1. TAMER I. ABDEL-WAHAB, EMAN I. ABDEL-WAHAB, AHMED M. TAHA, MANAL M. ADEL* AND HANY M. HUSSEIN [Varietal response of soybean to applied irrigation water and insects incidence under different intercropping systems with maize]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S1-S25 (2019). 1Crop Intensification Research Department Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The present investigation was conducted at Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt during the two successive seasons 2016 and 2017 to evaluate water consumption and insect infestation of three soybean cultivars under different intercropping systems with maize to increase land usage and economic return. Nine treatments were the combinations between three intercropping systems (alternating ridges “2 maize: 2 soybean and 2 maize: 4 soybean”and mixed intercropping systems) and three soybean cultivars (Giza 22, Giza 35 and Crawford) in addition to sole plantings of both the crops. A split plot distribution in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Intercropping systems were randomly assigned to the main plots and soybean cultivars were allocated in sub-plots. Growing soybean cultivar Giza 22 with maize gave higher water consumptive use (WCU) in mixed intercropping system than the others. Conversely, intercropping soybean cultivar Crawford with maize had the lowest WCU in alternating ridges 2:4. Lower aphids infestation was observed on leaves of soybean cultivar Giza 22 in mixed intercropping system than the others. Lower whitefly infestation was recorded on leaves of cultivar Giza 35 in alternating ridges 2:4 than the others. Lower leaf miner fly infestation was obtained on soybean cultivar Giza 22 leaves in alternating ridges 2:4 than the others. Lower thrips infestation was obtained on leaves of soybean cultivar Giza 35 in alternating ridges 2:2 than the others. Mixed system had the highest most maize traits. Maize grain yield and its attributes were not affected by soybean cultivars or the interaction. Alternating ridges 2:4 had higher all soybean parameters than the others. Soybean cultivar Giza 22 had higher plant height, seed yields per plant and per ha, as well as harvest index than the other soybean cultivars. Growing cultivar Giza 22 in alternating ridges 2:4 had higher seed yields per plant and per ha than others. Higher land equivalent ratio (LER) and economic return were achieved by growing soybean Giza 22 with maize in mixed system than those of maize sole planting. Growing two rows of soybean cultivar Giza 22 in middle of maize beds achieved 1.11 and 1.21 ton of soybean seeds / ha and 8.38 and 8.94 ton of maize grains / ha in the first and second seasons, respectively. This treatment had the highest WCU (893 and 897 mm), LER (1.26 and 1.26) and net return (USD 1234 and 1391/ha), as well as the lowest number of aphids per soybean leaf (4.2 and 5.2) in the first and second seasons, respectively, compared with the other treatments.
2. SHERIF I. ABDEL-WAHAB*, EMAN I. ABDEL-WAHAB, AHMED M. TAHA, SAWSAN M. SAIED AND MAGDA H. NAROZ [Evaluation of intercropped soybean cultivars with corn for water consumption and soybean mosaic virus infection under different soybean plant densities]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S26-S46 (2019). 1Crop Intensification Research Department Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present investigation was carried out at Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt during the two successive seasons 2016 and 2017 to evaluate water consumption and soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infection of intercropped three soybean cultivars with maize under different soybean plant densities to increase land usage and economic return. The experiment included nine treatments which were the combinations of three soybean plant densities (two rows, three rows and four rows per ridge were expressed as 50, 75 and 100% of sole soybean plant density) and three soybean cultivars (Giza 21, Giza 82 and Giza 111) under intercropping system, as well as sole plantings of both the crops. A split plot distribution in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Soybean plant densities were randomly assigned to the main plots and soybean cultivars were allocated in sub-plots. With respect to WCU, increasing soybean plant density of soybean cultivar Giza 111 from 50 to 100% of sole planting increased WCU of the intercrops (100% maize + 100% soybean cultivar Giza 111). Conversely, decreasing soybean plant density of soybean cultivar Giza 21 from 100 to 50% of sole planting decreased WCU of the intercrops (100 % maize + 50% soybean cultivar Giza 21). With regard to SMV infection and transmission, leaves of soybean cultivars Giza 21 and Giza 111 had lower SMV infection and transmission by increasing soybean plant density from 50 to 100% of sole planting under intercropping system than the other treatments in both the seasons. Leaf storage proteins revealed variations among the tested soybean cultivars under different soybean plant densities in intercropping system. Soybean cultivar Giza 21 had presence of six protein bands (35, 75, 100, 135, 180 and 245 kDa) by increasing soybean plant density from 50 to 100% of sole planting under intercropping system. Meanwhile, soybean cultivar Giza 82 was susceptible cultivar to SMV infection and transmission by increasing soybean plant density from 50 to 100% of sole planting under intercropping system. Soybean cultivar Giza 111 had one protein band was newly formed by increasing soybean plant density from 50 to 100% of sole planting under intercropping system. With respect to maize crop, All the studied maize traits were not affected significantly by soybean plant densities, soybean cultivars or the interaction. With respect to soybean crop, Most of the studied soybean parameters were significantly affected by soybean plant densities in both the seasons. Soybean cultivar Giza 111 had lower light intensity at middle and bottom of the plant than the others in both the seasons. Increasing soybean plant density of cultivar Giza 111 from 50 to 100% of sole planting had lower light intensity at middle of plant and higher seed yield per ha than the others under intercropping system in both the seasons. With regard to land equivalent ratio (LER) and economic return, the highest LER and economic return were achieved by increasing soybean plant density of cultivar Giza 111 from 50% to 100%.
