Volume 19, No. 4 (December, 2018)

By | January 17, 2019

1. Saule Atabayeva*, A. Nurmahanova, G. Yernazarova, S. Asrandina, R. Alybayeva, N. Ablaikhanova, S. Turasheva, B. Tynybekov and Lui Fei [Effect of cadmium on mineral composition of rice grain]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 569-575 (2018). Doctor of Biological Sciences, PhD, Professor Department of Biotechnology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University Research Institute of Ecology Problems, Al-Farabi avenue 71, 050040, Almaty, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : sauleatabayeva@yandex.kz)

ABSTRACT

The use of phosphate fertilizers plays a significant role in cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the soil. In this regards the purpose of our work was to study the effect of Cd on content of mineral elements in the grain of rice varieties. Plants were grown in pots filled with soil, containing 2 mmol/kg of CdSO4. Cadmium was not found in rice grain. The content of mineral elements in grain of rice varieties is decreased in the following order (% of control) : Mg–Bakanaskyi (98) > Madina (93) > Chapsari (86%) > Barakat (84); Mn–Bakanaskyi (85) > Chapsari (72) > Madina (71) > Barakat (64); Fe– Madina (89) > Bakanaskyi (72) > Chapsari (57) > Barakat (48); Zn–Madina (93) > Bakanaskyi (87) = Chapsari (87) > Barakat (85); Cu–Chapsari (90) > Bakanaskyi (89) > Madina (83) > Barakat (73). Cadmium decreased the content of necessary mineral elements in rice grain. Content of Mg and Mn decreased in the least degree in Bakanaskyi cv; Fe and Zn content – in Madina variety; Cu content – in Chapsari cv. Under cadmium stress content of mineral elements decreased in the greatest degree in Barakat and Chapsari cvs.

2. ABDULMUEEN SHABEEB HAMAD AL-MAFRAJY* [The efficacy of some weed killers for the control of weeds associated with two kinds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 576-579 (2018). Department of Industrial and Medicinal Crops College of Agriculture, Al-Hawija, Karkuk University, Iraq *(e-mail : almhands201371@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This survey was conducted during 2015-16 in the Tuz area i. e. far away about 110-120 kilometers from the Salah al-Din Province of Iraq. Using herbicide in strategic way will be effective from an agronomic view point to contain weeds. The purpose of the study was to notice out the effects of different types of herbicides on weed management and growth and grant components of two cultivars of wheat. The treatments included in the study were three herbicides (Atlanti WG @ 400 g/ha, chevalier @ 400 g/ha and mixture of Topeka 800 cm3/ha+Lintur WG 70% @ 120 g/ha) and two cultivars of wheat (Abu-Ghraib and Ebaa99). The randomized complete block design was used in this study with three replications. The results showed that the full number of weeds significantly reduced with all discussions of weed killers, thus reduced competition of weeds with the crop. The wheat cultivar Ebaa99 produced a significantly higher number of tillers per plant (13.42) and grain yield (675.85 kg/ha) comparisons to cultivate Abu-Ghraib. Either herbicides effect was positive, all towards the weeds associated as ratio control for herbicides; Atlantis and mixture (Topik+Lintur) and Chevalier 93.6, 98.2 and 98.5%, respectively, either in properties of the tiller number per plant and the number of grains per spike and grain yield did not differ significantly from free weed treatment either overlap recorded Ebaa 99 parents and all pesticides product was superior to Abu Ghraib for most of the qualities and special quotient.

3. Sabreen Hazim A. Alrubaiee, Taha Yaseen Al-Edany and Ali Husain Jasim* [Response of two oat varieties to spraying of ascorbic and salicylic acids and their interactions with silicon]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 580-586 (2018). Field Crops Department Faculty of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq *(e-mail : ajasim11@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2016-17 and 2017-18 seasons in Al-Bida’a/Mashrua/Babylon Governorate within 32º31 north latitude and 44°21 east longitude to study the effect of silicon (0.5 and 1.0 mM in addition to control treatment which was called C1, C2 and C3, respectively) and four treatments of antioxidants [control (B1), ascorbic acid (B2) at 50 mg/l, salicylic acid (B3) at 0.5 mM and ascorbic+salicylic (B4)] on growth of two oat varieties [Shafaa (A1) and oat 11(A2)]. The spraying was done twice at tillering and elongation stages. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) in arrangement of split-split plot design with three replications was used. Seeds were planted in lines 20 cm apart with a seed rate of 100 kg/ha. The results showed that Oat 11 variety was superior in plant height for both the seasons (109.0 and 106.6 cm), while Shafaa variety was superior in flag leaf area, tillers per m2 and relative growth rate (28.23 and 33.36 cm2, 536.8 and 531.7 tillers, 29.78 and 32.02 g/m2/day). Spraying salicylic acid was superior in flag leaf area (28.17 and 33.18 cm2), tillers number per m2 (506.4 and 508.9) and relative growth rate (28.14 and 31.10 g/m2/day). Silicon spraying treatment at 1 mM was superior in flag leaf area (27.00 and 30.78 cm2), tillers number per m2 (502.7 and 499.7) and relative growth rate (27.06 and 30.73 g/m2/day). The interactions between the factors caused a significant effect on all studied traits.

