMAEL ALWAN AND ZAINAB OUDAH OBAID [Effect of spraying of gibberellic acid (GA3) and foliar fertilizer (Agroleaf) on the seedling growth of plum cultivar ‘Hollywood’]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 313-321 (2019). Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening College of Agriculture, University of Al-Qasim Green, 51002, Babylon, Iraq *(e-mail : tahani.jawad80@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted at the Hindia Horticulture Station, Karbala, Iraq–The general company for Horticulture and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture for the period from March 15 to October 15, 2017. The aim of the investigation was to examine the issue of spraying gibberellic acid and foliar fertilizer (Agroleaf) on the vegetative growth indicators of the plum seedlings of cultivar Hollywood grafted on apricot seedlings. The factorial experiment was conducted using complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications keeping four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/l) of gibberellic acid and three levels (0, 10 and 20 mg/l) of Agroleaf foliar fertilizer. The effect of spraying with gibberellic acid @ 75 mg/l gave significantly higher values for the length (82.2 cm) of the main stem, 7.43 mm for diameter of the seedling stem, 23.22 cm2 for the leaf area and 40.7 SPADS for chlorophyll. The spraying with gibberellic acid @ 50 mg/l produced significantly higher number of branches (7.17), leaves number (47.37), dry weight of seedlings (42.5 g), leaf N content (1.79%), phosphorus content (0.29%) and potassium content (1.70%) compared with control where no gibberellic acid was sprayed. The treatment of foliar fertilizer @ 20 g/l significantly increased the length of main stem, diameter of seedling stem, number of leaves, leaf area, SPADS for chlorophyll, dry weight of seedlings, number of branches, leaf N content, leaf phosphorus content and leaf potassium content to the tune of 87.13 cm, 7.40 mm, 47.1 leaves, 2523.7 cm2, 42.03 SPADS, 43.65 g, 6.73 branches, 1.87, 0.32 and 1.69%, respectively. The interactions between gibberellic acid and foliar fertilizer (75 mg/l x 20 g/l and 50 mg/l x 20 g/l) produced significantly higher values of these growth traits of plum compared to other interaction treatments.

12. Jenny Zoremtluangi, Elizabeth Saipari and Debashis Mandal* [Influence of foliar micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Mizoram]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 322-327 (2019). 1Department of Horticulture Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University, Aizwal-796 004, Mizoram, India *(e-mail : debashismandal1982@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2016 and 2017 at Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram to study the influence of foliar micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of Khasi mandarin. The design adopted was randomized block design with 16 treatments such as T1 : Foliar application of zinc (Zn),T2 : Foliar application of manganese (Mn),T3 : Foliar application of copper (Cu), T4 : Foliar application of boron (B), T5 : Foliar application of Zn+Mn,T6 : Foliar application of Zn+Cu, T7 : Foliar application of Zn+B, T8: Foliar application of Mn+Cu, T9 : Foliar application of Mn+ B, T10 : Foliar application of Cu +B, T11 : Foliar application of Zn+Mn+Cu,T12 : Foliar application of Zn+Mn+B, T13 : Foliar application of Zn+Cu+B, T14 : Foliar application of Mn+Cu+B, T15 : Foliar application of Zn+Mn+Cu+B and T16 : Control (no micronutrients). From the pooled data of two consecutive years during the experiment, foliar application of Zn+Cu+B (T13) showed maximum plant height, stem girth, maximum plant canopy spread, highest fruit set % , yield, highest number of fruits per plant, fruit physical and biochemical parameters like largest fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, minimum fruit acidity and highest TSS/Acid ratio, while highest TSS was observed with treatment which received micronutrient mixture of Zn+Mn+Cu+B (T15) against control which recorded the least in all the parameters.

13. HYUN SUG CHOI AND SEOK KYU JUNG* [Soil properties and tree growth of organic black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) grown under bio-degradable plastic mulch]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 328-332 (2019). 1Department of Horticulture Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 38430, Republic of Korea *(e-mail: gentleman71@msn.com)

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to compare for growth of organic black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) grown under bio-degradable plastic mulch with white (WPM) and black colour (BPM) in 2018. Higher soil pH and organic matter contents resulted in the Bio-WPM treatment plots on September compared to those of values observed on the Bio-BPM, while the opposite results observed on the soil EC and concentrations of T-N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, and NaO in the soil. Foliar SPAD and PS II activity values in the trees were slightly elevated by the Bio-WPM treatment. Number of leaves, total length of two- and three-year old shoots and trunk diameter were increased by the Bio-BPM treatment. Bio-BPM treatment produced more formation of flower buds of 76 per tree compared to those of Bio-WPM tree counted on 26 in the following year. Overall, BPM treatment increased vegetative and reproductive growth of the black chokeberry trees in a balanced way compared to the WPM, mostly due to the maintenance of high soil temperature and biodegradation occurred in the organic components.

