Volume 16, No. 3 (September) 2015

By | October 8, 2015

1.BASHARI IBRAHIM BASHARI, TANG QIYUAN, CUI TING, WANG XIAOMIN AND NEWTON K. AMAGLO [Effect of extreme temperatures at different stages during grain filling on rice seed weight and germination and its regulations]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 365-377 (2015). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China

 

Abstract

A series of studies were carried out in chamber room to investigate the injury mechanism under extreme temperature and at different grain filling stages with foliar application of plant growth regulators (Abscisic acid–ABA and salicylic acid–SA) on the rice cultivar Huanghuazhan. Grain filling rate and grain weight were measured as yield components, while seed germination rate, germination index and seed vigour index were measured as seed quality indices. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and active oxygen resistance activity were also analyzed. The results showed that the rate of grain filling and grain weight were significantly reduced under the extreme temperature conditions and at higher concentrations of the plant growth regulators. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased and decreased among treatments, while malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high. Maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and the potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fo) also decreased under high temperature stress, whilst it increased and decreased under low temperature stress among treatments.

2.Suborna Roy Choudhury, and Md. Rtion Chowdhury [Moderation of green-house gas emission from rice-based cropping system to combat the effect of climate change]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 378-388 (2015). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

Abstract

Rice agriculture interventions contribute towards the green-house gas (GHGs) emission responsible for global warming that put forward changes in climatic variables. Efforts should be made to reduce GHGs emission for restraining global warming. Keeping this in view, a field experiment was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of different management practices for mitigating the green-house gases emission from rice-based cropping sequence in strip plot design with two main plots (M1 : Direct seeded rice with drum seeder followed by seed drilling greengram and M2 : Transplanted rice followed by broadcasted greengram) and five sub-plots (S1 : 100% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through inorganic sources, S2 : 75% of RDF through inorganic sources+25% N of RDF through organic sources, S3 : 50% of RDF through inorganic sources+50% N of RDF through organic sources, S4 : 25% of RDF through inorganic sources+75% N of RDF through organic sources and S5 : 100% of RDF through organic sources) with three replications at Kalyani, Nadia under New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal, India. After conducting two years of experiment (2011-12 and 2012-13), it was found that the DSR at kharif emitted lower CH4 (1.137 mg/m2/h), CO2 (1.0 mg/m2/h) and N2O (0.33 mg/m2/h) at the maturity stage of rice. Furthermore, boro rice was lower emitter of these GHGs than that from kharif rice. Lowest emission of CH4 and CO2 with the values of 1.062 and 0.172 mg/m2/h, respectively, from boro rice and 1.603 and 1.122 mg/m2/h from kharif rice was observed under 100% RDF through inorganic fertilization, whereas N2O emission was just reverse to emission of CH4 and CO2. Crop establishment through minimum soil disturbance along with 25% supplementation of inorganic fertilizer though organics could be an option to lower down GHGs emission.

3. SUBHASH BABU, RAGHAVENDRA SINGH, R. K. AVASTHE, G. S. YADAV, TIRTHA KUMARI CHETTRI AND C. D. PHEMPUNADI [Effect of organic nitrogen sources on growth, yield, quality, water productivity and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different planting methods in mid-hills of Sikkim Himalayas]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 389-400 (2015). ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, Tadong, Gangtok-737 102 (Sikkim), India

Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of organic sources of nitrogen on growth, yield, water productivity and economics of rice under different methods of planting in hilly ecosystems of north-east India, an experiment was carried out in kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that SRI recorded significantly higher values for all growth parameters (plant height, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, flag leaf length, tillers/m2, root volume and root dry weight), yield attributing characters (productive tillers/m2, panicle length, grains/panicle, filled grains/panicle and test weight), water productivity (kg grain/m3 of water), grain yield and economics over the CP. This caused 36.84 and 29.41, 34 and 28, 60.0 and 55.3% improvement in water productivity, grain yield and net returns over the CP during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Among the organic sources of nitrogen, application of 25% RDN through FYM+25% RDN through VC+25% RDN through PM+25% RDN through MC significantly enhanced the growth, yield attributing characters, water productivity (0.26 and 0.23 kg of grain/water m3), grain yield (3.53 and 3.41 t/ha), net returns (88 x 103 and 83 x 103 Rs./ha) and B : C ratio (1.84 and 1.74) in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

4. S. R. Imade, J. D. Thanki and N. N. Gudadhe [Integrated effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on productivity, NPK uptake and profitability of transplanted rice]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 401-405 (2015). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450, District Navsari (Gujarat), India

