Volume 16, No. 4 (December, 2015)

By | January 7, 2016

1.    Rakesh Kumar*, Manoj Kumar and Bidyut C. Deka [Production potential, profitability and energetics of transplanted rice as influenced by establishment methods and nutrient management practices in Eastern Himalaya]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 625-633 (2015). ICAR Research Complex for North-Eastern Hilly Region Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Medziphema-797 106 (Nagaland), India *(e-mail : rakeshbhu08@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of ICAR RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani in two consecutive kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 to compare the effect of establishment methods and nutrient management practices on production potential, nutrient uptake and energetics in transplanted rice under the hill ecosystem of Nagaland. Results showed that plant height, tillers/m2, dry matter production, root volume and root biomass was recorded significantly higher with system of rice intensification (SRI) followed by integrated crop management (ICM) and conventionally tillage rice (CTR) during both the years. Similarly, the higher number of panicles/hill and panicle length and grain yield were recorded under SRI as compared to ICM and CTR. Among the nutrient management practices, application of 100% RDF+rice straw @ 5 t/ha was recorded markedly higher growth and yield attributes. Further, application of 100% RDF+rice straw 5 t/ha produced the higher grain yield (4.9 and 4.5 t/ha) followed by 100% RDN (farm yard manure)+rice straw @ 5 t/ha (4.7 and 5.4 t/ha), respectively. Among the nutrient management practices, application of 100% RDF+rice straw @ 5 t/ha fetched the maximum net returns and B : C ratio.

2.    L. K. Baishya*, Dibyendu Sarkar, M.Ghosh, M. A. Ansari, A. Menthoibi
and N. Prakash [Productivity and quality enhancement of rice through micronutrients and soil amendments in acid soils of north-eastern hill region of India]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 634-642 (2015). ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat-795 004 (Manipur), India *(e-mail : lkbaishya@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil at Lamphelpat, Manipur during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of soil amendments and micronutrients fortification on productivity and quality of rice. The experiment was laid outin split plot design with foursoil amendmenttreatments in the main plots and fourmicronutrients fortification treatments in the sub-plots. The results showed that application FYM 5.0 t/ha, lime 200 and 400 kg/ha improved growth attributes and increased yield components of rice over those of the control plots. Use of lime 400 kg/ha recorded highest rice grain (7.16 t/ha) and straw (8.95 t/ha) yields as compared to the other soil amendment practices. It also recorded higher N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Se contents in rice grain, greater returns and higher crop profitability (Rs. 1240/ha/day) than those of control plots, but comparable to the other soil amendment practices. Soil amendments (5 t/ha FYM, 200 and 400 kg/ha lime) significantly increased the available N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu content in soil over those of the control plots. Micronutrient fortification also improved growth, increased productivity and nutrient contents in rice grain and enhanced gross and net returns, returns per rupee invested and crop profitability.

3.    Santosh Kumar*, R. K. Singh, R. N. Meena and S. P. Singh [Effect of nitrogen scheduling and weed management on weed density, growth and yield of direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 643-652 (2015). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : santoshagro.nd@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rainy (kharif) seasons of 2012 and 2013 to study the effect of nitrogen scheduling and weed management in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) under irrigated condition. Nitrogen scheduling significantly reduced the total weed density and dry weight and increased the yield-attributing charactersand yield of crop. The results indicated that the minimum total weed density and dry weight, and maximum crop growth and yield attributing characters were recorded under four nitrogen splits : ¼ 2 WS+¼ 4 WS+¼ 6 WS+¼ 8 WS followed by 1/3 2 WS+1/3 4 WS+1/3 6 WS. Application of nitrogen scheduling at ¼ basal+¾ 4 WS and ¼ basal+½ 4 WS+¼ 6 WS recorded higher weed density and dry weightat all stages of observation during both the years. The various weed management treatments significantly decreased the density and dry weight of weed and increased the weed control efficiency, growth and yield attributing characters compared with the weedy check. Application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha fb bispyribac+carfentrazone (25+20 g)/ha and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha fb bispyribac+ethoxysulfuron (25+18 g)/ha recorded minimum weed density and dry weight of weed and increased the weed control efficiency, growth and yield attributing characters comparable to other treatments.