14. Mohammad H. Obaid*, Yasamin F. Saloom, Manal H. Mejbel and Salah H. J. AL-Hchami [Effect of different planting dates on some plant growth traits of four hybrids of broccoli]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 333-337 (2019). 1Department of Horticulture College of Agriculture, University of Karbala, Iraq *(e-mail : mohammed.obaid@uokerbala.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at the Vegetable Field, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Karbala, Iraq during 2017-18 for the evaluation of four cultivated hybrids with different planting dates and their consequence on some plant growth traits of broccoli. In this experiment, randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with three replications. Four hybrids of broccoli (Ruby (V1), Green cornet (V2), Tropicana (V3) and Master (V4) were cultivated on three planting dates [September 15 (M1), October 01 (M2) and October 15 (M3), 2017]. The results indicated that the cultivar M4 produced significantly higher number of leaves as well as highest chlorophyll content in leaves, whereas cultivar V3 produced significantly more diameter and perimeter of the curd compared to other cultivars. Significantly higher plant height was recorded in the cultivar V2 compared to other cultivars. Among planting dates, broccoli planted on 1st October (M2) produced significantly higher diameter as well as perimeter of the curd compared to other planting dates V1 and V3. However, planting dates did not affect the other growth parameters of broccoli. The interaction between the effects of cultivars and planting dates was also found significant. The interaction treatment of V2 x M2 produced significantly higher plant height, chlorophyll content in leaves, curd weight and its’ diameter. The highest number of leaves and leaf area were recorded under interaction treatment of V4 x M1. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that broccoli hybrids Tropicana (V3) and Master (V4) can be successfully cultivated in agroclimatic conditions of Iraq.

15. ABBAS KHDAIR MIJWEL* AND RIMA SALIM JABBR [Impact of nano-fertilizer on the genetic and phenotypic parameters of tomato cultivars]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 338-344 (2019). 1College of Agriculture University of Al-Qasim Green 51002, Babylon, Iraq *(e-mail : mijwelabbas @gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In breeding, genetic structures should be adaptive for the atmosphere of the country so that high yield can be achieved. In order to create high yielding varieties, the locally-cultivated varieties must be bred so that the traits can be determined in terms of yield. The inheritability can be impacted through nano-fertilization, the most important tool of modern agriculture that helps in increasing the productivity of tomatoes and reduce the loss in nutrients at rhizosphere area. However, little is known with regards to responding different genotypes of tomato to nano-fertilizers under field conditions in Babylon. Here, tomato cultivars (Red rock, Castel rock, Roke star, Early pearson and Super queen) were cultivated during March 2018 and treated with three rates of nano-fertilzers (0, 1 and 2 g/l). The experiment was conducted as complete randomized block design (RCBD). Early pearson variety achieved the first highest yield in kilograms per plant, mass in kg/ha. The ‘Roke star’ variety achieved second highest yield in terms of kg/plant and mass of kg/ha. Early pearson achieved the maximum yield one kg/plant and the mass of kg/ha under third treatment. Different varieties present among the tomatoes, in their vegetative and floral parameters, were influenced by three treatments. The genetic variation was high in both leaf area and the number of leaves under the influence of three treatments, while the genetic parameters of the other attributes under the influence of the three treatments were notable. The percentage of inheritance was high under the influence of first treatment in terms of number of leaves, diameter of the stem, leaf area, yield from one plant, yield in kilograms per hectare. It was again high under the influence of the second treatment when it came to number of leaves, diameter of the stem, leaf area, number of flowers, number of inflorescences, weight of the fruit and yield per plant. The values were high under the third treatment in the parameters such as number of leaves, length of the plant, leaf area and the number of fruits.

