Volume 20, No. 1 (March, 2019)

By | April 6, 2019

1. RAKIBA SHULTANA RADZIAH OTHMAN*, ALI TAN KEE ZUAN AND MOHD RAFII YUSOP [Evaluation of growth and nutrient uptake of rice genotypes under different levels of salinity]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 1-9 (2019). 1Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : radziah@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

Successful evaluation is necessary to ensure suitability of certain rice varieties in coastal saline areas. In this study, solution culture methods were employed to observe the salinity tolerance of seven rice genotypes under four salinity levels of 0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m at seedling stages. The traits of shoot and root length, dry weight, ratio of Na+: K+ and Na+: Ca2+ and uptake of N, P and K were measured. The growth characters and chemical properties of rice seedlings revealed that only Pokkali was able to survive and could tolerate the NaCl toxicity up to 12 dS/m, while BRRI dhan67 and BINA dhan8 were tolerant at 8 dS/m and BRRI dhan47 and Putra-1 were moderately tolerant at 8 dS/m. Besides MR284 and MR297 can tolerant up to 4 dS/m. The findings can explore new ideas for future research particularly in selection of the suitable rice variety for targeted saline prone areas.

2. Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi*, Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni, Khaldoun O. Al SanE, Emad Y Bsoul, Iyad Musallam, Yahya Bani Khalaf, Nawal Al-Hajaj, Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha, Yaser Aldwairi and Hala Al-Saqqar [Yield stability and adaptation of four spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 10-18 (2019). 1Department of Biology and Biotechnology Faculty of Science, the Hashemite University, P. O. Box 330127, Zarqa 13133, Jordan *(e-mail : ghzawi@hu.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted under rainfed conditions during 2014-15 and 2015-16 growing seasons at two locations [Maru Research Station (Maru) and Jordan University of Science and Technology Research Station (JUST)] in northern Jordan to evaluate four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars (Rum, ACSAD 176, Athroh and Mutah) for their stability, yield and yield components characters under both drought prone environment and intermediate drought prone environments. Our results indicated that barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.) at the semi-arid location at Maru had higher biological and grain yield than those grown at the arid location at JUST. Grain yield during the second growing season was lower than the first growing season. Regarding barley yield, our data indicated that in both growing seasons barley cultivars did not vary significantly in their productivities (grain yield and biological yield). To evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of the tested cultivars, the GGE biplot methods were performed. Generally, this work showed that there is a specific adaptation to the testing environment.

3. JASSIM J. JADER*, HAIDER T. HUSSEIN AND MAHDI A. HAMZA [Response of four genotypes of corn (Zea mays L.) to foliar nutrition by seaweed extract]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 19-28 (2019). Al-Musaib Tech. College Al-Furat Al-Awsat Tech. University, Iraq *(e-mail : alnuaimid92@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during spring seasons of 2017 and 2018 in Al-Hindiya Barrier Region, Babylon Province, Iraq to study the effect of foliar spraying of seaweed extracts on growth traits and grain yield of four genotypes of yellow corn. The experiment was conducted using the randomized complete block design (RCBD) for factorial experiments with three replications. The first factor included the genotypes (5015, 5016, 5017 and 5018). The second factor included foliar spraying of seaweed extract with three concentrations (3, 6 and 9 ml/l) in addition to the control treatment in which the plants were sprayed with distilled water only. The results showed that the corn genotypes differed significantly in respect to growth and yield traits. The corn genotype 5017 produced significantly higher growth and yield traits compared to other genotypes during both the years. The magnitude of production for plant height, leaf area, number of cobs per plant, cob length, number of grains/cob and grain yield per plant was 226.42 and 229.50 cm, 5291.8 and 5299.7 cm2, 1.93 and 1.96 cobs/plant, 1.30 and 18.45 cm, 445.75 and 451.75 grains/cob and 163.17 and 167.50 g in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The spraying of corn plants with seaweed extract @ 6 ml/l produced significantly higher leaf area, length of cob, number of grains/cob and grain yield per plant to the tune of 5241.9 and 5250.8 cm2, 17.97 and 18.14 cm, 443.42 and 448.58 grains/cob and 160.92 and 165.67 g in 2017 and 2018, respectively. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that genotype 5017 sprayed with seaweed extract @ 6 ml/l excelled over other genotypes in respect of growth and yield.

4. N. E. CHIUTA* [Screening maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines for basal and acquired thermotolerance]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 29-36 (2019). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Science and Agriculture University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa *(e-mail : nyashachiuta@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal crop in Africa. However, its production is under serious threat due to the increasing occurrence of abiotic stress factors such as heat stress. In this study, 18 maize inbred lines were screened for basal and acquired thermotolerance using the water bath and growth chamber techniques, respectively. Based on the water bath technique, highly significant differences (P<0.001) in coleoptile growth among the inbred lines under heat stress, non-stress (control) and across environments were observed. Coleoptile growth was used to calculate heat tolerance index (HTI) of each inbred line. Based on the results, EM86Y, EM578Y, HM63Y, HM1472Y and AO595Y were depicted as tolerant to basal heat stress. With regards to the growth chamber study, three stress indices, namely, HTI, heat susceptibility index (HSI) and tolerance (TOL) were used to determine inbred lines exhibiting acquired thermotolerance. Results obtained showed that EM88Y and KO315Y were tolerant, while HM48Y and CM321Y were semi-tolerant to acquired heat stress. Basal thermotolerance is useful prior to emergence, while acquired thermotolerance is effective after crop emergence. Combining these mechanisms of tolerance in single inbred lines is highly recommended.