4.    V. TYAGI*, R. K. SINGH and M. NAGARGADE [Effect of hydrogel, NPK and irrigation levels on yield, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 653-656 (2015). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : vish926@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during rabi (winter) seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at the Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (India) to find out the effect of phenological stages based  irrigation scheduling, super absorbent polymer (hydrogel) and NPK rates on wheat. Four irrigations given at CRI (23 DAS), tillering (44 DAS), boot leaf (83 DAS) and milking stage (105 DAS) recorded maximum  grain yield, straw yield, NPK uptake and water use efficiency in wheat. The grain yield, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency were maximum when wheat crop was given 100% recommended NPK in combination with hydrogel at 5 kg/ha in the sandy loam soil of Varanasi.

5.    LE THI HIEN, SU HYUK PARK, YUN JI PARK, OK JAE WON, JAE-BOK HWANG, SANG UN PARK AND KEE WOONG PARK* [Allelopathy in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench : A review on environmentally friendly solution for weed control]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 657-662 (2015). 1Department of Crop Science College of Agriculture and Life Science Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Korea *(e-mail : parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The agricultural industry has tried to develop effective herbicides, especially biological herbicides, with less impact on our agricultural environment. Recently, allelopathy has emerged as a potential alternative to chemical herbicides for weed management. Allelopathy is defined as “any direct or indirect, harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds that are released into the environment.”Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a species that originates from Africa and is widely cultivated in both tropical and sub-tropical regions, is considered as a rich source of allelochemicals with biological weed control ability. Chemical constituents of sorghum include tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and policosanols. Investigations on underground parts of sorghum indicate that sorgoleone is in charge of the weed control activity, while phenolic compounds play a vital role in its herbicidal activity on aerial parts of weeds. This review aims at providing up-to-date and comprehensive information about allelopathy in sorghum and further application of sorghum extract in weed control.

6.    Rajesh Chaudhri, O. P. Sharma, Roshan Choudhary* and R. S. Choudhary [Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth characters and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 663-668 (2015). Department of Agronomy SKN University of Agriculture, Jobner-303 329, Jaipur (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : roshan6109@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of two consecutive years 2011 and 2012 at S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner to study the effect of integrated nutrient management levels on growth parameters and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The eight levels of organic manures and fertilizer [(control (T0), RDF 25 kg N + 45 kg P2O5 kg/ha (T1 ), FYM @ 15 t/ha (T2 )  FYM @ 7.5  t/ha + ½ RDF (T3 ), poultry manure @ 6 t/ha (T 4), poultry manure @ 3 t/ha + ½ RDF (T5), vermicompost @ 5 t/ha (T6 ), vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha+½ RDF (T7 )] and four levels of iron [(0.0 (Fe0), 5.0 (Fe5), 10.0 (Fe10) and 15.0 (Fe15)] were compared. Significant effect of manures and fertilizers was observed on pooled basis on plant height, dry matter accumulation, branches per plant, dry weight of nodules, pod and stover yield, whereas harvest index in groundnut remained unaffected during both the years on pooled basis. Application of poultry manure @ 3 t + ½ RDF (T5) produced significantly higher pod and stover yield of groundnut over rest of the treatments during both the years. Iron levels significantly increased the pod and stover yield of groundnut over control up to 10 kg/ha but was found at par with 15 kg Fe/ha during both the years as well as in pooled analysis.

7.    SUKHCHAIN SINGH*, P. P. S. GILL, P. S. AULAKH AND SARVPRIYA SINGH [Changes of minerals in fruit peel and pulp of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cv. Star Ruby during fruit development]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 669-674 (2015). Department of Fruit Science Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : boparai.sukhchain@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Concentrations of the macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) in the fruit peel and pulp from grapefruit cv. Star Ruby fruits were estimated at monthly intervals during fruit development. The general order of abundance of the macronutrients was Ca > K > N > Mg > P in the fruit peel and K > N > Ca > P > Mg in the fruit pulp. Similarly, the abundance of the micronutrients followed the order Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn in the fruit peel and Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn in the fruit pulp. The concentrations of most elements in the fruit peel and pulp decreased during fruit development at 120-210 DAFS. Contents of N and P in the fruit peel decreased from fruit set to fruit maturity. However, both nutrients showed a small rise in concentration towards the end of sampling. Ca content in the fruit pulp decreased up to 180 DAFS and then increased towards maturity. Mn concentrations were relatively constant during fruit development, while there was decrease in concentrations of Zn and Cu in the fruit peel. Overall, the K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn level was higher in the fruit peel and the N, P, Zn and Cu level was higher in the fruit pulp. These results provide important data on macronutrient and micronutrient changes during fruit growth and development, emphasizing that grapefruit can be a good source of minerals.