16. Asma Kisalaei, Vali Rasooli Sharabiani* and Ebrahim Taghinezhad [Application of image processing and linear regression models for estimation of nitrogen content of tomato leaves]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 345-352 (2019). 1Department of Biosystem Engineering Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran *(e-mail : vrasooli@uma.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Application of variable rate technology (VRT) of fertilizer on the farm is a major pillar of production accurate management that increases the efficiency of fertilization and reduces the pollution of environment. Tomato is an important valuable vegetable that is in second place after potato in terms of economic and food in the world. This study formulates a mathematical relationship correlating the nitrogen values of tomato using an image processing to the common methods during the growing season. The nitrogen content of leaves was measured by two common methods including chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and Kjeldahl test. The measurements were performed in two stages, once before fertilization and the other one week after fertilization. In addition, with cutting of plant leaves, it was attempted to take pictures using a digital camera in the chamber that was controlled in terms of light. All pictures were transferred to the space on MATLAB R2013 software and average colour of R, G, B and 11 colour models were extracted from RGB images. It was found that a linear relationship existed between colour parameter (G-band) and SPAD (R2=0.96) as well as between G-band and nitrogen content (Kjeldahl test) (R2=0.97). Results of this research can be utilized for quick and simple determination of SPAD and nitrogen values and eliminating the need for conventional physical-chemical methods.

17. O. M. PELINGANGA* AND M. S. MPHOSI [Optimum NPK fertilizer requirement for Amaranthus hybridus leafy vegetable under greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 353-356 (2019). 1Departamento de Agricultura Instituto Superior Politécnico do Kwanza Sul, Sumbe, Caixa Postal, Angola *(e-mail : osvaldopelinganga_7@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Amaranthus hybridus is a leafy vegetable consumed by rural communities in Limpopo Province of South Africa and Angola. The rural communities solely depend on nature for the supply of A. hybridus pot herb which is harvested from the wild during the rainy season. Cultivation of this leafy vegetable would greatly benefit the local communities, contribute to food security and alleviate hunger, malnutrition and poverty. The optimum NPK fertilizer requirement for A. hybridus cultivation is unknown. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the optimum NPK fertilizer level required for the cultivation of A. hybridus leafy vegetable. Uniform four-week-old A. hybridus seedlings were transplanted into 20 cm diameter plastic pots containing 3 : 1 pasteurised river sand and Hygromix. Six treatments, namely, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g NPK 2 : 3 : 2 (22) fertilizer rates were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 10 replications. At harvest, plant response to NPK 2 : 3 : 2 (22) fertilizer rates were in a density-dependent growth patterns with applications below 10 g improving plant growth. There was a strong relationship between NPK application and plant variables with the models explained 97, 90, 97, 97 and 98% in chlorophyll content, dry root mass, dry shoot mass, plant height and stem diameter. The optimum NPK 2 : 3 : 2 (22) fertilizer application for A. hybridus leafy vegetable was optimized at 9.01 g/plant equivalent to 90.10 g/ha. In conclusion, the cultivation of A. hybridus requires 9.01 g/plant, which needs to be validated under open field environments.

18. ABE SHEGRO GERRANO*, WILLEM STERNEBRG JANSEN VAN RENSBURG, MICHAEL BAIRU, STEPHEN AMOO, SONJA LOUISE VENTER AND SYDNEY MAVENGAHAMA [Nutritional characterization of mineral elements and total protein content in the leaf tissues of Amaranthus]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 357-368 (2019). 1Vegetable and Ornamental Plants Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa *(e-mail : agerraano@arc.agric.za)

ABSTRACT

Amaranthus is one of the orphan crops that have been reported to be rich in macro and micro-nutrients as well as protein content and hence able to contribute significant quantities to human diets. Hence, it is important to profile the nutritional traits in the leaves of Amaranthus to enable the selection for breeding. The study was conducted at the Roodeplaat Research Farm of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa. The analysis of variance showed significant differences for all mineral elements indicating that wide genetic differences existed among the test genotypes. The concentrations of mineral elements (mg/100 g) determined were in the ranges Na (54.90-519.780), K (257.00-4089.46), Mg (1304.55-2468.67), Ca (2051.340-3875.59), Mn (4.55-13.96), Fe (63.57-681.28), Cu (0.89-2.10), Zn (3.61-7.49), P (460.80-765.80) and Al (149.54-976.65). The protein content varied from 17.10 to 28.97%. A high level of heritability coupled with the genetic advance was obtained for most of the traits, which would result in successful advancement and crosses for those nutritional traits in the breeding programme towards utilization of underutilized plant species for biofortification.

19. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Production of cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. conomon) juice]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 369-375 (2019). Faculty of Natural Sciences Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenphuocminh@tdmu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is the most important crop of the family Cucurbitaceae grown commercially throughout the world. Cucumber is extremely beneficial for overall health; it could relieve thirst as it is mostly made of water and important nutrients that are essential for the human body. There is increased consumption of C. sativus fruits possibly because of their high nutritional value. The nutritional compositions of C. sativus include protein, fat and carbohydrate as primary metabolites; along with dietary fibre which is important for the digestive system. However, it softens very rapidly during ripening and becomes mushy and difficult to consume fresh. Freshly expressed juice is highly susceptible to spoilage, in fact more so than whole fruit. In the present study, various technical parameters influencing production of cucumber var. Conomon juice were clearly investigated such as ratio of flesh : water, sugar supplementation during the blending process; pasteurization, storage condition to stability of cucumber juice. This research was conducted during 2017-18 in the Scientific Laboratory of Global Food Technology Ltd. Optimal results showed that ratio of flesh : water (1.0 : 2.5 w/v); 10% of sugar supplementation; 95oC, 30 sec in pasteurization; 28oC of preservation could maintain stability of cucumber juice for 12 weeks.

20. Alyaa Jabbar Hamid* [Influence of employed Tilt 250 EC fungicide on yellow rust of wheat in Iraq]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 376-380 (2019). Animal Production Department AL Mussaib Technical College AL Furat Alawsat Technical University, Iraq *(e-mail : kka_ff70@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The influence of the use of Tilt fungicide on the treatment of yellow rust was studied on the wheat variety taken from Adana area of Turkey. The study was conducted at the wheat farm in Babylon province in Iraq during agricultural season of 2017-18. Three concentrations of the Tilt pesticide (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 l/ha) were used with a control treatment sprayed with ordinary water. The planting of the wheat crop was done on 10th November 2017. After two weeks of spraying, the results showed a marked improvement in the treatment of yellow rust when using the different concentrations of Tilt pesticide. The best result was the disappearance of the disease when Tilt pesticide concentration of 0.75 l/ha was used. The severity of infection was 5.3 S and 11.5 S scales when the pesticide was used with the concentrations of 0.50 and 0.25 l/ha, respectively. The highest severity of the disease was recorded under control treatment. There was significant increase in the length of wheat spike and weight of 1000-grain with the use of increasing levels of pesticide concentrations compared to control treatment.

21. REBOUH, N. Y.*, POLITYKO, P., LATATI, M., PAKINA, E., KAPRANOV, V., IMBIA, A., NOREZZINE, A., GADZHIKURBANOV, A., VVEDENSKIY, V. AND IGUER-OUADA, M. [Influence of three pest management treatments against aphid, Sitobion avenae in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Moscow area conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 381-388 (2019). 1Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation *(e-mail : n.rebouh@outlook.fr)

ABSTRACT

In Russia, winter wheat represents a significant proportion of food production in the whole agricultural system. However, wheat pests, particularly English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, induce high quantitative and qualitative losses with important economic losses. The current study aimed at investigating three pest management treatments : basic, intensive and highly intensive on the control of Sitobion avenae. The treatments included : fertilizers, insecticides and growth regulators at different combinations and concentrations. Six winter wheat varieties studied during 2016, 2017 and 2018 were Moscovckaya 39 variety (V1), Moscovckaya 40 variety (V2), Moscovckaya 56 variety (V3) Nemchinovckaya 17 variety (V4), Nemchinovckaya 24 variety (V5) and Nemchinovckaya 57 variety (V6). Yield performances, protein content and the infection rates of S. avenae on winter wheat crop were measured according to the tested treatments and the investigated varieties. The results showed that S. avenae was responsible of significant negative impacts causing important economic losses. The tested treatments demonstrated that the highly intensive treatment was the most effective to control S. avenae and to preserve wheat yield and grain quality particularly when tested on Moscovckaya 56 variety (V3) with (13.49 t/ha) of production. The results were variety-dependent revealing the intrinsic genetic potential where Moscovckaya 40 variety (V2) appeared as the most resistant against S. avenae with the lowest infection rate (0.02%). The current study opens opportunities for a large-scale application of the tested treatments on winter wheat in different wheat cultivated land.