5. Wasan H. Mazeil Al-Shammeryi* [Response of maize (Zea mays L.) plant to spraying with biostimulants (Armourbox), mannitol and soil fertilization with nano-K fertilizers]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 37-45 (2019). Department of Biology College of Science, Wasit University, Iraq *(e-mail wh_mg2000@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at one of the private fields in Azizia, Wasit province on 15th June 2016 to study the response of maize (Zea mays L.) plant when sprayed with bio-stimulants, mannitol and allowed to grow in soil treated with nano-fertilizer. The maize plant was sprayed with bio-stimulants of 0, 2 and 4 ml/l concentrations and mannitol at concentrations of 0, 10 and 20 Mm, whereas the soil was treated with nano-fertilizer at the concentrations of 0,1.5 and 3 mg/l. This was performed in order to study their individual and combinatorial (either two-way or three-way) effects on plant height, dry shoot weight, percentage of protein & carbohydrates in grains, average oil in grains and number of grains in yield. It was found that when using all the three elements individually too, increased the vegetative characteristics and the chemical content of the maize especially in high concentrations. The same results were obtained when there were two-way interactions too. However, there was no significant effect when there was three-way interaction except the dry weight of the shoot and the number of grains. In these two factors, the three-way interaction achieved significant effect in high concentrations of 19.553 g/plant and 439.33, respectively, compared with control treatment of 15.123 g/plant and 419.00, respectively. The treatments were designed as factorial experiment (3×3×3×3) in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays L.) plant when spraying bio-stimulants and mannitol and when allowed to grow in soil treated with nano-fertilizer.

6. A. M. MAFOKOANE, M. S. MPHOSI* AND K. G. SHADUNG [Effect of time-based oven-drying on the proximate composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 46-49 (2019). 1Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Agriculture in Africa currently stands at the crossroads of persistent food shortages compounded by food losses and climate change threats. Communities in several African countries are battling food security, as many are encountering huge number of food losses therefore the need for preservation cannot be emphasized. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time-based oven-drying on proximate chemical composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) leaves. A study was conducted at Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station laboratory with a constant oven-drying temperature of 52°C. Two separate experiments were conducted for raw and cooked cowpea leaves with four treatments viz., 0 (sun-dried), 24, 48 and 72 h of oven-drying arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Relative to control (sun-drying), 72 h oven-drying period significantly decreased protein, moisture, ash, fibre and carbohydrate by 10, 29, 18, 0.5 and 7% respectively. In contrast, relative to control, 72 h oven-drying period significantly increased energy and fat by 3 and 46%, respectively. Similarly, relative to control, 72 h oven-drying period decreased protein, moisture, energy, ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate by 8, 14, 1, 13, 19, 0.4 and 10%, respectively. Seventy-two hours of oven-drying period was observed to have detrimental effect on the proximate composition of both raw and cooked cowpea leaves, therefore, oven-drying period should be limited to 24 h during oven-drying of leafy vegetables.

7. A. M. MAFOKOANE, M. S. MPHOSI* AND K. G. SHADUNG [Effect of time-based oven-drying on the essential mineral elements of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 50-54 (2019). 1Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In rural areas of South Africa, different traditional processing methods such as cooking, sun-drying and appropriate storage are used predominantly to process leafy vegetables, however, these methods are casual due to levels of nutritional losses they cause as they increase prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies resulting in food insecurities. Therefore, these cause havoc in the rural populace. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time-based oven-drying on essential mineral elements of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] leaves. A study was conducted at Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station laboratory with a constant oven-drying temperature of 52°C. Two separate experiments were conducted for raw and cooked cowpea leaves with four treatments viz., 0 (sun-dried), 24, 48 and 72 h of oven-drying arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Forty-eight and 72 h oven-drying periods significantly decreased raw cowpea leaf Fe, K, Mn, Na, Zn, P and S content. Relative to control, 48 h oven-drying period decreased K, Mn and Na by 6, 9 and 13%, respectively. Similarly, 72 h oven-drying period significantly decreased Fe, Zn, P and S content by 11, 16, 18 and 57%, respectively, in raw cowpea leaves. In cooked cowpea leaves, the decrease was observed in Zn and S mineral elements by 16 and 39%, respectively. In contrast, 72 h significantly increased cooked cowpea leaf Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Na content by 8, 8, 3 and 14%, respectively.

8. Taklit Mennad*, Akrour Assia and Kaci Ferhat [Comparative study of the effect of preceding crop on the development of lentil yield under climatic condition of Algerian highlands]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 55-60 (2019). 1Génie Rural, Laboratoire De Mécanisation Agricole École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique (ENSA) El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria *(e-mail : m.taklit@st.ensa.dz)

ABSTRACT

Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is an important food legume crop with global production of almost 7 million tonnes. In Algeria, this crop did not tack a place of interest and the area reserved still reduced. Besides the abundant of biotic and abiotic stresses, this crop suffers substantial yield losses due to the lack of control of farming techniques. Moreover, the relative high production costs constitute another cause for the less-development of this culture in Algeria. In this context, the main objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate farming techniques of lentil crop in Algerian conditions. Since cereals are the main crop, we tested the effect of soft wheat and durum wheat; used as previous crop; on the development of Lent crop. Our results showed that grain yield rarely exceeded 1500 kg/ha, and that soft wheat is the best preceding crop compared to durum wheat. Moreover, the variety of lens Syria 229 had the best grain yield compared to Balkan and Metropolis. However, Metropolis variety had a higher yield in straw. Also, our investigations revealed that the production costs of 60.000,00 DZD/ha was very high and the low yield did not make a significant profit.