4. P. MANDALE*, B. L. LAKARIA, S. B. AHER, A. B. SINGH AND S. C. GUPTA [Potassium concentration, uptake and partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars grown in organic agriculture]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 587-592 (2018). RAK College of Agriculture Sehore-466 001 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : poonammandale44@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted to study the potassium concentration, uptake and partitioning in different parts of 12 different maize cultivars at various growth stages. The 12 varieties of maize viz., Kanchan, Arawali, Sona-222, JM-8, JM-12, JM-216, Pratap-5, Pratap-6, Proagro-4412, CPGB-4202, Popcorn-1 and Sweetcorn were grown in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications under organic agriculture. The results showed that the concentration of K declined with crop growth in all cultivars under study. Total K uptake by leaves and stalks in different cultivars was lowest at 45 DAS and increased at 75 DAS and did not vary considerably at harvest. Among the different cultivars, Proagro-4412 and Kanchan removed maximum K. The K partitioning indicated 25, 56 and 19% of total K uptake which was concentrated in leaves, stalk and grain, respectively.

5. Osama Qasim Abd Ulameer* and Shatha Abd Al-Hassan Ahmed [Anti-transpirant role in improving the morphological growth traits of maize plants subjected to water stress]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 593-603 (2018). Department of Field Crops Sciences College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq *(e-mail : osama.hash@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out to study the role of anti-transpiration treatments in some growth and dry matter traits of maize crop growing under the water stress conditions during the two autumn seasons of 2016 and 2017. The randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plots order was used in the study, which included three levels of water stress : depleting 50, 60 and 70% of the available water symbolized by I1, I2and I3, and equivalent to 580, 420 and 340 mm/season, respectively, where water stress represented the main factor, while the second factor was represented by the anti-transpiration treatments : Salicylic acid at 200 mg/l, Vapour Gard at 15 ml/l, Kaolin clay at 200 mg/l and Leaf sil at 15 ml/l referred to by the symbols S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively, in addition to the control treatment S0 (without spraying). The results showed no significant differences between the two treatments of depleting 50% of the available water and depleting 60% of the water in the traits of number of days to tasseling, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, plant dry matter, and crop growth rate, indicating the possibility of providing the water amount up to 1600 m3/ha in both the seasons. The plants treated by depleting 50% of the available water gave the highest average of plant height compared to the other treatments, whereas the treatment of depleting 70% of the available water gave the lowest averages of all studied traits. Spraying anti-transpiration agents increased the studied growth traits under the water stress conditions. The treatments of spraying salicylic acid, kaolin and vapour guard gave significant variations in comparison with the control treatment (without spraying).

6. Ali H. Jasim* and Mohammed B. Hannun Al Saeedi [Effect of planting dates and additional nitrogen fertilizer on some yield traits of sweet corn]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 604-608 (2018). 1Faculty of Agriculture Al-Qassem Green University, Iraq *(e-mail : ajasim11@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Factorial experiment was carried out in two sites (north of Dhi Qar Governorate) in Al-Dawaya and Al-Shatra, 45 km for each other in summer season (2017) to study the response of sweet corn (which was planted in first time in south of Iraq) to three planting dates (1/8, 15/8 and 1/9) and four treatments of additional (40 kg/ha) N fertilizer (without N, all at 8 or 12 leaf stage and separated at 8+12 leaf stages). Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replications. The results could be summarized as follows : Planting dates caused a significant effect on sweet corn yield components and (15 August) showed the highest values of ear rows number (11.90 and 13.58), row grains number (31.05 and 31.58), ear grains number (367.3 and 421.2), grain yield (6,317 and 6,047 t/ha) in both the sites, respectively, compared to 1 August. Additional N fertilization caused significant effect on yield traits and the separated treatment (8 and 12) gave the highest ear rows number (13.40 and 12.03), row grains number (31.28 and 31.83), ear grains number (430.6 and 374.8) and grain yield (6.269 and 5.989 t/ha) for both the sites, respectively, compared to control treatment (without additional N fertilization).

7. SE JI JANG AND YONG IN KUK* [Effects of malic acid on paraquat and environmental stresses in maize]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 609-615 (2018). Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various organic acids on the reduction of paraquat activity in maize. The authors studied the level of leaf injury in maize when exposed to other stressors such as drought, low temperature and oxyfluorfen. At 1, 2 and 3 days after a 100 µM paraquat treatment, 69-73% of maize plants showed leaf injuries. However, 27-40% of maize plants showed leaf injury when first treated with malic acid at a 0.5% concentration and then, 24 h later, with a 100 µM paraquat treatment. In other studies, paraquat treatments were applied first, and then followed by malic acid treatments. The authors applied a 100 µM paraquat treatment and then, 24 h later, applied a 0.5% concentration of malic acid. In these cases, leaf injuries were not significantly different. In our studies using other organic acids, our control seedlings were treated exclusively with 100 µM of paraquat. Compared with our control, leaf injuries were reduced by 15% in response to a 0.5% concentration of tartanic acid followed by a 100 µM paraquat treatment. They also observed a 26% reduction of leaf injuries when a 0.5% concentration of citric acid was followed by a 100 µM paraquat treatment. A greater reduction was observed in leaf injuries when organic acids (0.5% concentrations) were applied at the same time as paraquat. Compared to the control, leaf injuries were reduced by 35% after a tartanic acid-PA treatment, 56% after an oxalic acid-PA treatment and 61% after a citric acid-PA treatment. Malic acid did not alter the activity of oxyfluorfen. This may be due to the fact that oxyfluorfen had a different mode of action than paraquat. Pre-treatment using malic acid did not reduce damage caused by cold and drought stress. In conclusion, it was found that the order in which malic acid and paraquat were applied produced different leaf injury reduction rates. Leaf injury was most effectively reduced when malic acid was either applied before paraquat or at the same time. In cases where malic acid was applied after paraquat, there was no significant reduction in leaf injury.