3. Abd El-Alim A. Metwally*, Sayed A. Safina, Tamer I. Abdel-Wahab and Sherif I. Abdel-Wahab [Growing of twenty soybean genotypes in solid and intercropping systems with corn]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S47-S57 (2019). 1Agronomy Department Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt *(e-mail :email@example.com)
A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt during 2016 and 2017 seasons to evaluate productivity of American, Chinese and Egyptian soybean genotypes under intercropping and solid plantings to achieve high land usage and net returns. Twenty soybean genotypes were grown under solid and intercropping plantings. Two intercropping systems were used in this study, the first system was two corn ridges (70 cm width) alternating with another two of soybean (2 : 2), meanwhile the other system was mixed intercropping system by growing two rows of soybean in both the sides of the ridge (140 cm width) with growing one row of corn in middle of the ridge. A split plot distribution in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Cropping systems (intercropping systems and solid) were randomly assigned to the main plots and soybean genotypes were allocated in sub-plots. Intercropping systems caused significant reductions in seed yields per plant and per ha compared with soybean solid planting. There were not significant differences between intercropping systems for each of seed yields per plant and per ha, as well as relative yield (RY) of soybean. Over cropping systems, Egyptian variety Giza 111, and American varieties Crawford and Woodworth Black, as well as Chinese genotype C 24 recorded higher seed yield per plant and per ha. Egyptian variety Giza 111 gave the highest seed yields per plant and per ha. Growing two corn ridges alternating with another two of American variety Woodworth Black recorded the highest LER, soybean income, total return and MAI followed by Chinese genotypes C 24. Growing American variety Crawford or Egyptian variety Giza 111 in mixed system gave the highest LER, soybean income, total income and MAI.
4. BAYAN HAMZA MAJEED, MOHAMMED MAHMOOD MOHAMMED* AND AHMED H. ALMASHHADANY [Influence of foliar application of ascorbic acid and atonik on growth and yield of potato]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S58-S60 (2019). Department of Horticulture College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
An experiment was carried out at College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq during the spring season of 2019 to investigate the effects of foliar application of ascorbic acid at three concentrations C1 (0 ppm), C2 (250 ppm) and C3 (500 ppm) along with three levels of the synthetic bio-stimulant atonik A1 (0 ml/l), A2 (0.5 ml/l) and A3 (1 ml/l) on growth and productivity of potato var. Arizona. The experiment was applied according to randomized complete block design (RCBD). The results showed that treatment A2C2 was superior in plant yield, tuber weight, chlorophyll P% and K% (1.12 kg, 154.50 g, 178.20 mg/100 g fw, 0.70 and 3.28%, respectively). While the characteristics like tuber number per plant, plant height, wet weight and dry weight were high in A1C0 (11.17, 71.70 cm, 405.00 g and 62.00 g, respectively). While the treatments A0C0, A0C1, A1C2, A2C0 and A2C1 had higher values to branch number (3.67), N% (2.13), leaf area (46.00 dcm²), secondary branches number (3.67) and leaf number (14.00), respectively.