8.    Sihem METHAMEM*, Hassouna GOUTA, Atef MOUGOU, Chokri Bayoudh and Dalenda BOUJNAH [Pollen ability and pollination in some olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars in Tunisia as affected by ‘on’ and ‘off’ years]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 675-682 (2015). The Higher Institute of Agronomic Sciences of Chott Mariem BP 47; 4042 Chott Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia *(e-mail : sihem.methamem@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to assess the pollen viability, the pollen capacity (germination and tube growth) and the rate of fruit set in 19 cultivars of olive trees field-grown in Chott Mariem (Tunisia) after self- and free-pollination treatments during two seasons 2012 (‘on’ year) and 2013 (‘off’ year). The pollen viability ranged from 60.5% for ‘Meski’ to 88.85% for ‘Gerboui’ during 2012 (‘on’ year) and between 97.47% for ‘Chetoui’ to 62.38% for ‘Meski’ in 2013 (‘off’ year). All the cultivars increased their values of viability and germination during 2013 comparatively to 2012, with important consequences on the fertilization process measured by the initial fruit set rate. Concerning the pollination treatments, generally, the free-pollination improved fruit set when compared with self-pollination, especially for ‘Meski’. However, a non-pollination of ‘Ascolana’ and ‘Tounsi’ was observed with all pollination modes and during the two years in Chott Mariem. Our results showed a high correlation between the rate of fruit set after self- and free-pollinations during the two years of study 2012 and 2013 (respectively, r2= 0.74 and 0.65). This study highlights some major remarkable differences among cultivars in terms of pollen abilities. In general, concerning the pollination efficiency of olive cultivars, the pollen viability can be an important characteristic to be considered as an indicative parameter of pollen development and functionality. Finally, this is a topic of particular importance for large-scale isolated plantings and in choosing the cultivars in new olive groves plantations.

9.    RAGHAVENDRA SINGH, SUBHASH BABU*, R. K. AVASTHE, G. S. YADAV AND D. J. RAJKHOWA [Influence of tillage and organic nutrient management practices on productivity, profitability and energetics of vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.) in rice-vegetable pea sequence under hilly ecosystems of north-east India]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 683-688 (2015). ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Sikkim Centre, Tadong, Gangtok, Sikkim-737 102, India *(e-mail : subhiari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fixed plot field experiments were conducted at Research Farm, ICAR Sikkim Centre during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to identify the efficient tillage practices and organic nitrogen sources for achieving higher productivity, profitability and energy use efficiency of vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.) in rice-vegetable pea cropping system of eastern Himalayas. Pooled data of two years showed that among the tillage practices, significantly higher values of yield attributes viz., pod length (8.3 cm), pods/plant (9.9), pod weight (8.3 g), green pea seeds/pod (8.0) and yields [green pod yield (5.89 t/ha) and stover yield (7.49 t/ha)] were recorded with no-tillage (NT) over reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT). Similarly, significantly higher gross returns (125.4 x 103 Rs./ha), net returns (96.1 x 103 Rs./ha) and B : C ratio (3.27) were recorded with NT over RT and CT. Energy use  efficiency was also significantly higher with NT  (6.29%) over RT  (4.29%) and CT (3.12%). NT required 44 and 28.3% less energy as compared to CT and RT, respectively. Amongst  the organic nitrogen sources, significantly higher  values of yield attributing characters, green pod yield (6.33 t/ha) and stover yield (6.67 t/ha) were recorded with the application of 50% RDN (recommended dose of nitrogen) through FYM+50% RDN through VC (vermicompost)+BF (biofertilizer) over other organic nitrogen sources. This resulted in 24.9% enhancement in green pod yield over the farmer’s practices. In terms of profitability and energetics, application of 50% RDN through FYM+50% RDN through VC+BF was found statistically superior to others and recorded 29.5% higher net returns and 9.9% higher energy use efficiency over the farmer’s practice (FYM @ 1.0 t /ha) of the region.