9. Abbas S. S. AL-Wotaify* [Study of some heavy metals pollution indicators for mineral configuration of soil and plant by wastes of Alexandria city-Babylon Governorate]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 61-69 (2019). Department of Soil and Water Resources College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Hillah 51001, Iraq *(e-mail : dr.abbassabr@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The research included the content study of some soils Alexandria and Al-Musayyib cities of As, Zn, Ni and Pb in Babylon Governorate that determined by GPS between Longitude 32°7781N and Latitude 44°2900E. It was carried out on all field and laboratory requirements on the samples to estimate the soil, sand and clay content of heavy metals by XRF. Ni occupied the highest values in soil samples (200.50-276.10 mg/kg), as well as in the sand and clay samples (18.43-31.16 and 97.15-134.47 mg/kg, respectively). While in Alfalfa plant, especially the dry matter content of the roots was zinc 25.08-45.13 mg/kg. The single Ni pollution index was also the highest 1.29-1.32 in soils, but in sand, As was the predominant 1.61-1.75, and Zn 1.36-1.54 in clay. In the same vein, potential ecological risk index was 1.36, 1.72 and 1.51 consecutively. While the comprehensively ecological risk index for As was predominant in soil pollution 12.30-14.10, as well as sand from 16.10 to 17.50 and clay from 10.10 to 13.90. Zn was the most common dry matter enrichment factor for leaves 1.76-1.82, for roots 1.60-1.81, and for biological concentration factor of 0.32-0.36 and 0.37-0.38, respectively. Clay contributed to pollution of soil, especially as 48.06-55.37% higher than sand 17.89-25.47%. On the contrary, the sand contributed to the contamination of the dry matter of the roots with Zn of the plant with Zn more than clay 153.40-189.91 and 65.67-77.26% consecutively. Depending on results of XRD curves and peaks intensity, the percentage of montmorillonite clay was 31.3% in contaminated soils higher than the soil of comparison (23.42%).

10. Messaoud Laib*, Zouhir Djerrou and M. M. Bentchikou [Some considerations of floral biology for the determination of pollinators in olive (Olea europeae L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 70-80 (2019). 1Department of Nature and Life Sciences Faculty of Sciences, University of August 20th 1955, Skikda, Algeria *(e-mail : m.laib@univ-skikda.dz)

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate pollinating cultivars of the main Algerian cultivars, particularly the most productive of the region and to know the floral biology of these cultivars. Eight autochthonous native olive cultivars studied were : Lokchiri, Lohmiri, Kharfi, Braouki, Derdouri, Chetoui, Blilti and Kerdoussi. From a phenological point of view, the development time of the floral pieces was less spread for the so-called late cultivars. Regarding flowering, it has been abundant for the majority of varieties. The duration of flowering was 23 days (spread over a period of 11 to 14 days on average) depending on the variety. The flowering periods of the eight cultivars coincided for a duration of 13 days. Cross-pollination between these cultivars was therefore possible. The study of the average number of flowers per inflorescence revealed a greater number in Lohmiri and Lokchiri cultivars and the lowest number in Blilti. The rate of abortion of the ovary was very high in Chetoui and Blilti varieties (63%). The rate of imperfect flowers seemed a rather varietal factor. The laboratory study showed that olive pollen had a low germination rate. However, Lohmiri pollen with 51.7% germination can be considered as having a good germinative capacity. For fruit set and maturation, it is generally noted that the rates resulting from open pollination are higher than those given by self-pollination and inter-pollination. However cross-pollination improved the fruiting rate of the different cultivars. The Lokchiri cultivar proved to be rather inconsistent, it therefore needed a pollinator. However, Blilté, Kerdoussi and Chetoui are partially self-incompatible and Lohmiri, Kharfi, Braouki and Derdouri auto compatible. Lohmiri was compatible with all other cultivars, its pollen improved the cross-pollination fructification rate of all cultivars relative to the control. In addition, the high germination rate of its pollen, the high growth rate of its pollen tubes and the concordance of its flowering time with that of other cultivars, make it an effective pollinator of the studied cultivars and particularly of Lokchiri and Kerdoussi.

11. DIVYASHREE SAIKIA*, UTPAL KOTOKY AND KAUSHIK DAS [Regulation of flowering in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Lucknow-49]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 81-87 (2019). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : divyashreesaikia94@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Plant growth hormones play a vital role in guava production and are used in the induction of flowering, help in fruit set, fruit thinning, fruit elongation, premature fruit drop prevention, fruiting buds development and inhibiting ripening process. These can also influence the size, appearance and quality parameters of fruits. By using plant hormones, an experiment was carried out in the Experimental Farm and Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2016-18 to regulate the flowering of guava in the rainy season and to increase more production and productivity of guava fruit in the winter season. A total of six treatments with four replications and two seasons (rainy and winter) were laid out in a randomized block design. The effect in foliar application of different concentrations of plant growth hormones of T1–Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA at 100 ppm), T2–Naphthalene acetamide (NAD at 40 ppm), T3–Naphthalene acetamide (NAD at 60 ppm), T4–Urea (2%), T5–Urea (5%) and T6–Urea (10%) at flowering stage in the month of April, 2017 helped in deblossoming of flowers, enhanced fruit size, weight, number of flowers and fruits, reduced fruit drop (76.43% in rainy season to 38.26%), decreased the days required for maturity (118 days) and increased the yield (20.73 kg/plant) in the winter season. The effect of NAD @ 60 ppm gave the best result in fulfilling all the physical parameters of the guava fruit in the winter season.

12. Aleksey L. Bakunov*, Nadezhda N. Dmitrieva, Aleksey V. Milekhin, Sergey L. Rubtsov and Sergey N. Shevchenko [Analysis of potato hybrids adaptability and stability under different agroclimatic conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 88-94 (2019). Samara Research Scientific Institute of Agriculture 446254, 41 K. Marksa Str., Bezenchuk vil., Samarskaya oblast, Russian Federation *(e-mail : ale171758@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to determine the parameters of adaptability and yield stability in potato hybrids under different agroclimatic conditions for the identification of the genotypes that were mostly adaptive to agroclimatic conditions of Samarskaya oblast. The analysis of genotype general adaptability and stability was performed for nine promising hybrids by the method of Kilchevskiy-Khotyleva. The authors identified the hybrids that had high parameter values. The hybrids 1600-6/6P and 4550-2 were characterized by maximal selection genotype value for yield performance and average tuber weight (ATW) due to the high stability of these features. The maximal selection genotype value for the number of tubers per plant was observed in 4550-4 hybrid. Hybrid 1600-6/6P was characterized by the optimal ratio of yield components and showed maximal selection value for general yield performance. The specified genotypes can be recommended for breeding of new potato hybrids with the highest adaptivity to agroecological conditions of Samarskaya oblast and Middle Volga Region.