5. DOAA M. MOSTAFA* AND ABEER I. SHABANA [Impact of phosphorus solubilizing microorganisms under different chemical sources of phosphorus and calcium on growth, yield and injury of blossom-end rot in tomato in high alkaline clay soil conditions]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S61-S72 (2019). Vegetable Research Department Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Two experimental trials were carried out in Kafr El-Sheik Governorate in clay soil condition during the winter seasons of 2018 and 2019 to study the effect of phosphorus solubilizing microorganisms (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Trichoderma harzianum) with different forms of chemical compounds (P and Ca) on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Castle Rock and their interaction on vegetative growth characters, yield and yield components, fruit quality and leaf chemical constituents. Increased performance in vegetative growth parameters, lesser blossom-end rot (%), high calcium and N content in fruit tissues and also higher Ca contents in leaves with application of Ca-chelate combined with Egyptian Rock Phosphate (ERP) or calcium superphosphate was observed along with application of B. megaterium var. phosphaticum addition followed by T. harzianum.
6. ROKAYYA SAMI* AND EBTIHAL KHOJAH [Evaluation of physical properties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) pods with different structural characteristics]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S73-S78 (2019). 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition Taif University, Taif, Al-huwayah, 888, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The physical properties of the four samples of okra pods from Suez (S), Kafer Elsheigh (K), Mansoura (M), Dakahlia (D) were presented. However, there are no detailed studies concerning the physical dried okra fruit. Geometric properties, gravimetric properties and frictional properties were determined at 86.69% (S), 84.67% (K), 87.65% (M) and 85.83% (D) moisture content. For gravimetric properties, the values of mass, one thousand okra pods mass, true, bulk densities, porosity and density ratio of four okra pod varieties were established between 0.40-0.53 g, 294.72-502.94 g, 359.88-392.50 kg/m3, 266.76-301.90 kg/m3, 70.20-84.69% and 15.31-29.80%, respectively. For frictional properties, the values of coefficients of statistic and kinetic friction on 10 structural surfaces and angle of repose were established in between 29.18-44.88, 0.46-0.77 and 22.29-37.77 degree, respectively. These properties are necessary for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, cleaning, sorting, sizing, separating and packing.
7. MARWAH TH. ALNUAIMI*, NOOR T. HAMDAN, ESAM ABDALRAHEEM AND ZAHRAA ZAHRAW ALJANABI [Biodegradation of malathion pesticide by silver bio-nanoparticles of Bacillus licheniformis extracts]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S79-S84 (2019). 1Ministry of Science & Technology Directorate of Environment and Water, Baghdad, Iraq *(e-mail : Drmarwa520@gmail.com)
This study investigated the silver nanoparticles synthesis by biological method using Bacillus licheniformis extracts was successfully applied for the determination of quantitative biodegradation of malathion pesticide, which found in diverse water samples. Structural and morphological analysis of silver bio nanoparticles studied following Zeta potential, AFM, FTIR and HPLC analysis. The silver bio nanoparticles were stable in zeta potential which recorded of -32.22mV. The size and diameter of the nanoparticles were evaluated in average 144nm as displayed via Atomic Force Microscope. The Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was conducted to determine the various functional groups in the silver bio nanoparticles. The biodegradation of malathion by using silver bio nanoparticles was determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques, which began during seven days. We consider that this strategy has technological potential in the biodegradation of malathion pesticide contaminated water through green biosynthesis.
8. NERMEEN MAHMOUD*, A. M. IBRAHIM, M. WILLSON, M. MAHMOUD, MONA A. HUSSEIN AND S. M. MOUSSA [Molecular identification of parasitic nematode and its pathogenicity against three species of land gastropods]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S85-S90 (2019). 1Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Terrestrial gastropods are economic pests of horticultural crops, vegetables and nurseries in Egypt. Biological control using slug parasitic nematodes is one of the alternatives of chemical control to avoid the hazards of pesticides. This paper describes the finding of a new species of nematode parasite in Limax flavus slug in Egypt. It was identified as Rhabdetella axei using molecular (18s r DNA sequencing) technique, however, its nucleotide sequencing exhibited 97.7% homology with this species of nematode. Pathogenicity of these nematodes was tested against three species of land gastropods, two species of land snails, Monacha cartusiana and Eobania vermiculata, and one species of land slug, L. flavus. Results revealed that nematode gave highly significant effect against M. cartusiana snail, whereas higher concentration of nematodes (12000 IJ/3 ml) caused mortality rate reaching 80% after seven days of treatment, but there was no effect on other two species of land gastropods, E. vermiculata and L. flavus. Also, the results investigated that R. axei can live a dual life (free living life and parasitic life) i. e. they could be pathogenic only adult species of small size gastropods like M. cartusiana snail (parasitic life) and they can live necromenically on large size species of land gastropods. Finally, it can be concluded that the nematode R. axei can be used in integrated pest management as a biological control agent against M. cartusiana land snail species.