10.    M. Girija Rani*, P. V. Satyanarayana, M. Lal Ahmed, Y. Ashok Rani and V. Srinivasa Rao [Gene action of elite rice lines for yield and lodging resistance related traits]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 689-697 (2015). Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station Maruteru-534 122, West Godavari district (A. P.), India *(e-mail : girija_aprri@ yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of gene action on yield and lodging related traits would help in framing suitable breeding strategy for the development of lodging resistance genotypes with high yield. Present investigation aimed at studying gene action among the eight yield and six lodging resistance related traits in two crosses MTU 7029/II 110-9-1-1-1-1 and MTU 7029/MTU 1121 using six-parameter model of generation mean analysis. The results revealed significance of scaling test for all the traits indicating inadequacy of additive dominance model for explanation of inheritance of 14 traits in both the crosses except for number of ear bearing tillers/plant, test weight and grain yield/plant in case of MTU 7029/MTU 1121. In both the crosses, characters number of filled grains/panicle, spikelet fertility, test weight, culm diameter and  panicle length expressed complementary epistasis besides dominance x dominance interaction. Hence, biparental mating followed in early generations and selection could be practised in advanced generations to fix favourable alleles. Rest of the traits such as number of ear bearing tillers/plant, grain yield/plant, culm thickness, culm strength, basal internodal length and per cent of lodging exhibited duplicate type of epistasis. Characters with non-additive gene action coupled with duplicate type of gene interaction can be improved by recurrent selection or diallel selective mating.

11.    T. Radhamani*, D. Sassikumar, D. Packiaraj, R. Saraswathi and V. ravi [Principal component analysis of variation among the induced mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 698-703 (2015). Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TNAU), Aduthurai-612 101 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : radha.agri@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Dry bold unhusked seeds of paddy variety ADT (R) 47 were mutagenized with gamma rays (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 gy) and with EMS (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 mM). The M4 generation comprising 652 mutants derived through pedigree selection was raised during rabi 2014. In this study, the first three components in the PCA analysis contributed 75.9% of the variability among the mutant lines evaluated for different quantitative traits. Other PCs (3-7) had eigen values less than 1. Among the mutant lines viz., 441 (300-96-1), 456 (300-124-1), 457 (300-126-1), 454 (300-122-1), 395 (300-49-1), 404 (300-54-3), 412 (300-62-1), 452 (300-113-1), 396 (300-50-1), 400 (300-53-2)  and 402 (300-54-1) showed extremely high positive PC 1 scores  reflecting highest contribution from plant height, panicle length, 100-grain weight and single plant yield. Hence, the high yielding genotypes those attained high positive PC 1 score can be effectively used in the hybridization programme to produce early genotype with well exerted panicle and maximum yield.

12.    Akshay Kumar vats*, R. P. Saharan and I. S. Panwar [MAGIC (multi-parent advanced generation intercross) breeding population for nutrient use efficiency traits in bread wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) em Thell.]]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 704-711 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : akshayvts@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

MAGIC (Multi Parent Advanced Generation Inter Cross) breeding programme is the key to improve the traits like nutrient use, nutrient harvest in self pollinated staple crops like wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) em. Thell]. Present investigation was planned with the objectives to determine the promising genotypes for nutrient uptake and use efficiency and find the variability for nutrient use traits in bread wheat genotypes. Results revealed the proficient and potent base material to improve the nutrient use efficiency of wheat through plant breeding to meet demands of food security. Mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the characters. Significant differences due to genotypes for various traits indicated that there was considerable variation among the genotypes. Genotype × fertilizer (G × F) interaction was significant for majority of the characters except in plant height, chlorophyll content and number of tillers per plant indicating that genotypes differed in their response from low to optimum input conditions for the characters under study. WH 1105 and HD 2967 in common were found to be highly efficient genotypes for nutrient use efficiency (i. e. for N, P and Zn use) under both low and optimum input conditions. Results showed considerable variability among genotypes for the characters under study, which further indicated the scope of developing promising genotypes through MAGIC breeding programme (crossing among better genotypes for most of the traits) like WH 1105, HD 2967 and DBW 17 followed by selection in segregating generations which may lead to identification of physiologically efficient and high yielding genotypes coupled with better nutrient use under low as well as optimum input conditions. Also, genotypes consistent in performance under both low and optimum input conditions may be identified.