13. Ali Ibadi Manea, Hussien Jawad Moharrm AL-Bayati and Duraid K. A. AL-Taey* [Impact of yeast extract, zinc sulphate and organic fertilizers spraying on potato growth and yield]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 95-100 (2019). 1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Al-Qasim Green, Al-Qasim Green University 964, Babylon, Iraq *(e-mail : duraidaltaey@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out at a private farm in proximity to the Faculty of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasam Green, Babylon, Iraq with an objective to evaluate the performance of manure, organic poultry residuals, dry yeast extract and zinc sulfate on growth and yield of potato. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot within a randomized complete block design keeping three poultry litter doses (0, 1.5 and 3 Mt/ha) as the main plot treatments and five dry yeast extract doses (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/l) and two zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) doses (200 and 400 mg/l) as the sub-plot treatments. The interaction of 3 Mt/ha poultry litter in combination with 8 g/l dry yeast produced the plants with the longest vines. The interaction of 1.5 Mt/ha poultry litter in combination with 4 g/l dry yeast extract produced the maximum stems, highest chlorophyll level, highest leaf area and most total and marketable tubers. Likewise, the interaction of 3 Mt/ha poultry litter in combination with 200 g/l ZnSO4 produced the heaviest tubers and maximum total and marketable yields. The interaction of 1.5 Mt/ha poultry litter in combination with 8 g/l dry yeast produced maximum percentage of dry matter and starch. The best response for higher total and marketable yields was recorded with the application of 3 Mt/ha poultry litter in combination with 200 g/l ZnSO4.

14. Abdel-Monnem Sadalaha Kahlel* and Fatimah I. Sultan [Response of four potato cultivars to soil application with organic and amino acid compounds]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 101-108 (2019). Plant Production Techniques Department Technical Agricultural College Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq *(e-mail : drmonnem@ntu.edu.iq; monnem_sadalaha@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A fie1d experiment was implemented at Vegetable field, Department of Plant Production, Agricultural Technical College, Mosul, Iraq during spring season of 2018 to study the response of four potato cultivars (Actrice, Arizona, Riviera and Universa) to four organic and amino acid compounds (Azomine 4 ml/l, Tecamin Max 3 ml/l, Delfan plus 3 ml/l and Humibest 4 g/l) as soil application. The experiment was subjected in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that the cultivar (Riviera) gave the highest shoot number, fresh and dry weight of plant, leaf area, total chlorophyll content, tuber number per plant, plant yield and total yield. Application of Azomin as amino acid compound increased dry weight of plant, leaf area, total chlorophyll content, tuber number per plant, average tuber weight, total yield, starch percentage, N and P content in tuber significantly than other amino acid compounds. On the other hand, the interaction treatments between cultivars and organic and amino acid compounds resulted in a significant effect in many studied parameters.

15. YAYAN SUMEKAR* [Weed diversity in carrot (Daucus carota L.) crop in Majalengka Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 109-115 (2019). Department Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, 45363, Indonesia *(e-mail : yayan.sumekar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are vegetable plants grown throughout the year, the role of carrot plants that are important in fulfilling community nutrition has long been known. People start consuming carrots after knowing some of the health benefits contained in carrots. But the productivity of carrots in Indonesia is still low, one of the factors that causes the low yield of carrots both in quality and quantity is a disturbance of weeds. So far, information about the types of important weeds that are present in carrot planting is not yet known, even though this information is very necessary to determine weed control measures more effectively and efficiently, so we need existing weed diversity maps. This research was conducted using the quadratic method. Two locations of carrot plant areas as samples scattered at different altitude or topographic conditions were randomly selected in each sub-district. At each location, the sample was weighed diagonally for each plot of carrot plant using the iron squares of size 0.5 m x 0.5 m. Field data were used to determine : weed species, weed density, weed frequency, weed domination, importance value, summed dominance ratio, weed dry weight and species diversity index. The results showed that weed species found in the center of carrot cultivation in Majalengka Regency had 21 species. There were 13 species of broadleaved weeds, 6 species of grass weeds and 2 species of weed sedges. Dominant weed species for each observation area were different, where the dominant weed for Sukadana Village, Argapura Subdistrict was Drymaria villosa, the dominant weed for Cikaracak Village, Argapura Subdistrict was Artemisia vulgaris, dominant weed for Cipulus Semplo Village, Cikijing Subdistrict was Ageratum conyzoides, and weed the dominant for Cipulus Ciinjuk Village, Cikijing Subdistrict was Ageratum conyzoides. The community coefficient value was 48.96% which meant that the study area in Argapura Subdistrict and in Cikjing Subdistrict did not have the same weed population.

16. Maher H. S. Al-Mohammad* and Duraid K. A. Al-Taey [Effect of tyrosine and sulfur on growth, yield and antioxidant compounds in arugula leaves and seeds]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 116-120 (2019). 1Department of Field Crops Agriculture College, Al-Qasim Green Univ., Hilla, Iraq *(e-mail : d.maher786@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the agricultural season of 2017-18 to study the effect of foliar application of tyrosine (Tyr) at concentrations 0, 100 and 200 mg/l, sulfur fertilization (S) at levels 0, 50 and 100 kg/ha and their interactions on growth, yield and antioxidant compounds of arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) leaves and seeds. The treatments were distributed on factorial experiment at randomized completely block design in three replicates. Means were compared according to the Least Significant Difference test (LSD) at probability level of 0.05. Results showed that a single effect of either Tyr or S had significant impact (P<0.05) when increased concentrations in all parameters, while treat Tyr200 × S100 was given high values in antioxidant compounds including ascorbic acid, tocopherol, -carotene, glucosinolate and glutathione to be 85.31, 6.28, 7.33, 40.22 and 12.06 mg/100 g FW in leaves and 66.51, 10.10, 4.27, 56.54 and 1.05 mg/100 g FW in seeds, respectively.