8. E. T. Sebetha*, A. Mfanta and R. Adebayo [Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer sources, cultivar and soil type on growth performance of soybean]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 616-621 (2018). Food Security and Safety Niche Area Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag x 2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa *(e-mail : Erick.Sebetha@nwu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of phosphorus fertilizer source, soil type, cultivar and season on the growth of soybean plant. The 3 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment fitted in a complete randomized design was conducted during spring and autumn seasons. The experiment comprised three sources of phosphorus fertilizer which were control, single superphosphate and organic phosphate. The two soil types used were sand clay loam and loam sand soil. The two cultivars used in this study were DM 4670RR and DM 5953RSF. Measured parameters were plant height, number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content, fresh shoot mass and root length. Soil type had significant effect (P0.05) on number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content index, fresh shoot mass and root length. Soybean planted in sand clay loam had significantly higher leaf number, chlorophyll content, shoot mass and root length than soybean planted in loam sand soil. Interaction of phosphorus source x cultivar x planting season had significant effect (P0.05) on soybean plant height, number of leaves per plant and fresh shoot mass. In this study, the growth performance of soybean depended on soil type.

9. Yousef Naserzadeh*, Davoud Kartoolinejad, Niloufar Mahmoudi, Meisam Zargar, Elena Pakina, Mohamad Heydari, Tamara Astarkhanova and Nyasha John Kavhiza [Nine strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida : Effects on growth indices, seed and yield production of Carthamus tinctorius L.]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 622-632 (2018). Department of AgroBiotechnology Agrarian Technological Institute, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : unaserzadeh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of growth promoting bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. on the yield production and some of the vegetative growth traits of the medicinal plant, Carthamus tinctorius variety IL111, an experiment was carried out on the Research Farm of Ilam University. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. The treatments included the inoculation of seeds with strains 36, 99, 169 and 187 of Pseudomonas fluorescens as well as strains 168, 177, 159, 11 and 41 of Pseudomonas putida bacteria along with the non-inoculated treatment (control). In every experimental plot with 18 m² area, the inoculated seeds with bacteria were planted in six with an intra-row spacing of 15 cm. The results indicated that from 16 measured traits respecting the vegetative and yield production traits in the safflower plant, seven traits were affected by the treatment of bacteria which included stem diameter, number of primary branches in plants, index of leaf area, plant dry biomass, crop growth rate, seed oil percentage and the weight of 1000 seeds. These traits were superior in the plants inoculated with PGPR bacteria. The efficiency of P. putida bacteria was superior to P. fluorescens and the control. Totally the strains 177 and 11 of P. putida had the best vegetative and yield production in terms of the mentioned traits in safflower plant. The application of biological fertilizers (growth promoting bacteria) demonstrated ability to improve the growth characteristics of this plant.

10. Adnan Hussein Al-Wagaa*, Ibraheem Ahmed Hadi Al-Obadui, Hameed A. K. Alfarttoosi and Nabil R. Lahmod [Effect of different doses of glyphosate applied through rope-wick applicator for the control of Sorghum halepense L. growing in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 633-642 (2018). Department of Field Crops Science College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq *(e-mail : adnan_alwakaa2003@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out in Diyala province/Al-Muqdadiya district during growing season of 2016-17. The aim of the present study was to control Sorghum halepense L. growth in newly planted pomegranate orchards by using glyphosate and two application methods–first by knapsack spryer in rate (4.8 kg a. i./ha) and the second use of rope-wick wiper technique in different rates (1 l herbicide diluted with water from 1-6 l) parts of herbicide to water (h : w) treatments. The experiment was set out as factorial design in randomized complete block design (CRBD) with three replicates. Total eight treatments of glyphosate were used in this study. In the first control treatment (C1), only water without glyphosate. The second treatment (C2) contained 1 litre glyphosate in 1 litre of water. The third treatment (C3) contained 1 litre glyphosate in 2 litres of water. Likewise, C4, C5, C6 and C7 treatments contained 1 litre glyphosate in 3, 4, 5 and 6 litres of water, respectively. In eighth treatment (C8), herbicide glyphosate @ 4.8 kg a. i./ha was sprayed with a knap sack pressure sprayer. The results showed superiority treatment C2 1 : 1 (h : w) gave high degree killing up (7.69), degrees (in a scale of 1 to 10) and treatment C2 1 : 1 (h : w) and C3 1 : 2 (h : w) gave average less effect in percentage of regrowth got 6.44 and 6.88, respectively, and gave time periods 90 and 120 days after control high degree killing up 8.07 and 8.34 and reduced average percentage of regrowth after control 120 and 360 days got to 6.45 and 6.78, respectively, and method application rope-wick wiping gave less effect in tree pomegranate compared with sprayer. Moreover, the efficacy of glyphosate in weed continued until 360 days after control. The treatment C4 1 : 3 (h : w) gave significantly less plant height (35.66 cm) and rhizome (37.33 cm). Significantly less foliage dry weight of rhizomes (92.21 g/m2) was recorded under treatment C2 1 : 1 (h : w) as compared to treatment C8 (4.8 kg a. i/ha).

11. Ali Mohammed Noori*, Mohammed Abdul Aziz Lateef and Mahdi Hadi Muhsin [Effect of phosphorus and gibberellic acid on growth and yield ofgrape (Vitis vinifera L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 643-648 (2018). College of Agriculture, University of Kirkur, Iraq *(e-mail : aloky1515@uokirkuk.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted during 2017-18 in Kombetlar village of Kirkuk Province, Iraq. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphorus and gibberellic acid on growth and yield of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). The first factor in this experiment was phosphorus in the form of P2O5 with three levels (0, 5 and 10 g/l) supplied through phosphatic fertilizer containing 46% phosphorus. The second factor was three levels (0, 100 and 200 ml/l) of gibberellic acid concentrations. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design with three replications and one grapevine was assumed as one plot. The results of this study showed significant effects of phosphorus and gibberellic acid on leaf area, chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, cluster number, cluster weight, fruit number, juice intensity, total soluble solids and total acidity of grape.