22. Eman I. Abdel-Wahab*, Magda H. Naroz and Soheir F. Abd El-Rahman [Potential of some soybean varieties for resistance to lima bean pod borer (Etiella zinckenella) under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 389-398 (2019). 1Food Legumes Research Department Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt *(e-mail : mhassanein11@hotmail.com; eman00eman70@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the relative resistance of some soybean varieties against lima bean pod borer under field conditions in Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station (Lat. 30°0030 N, Long. 31°1243 E, 26 m a. s. l), ARC, Giza, Egypt during 2017 and 2018 summer seasons. The experiment included six soybean varieties (Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 35, Giza 111, Crawford and Dr-101) and were distributed in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. It was observed that there was a significant difference in natural infestation of soybean varieties by lima bean pod borer. Soybean varieties Giza 35, Crawford and Giza 22 had higher infestation by the insect, meanwhile soybean variety Dr-101 showed a higher potential for resistance to lima bean pod borer where it recorded the lowest percentage of seed weight losses and the highest harvest index than the others in the two growing seasons. Seed storage proteins revealed variations among all soybean varieties under lima bean pod borer infestation. Soybean variety Dr-101 had higher resistance to lima bean pod borer where, it produced the highest number of protein bands (6 bands) for resistance to lima bean pod borer compared to the others. Soybean variety Giza 21 produced taller plants, but soybean variety Giza 35 had higher number of branches per plant, biological and straw yields per ha than the others. Although soybean variety Giza 22 was susceptible to lima bean pod borer infestation under field conditions, but this variety had higher pod pubescence length, pod and seed yields per plant, as well as, 100-seed weight than the others. Soybean varieties Giza 22 and Giza 111 gave higher seed yield per ha than the others in the two growing seasons.

23. H. A. Seepe, S. O. Amoo*, W. Nxumalo and R. A. Adeleke [Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts for potential management of Fusarium pathogens]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 399-406 (2019). 1Agricultural Research Council–Vegetables and Ornamental Plants Roodeplaat, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa *(e-mail : amoos@arc.agric.za)

ABSTRACT

Yield losses due to fungal attacks, post-harvest losses and food spoilage, amongst others present a challenge to food security. There is an ongoing need and search for accessible, affordable and environmentally-friendly alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in food production. The aim of this study was to search for affordable potent plant extracts that can be used in smallholder farming system to manage Fusarium related diseases. Extracts from 11 medicinal plant species previously screened against human and animal pathogens in the literature were selected and investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against five economically important phytopathogenic Fusarium species. Dried leaf powders were extracted with solvents of different polarity and evaluated for antifungal activity using a microdilution method. At least, one of the solvent extracts obtained from a minimum of three plant species demonstrated very strong activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than 0.1 mg/ml against F. equisite, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. chlamydosporum and F. subglutinans. Acetone and ethyl acetate solvent extracts were found in most cases to exhibit stronger antifungal activity compared to water and petroleum ether extracts. However, water extract of Combretum molle was particularly noteworthy as it demonstrated antifungal activity against the tested five Fusarium species. The use of medicinal plant extracts as an antifungal agent presented a cheap, accessible and sustainable source of eco-friendly pesticides useful for crop protection in organic cultivation and small-holder farming.

24. ANIKA MALIK*, ADITI ARYA, VIKAS KAUSHIK AND ANIL SINDHU [Studies on genetic variability of Tinospora cordifolia collected from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana using RAPD markers]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 407-412 (2019). Department of Biotechnology (Plant Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering Lab) Deenbandhu Chhoturam University of Science & Technology, Murthal-131 001, District Sonipat (Haryana), India (e-mail : anikamalik111@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants are an important source of compounds for the pharmaceuticals and other industries and traditional medicine. Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as giloe, is one of the important medicinal climbers which belongs to the family Menispermaceae. Studies were undertaken for identification and genetic variation within six accessions of T. cordifolia through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Analysis was made using 12 primers. Out of them, eight primers showed amplification and were selected for genetic relationship within six accessions. A total of 81 bands were produced of size 100 to 950 bp with an average of 6.75 bands for each primer, of which 80 bands were polymorphic. The polymorphism percentage was 98.56 and Polymorphic Index Content (PIC) value ranged from 0.722 to 0.992. The genetic similarity index was calculated using Jaccard’s similarity coefficient which ranged from 0.4225 to 0.7000. The dendrogram was constructed using similarity matrix based on UPGMA method, which resulted into two main clusters. The two genotypes TC2 and TC3 were closely related accessions, whereas TC4 and TC6 were distantly related accessions. In conclusion, clustering of majority of accessions in one group reflected the narrow genetic structure of Tinospora populations in the region and the RAPD technique is highly popular and reveals relatively high levels of polymorphism.