17. S. P. DUBE, D. MARAIS2, S. MAVENGAHAMA*, C. M. VAN JAARSVELD AND A. S. GERRANO [Variability in leaf mineral content of Corchorus accessions in South Africa]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 121-128 (2019). 1Agricultural Research Council–Vegetable and Ornamental Plants Private bag X 293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa *(e-mail : Sydney.Mavengahama@nwu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) are an underutilized source of minerals and vitamins in sub-South Africa. However, they could play a huge role in addressing household food insecurity and malnutrition. Corchorus is a highly nutritious but underutilized ILV, which is consumed by some rural communities in Africa. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate the nutritional composition and determine the genetic parameters of mineral nutrient traits of 11 Corchorus accessions for potential use in future crop improvement programme. The Corchorus genotypes were grown in a field experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications over two growing seasons at the Agricultural Research Council, in Roodeplaat, South Africa. Fresh leaves were collected just before flowering, washed in de-ionised water and air-dried before analysis. The mineral nutrients phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), boron (B), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were subjected to ANOVA, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Genetic parameters were determined for all the traits. The analysis of variance indicated the significant (P<0.05) variation in mineral nutrient content among the accessions. The study also revealed the presence of two singletons (AV006 and SA002), as well as the presence of additive genes for several mineral nutrients. The variation among the accessions was deemed sufficient enough to allow for use of the accessions in a breeding programme.

18. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Tran Thi Kieu Oanh, Nguyen Quoc Thong and Nguyen Thi Van Linh [Technical variables affecting the production of pickle winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 129-134 (2019). 1Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) is a promising source of oil and proteins. One way to utilize winged bean fruit is to process into pickle product. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different variables influencing the fermentation of winged bean such as concentration of CaCl2, temperature and time for blanching, sugar supplementation and effect of ratio Lactobacillus plantarum to the antioxidant of fermented winged bean. Results showed that winged bean should be blanched in hot water at 95oC in 20 sec with the present of 4.0% CaCl2. Moreover, the fermentation process for pickle winged bean had the best antioxidant by addition of 15% sugar, L. plantarum at ratio 3.0 x 108 cells/ml. Blanching and fermentation had significantly affected the antioxidant capacity and firmness of pickle winged bean. After 15th day of pickling, the antioxidant value of all winged beans was increased significantly. The pickle winged bean had a high content of antioxidant as well as firmness appropriated for daily consumption.

19. Tsewang Rinchen*, Narendra Singh, Samar Bhadur Maurya and Anil Kant [Mineral content estimation in Atriplex hortensis L., an indigenous vegetable of Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, India]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 135-140 (2019). 1Defence Institute of High Altitude Research-DRDO Leh-194 101, Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : tsewangchol@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed at estimating the mineral contents and elucidating nutritious importance of this traditionally grown vegetable, Atriplex hortensis L. from Ladakh region of India. Altogether 70 accessions of 14 populations (five individuals from each population) of A. hortensis L. were collected from different regions. The collected accessions (seeds) were sown in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications at research field of Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR, DRDO) during the cropping season of the year 2015-16. Plants were evaluated for mineral content by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Statistical analysis was carried out for analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) using SPSS ver 21.0 and XLSTAT, 2017. The results demonstrated a high level of variation in 13 estimated mineral elements including Ca, Mg, Zn, Na, K, S, B, Cu (P0.01) and Si (P0.05). Sulphur (S) was found to be the highest and ranged from 53.090±0.020 to 81.433±0.025 mg/g in the study samples, whereas selenium (Se) was present in very low concentration and ranged from 0.004±0.0001 to 0.089±0.003, respectively. The PCA suggested that Mg, Na, Zn, Si and Ca were highly correlated to the first component (27% of the variability); K, Cu and P to the second component (17% of the variability), and Al and S to the third component (15% of the variability). Altogether 59% of variability was accounted for the first three components (PCA) in the study. The study indicated that Trans-Himalayan vegetable, A. hortensis L. was rich in mineral content and hence had considerable nutritional value. This vegetable is naturally supported by the harsh climate of Ladakh region, therefore, could augment appreciably to the fresh ration requirements of troops and local population.

20. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* and Nguyen Hong Tham [Effect of blanching and drying on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of dried oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.)]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 141-149 (2019). 1Faculty of Food Technology-Biotechnology Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam *(e-mail : minhnp@donga.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) possesses important nutritional and medicinal values. It is important source for trace elements, vitamins and its nutritional source low caloric value. For long periods of conservation as well as improvement of the added value of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.), the traditionally used method for Pleurotus genus mushrooms is drying. A processing of dried oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) in respect of maintaining the total phenolic and antioxidant activity in maximum level was investigated. By examining on different variables of the blanching, drying; the highest phenolic and antioxidant activity inside the dried oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) could be achieved by blanching within 20 sec, at 95oC in the presence of calcium chloride 4%; size of oyster mushroom 2.0 cm; drying at 50oC by heat pump dryer until the final moisture content 10%. The dried oyster mushroom may be stable for 12 months in PET/AL/PE bag at 28oC without any deterioration. It could be consumed as functional food for daily intake.