12. ABBAS KHDHAIR MIJWEIL* AND ALLAWI KADEM ABBOUD [Growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by nano-fertilizers and different planting dates]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 649-654 (2018). Agriculture College Al Qasim Green University, Iraq *(e-mail: mijwelabbas@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

It has become necessary to use various techniques in agriculture including nanotechnology since it is gaining interest as one of the promising approaches to increase crop production. It possesses all the characteristics needed to be used in agriculture such as high solubility, good efficiency and can be used in small quantities. So, this directly increases the efficiency of fertilizers and reduces the cost compared to conventional fertilizers. An investigation was carried out in Babylon in the year 2017 using six fertilizer combinations which were as follows : (traditional chemical fertilizer according to recommended quantity is 600 kg/ha solo, add chemical fertilizer quarter recommended dosage+fertilizer nano, chemical fertilizer half recommended dosage+nano-fertilizer, add three-quarter chemical fertilizer dosage of recommended quantity+nano-fertilizer, add full chemical fertilizer recommended dosage+nano-fertilizer, add individual nano-fertilizers). Three planting dates such as 1st September, 10th September and 20th September were checked. The fertilizer combination surpassed the full recommended dosage+nano-fertilizer in the paper area, percentage of dry matter of vegetative total, total number of tubers per plant, total yield, starch percentage and the superiority of the treatment in the third planting date in terms of total number of tubers per plant, total yield and dissolved solids. The ‘first planting’ date missed in the rate of tuber weight exceeded the overlap between the combination fertilizer i. e. entire recommended dosage+nano-fertilizer. The third planting time excelled in paper space, total quotient and the overlap between the combination fertilizer i. e. entire recommended dosage+nano-fertilizer, whereas in the second planting date it occurred in the percentage of the dry matter of vegetative total and starch percentage.

13. Hussein Hussein Alhrout*, Muhannad W. Akash and Ramadan K. Hejazin [Effect of farm yard manure and NPK on the yield and some growth components of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 655-658 (2018). Department of Plant Production and Protection Faculty of Agricultural Technology Albalqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : hhroot66@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2014 to evaluate the effect of NPK and farm yard manure (mixed of chicken, cow and sheep manures) on the yield and growth components of tomato. Three treatments were used [Control (no fertilizer), NPK (250 kg/ha) and farm yard manure (8 t/ha). Farm yard manure (FYM) showed significant increase in the highest plant height, leaf number/plant, fruit number/plant and fruit yield followed by NPK and control gave the lowest. Farm yard manure gave the highest yield production (9.57 t/ha), NPK gave 7.15 t/ha and control gave 5.98 t/ha.

14. Wasan H. Mazeil Al-Shammeryi* [Positive effect of ascorbic acid, amino acid (equilibrium) and nitrogen nutrition on vegetative properties and chemical content of Solanum lycopersicum L.]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 659-667 (2018). Department of Biology College of Science, Wasit University, Iraq *(e-mail : wh_mg2000@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in private field at AL-Azizea district (70 KM) North Wasit city From September 26 to November 29 in 2017 to investigate the positive effect of ascorbic acid, amino acid (equilibrium) and nitrogen nutrition each other in single way or combination in plant height, stem diameter, total chlorophyll, total acidity, vitamin C and average of potassium and calcium in leaves of Solanum lycopersicum L. Three levels have been applied which were ascorbic acid (0, 30 and 60) mg/l, amino acid three levels (0,1.5 and 2.5 ml/l) and nitrogen three levels (0, 0.50 and 1 g/l). Results indicated that plants treated with ascorbic acid increased all studied traits compared with control treatment. Treatment plants with amino acid in single way produced a significant increase in plant height, total chlorophyll, total acidity, vitamin C and containing leaves from potassium, while decreased stem diameter increased concentration significantly compared with control treatment. Treatment of nitrogen nutrition gave a significant effect and the highest values in the experiment. Generally, some plant qualities (plant height, stem diameter, total chlorophyll and total acidity, vitamin C, potassium and calcium) increased significantly with the rise of a two or three combination (ascorbic acid+amino acid+nitrogen nutrition) levels. Treatments are designed as a factorial experiment (3 × 3 × 3 × 3) in completely randomized design with three replicates. The purpose was to study the positive effect of ascorbic acid, amino acid (equilibrium) and nitrogen nutrition in vegetative properties and chemical content of Solanum lycopersicum L.