13.    Bhanu Priya*, Sunil Diyali, Subhra Mukherjee and M. Srinivasarao [Genetic diversity based on cluster and principal component analysis in wheat and triticale genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 712-718 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : bpriya543@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The nature and degree of genetic diversity present in wheat collections from its principal areas of cultivation would help to select parents for evolving superior varieties. The present investigation was aimed at estimating the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence in a set of wheat germplasm including that from triticale showing cross compatibility with Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted at Nadia district of West Bengal during rabi season in two consecutive years 2012-13 and 2013-14 following RBD design. Forty-nine genotypes were grouped into 10 clusters following Mahalanobis D2 analysis and maximum numbers of genotypes were found in cluster I followed by clusters V and VII. Maximum intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster I followed by cluster VI. Maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters VIII and X followed by clusters VI and X. PCA and cluster analysis were found to be almost similar as D2 analysis except some variations. Six principal components PC 1 to PC 6 cumulatively contributed about 73% of the total variation.

14.    Azin Shenavar and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Determination of best indirect selection criteria to improve seed yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 719-721 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Indirect selection in early generations through traits having heritability higher than yield as well as correlated significantly with seed yield is one of the most important breeding procedures. Therefore, in order to determine the most yielding bread wheat genotypes, identification of the traits effective on seed and protein yield as well as parents of the best crosses, an experiment was conducted during 2013-14. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Bread wheat genotypes comprising Parsi and Sirvan cultivars along with 18 lines were used in this experiment. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among genotypes for traits like spike height, plant height, days to maturity, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, protein yield and percentage, number of spikes and grain filling rate. Coefficient of variation revealed considerable genetic variation for these traits. Correlation, step-wise regression and path analysis designated that grain filling rate and grain filling duration were the efficient indirect selection criteria to improve seed yield genetically.

15.    ATANU SENI* AND A. K. SAHOO [Biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) on papaya, parthenium and brinjal plants]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 722-727 (2015). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : atanupau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, on two potted plants papaya (Carica papaya L.) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Mealybugs were able to develop, survive and reproduce on all three hosts; however, there were differences in the life history parameters. Adult females that developed on papaya emerged one day, two days earlier than those that developed on brinjal and parthenium plant, respectively. Mode of reproduction was sexual. Pre-reproductive and reproductive periods of the females were little lower on papaya plant 4.7±0.71 and 6.2±0.82 day, respectively, than other two host plants. Female : male ratio was maximum on brinjal (2.57 : 1) and this ratio was almost near to mealybug reared on parthenium plant (2.54 : 1). Mean fecundity of 291± 33.31 eggs on papaya was higher than on the other two plant species.

16.    R. K. Gangwar*, Ashok Bhatnagar and R. K. Sharma [Management of white grub in groundnut growing under arid and semi-arid regions of India]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 728-733 (2015). Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chomu-303 702, Jaipur (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : gangwarrakesh@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

White grub (Holotrichia consanguinea Blanch.) has been reported to be a serious impediment for getting optimum yield of groundnut. The performance of nine insecticides as seed dresser and eight insecticides and a combination of two insecticides in the standing crop were evaluated in groundnut against white grub during kharif 2013 and 2014. The pooled analysis of seed treatment revealed the minimum cumulative plant mortality (4.98%) due to white grub, maximum protection over control (88.61%) and maximum pod yield (26.98 q/ha) in clothianidin 50 WDG at 3 g/kg seed. It was followed by imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 4 ml/kg seed (5.87%, 86.57% and 26.45 q/ha, respectively). Both the treatments were at par with each other and found significantly superior to other treatments. The lower doses of clothianidin 50 WDG and imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 2 g/kg and 3 ml/kg seed, respectively, showed significantly lesser plant mortality, higher protection over control and pod yield in comparison to other treatments and control. The pooled analysis of standing crop trials showed the minimum cumulative plant mortality (9.20%) due to white grub, maximum protection over control (79.50%) and maximum pod yield (25.92 q/ha) in quinalphos 25 EC at 2500 ml+imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 350 ml/ha. This consortium was found to be significantly superior to all the other treatments. The next best performance was given by imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 500 ml/ha (plant mortality 11.40% and pod yield 24.68 q/ha), imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 350 ml/ha (plant mortality 12.35% and pod yield 24.17 q/ha) and clothianidin 50 WDG at 300 g/ha (plant mortality 12.98% and pod yield 22.55 q/ha).