21. Kishalayee Gogoi*, Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar and Pranab Talukdar [Correlation coefficient and path analysis in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 150-160 (2019). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : kishalayee@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2016-17 and 2017-18 to study the genetic diversity in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) genotypes. The experiment was laid out with 18 tuberose genotypes in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Observations were recorded for growth, flower and physiological characters. Correlation studies revealed that at genotypic level significant positive correlation of yield of florets per spike was observed with leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area index, rachis length, number of florets per spike, length of floret, diameter of spike, number of economic bulbs produced per bulb planted, bulb weight, bulb size, flower weight, vase life of spike, vase life of floret, moisture content, fresh weight of spike, duration of spike, duration of single flower, diameter of rachis and number of spikes per bulb. Path analysis revealed that fresh weight of spike showed the highest and positive direct effect on yield of florets per spike. Highest positive and indirect effect was observed in floret weight via duration of floret. So, these traits may be used as selection criteria for the improvement of yield of tuberose cultivars.

22. REBOUH N. Y.*, POLITYKO P. M., PAKINA E., PLUSHIKOV V. G., NOREZZINE A., GADZHIKURBANOV A., VVEDENSKIY V., DUKSI F. AND IGUER-OUADA M. [Impact of three integrated crop protection treatments on the varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Moscow area, Russia]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 161-168 (2019). 1Agrarian and Technological Institute Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Russia *(e-mail : n.rebouh@outlook.fr)

ABSTRACT

In Russia, winter wheat occupies a key important place in the grain production with a significant proportion in the whole agricultural system. However, wheat pests and diseases, particularly fungal diseases, induce high quantitative and qualitative losses causing critical damages with significant economic losses. The current study aimed at investigating the impact of three integrated crop protection treatments : basic, intensive and highly intensive. The treatments included : fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and growth regulators at different combinations and concentrations. Two winter wheat varieties and two winter wheat lines were studied : Moscovckaya 40 (V1), Nemchinovckaya 17 (V2), Line 708/12 (V3) and Line 3512/10 (V4). Yield performances and grain quality (measured through protein content) were determined according to the tested treatments. The infection rates were measured for snow mold, root rot disease, septoria, powdery mildew, fusarium and wheat leaf rust. The results showed that the highly intensive treatment was the most effective against fungal diseases with the most important values in terms of wheat yield and grain quality. The results were variety-dependent revealing the intrinsic genetic performances and the different patterns of resistance against diseases. The current results open real opportunities for a large-scale application of the tested treatments in different regions of Russia.

23. M. S. MPHOSI* [Effect of female sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) age at first mating on fecundity, fertility, longevity and egg laying pattern]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 169-173 (2019). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag x 1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mai : maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the reproductive behaviour of a pest species is beneficial to improving pest control strategies, particularly those based on perturbing reproduction, such as sex pheromone-based mating disruption. Following copulation, mated females of the different ages were individually transferred to separate 34 ml, clear plastic containers, with a 10% sugar solution absorbed onto a cotton wick. A 2 x 2 cm long blue felt cloth, dusted evenly with ca. 1 mg of H. annuus (variety RHA 274) pollen over its entire surface, was added to the container as an oviposition substrate. Mean fecundity, fertility and longevity were all analyzed by ANOVA. Data were checked for normality and homogeneity of variance; if non-normally distributed, data were transformed and checked again (arcsine or log). Age of female H. electellum at time of first mating significantly influenced lifetime fecundity (F=7.93, df = 4, 45, P<0.0001, ANOVA) and fertility (F=9.09, df =4, 45, P<0001). In general, younger females had greater fecundity and fertility than did older females. Thus, females that first mated at 1 day were significantly more fecund and had greater fertility than did females that first mated at 3 days or older.

24. Adnan A. Lahuf* Hameed A. Alfarttoosi, Taha M. AL-Sweedi and Jill E. Middlefell-Williams [Evaluation of an integration between the nanosized zinc oxide and two cultivars for the control of damping-off disease in sunflower crop]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 174-179 (2019). 1Department of Plant Protection Agriculture College, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq *(e-mail : adnan.lahuf@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Damping-off disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, leads to severe worldwide economic losses in many important crops. The current strategies to control this disease are inadequate. This study addresses the possibility of using ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and two cultivars of sunflower to be employed in control strategies. The ZnO NPs were significantly (P=0.01) more inhibitory to R. solani growth at high concentrations than lower treatments indicating a dose-dependent effect. This effect was found to be fungistatic when fungal inoculum was transferred to standard medium after challenging with the ZnO NPs. Additionally, the two cultivars of sunflower tested were found to be susceptible to pathogen R. solani showing a high percentage of damping-off incidence and severity of symptoms. Although, most treatments of ZnO nanoparticles applied did not significantly reduce the damping-off incidence, the disease severity was significantly reduced. This was particularly clear when the seedlings of the two sunflower cultivars were sprayed with ZnO NPs two days prior to planting the best suppression ranging from 100 to 53.12% in Euro flower cv. and from 95.31 to 54.68% in Flame cv. The reported findings in this study suggest that the application of the ZnO NPs together with current control approaches could improve the health of field grown sunflower crops and therefore the overall yield.

25. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Tran Hoang Phuong Trang, Nguyen Thi Thuy Trang and Long Giang Bach [Effect of different drying methods on antioxidant of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) nut]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 180-186 (2019). 1Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is an important new crop with divesified applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Sacha inchi oil has a very high content of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, which makes it comparable only to flaxseed oil. Sacha inchi oil has a very high content of tocopherols which consist predominately of gamma-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol. There was no any research mentioned to varify the change of antioxidant (tocopherol) during heat pump drying as well as storage. So, the objective of the present study was to identify the effect of temperature in heat pump drying, roasting condition, packaging and storage to antioxidant (tocopherol) in the dried sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) nut. Results demonstrated that drying temperature (30oC), roasting (120oC in 20 min), vaccum packing in laminated material (PET/AL/PE bag) and keeping in 4oC were recommended to maintain the tocopherol content in the final products for 12 months.

26. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* and Nguyen Hong Nga [Application of ultrasound to oil extraction from sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) kernel cake]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 187-194 (2019). 1Faculty of Food Technology-Biotechnology Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam *(e-mail : minhnp@donga.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil has a very high content of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which makes it comparable only to flaxseed oil. Sacha inchi oil has a very high content of tocopherols which consist predominately of gamma-tocopherol and delta-tocopherol. There was not much research mentioned to the application of ultrasound on oil extractrion from sacha inchi (P. volubilis L.) kernel cake. Therefore, objective of this study focused on the effects of sonication variables on the oil extraction yield, tocopherol and total phenolic content from sacha inchi (P. volubilis L.) kernel cake. The highest oil extraction recovery, tocopherol and total phenolic content were noted by sonication at frequency 37 kHz, power 30W/g in 3 min, with 30 min of additional extraction time. Ultrasound was used as an effective approach in assisted oil extraction from sacha inchi (P. volubilis L.) kernel cake. The sacha inchi oil was found to contain high amount of total phenolic compound, which can be potentially used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants in food industry.

27. N. MUTSHEKWA, M. S. MPHOSI* AND K. G. SHADUNG [Influence of time-based hot air-drying method on total polyphenols, total antioxidants and tannins of Jatropha zeyheri tea leaves]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 195-198 (2019). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Phenols in tea are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The pure catechins and phenolic acids found in tea are more powerful than the antioxidant vitamins C, E and ?-carotene in an in vitro lipoprotein oxidation model. The antioxidant properties have been shown to have a protective effect against several degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of time-based hot air-drying method on tea phenolic compounds. Fully developed green leaves of Jatropha zeyheri were sampled randomly at Zebediela (Khureng village in Limpopo Province, South Africa). Khureng village is characterized by semi-arid climate, with rainfall of less than 400 mm per annum. The area is predominately clay with bushveld vegetation. Samples were transported to Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station (LATS) laboratory for analysis. Four treatments, namely, 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, were arranged in completely randomized design (CRD), replicated five times. Total phenolic, total antioxidant capacity and tannin content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu, phosphate-molybdate and Vanillin-HCl method, respectively. Total phenolic, total antioxidant capacity and tannin content were significantly increased by 63, 82 and 152%, respectively, when subjected to different drying periods.

28. N. Mutshekwa*, M. S. Mphosi and K. G. Shadung [Effect of time-based hot air-drying method on mineral elements of Jatropha zeyheri tea]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 199-202 (2019). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X 1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : mutshekwan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Essential minerals and trace elements have well-characterized physiological functions within the body and must be supplied by the diet. The digestibility and hence absorption of micronutrients such as iron is believed to be improved upon heat processing; with the resultant softening of the food matrix, protein-bound iron is released, thus facilitating its absorption. Four treatments, namely, 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, were arranged in completely randomized design (CRD), replicated five times. About 0.1 g dried and ground sample was put into 50 ml conical tube and 40 ml 5% of HNO3 was added. Samples were incubated at 95°C for 60 min, cooled and filtered using Whatman filter paper 185 mm diameter. Mineral element concentrations were determined using multi-type Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and data analyses were done using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) General Linear Model procedure. Least Significant Difference (LSD) test was used to identify differences among the means at P<0.05. The study demonstrated that drying significantly increased Mg, K, P, S, Al, Co, Mn, Si and Zn content by 73, 46, 425, 743, 320, 700, 635, 469 and 567%, respectively, and decreased Na, Ca and Ni quantities by 100, 113 and 100%, respectively.

29. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Nguyen Hong Tham, Dang Thanh Son and Le Thi Them [Production of dried tea from Erythrineme orientalis]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 203-209 (2019). 1Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Natural products with antioxidant activity may be used for human consumption because of their safety. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of blanching, drying and preservation on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content of dried Erythrineme orientalis. By examining on different variables of the blanching, drying; the highest phenolic and antioxidant activity inside the dried E. orientalis could be achieved by blanching within 10 sec, at 95oC in the presence of citric acid 4%; size of E. orientalis 2.0 cm; drying at 50oC by heat pump dryer until the final moisture content 8%. The dried E. orientalis may be stable for 12 months in PET/AL/PE bag at 28oC without any deterioration. The study was of great importance to generate information about the blanching and drying process in preserving herb quality and bioactivity by avoiding the degradation of metabolites.

30. E. A. Bukenova, ZH. M. BaSsygaraYev, A. B. Akhmetova, N. A. Altybaeva, ZH. K. Zhunusbayeva and A. Ydyrys* [Development of the method of obtaining the endogenic biostimulator from wheat green spike glumes]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 210-214 (2019). 1Department of Chemistry and Biology I. Zhansugurov Zhetysu State University, 040000, Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : ydyrys.alibek@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a method of obtaining a highly active endogenous biostimulator from green spike glumes of wheat, which play an important role in regulation of donor- acceptor interactions, was considered. The obtained plant biostimulator performed protective functions in mitigating the cold effect as an unfavourable environmental factor. It was observed that the biostimulator obtained from green spike glumes of wheat could be used for vegetative propagation without separation of the plants from different ecological zones, agriculture and forestry.