Abstract

An experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) during kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013 on transplanted rice under rice-greengram cropping sequence in randomized block design with five treatments replicated four times. The treatment imparted to rice crop was integrated nutrient management viz., T1–General RDF (RDF : 100-30-00 kg N-P-K/ha+FYM @ 10 t/ha), T2–75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through biocompost, T3–75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through vermicompost, T4–75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through FYM and T5–Control. On the basis of pooled mean, the results indicated that application of general RDF (RDF+FYM @ 10 t/ha) recorded significantly highest grain and straw yields of rice as well as total NPK uptake by rice (grain and straw) than other treatments followed by 75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through vermicompost. However, maximum net returns and benefit ratio were noted with the application of 75% RDN through chemical fertilizer+25% RDN through biocompost followed by general RDF (RDF+FYM @ 10 t/ha).

5. SHEEJA K. RAJ AND ELIZABETH K. SYRIAC [Bio-efficacy of penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl 6% OD, a new pre-mix herbicide mixture for weed control in direct seeded puddled irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 406-415 (2015). Department of Agronomy K. A. U. College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695 522 (Kerala), India

Abstract

The field experiments were conducted during kharif and rabi 2014 to study the efficacy of pre-mix herbicide mixture penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl for weed control in direct seeded puddled rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised four different doses of penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl 6% OD viz., 120, 125, 130 and 135 g a. i./ha, bispyribac sodium 10% SE 25 g a. i./ha, penoxsulam 24 SC 22.5 g a. i./ha, hand weeding twice and weedy check. On 30 days after sowing (DAS) weed flora comprised sedges (53.91%), broad leaf weeds (37.88%) and grasses (8. 2%) and on 60 DAS weed flora constituted sedges (53.15%), broad leaf weeds (BLW) (34.66%) and grasses (12.19%). The dominant weed species present in the experimental field were Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.) Palla, Cyperus iria L. and Cyperus difformis L. among sedges; Isachne miliaceae Roth among grasses and Ludwigia perennis, Limnocharis flava (L.) Buch., Marsilea quadrifoliata L. and Bergia carpensis L. among broad leaf weeds. Pre-mix herbicide mixture, penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl was found to be effective in reducing the density and dry weight of weeds at 30, 45 and 60 DAS. Among the doses, higher doses of penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl (130 and 135 g a. i./ha) were found to be more effective in reducing the dry weight with a weed control efficiency of 97.34 and 98.31%, respectively. Higher growth and better expression of yield attributes were registered for these treatments. Adoption of weed control measures enhanced the grain yield from 4.26 to 8.46 t/ha. All the tested doses of penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl recorded higher grain yield compared to hand weeding, penoxsulam and bispyribac sodium applied alone. Application of penoxsulam +cyhalofop butyl at its higher dose (135 g a. i./ha) recorded the highest grain yield which was on a par with its lower dose 130 g a. i./ha. The highest gross returns and B : C ratio were also recorded by these treatments. Bispyribac sodium was found to be less effective in reducing the density and dry weight of sedges resulting in lesser yield and B : C ratio compared to penoxsulam in the present study. Hand weeding recorded the lowest gross returns and B : C ratio among the weed control treatments. The study concludes that better broad spectrum control of weeds can be achieved by the post-emergence application of herbicide mixture penoxsulam+cyhalofop butyl on 15 DAS. The selection of herbicide and dose should depend on the target weed species in an area.

6. Nahid Afrin, Md. Sultan Uddin Bhuiya, Md. Romij Uddin, Md. Shahidul Haque Bir and Kee Woong Park [Combined effect of herbicides on the weed management of rice]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 416-421 (2015). Department of Agronomy Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

Abstract

An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh between December 2013 to May 2014. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the combined effect of herbicides on the weed management of rice. The experiment consisted of two varieties, BR 14 (Gazi) and BRRI dhan 28 along with nine different weed management treatments such as weedy check, the recommended dose of Manage 10 WP, recommended dose of Polifit 500 EC, 70% of Manage+20% of Polifit, 20% of Manage+70% of Polifit, 60% of Manage+20% of Polifit, 20% of Manage+60% of Polifit, 50% of Manage+20% of Polifit and 20% of Manage+50% of Polifit. Twelve weed species belonging to five families infested the experimental plots. In the BR14 Variety at 20, 40 and 60 days after transplanting (DAT), lower weed population/m2 and weed dry weight (g/m2), but higher weed control efficiencies of 65.52, 60.35 and 66.98% were realized, respectively. The recommended dose of Polifit 500 EC treatment resulted in the lowest weed population and weed dry weight as well as the highest weed control efficiency of 83.45, 84.93 and 87.07% at 20, 40 and 60 DAT, respectively. Therefore, to control weeds in an effective manner and in order to get the optimum grain yield in boro rice, an application of Polifit 500 EC should be applied.