15. Yu Jung Nam, Suk Young Yun*, Byung Jin Choi and BU Yong Lee [Effective drying time and body moisture content for retention of frame using branch material Cornus sericea ‘Flaviamea’]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 668-672 (2018). Department of Horticulture Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, 38430, South Korea *(e-mail : yune1004@cu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

When a frame was made using Cornus sericea ‘Flaviamea’, this study was carried out to investigate the body moisture content, which is the physiological change that causes frame deformation and drying time that can be preserved for a long time. Ten experimental groups were divided into two groups A and B with five groups each, and dried for 48, 96, 144 and 192 h, respectively. During the drying time, the weight change was measured with a load cell and observed at one minute interval in a data history recorder. In the results of being recorded at intervals of 10 min, the weight of both groups A and B showed the same tendency by a certain amount of decrease over time. In the results of deriving cubic polynomial and correlation coefficient for weight change, the value of the correlation coefficient R2 was found to be equal to 1 or about 0.99. This suggests that the cubic polynomial is highly correlated with a small amount of hourly weight of Cornus sericea ‘Flaviamea’. Although studies on cubic polynomials will be needed in the future, this study proved that it could predict the amount of weight loss. In terms of the weight loss and moisture reduction rate of the two groups by four different drying periods, 48 h decreased by 32.5 g on average, 16.4%, 96 h decreased by 52.9 g on average, 25.7%, 144 h decreased by 66.5 g on average, 32.3% and 192 h decreased by 82.6 g and 38.2% on an average. In the results of observing drying time effective for retention by fabricating a rectangular frame, immediately after drying experiment by the non-dry treatment experimental group, and the four dry treatment experimental groups, the frame of the 192 h dry experimental group was 0.2° in the left front corner, 0.2° in the right corner up to 1,440 h, with the three-dimensional space travel distance S=0, showing that no deformation was measured. When Cornus sericea ‘Flaviamea’ is dried for about 192 h in a typical living environment and used as a frame design work, it is believed that it makes it possible to display for a long time.

16. AMRITA THAKUR, NILIMA KUMARI* AND VINAY SHARMA [Role of DREB1A gene in Triticum aestivum L. seeds treated with different elicitors to delay drought stress]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 673-679 (2018). Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology Banasthali Vidyapith, P. O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304 022, India *(e-mail : nilima_km@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Abiotic and biotic factors affect the survival, biomass production and crop yield. The main cereal crops as wheat, rice and maize get affected severely by drought stress. DREB/CBF binds to cis-acting elements responsive for drought stress. In the present work, the role of 18s rRNA and DREB1A gene in wheat plants treated with different elicitors at the time of sowing in response to drought stress has been studied. Specifically the expression of DREB1A and 18s rRNA genes in seeds of two wheat cultivars RAJ-4120 and RAJ-3765 pre-treated with different elicitors on 5th, 10th and 15th day of plant growth was investigated. The seeds of Triticum aestivum L. were treated with different elicitors viz., sodium nitro prusside (10 mM), salicylic acid (0.5 mM) and silver nitrate (10 mM) for 6 h before sowing. DREB1A gene expression in RAJ-4120 cultivar was significantly higher than RAJ-3765 cultivar. The results showed that DREB1A gene provided resistance against drought stress when treated with different elicitors in comparison to the seeds having no pre-sowing treatment. Among three elicitors, the highest DREB1A gene expression was noticed in SNP pre-treated seedlings during 15th day of stress. Hence, from the present study, it was concluded that DREB1A gene had role in delaying drought stress in T. aestivum L. and among three elicitors treated, SNP was found to be the best in which expression of DREB1A gene was found to be maximum.

17. Muhammad Kadir*, Kaimuddin, Muhammad Farid B., Yunus Musa, Amin Nur, Roy Efendi3 and Karlina Syahruddin [GGE-biplot analysis of yield stability in environment trial of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype under dry season in Indonesia]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 680-688 (2018). Doctoral Program of Graduate School of Agriculture Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia *(e-mail : muhammadkadir@mail.polipangkep.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

Research to study the interaction of genotype x environment and determine the yield stability of some tropical wheat genotypes due to the influence of different planting environments on the dry season is still very urgent and continues to be done in Indonesian breeding programs to releasing new varieties that are tolerant to the tropical environment. Visualization of GGE-biplot analysis was able to explain the genotype x interaction in an environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the yield stability of some tropical wheat genotypes in some trial location in tropical agro-ecosystem of Indonesia on dry season based GGE-biplot method. Nine tropical wheat genotypes and two wheat varieties as control were evaluated in seven locations in three consecutive years (2015, 2016 and 2017). Variable measured was grain yield. Analysis of variance was performed for data from each study site, to determine the performance of each genotype at each location. Yield stability analysis was performed by GGE-biplot method using plant breeding (PB)-tools software. The results showed that Prl/2*Pastor, Trch*2/3/C.80.I/3 and Kiritati/4/2/*Seri.1B*2 wheat genotypes had the highest biological stability, higher than the overall mean yield and this wheat breeding genotype is considered potential to be used in wheat plant breeding to obtain new tropical varieties in Indonesia. The environment of Batu Malang, East Java, Loka Bantaeng South Sulawesi, Salatiga Middle Java, Rumbia Jeneponto South Sulawesi, and Malino Gowa South Sulawesi is considered the suitable location for tropical wheat testing in Indonesia tropical agro-ecosystem.

18. M. S. Mphosi* [Effect of female and male age on copulation of sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 689-694 (2018). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X 1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In moths, the female generally produces the sex pheromone in a gland, formed from modified epidermal cells, located between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments. A male moth perceives the pheromone through its antennal receptors, which are tuned to the sex pheromone components produced by the female. Typically, following copulation, a female often becomes unreceptive to further mating attempts by males. Several factors have been postulated to be responsible for this, including the physical act of mating, sperm and seminal fluids. Mating is known to cause either a permanent or temporary cessation of sex pheromone production in many species of moths. The effects of female and male age on time of copulation and periodicity of H. electellum were investigated. Individual virgin females of H. electellum, age 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days, were placed with a single conspecific virgin male (2-4 days old) in a 20 ml glass vial 3 h prior to the onset of the scotophase, in a room under the same conditions as those of the respective colonies. The percentages of copulations, and percentages of females with spermatophore in their bursa copulatrix, were compared by 2 analyses; if there were any significant differences, each pair was compared by a 2 analysis. The distributions of time that copulation started for the different age females and males were compared, respectively, by chi-squared tests. Female age had a significant effect on the proportion of copulations, with a significantly smaller proportion of the youngest females (1 d) copulating than of the older females (2-5 d). High proportions of females that copulated had spermatophores in their bursa copulatrix, regardless of age; there was no significant difference in these proportions among any of the different-aged females.