9. Mohamed M. Lamlom, Tamer I. Abdel-Wahab*, Sherif I. Abdel-Wahab and Mohamed A. A. Ibrahim [Crop diversity in Egyptian cotton for nematodes management]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S91-S104 (2019). 1Crop Intensification Research Department Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Choice of suitable cropping system for managing plant-parasitic nematodes in cotton production should be encouraged. A two-year study was carried out at Sids Agricultural Research Station, Beni Sweif Government, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt during 2015-16 and 2016-17 seasons to reduce nematodes in Egyptian cotton fields and increase seed cotton yield with good fiber quality. The treatments were the combinations between four winter cropping systems (double cropping systems of Egyptian clover and cotton, relay intercropping cotton with faba bean, onion and wheat) and three summer cropping systems (sole cotton, intercropping cowpea and sesame with cotton). The treatments were compared under split plot design replicated thrice. Four winter cropping systems were randomly assigned to the main plots, while three summer cropping systems were allocated in sub-plots. The results showed that roots of Egyptian clover and faba bean secreted biologically active chemical compounds which improved seed cotton yield and fiber quality. Onion+cotton decreased nematode assemblages in rhizosphere of cotton roots which reflected positively on the studied cotton traits, meanwhile the reverse was true for wheat+cotton. The summer crops affected significantly seed cotton yield and fiber quality. Cowpea+cotton improved cotton fiber quality than sole cotton, meanwhile cotton+sesame had the opposite trend. The interaction between winter and summer cropping systems was significant for seed cotton yield per plant in the first season only. Therefore, onion+cotton/cotton+sesame reduced nematode assemblages in rhizoshpere of cotton roots and increased seed cotton yield with good fiber quality than conventional cropping system (Egyptian clover/cotton).
10. NESRINE H. YOUSSEF* [Comparison between certain chitosan wraps and cellophane wraps on fungal inhibition and mycotoxins migration]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S105-S112 (2019). Microbiology and Mycotoxins Labs Regional Center for Food and Feed (RCFF) Agriculture Researches Center, Alexandria, Egypt *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Food packaging as a fundamental part of the food technology process is involved with protection and preservation of all types of food. Cellophane wrap as food packaging material covered large industrial applications, Unfortunately, cellophane usage is not safe or healthy for food packaging process. Our study aimed to examine the role of cellophane in mycotoxins migration to packaged food in comparison with the chitosan composited wrap. Our target also is to investigate the effect of sesame seeds essential oils in inhibiting the mycotoxin’s migration to packaged food. Our results illustrated that chitosan composited wrap (ch.c.w) with or without addition of sesame seeds essential oils was the best treatment in reducing the growth of both tested fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger) followed by the fortified cellophane wrap in case of A. niger only. Whereas the two tested fortified wraps were more effective in reducing aflatoxin B1 than ochratoxin A.
11. REZAN O. R., MUQDAD ALTAE* AND AKEEL H. A. AL-ASSIE [Molecular assessment of environmental risk of pollution in plants from cement factory]. Res. on Crops 20 (Issue Suppl) : S113-S123 (2019). 1Biology Department College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Iraq *(e-mail : Muqdadaltae@yahoo.com)
This study aimed at determining the genotoxic effects of different environmental pollutants in Bazian cement factory in Bazian district, Iraq. Three species of plants viz., Platycladus orientalis, Eucalyptus spp. and Melia azedarach were studied. These plants were collected from areas in and near the cement factory, while the control of this study was one collected from area far from the pollution sources. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for estimation of the pollution status of some heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Cu and Zn). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed new bands and/or disappearing of normal bands in comparison with control samples. In this study, the mean of heavy metal concentrations for all species of plants was below 100 mg/kg and resembled sample results of control. Statistical results for heavy metals in plant leaves indicated significant differences only among sites for most metals. The lowest was level of Genomic Template Stability (GTS) ratios which are related to CCR samples followed by Gate3 and Out. This is in agreement with distances from main stack, respectively, and might have led to a high level of genotoxic effect on three plants’ species (68.36, 69.38 and 89.79%; 79.2, 83.16 and 89.1% and 79.12, 87.91 and 99.94), respectively. Different primers (25) were examined. Twenty primers only resulted in reproducible and clear bands. The current study showed that the samples of the selected plants were suitable for the detection of genetic toxicity. The RAPD technique used was suitable for the study of genetic toxicity. The use of plants, which are indicated as biomarker indicator in the early detection of genetic toxicity factors, was highly sensitive in assessing the effect of air pollution.