7. Brijesh Kumar, Avinash Tiwari, Y. S. Saharawat, and Andrew J. McDonald [Proline content as a stress indicator to quantify conservation agriculture effect in wheat crop]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 422-431 (2015). Cereal System Initiatives for South Asia (CSISA) ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India

Abstract

The field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage, crop residue retention and crop rotationon proline concentration in flag leaves of wheat as an important factor influencing future grain quality and yield during the grain filling period. Conservation agriculture (CA) is widely adopted by the farmers but due to remaining uncertainties about its effects on quality crop yield, needs to be explained through study of physiological performance. This study, carried out over two consecutive wheat growth seasons (rabi seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14), examined how environmental factor particular soilwhich was influenced by agricultural management, broughtto alter physiological contents in leaves of wheat during grain filling period. Proline accumulation decreased significantly from conventional agricultural practices (scenario 1) to conservation agricultural practices (scenario 3). There were significant differences occurred between all three scenarios of agricultural management. The lowest average proline concentration in two consecutive years was found 10.97 (µg proline/fresh weight) in flag leaves of wheat during grain filling stage grown under conservation agriculture practices, while highest concentration was found 33.97, grown in conventional agricultural practices. It was concluded that proline was reliable biomarker of the environmental stress imposed on crop, thus allowing us to establish stress onsets for quality yield of conservation agriculture grown wheat.

8. MADHULIKA PANDEY, THAKAR SINGH* AND J. S. KANG [Competitive indices of bed planted wheat based intercropping systems as influenced by row orientations and different intercrops]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 432-437 (2015). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

Abstract

The field experiments were conducted on bed planted wheat in a split-plot design with four replications at the Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during rabi seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14. The main plot treatments involved two orientations of sowing viz., north-south and east-west direction. Each main plot was divided into five sub-plots to allocate the intercropping system with wheat i. e. wheat+spinach, wheat+fenugreek, wheat+oats fodder, wheat+canola and wheat+linseed along with sole crops. The treatment differences were studied intensively in light of the various intercropping competitive indices. Raising the crop in east-west row orientation resulted in maximum productivity, monetary as well as intercropping advantage as compared to north-south row orientation. Among the intercropping systems, wheat+oats fodder was found to be the most effective to achieve the best land utilization, maximum productivity, monetary as well as intercropping advantage under the irrigated conditions of north India.

9. D. D. Tiwari, N. K. Katiyar and S. B. Pandey [Effect of stabilized-n fertilizer (SNT) use on yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 438-441 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : nirmalkatiyar83@gmail.com)

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted during rabi 2010-11 and 2011-12 with wheat as a test crop using different SNT urea at Fertilizer Research Station, UttariPura of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of different SNT urea on yield, nutrients uptake and quality of wheat (PBW-343). The use of different SNT urea (46%) at 100% local rate significantly increased grain and straw yield of wheat over T3. Urea (46%) at 100% local rate highest yield grain 5460 kg/ha and straw 9349 kg/ha were recorded with urea (46%) SNT-C (46%) at 100% local rate.The yield attributes increased with the use of different SNT urea over plain urea and highest value was noted with T6. The NPK uptake and per cent protein in wheat grain also significantly increased with the application of different SNT urea over plain urea and higher values were recorded with T6.

10. D. D. Tiwari, S. B. Pandey and N. K. Katiyar [Influence of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer use on yield, nutrient uptake and soil quality under maize-wheat sequence in Uttar Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 442-446 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to study the impact of stabilized N fertilizer on yield, nutrient uptake and soil quality under maize-wheat cropping sequence at Fertilizer Research Farm, Uttaripura, Kanpur Nagar (U. P.), Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur during 2010-11 and 2011-12. Results indicated that grain and straw yield of maize-wheat significantly increased with the use of different urea A Lab over (T1) urea lab 8041 (plain urea). Significant increase in yield of maize-wheat was also noted within each urea A Lab up to urea A Lab 8044. The highest grain yield of maize and wheat was noted 33.15 and 56.75 q/ha, respectively, with urea A Lab 8045 (T6). The per cent response in grain of maize-wheat at T6 over T2 was noted (6.75 and 10.25 q/ha) with corresponding per cent response 25.56 and 22.04, respectively. Nutrient uptake (NPK) also significantly increased with various urea A Lab over urea Lab (T2). Protein content in both maize and wheat positively responded with the use of different urea A Lab over urea Lab. The response of various urea A Lab 100% was almost at par with 125% urea Lab 8046 (plain urea).