31. SAEID ABU-ROMMAN* [Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of chloroplastic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase gene in Vicia sativa L.]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 215-222 (2019). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan *(e-mail : saeid.aburomman@bau.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

In plants, superoxide dismutases are a family of metalloenzymes responsible for catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide radicals. A full-length cDNA encoding Cu/Zn-SOD gene (VsCu/Zn-SOD) was isolated from Vicia sativa using RT-PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the full-length cDNA of VsCu/Zn-SOD was 796 bp, including a 609-bp ORF, a 56-bp 5 UTR and 131-bp 3 UTR. The ORF of VsCu/Zn-SOD encoded a protein of 202 amino acids with an isoelectric point of 5.94 and a predicted molecular weight of 20.55 kDa. The predicted protein was highly homologues to other Cu/Zn-SODs from legume plants and contained typical residues coordinating copper and zinc binding. The in silico analysis indicated that VsCu/Zn-SOD was targeted to the chloroplasts with a N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide indicating 47 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VsCu/Zn-SOD was evolutionary close to faba bean and pea Cu/Zn-SOD. The expression patterns of VsCu/Zn-SOD in different organs and under abiotic stresses were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VsCu/Zn-SOD was differentially expressed in different organs of V. sativa and the highest expression levels were recorded in leaves followed by stems. Compared to control plants, VsCu/Zn-SOD was up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses, suggesting a role in stress responses and tolerance.

32. Arshad Naji Alhasnawi* [Role of proline in plant stress tolerance : A mini review]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 223-229 (2019). Department of Biology College of Education for Pure Sciences Al Muthanna University, Al Muthanna, Samawah 66001, Iraq *(e-mail : arshad@mu.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

Abiotic stresses assess the main impendences or barriers to the improvement of agriculture. Subsequently, the efforts to improve stress-tolerant plants are of major importance in increasing crop productivity. In recent years, plant tissue culture techniques established in vitro have appeared as cost-effective tools and a practical method for the development of stress tolerance in plants. The relatively powerful tolerance of plant cultivar to salinity was also related to the capability of plants to accumulate increased levels of proline. The adjustment of the accumulation of proline was estimated in sodium-chloride-adapted versions of a salt-sensitive and a salt-tolerant plant, respectively, following sodium chloride shock, and defined a biotechnology technique for the enhancement of salt tolerance in crops.

33. MAJJIGA KOMALA*, M. KUMAR AND N. MEENAKSHI GANESAN [Combining ability effects for fibre quality traits in first and ratoon crops of cotton interspecific hybrids (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense)]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 230-235 (2019). Department of Cotton, Centre for Plant Breeding & Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : komalayadav89@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The combining ability effects were evaluated through line x tester analysis for the identification of best general combiners and specific combiners for fibre quality traits in 30 novel hybrids. The results revealed the presence of considerable genetic variation with respect to various fibre quality traits and significant differences for all the traits except elongation percentage and fibre fineness in both first and ratoon crops and indicated that the sca variances were higher than the gca variances for all the studied traits. The ratio of 2 gca/2 sca was less than one for all the traits indicating the preponderance of dominant gene action, which plays an important role in the exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Parents AFRICAN I-2 and SVPR 4, KC 3 and SURABHI were found to be good combiners for fibre length and elongation percentage. The parent SUVIN was good combiner for fibre fineness. The sca effects revealed the best specific combinations viz., (i) the hybrids KC 3 x TCB 209, SVPR 4 x CCB 36 and SVPR 4 x TCB 209 for fibre length; (ii) AFRICAN I-2 x DB 3 for uniformity ratio; (iii) COD 5-1-2 x DB 3, KC 3 x DB 3 and SURABHI x TCB 26 for fibre fineness.

34. MOHAMMAD FIRDAUS SUHAILI, FAIZAH METALI, RAHAYU SUKMARIA SUKRI AND HUSSEIN TAHA* [Allelopathic potential of invasive Acacia holosericea on germination and growth of selected paddy varieties]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 236-242 (2019). Environmental and Life Sciences Programme Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam Jalan Tungku Link BE1410, Brunei Darussalam *(e- mail : hussein.taha@ubd.edu.bn)

ABSTRACT

Several Acacia species have been shown to have allelopathic effects which could potentially affect crop production such as rice. This study aimed at evaluating the allelopathic potential of invasive A. holosericea on germination and growth of two Oryza sativa varieties in Brunei Darussalam i. e. Bario and Laila. The paddy seeds were treated for 12 days with the aqueous crude extract, obtained from either the brown leaf litter or fresh green leaves (phyllodes). Germination was not significantly affected except when 10 mg/ml of the green phyllode extract was used, which reduced the number of germinated Laila seeds by ~10%. The radicle length of germinated Bario seeds was significantly reduced when 5 mg/ml of either the brown or green phyllode extract was used. Interestingly, for Laila, a significant reduction in the radicle length was observed at 1 mg/ml of either extract, indicating Laila was potentially more sensitive than Bario. At 10 mg/ml, a ~80-90% reduction in the radicle length was observed for both the paddy varieties. The shoot of germinated seeds, which was significantly reduced only at higher extract concentrations, was less affected compared to the radicle. Similarly, Laila was potentially more sensitive than Bario, with up to ~40-50% shoot reduction but only ~30% reduction was observed in Bario. Consequently, this study showed that A. holosericea had allelopathic potential, which could have implications on agricultural and ecological management.

35. M. S. MOLEHA AND M. S. MPHOSI* [Influence of blend ratio composite flours of Mopani-Maize flour on mineral composition]. Res. on Crops 20 (1) : 243-247 (2019). 1Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Existence of a series of minerals not only can make different hormones, but also can regulate a standard heartbeat. Some macro- and micro-elements are found in the structure of teeth and bones, whereas most micro-elements play a vital role as a structural part in many enzymes. Macro-elements compared with micro-elements have a lot more considerable functions in nerve cells (transmission and signalling). This was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments. The treatments consisted of four blend formulations : Mopani Worm Powder-Maize (MWPM 9 : 1) blend, MWPM 4 : 1, MWPM 2 : 1, Maize (Control) and were replicated four times. They found that incorporation of Mopani Worm Powder into Mopani Worm-Maize Blended food product increased calcium, magnesium, sulphur, aluminium, cobalt, manganese, zinc and boron, while sodium, iron and molybdenum decreased. Incorporation of Mopani Worm Powder into Mopani Worm-Maize Blended food product increased animal protein that is rich in amino acids such as lysine absent in maize protein.

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