19. M. S. MPHOSI* [Effect of female and male age on copulation of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 695-700 (2018). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Life-history strategies of insect are controlled by fitness-related trait trade-offs, in particular, the age at which either one of the two sexes copulate and this demonstrated to influence insect reproductive output and longevity. The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most important lepidopteran pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., in North America. Larvae of C. hospes feed on the head of sunflower, causing extensive damage and a reduction in the number of seeds produced (Royer and Walgenbach, 1987). Individual virgin females of either species, age 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days, were placed with a single conspecific virgin male (2-4 days old) in a 20 ml glass vial 3 h prior to the onset of the scotophase, in a room under the same conditions as those of the respective colonies. The percentages of copulations, and percentages of females with spermatophore in their bursa copulatrix, were compared by 2 analyses; if there were any significant differences, each pair was compared by a 2 analysis. The distributions of time that copulation started for the different age females and males were compared, respectively, by chi-squared tests. The percentage of female C. hospes that copulated was significantly influenced by female age. Significantly higher proportions of females aged 3 and 5 days old copulated than did females of the other ages. The percentage of female C. hospes that copulated that had spermatophores in their bursa copulatrix was also significantly influenced by female age.

20. C. MBOWANE AND M. S. MPHOSI* [Response of age related population of Blattella germanica to Mohlolo insecticide baiting under laboratory conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 701-705 (2018). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Established German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations are difficult to manage along various components of the value chain of agricultural commodities in storage, restaurants and residential areas due to their behavioural and physiological adaptability. The German cockroaches have high reproductive potential. Five concurrent B. germanica age-related experiments were run in a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-day old German cockroach nymphs experiments were conducted under controlled conditions. Each age group consisted of 10 nymphs and was put in 250 cm3 container that contained MIB. One gram of Mohlolo insecticide bait and moistened cotton wick were put at the bottom center of the 250 cm3 containers with nymphs classed according to their respective ages. The mortality of the age-related stages of cockroaches was significantly affected by the period of exposure to MIB. The period of exposure contributed 97, 100, 100, 100, 100 and 98 of the total treatment variation of age-related mortalities.

21. C. Mbowane and M. S. Mphosi* [Responses of populations of Blattella germanica to Mohlolo insecticide baiting in residential areas]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 706-711 (2018). Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : maboko.mphosi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Control strategies of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) populations in residential environments have shifted from predominant use of insecticide sprays to the inclusion of baits in management programmes. The change has been facilitated by the general perception that baits were safer and therefore appeal to the public’s concern about risks associated with pesticides in domestic environments. Current active ingredients are toxic enough to deliver a lethal dose in one meal. However, they act slowly enough to allow time for the cockroach to return to their harbourage after feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mohlolo insecticide bait (MIB) would reduce populations of B. germanica in various environments within the residential areas. A completely randomized design (CRD) was used in the study with the four treatments. Approximately 1 g of MIB was placed in 6 cm3 container, with two containers placed in the kitchen, lodge, bathroom and bedroom. In the kitchen, MIB containers were placed behind the cooking stove and refrigerator, in the lodge next to the table which was used for eating and studying. At least 50% reduction in B. germanica numbers was achieved within 7 and 10 days after the cockroaches were exposed to the MIB, while 100% mortality was attained within 12 and 14 days. Cockroach mortality over exposure time attributed 99.8, 99.34, 99.84, 99.35, 98.73, 99.31, 99.92, 97.31, 98.08 and 98.51% to the variation in mortality percentage in Apartments.

22. Rana Samara*, Raed Alkowni, Tawfiq Qubbaj, Hassan Abu-Qaoud and Samer Jarrar [Plant diseases associated with olive bark midge in West-Bank Palestine]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 712-719 (2018). Department of Horticulture and Agricultural Extension Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie, Tulkarm, Palestine *(e-mail : r.samara@ptuk.edu.ps)

ABSTRACT

Olive tree is one of the most cultivated trees over the Palestinian territories, it is considered as the mainstay of rainfed agriculture in Palestine. Recently and due to the impact of the global warming, olive trees were infected with an outbreak of many pests and pathogens. In the last decades, both olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae) and peacock leaf spot, Spilocaea oleagina were reported with an unusual percentage of infections over the olive trees. During 2015-16, and throughout the field surveys to investigate any unusual diseased symptoms on olives; some trees exhibited pale yellowing on the newly formed branches, symptoms associated with viral infections such as OLYaV. Some other trees were noticed to get yellowing and later on developed branch dieback and stem canker and cracking syndromes. When the outer bark was removed, the affected tissue appeared dark brown, in contrast to the yellowish green of healthy inner bark. These symptoms were observed on both young and old trees in the northern part of Palestine. Field and laboratory investigation revealed a heavy infestation with larvae of Resseliella oleisuga Targ. (Diptera : Cecidomyiidae). The infestation rate reported ranged from 75 to 92 in some olive orchards. Pathogens were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology. Climate changes due to the global warming might be the cause of this outbreak; probably due to the changes in the environmental conditions favoured by the insects. To our knowledge, this is the first time this insect was reported to be widely spread of olive trees and causing damage in Palestine. In this study, several associated primary, secondary and saprophytic diseases were detected from the infected samples. Mainly Botryosphaeria spp., Alternaria solani Sor., Aspergillus niger v. Tieghem, Cladosporium herbarum Fr., Fusarium solani (Mart.) App., Penicillium digitatum Sacc., Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Rhizopus stolonifer (Her.) Vuill.