17.    R. C. MATHURIA*, VAIBHAV K. SINGH, ROBIN GOGOI, U. D. SINGH AND RASHMI AGGARWAL [Inheritance of stem rust resistance in Indian bread wheat cultivars]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 734-741 (2015). Wheat Pathology Laboratory, Division of Plant Pathology Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR), New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : rcm.path@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Four Indian bread wheat cultivars viz., DL788-2, GW322, Raj3765 and UP2425 were genetically analyzed against three selected pathotypes 21 (9G5), 40A (62G29) and 117A (36G2) of Puccinia graminis tritici at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The segregation pattern in seedlings of F2 derived from crosses with Agra Local as susceptible parent showed the presence of three dominant independent genes for stem rust resistance in DL788-2 and Raj 3765, and two dominant independent genes in each GW322 and UP2425 when analyzed with pathotype 21 (9G5).  These findings were supported by segregation of F2 seedlings of reciprocal crosses (AL x parent), in same pattern and reconfirmed by analyses of BC1 and BC2 progenies to test pathotypes. The F2 seedlings of all the diallele crosses did not segregate for susceptibility to pathotype 21 (9G5). It indicated that resistance gene(s) may be common in test cultivars, however, some of the diallele crosses showed segregation to pathotypes 40A (62G29) and 117A (36G2) showing dissimilarity of resistance.Genes Sr24in DL788-2, Sr11 in GW 322 and Sr31in UP2425 were validated based on pedigree and infection types of cultivars, and confirmed by test of allelism. An adult plant resistance gene Sr2was also identified in all these test cultivars based on mottling effect in the seedlings.

18.    VAIBHAV K. SINGH*, R. C. MATHURIA, G. P. SINGH, P. K. SINGH, SANJAY SINGH, R. GOGOI AND RASHMI AGGARWAL [Characterization of yellow rust resistance genes by using gene postulation and assessment of adult plant resistance in some Indian wheat genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 742-751 (2015). Wheat Pathology Laboratory, Division of Plant Pathology ICAR–Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail: dr.singhvaibhav@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici is an important constraint to wheat production worldwide. Host resistance is the most economicalway to manage yellow rust. Race-specific resistance is short-lived and overcome by the evolution of new races of the pathogens. However, non-race-specific, or quantitative resistance, controlled by many genes and effective at the adult plant stage, is generally considered to be more durable and long-lasting. Such type of resistance should be of primary interest to wheat breeders around the world. With this background,old wheat genotypes/cultivars were evaluated against different pathotypes of Puccinia striiformis for resistance at both the seedling and adult plant stages. By applying the gene matching technique, three yellow rust resistance genes viz., Yr2, Yr9 and Yr18 were postulated. Adult plant resistancewas assessed through host response and epidemiological parameters i. e. final rust severity, relative area under rust progress curve, coefficient of infection and infection rate. Promising adult plant resistance was observed on the cultivars DBW 17, DBW 71, PDW 314, HS 507, VL 804, VL 829, VL 907, HPW 251, HPW 349, HD 2967, HD 2985, HD 3043, HD 3086, PBW 660, C 306, HI 1563, WH 1021, WH 1080 and Raj 4083 consistently during rabi seasons of 2013-15. All these promising yellow rust resistant cultivars at adult plant stage were susceptible at seedling stage to one or more pathotype(s) of yellow rust, which indicated the presence of adult plant resistance.At seedling stage, adult plant resistance gene Yr18 was characterized in eight cultivars, namely, HS 277, VL 804, VL 829, HD 2733, NI 5439, NIAW 34, PBW 175 and C 306 where, it occurred in combination with other genes in the seven cultivars. All these wheat cultivars exhibited effective adult plant resistance.