25. MARYAM BAYAT, NYASHA KAVHIZA, ELCHIN ORUJOV, MEISAM ZARGAR*, MARSEL AKHRAROV AND ALLEN GODWIN TEMEWEI [Integrated weed control methods utilizing planting pattern in sugar beet]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 413-418 (2019). 1Department of Agro-Biotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, 117198, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : Zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different planting patterns, times of mechanical weeding and herbicide application for weed control in sugar beet. Planting pattern was designated as the main-plot with varying levels including single row 45 cm width, single row 58 cm width and twin row 62 cm row width; timing of mechanical weed control in three levels consisting of weeding at 4, 10 and 14 leaves stage of sugar beet, and herbicides in two levels as metamitron and triflusulfuron. Timing in terms of mechanical weeding and herbicide application had significant effect on weed reduction. In the majority of the cases, planting pattern effected desirable weed density and biomass reduction. The best results were attained in double-row planting at an inter-row spacing of 62 cm. With regards to time of weeding, the best results were achieved in mechanical weed control at the 4th leaf stage of sugar beet which had the highest reduction on both weed density and biomass. Metamitron+ was the most impactful on weed density and biomass. The sugar beet yield components were affected by weed control treatments but could not reach to the level of significance.

26. A. ANITHA*, P. CHRISTY NIRMALA MARY AND S. THIRUVARASSAN [Alleviation of osmotic stress effects by exogenous application of silicon nutrient on sugarcane seedlings]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 419-429 (2019). Sugarcane Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cuddalore-607 401 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : anithasrs2014@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the role of calcium silicate in osmotic stress tolerance in sugarcane seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. Sugarcane clone was grown in a hydroponic system, and the effect of calcium silicate supplied to the nutrient solution under osmotic stress was investigated. The results showed that osmotic stress reduced all growth variables in this clone, but silicate supplementation, however, partly overcame this growth reduction. Net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and transpiration were higher in plants under control treatment, and silicate in the nutrient solution resulted in a slight increase in these plant parameters. Intercellular carbon-di-oxide was slightly higher in plants under silicate treatment than in plants under control or polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatment. The results suggested that, in hydroponically grown plants, the inclusion of silicate in the nutrient solution was beneficial because it improved growth, physiological parameters and might contribute to a more balanced nutrition by enhancing nutrient uptake under polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-stressed conditions. Silicon ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant silicon cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment were achieved by an increase in proline and nitrate reductase content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity.

27. M. Uma Maheswari, S. Murali Krishnasamy*, M. Kumar and N. Sakthivel [Energy efficiency analysis of machine sown cotton under high density planting system]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 430-437 (2019). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : muralikrishnasamy@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field investigations were carried out during winter irrigated season of 2018 at Department of Cotton, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The experiment was laid out in split plot design and replicated thrice. Treatments comprised three crop geometries viz., 75 x 10 cm (M1), 75 x 20 cm (M2) and 75 x 30 cm (M3) and seven sub-plots with foliar application of different growth retardants along with one control viz., Cycocel 400 ppm (S1), Cycocel 500 ppm (S2), Mepiquat chloride 100 ppm (S3), Mepiquat chloride 200 ppm (S4), Maleic hydrazide 400 ppm (S5), Maleic hydrazide 500 ppm (S6) and control (No spray) (S7). Crop was sown in raised bed with inclined plate planter and the major cultivation practices were carried out with machines. The machineries used for cotton cultivation were inclined plate planter for sowing, boom sprayer for pre-emergence herbicide application, power weeder for weeding, drip irrigation system for irrigation and fertigation, whereas harvesting was done manually. Cotton cultivated under 75 x 10 cm spacing recorded higher input energy and higher output energy than the wider spacing.