23. Talib Kh. Hussein, Kareem A. H. AL bayati* and Mohammed N. Q. Hantoosh [Effect of aqueous and oil extracts of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) for suppressing food microbes]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 720-723 (2018). College of Agriculture AL Hadi University, Iraq *(e-mail : kareem_citrusplam@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This work looks into the effects of aqueous and oil extracts of cinnamon bark at different concentrations in inhibiting few microbes that were insulated from some foods using the agar well diffusion method. The results showed that the oil extract was superior in inhibition for all sermons that had been taken when compared to aqueous extract. Moreover, this study indicated that the effect of these extracts on microbial types was varied. The study showed a significant effect (P0.05) for both extracts on all microorganisms with increasing concentrations, but at that place there was no substantial effect (P0.05) on the inhibition between bacteria and yeast in 10 mg/ml concentration of watery extract. Both extracts affected and inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi (28 and 42 mm), Escherichia coli (32 and 40 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (28 and 38 mm) more than the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 and 26 mm) and Candida albicans (15 and 22 mm) with 50 mg/ml concentration of aqueous and oil extracts.

24. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Nguyen Thi Tram, Cao Thi Thao and Long Giang Bach [Effect of drying, roasting and storage to antioxidant (tocopherol) in dried macadamia nut]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 724-729 (2018). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Macadamia has been identified as potential species and brings ripe opportunity for poverty reduction for ethnic minority in Central Highland of Vietnam. Fresh macadamia nuts have high moisture content and are quickly to deterioration. Owing to high amount of unsaturated fatty acid, they are easy to hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity when free moisture is present at high levels. So, the moisture should be eliminated as soon as possible. There were several studies using heat pump drying for macadamia nut, mainly focused on analysis of moisture, aw, rancidity, key fatty acid, peroxide value, colour and volatile compound. Meanwhile, antioxidants are valuable criterion that indicates the quality of macadamia nut but they are easily damaged during drying, roasting and even storage. There was no any research mentioned to verify the change of antioxidant (tocopherol) during heat pump drying. So, the objective of the present study was to identify the effect of temperature in heat pump drying, roasting condition, packaging and storage to antioxidant (tocopherol) in the dried macadamia nut. Results demonstrated that drying temperature (30oC), roasting (120oC in 20 min), vaccum packing in laminated material (PET/AL/PE bag) and keeping in 4oC were recommended to maintain the tocopherol content in the final products for 12 months.

25. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Nguyen Hoang Anh, Pham Thi Le Pha and
Long Giang Bach [Effect of blanching, drying and preservation of dried wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) leaf tea]. Res. on Crops 19 (4): 730-735 (2018). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) is now widely cultivated in Vietnam. Its leaf has a source of antioxidant, cytotoxic activities by acylphloroglucinol derivatives. Leaf of S. samarangense has antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-diarrheal, analgesic, anti-inflammation and immunostimulant activities. Objective of this study focused on the effect of blanching temperature and time; heat pump drying temperature and storage condition to total phenolic content and sensory score of the dried wax apple (S. samarangense) herb tea. Results showed that S. samarangense should be blanched in hot water 95oC at 15 sec in ascorbic acid 1.5% and then being dried by heat pump dryer at 50oC until 18% moisture. The final herbal tea could be preserved under vacuum in PET/AL/PE bag at 4oC to maintain total phenolic content for 12 months.

26. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Dang Thanh Son, Van Thi Bich Lieu and Le Thi Them [Different prospects affecting production of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaf tea]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 736-740 (2018). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Parsley is a widely cultivated and used herb. Dried parsley leaves have different valuable phytochemical constituents. Objective of this study focused on the effect of blanching temperature and time; heat pump drying temperature and storage condition to total phenolic content and sensory score of the dried parsley (Petroselinum crispum) tea. Results showed that P. crispum should be blanched in hot water 100oC at 5 sec in ascorbic acid 1.0% and then being dried by heat pump dryer at 50oC until 15% moisture. The final herbal tea could be preserved under vacuum in PET/AL/PE bag at 4oC to maintain total phenolic content for 12 months.

27. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Doan Viet Thao, Lam Thanh Buu and Thanh Sang Vo [Herbal tea production from pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) leaf]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 741-745 (2018). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The leaf of Pandanus amaryllifolius, commonly known as pandan, is often used to give a refreshing, fragrant flavour. Pandan leaves extracts contain bioactive compound like tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Objective of this study focused on the effect of blanching temperature and time; heat pump drying temperature and storage condition to total phenolic content and sensory score of the dried pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) tea. Results showed that P. amaryllifolius should be blanched in hot water 100oC at 5 sec in ascorbic acid 1.0% and then being dried by heat pump dryer at 50oC until 18% moisture. The final herbal tea could be preserved under vacuum in PET/AL/PE bag at 4oC to maintain total phenolic content for 12 months.