19.    RUDRAGOUDA F. CHANNAGOUDA* AND H. B. BABALAD [Impact of organic farming practices on quality parameters of cotton]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 752-756 (2015). Krishi Vigyan Kendra Babbur Farm, Tq. Hiriyur-577 598, Dist. Chitradurga (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : rfc1234@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was carried out at MARS, Dharwad during kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the effect of organic farming practices on quality parameters of cotton. The results of the two years’ pooled data revealed that combined application of compost (50%)+vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF recorded significantly higher values of ginning per cent (34.26%), uniformity ratio (45.62%) and lower fibre fineness (3.71 g) over FYM @ 5 t/ha+RDF integrated application of compost (50%)+vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF+gliricidia GLM with surface application of jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha recorded significantly more fibre length (35.62 mm), ginning per cent (34.60%) and lower fibre fineness (3.63 g) over RDF alone and FYM+RDF.

20.    R. Anitha*, P. Christy Nirmala Mary, N. Sritharan and R. S. Purushothaman [Effect of ascorbic acid for alleviation of salt stress in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 757-763 (2015). Sugarcane Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cuddalore-607 001 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : anithasrs2014@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of exogenous application of ascorbic acid on growth and associated biochemical parameters in sugarcane cultivars CoC 24 and C 260628 under salt stress. In this study, ascorbic acid was applied at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mM in the hydroponic solution containing NaCl salts along with control. The morphological parameters nitrate reductase activity, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and peroxidase) were recorded. The presence of NaCl salt reduced the growth of the plant and also affected the physiological activities. The application of ascorbic acid not only mitigated the inhibitory effects of salt stress but also induced a stimulatory effect on certain growth parameters. However, in this study, application of 1.0 mM ascorbic acid proved to be better option in mitigating the adverse effects on salinity.

21.    Ahmad Reza Golparvar*, Mohammad Mehdi Gheisari, Davood Naderi, Ali Mehras Mehrabi, Amin Hadipanah AND SAEED SALEHI [Diversity of chemical components of Denaian thyme (Thymus daenensis Celak.) collected from Semirom Province, Iran]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 764-767 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Denaian thyme is scientifically named as Thymus daenensis Celak., which belongs to Lamiaceae family. The Mediterranean region can be described as the center of the genus. Thyme is one of most important medicinal plants that was used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics and hygienic industries in most of developed countries. Thymus species have strong antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, spasmolytic and antioxidant activities. Breeding programmes need to identify the best land races as base population. Existence sufficient genetic diversity also is important in selection the superior individual amongst. In the present study,  the dried aerial parts of plant analyzed by using GC/MS. The nineteen compounds were identified in dried aerial parts. The major components were g-Terpinene (42.35%), Thymol (14.18%), a-Thujene (10.74%), linalool (5.42%), Borneol (2.48%), a-Terpine (1.54%) and Carvacrol (1.07%). This land race was collected from Isfahan province having high amount of g-Terpinene and Thymol so is promising population for breeding programmes via selection to improve medicinal value of this important medicinal plant.

22.    Suraj Kala* and U. K. Varshney [Effect of NaCl salt stress on the proline and ascorbic acid content of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 768-771 (2015). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : Surajkala1986@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Biochemical changes in leaves of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) genotypes viz., GI-2, HI-96, PB-80 and HI-5 were studied under salt stress at different EC levels viz., control (without salt), 5 and 10 dS/m of nutrient supplemented NaCl salt solutions in sand filled polythene bags. The results revealed a significant increase in proline with increase of salt stress. Maximum accumulation of proline was found in the genotype GI-2, while minimum in the genotype PB-80. Ascorbic acid content significantly declined with increasing EC levels. Reduction in ascorbic acid content was maximum in the genotype PB-80 and minimum in GI-2. These findings indicate higher tolerance of genotype GI-2 and higher sensitivity of the genotype PB-80 to salt stress among all the genotypes studied.