28. Seung Kyu LEE* and Truong An, DANG** [Assessment of AquaCrop Model applicability for estimating cassava yield in the Son Hoa planting region of Phu Yen Province, Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 438-444 (2019). 1Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University 19, Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, Dist. 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (e-mail : *leeseungkyu@tdtu.edu.vn; **dtan@hcmus.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Cassava is Vietnam’s third most important food source only after rice and sugarcane with an output of 10.673 thousand tonnes. However, farmers often irrigate little or dono irrigate on cassava and almost irrigation water comes from rainfall. The biggest challenge of the cassava industry in Vietnam is the lack of irrigation water due to the impact of climate variability. This work, therefore, evaluates the impact of weather conditions on cassava yield in the Son Hoa District, Phu Yen Province of Vietnam in the period 2010-15. The performance of the AquaCrop model is assessed comparing observed and simulated cassava yield. Results showed that simulated yields were consistent. Observed data during study period with R2 up to 0.88 and root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 0.24, respectively. The results indicated that cassava yield had a close correlation with rainfall and evapotranspiration factors. Cassava achieved high yield when high rainfall and low evapotranspiration were recorded at study area, while cassava yield obtained a low value when low rainfall and high evapotranspiration occurred. Based on the findings from this study showed that cassava yield in the study area was strongly dominated by the rainfall and evapotranspiration factors.

29. SE JI JANG, GA YEON YOO AND YONG IN KUK* [Effects of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) shoots and roots on inhibition of weed growth]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 445-452 (2019). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the inhibition of weed growth by different plant parts, extraction methods and cultivars of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., IRG) and determine the levels of total phenol and flavonoid contents in shoots and roots of IRG. Shoot and root length of the five weeds were inhibited to a much greater degree by fermentation extract than water, boiling water and ethanol extracts. Shoot and root length were inhibited by 96 and 94% in Monochoria vaginalis, 72 and 95% in Aeschyoa indica L., 69 and 89% in Leptochloa chinensis L. and 61 and 99% in Echinochloa crus-galli L., respectively, in response to IRG shoot fermentation extracts at 5%. In response to the same extract, Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. shoot and root length were both 100% inhibited. Inhibition of shoot and root length of the aforementioned weeds was higher in response to fermentation extracts of IRG shoots than those of IRG roots. In addition, root length was inhibited to a greater degree than shoot length in response to the fermentation extracts. There were no differences between six cultivars (Greenfarm, Hwasan 101, Florida 80, Top 90, Corwinmaster and Corwinari) on inhibition of weed growth in response to IRG shoot extracts. Total phenol contents in the shoot of six IRG cultivars were almost 1.4-2 times higher than those of roots. Additionally, the total flavonoid contents in the shoot of six IRG cultivars were 8-19 times higher than those of roots. Standard phenol compounds such as hydrocinnamic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid produced similar weed inhibition. Thus, it appears that the weed inhibiting effects of IRG can be attributed to their phenol contents.

30. N. P. Minh* and N. H. Nga [Several technical factors affecting the baby corn beverage production]. Res. on Crops 20 (2) : 453-459 (2019). 1Faculty of Food Technology Biotech, Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam *(e-mail : minhnp@donga.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Baby corn is a popular vegetable in Vietnam. The demand for baby corn is rapidly increasing day by day. There is a great demand of baby corn in international market mainly because of its freshness, taste, nutrition, free from pesticides and its multiuse. It is usually used for fresh consumption. During the baby corn havesting season, excessive supply of the fruit causes the price of baby corn decreasing dramatically. Baby corn is a highly perishable produce because of its high respiration rate. An inexpensive way to extend shelf life is the use of modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) in combination with low temperature. Therefore, we have tried to add value to the baby corn. One method of adding value to fresh baby corn is processing it into drink. We carried out the investigation of extraction (ratio of water : baby corn, temperature and time of blanching); juicy mixture and preservation. This research was conducted from 2017 to 2018 in the scientific laboratory of Soc Trang Health Department. Our results showed that the baby corn drink had the best quality when extracting with water : baby corn ratio (70 : 30) at 95oC in 2 min. The sample was then cooled to 37°C before the addition of glucoamylase enzyme at 0.07%. The milk was then incubated in a water bath at 37°C in 60 min. After the incubation process, the milk was heated in a water bath at 95°C for 2 min to inactivate all enzymes present. The hydrolyzed baby corn milk will be formulated with sugar 3.0%, citric acid 0.5% and carrageenan 0.6%. Baby corn drink shelf-life could be maintained for 12 months.

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