28. Nguyen Phuoc Minh*, Pham Thi Le Pha, Van Thi Bich Lieu and  Thanh Sang Vo [Technical factors affecting dried herbal tea production from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) capitula]. Res. on Crops 19 (4): 746-751 (2018). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam *(e-mail : ts.nguyenphuocminh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants and vegetable are a promising natural source of hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic and antioxidant constituents. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is of considerable economic importance for farmers in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a vegetable rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds mainly cynarin, luteolin and chlorogenic acid flavonoids and dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals. Artichoke is difficult to store once it’s harvested because of the rapid onset of rotting. Rotting is generally caused by microorganisms, especially molds that grow in high moisture conditions. Therefore, objective of this study focused on the effect of blanching temperature and time; heat pump drying temperature and storage condition to total phenolic content and sensory score of the dried artichoke (Cynara scolymus) tea. Results showed that C. scolymus should be blanched in hot water 95oC at 10 sec in ascorbic acid 0.5% and then being dried by heat pump dryer at 40oC until 8% moisture. The final herbal tea could be preserved under vacuum in PET/AL/PE bag at 4oC to maintain total phenolic content for 12 months.

29. MAJJIGA KOMALA*, N. MEENAKSHI GANESAN AND M. KUMAR [Studies on ratooning ability for yield and fibre quality traits in interspecific cotton hybrids (Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense)]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 752-757 (2018). Department of Cotton, Centre for Plant Breeding & Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : komalayadav89@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The development of cotton hybrids which can offer the great yields and quality fibre is the current research in cotton breeding. For the first time, here we investigated the mean performance and ratooning ability of 30 promising interspecific cotton hybrids. Based on mean performance, the evaluated hybrids varied significantly (P0.05) in first crop and ratoon crop and differed significantly in their ratooning ability for all the studied traits. The current study demonstrated that, among the tested hybrids, TCH 1716 x SUVIN showed highest ratooning ability for the seed cotton yield per plant and TCH 1716 x TCB 209 exhibited highest ratooning ability for 2.5% span length.

30. B. D. Patel*, D. D. Chaudhari, V. J. Patel2, H. K. Patel and Aakash Mishra [Management of diverse weed flora in garlic (Allium sativum L.) through eco-friendly approach]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 758-768 (2018). AICRP-Weed Management, B. A. College of Agriculture Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bdpatel62@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at AICRP on Weed Management Farm, BACA, AAU, Anand, Gujarat with a view to manage the diverse weed flora in garlic (Allium sativum L.) through eco-friendly approach. The experiment was laid out in split plot design (SPT) with three replications. Results indicated that application of oxyfluorfen 240 g/ha PE fb HW at 60 DAP and tank mix application of pendimethalin 500 g/ha EPoE + oxyfluorfen 120 g/ha EPoE along with paddy straw mulch 5.0 t/ha applied after planting effectively reduced the density and dry weight of weeds with higher weed control efficiency in garlic. The said treatments also recorded higher 100-clove weight (g), bulb weight (g/bulb), number of cloves/bulb, bulb yield of garlic (t/ha), the highest net returns (Rs. 273760 and Rs. 230152/ha) and B : C ratio (3.79 and 3.44.), respectively.

31. KRISHNA RANY DAS* AND HISASHI KATO-NOGUCHI [Assessment of allelopathic potential of Coccinia grandis L. on eight test plant species]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 769-774 (2018). Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, 761 0795, Japan *(e-mail : k_das007@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Coccinia grandis L. (Cucurbitaceae) is a tropical vine that grows densely and suppresses the growth of surrounding plant species. The glabrous leaves and fruits of this plant have long been used as traditional medicine. The pharmacological property of C. grandis is notable, but as far we know there is no report on its allelopathic activity. To explore allelopathy (as an ecologically sound weed management approach), aqueous methanol extracts of C. grandis were examined for its effect on the seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), timothy (Phleum pretense L.), foxtail fescue (Vulpia myuros (L.) C. C. Gmel.), and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at six concentrations (1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 mg dry weight equivalent extract/ml). The growth inhibitory effect of the extracts on the test plant species varied and depended on extract concentration. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the shoots and roots of the test plant species were 6.3-220.8 and 4.8-80.9 mg dry weight equivalent extract/ml of C. grandis, respectively. The lettuce seedlings were most sensitive to the extracts, whereas the barnyard grass seedlings were least sensitive. These results suggest that C. grandis may have allelopathic potential and might be useful in developing a bio-herbicide in an eco-friendly management system.

32. T. G. Apata*, Y. G. N’Guessan, K. Ayantoye, A. Badmus, O. Adewoyin, S. Anugwo, A. Borokini, T. Sani, O. Aladejebi, S. Ojedokun, A. Ajakpovi and F. Nwaogu [Tenacity of small farms and poverty levels : Evidence of relationship among farming households in Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 19 (4) : 775-786 (2018). Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Federal University, Oye, Ekiti State, Nigeria *(e-mail : dayo.apata@fuoye.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

Small farmers are one of the more disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in Nigeria. Studies have shown that majority of people living in absolute poverty can be found on small farms. Research question this study pose was: are these small farms going to be a declining farms or vice-versa? Hence, the study looks into heterogeneity in circumstances and diversity in rural livelihoods. Data come from Nigerian living Standard Survey (NLSS) collected in two periods (2004 and 2014) and analyzed with a probability sample of 9550 respondents’ from six zones in Nigeria and 8264 sample size that were useful for subsequent analysis. The study kept track of the same sampled households. Findings revealed that the index of heterogeneity to be at differentials of 29.1 which indicated growth of small farms in the two periods under consideration. Poverty decomposition analysis revealed that about 42% (3448) of the respondents were categorized as very poor, 21% (1768) as poor and only 37% (3048) were categorized as non-poor with about 17.25 %, 14.71% and 12.19% variations respectively in the two periods. The poverty differential analysis in the two surveys revealed that those farming households who operated small farms experienced higher poverty levels by 14.72%. This thus implies that the tenacity of small farms was correlated to poverty increase.

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