23.    Xueqin XU, Xiaolan LI*, Haijiang JIA and Zhiyan CHEN [Correlation between mineral elements in soil with chemical composition and smoking quality of tobacco]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 772-779 (2015). China Tobacco Guangxi Industrial Co. Ltd., Nanning-530 001, China *(e-mail : xiaolan-dg@163.com)

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the content of mineral elements Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in tobacco-planting soils and tobacco leaves from Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, etc. Six main tobacco-producing areas in China aimed at analyzing the correlation between mineral elements and main chemical components and smoking quality. The linear regression and multiple regression equation about chemical composition and the smoking quality were established. Correlation analysis indicated that there was certain degree of synergistic or antagonistic relationship between contents of mineral elements in tobacco-planting soils and contents of corresponding elements in tobacco leaves. Among mineral elements, magnesium and potassium were found most influencing to the smoking quality of tobacco. Based on the actual situation of mineral contents in soils from different tobacco-producing areas, contents of various elements in tobacco leaves should be regulated by soil fertilization and foliar spraying, thereby improving the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco.

24.    ANUJA KUMARI*, PRADEEP KUMAR JOSHI, MOHAMMED MOHSIN, MAHESH CHANDER ARYA and ZAKWAN AHMED [Effects of nitrogen and sulphur on false flax (Camelina sativa cv. calena)–A biofuel crop]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 780-786 (2015). Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) Research and Development Center (RDC), Plot No. 01, Him Parisar Sector 37-A, Defence R & D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Chandigarh-160 036, India *(e-mail : anuja.hort@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

False flax [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], as low cost feed stock for biofuels purpose belongs to Brassicacea family, has recently drawn the attention, resulting in the planning of large cultivation in India and other countries and hence the need to optimize its production. An experiment was conducted for two consecutive years in winter seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Field Station–Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India. Field trials were designed in split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots were nitrogen (N) (Urea, 46% N) including 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha and sub-plots were sulphur (S) (Gypsum, 16% S) including 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha. Statistical interpretation at P<0.05 revealed that different levels of N and S significantly affected the Camelina productivity. Both the N and S at lower dose increased the yield components viz., branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod, test seed weight, yield and oil content. The combination of N with S fertilization significantly affected the pods/plant, 1000-seed mass, yield and oil content as well as oil recovery. Thus, the combined fertilization of 40 kg N/ha and 20 kg S/ha was found considerably superior and produced the highest seed yield of 795.45 kg/ha, oil yield of 314.962 l/ha of Camelina and was recommended for higher production and oil enhancement.

25.    Xue Shi*, Hong-sheng Wu, Ji Li, Qian-qi Ren, Ming-yan Wang, Ya-dong Liu, Tian-yu Wu and Song-hua Xiao** [Influences of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton plants on defense proteins and the growth of conventional parental cotton (Zhong 1423-6)]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 787-791 (2015). Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing-210 044, China *(e-mail : wuhsglobe@sina.com; **njxsh@sina.com)

ABSTRACT

A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate possible adverse impacts of transgenic cotton on ecosystems and the environment via effects of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on the growth and defense enzymes activity of conventional parental cotton (Zhong 1423-6). Results indicated elevated defense enzymes activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to controls, increases were 7.5 to 9.9% for catalase (CAT), 27.5 to 86.3% for peroxidase (POD), 1.3 to 5.4% for superoxidative dismutase (SOD) and 1.8 to 5.8 fold for ascorbate specific peroxidase (APX). However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that the cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants posed little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions.

26.    SHRADDHA BHATT AND ANITA SINGH* [Estimation of micronutrient content in seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer]. Res. on Crops 16 (4) : 792-795 (2015). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : anitasingh79@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fenugreek is of utmost importance due to its high nutritive value,medicinal properties and industrial uses. The present investigation aims at the estimation of some micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, manganese and copper from seeds of fenugreek genotypes using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty-four genotypes of fenugreek along with two standard checks, namely, Pant Ragini and Pusa Early Bunchingwere collected from different parts of India andmicronutrient contents of each genotype were determined at G. B. P. U. A. & T. Laboratory, Pantnagar. PFG-20 was richest in iron and manganese content among all genotypes. The lowest zinc content was found in Pant Ragini, while the maximum zinc content was found in PFG-8. Highest content of copper was found in PFG-2 (1.23±0.017 mg/100 g) followed by PFG-4 (1.11±0.015 mg/100 g), whereas minimum copper content was found in PFG-9 (0.58±0.008 mg/100 g).

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