11. Neelam Sharma, Nitasha Thakur, Pankaj Chopra, Suresh Kumar and Dinesh Badiyala [Evaluation of metsulfuron methyl and clodinafop alone and in combination with other herbicides against weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 447-455 (2015). Department of Agronomy Forages and Grassland Management CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

Abstract

A field investigation was carried out during rabi seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Palampur with nine treatments comprising three doses of metsulfuron methyl (2, 4 and 8 g/ha), two doses of clodinafop (60 and 120 g/ha), two combinations i. e. clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha and isoproturon+2,4-D 1.0+0.5 kg/ha and weedy check to evaluate their performance against mixed weed flora in wheat. Experimental field was mostly infested with grassy weeds with Phalaris minor as the most dominant weed constituting 48.03% of total weed flora. Lolium temulentum, Avena fatua and Vicia sativa were the other important weeds. Among different herbicides, clodinafop 120 g/ha being statistically alike with its lower dose i. e 60 g/ha resulted in significantly lower count of grassy weeds viz., P. minor, L. temulentum, A. fatua at 90 and 120 DAS. Combination of clodinafop+ metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha was the next best in this regard. Same herbicide i. e. clodinafop120 g/ha recorded significantly lower dry matter of all these grassy weeds at both the stages of observation. However, clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha was at par with it for reducing the dry matter of A. fatua at both the stages of observation and P. minor and L. temulentum at 120 DAS and also with clodinafop 60 g/ha for L. temulentum at both stages and for A. ludoviciana and P. minor at 90 and 120 DAS, respectively. Among different herbicides, tank mix application of clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha and isoproturon+2,4-D 1.0+0.5 kg/ha being at par with metsulfuron methyl 4 and 8 g/ha resulted in recording significantly lower weed count and dry matter of V. sativa and Anagallis arvensis at both stages of observation. Similarly, both these tank mixtures at both the stages and clodinafop 60 and 120 g/ha at 120 DAS being at par with each other were significantly superior for controlling other weeds. Tank mix application of clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha being at par with clodinafop 60 and 120 g/ha resulted in recording significantly lower weed count and weed dry matter of total weeds. Clodinafop applied at either 60 or 120 g/ha being at par with both combinations of herbicides i. e. clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha and isoproturon+2,4-D 1.0+0.5 kg/ha produced significantly higher grain, straw and biological yield of wheat. Clodinafop 60 g/ha was the best in recording highest net returns of Rs. 29385/ha with B : C ratio of 1.21, followed by clodinafop+metsulfuron methyl 60+4 g/ha and isoproturon+2, 4-D 1.0+0.5 kg/ha having net returns of Rs. 29364 and 28386/ha, respectively, with similar B : C ratio of 1.19.

12. Sanjay Singh Chouhan, M. K. Awasthi, R. K. Nema and L. D. Koshta [Effect of dripper spacing on yield and water productivity of wheat under drip irrigation]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 456-464 (2015). Department of Soil and Water Engineering Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004 (M. P.), India

Abstract

The present investigation has the priority on emphasizing and description of the engineering design criteria to evaluate and determine the suggested alternative irrigation system and technique and its effect on yields as well as possibility of enhancing water productivity of wheat crop under clay loam soils of Indian agriculture. It was conducted at the research farm of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M. P.), for two consecutive rabi seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14. To achieve the objectives of this study, wheat (GW-273) was cropped with three lateral spacings i. e. T1–60 cm, T2–80 cm and T3–100 cm, and three dripper spacings S1–30 cm, S2–40 cm and S3–50 cm in three replications under a split plot design. Based on present study with all statistical analysis and economical gain, a drip system may satisfactorily be installed for wheat crop with “Excellent” category of performance viz., coefficient of manufacture variation (1.20-1.43), coefficient of emitter flow variation (0.75-1.45), emission uniformity (98.8), Christiansen’s uniformity (1.00) and statistical coefficient of uniformity (98.6-98.8) for at least two consecutive years and 60 cm lateral spacing with 50 cm dripper spacing may be recommended for wheat crop which may result in 46.36 q/ha of wheat with use of 32.3 cm irrigation depth. The yield obtained in supervised pipe irrigation was 39.82 q/ha with water use of 43.0 cm. Thus, drip irrigation as recommended may improve yield by 16.42% and save water by 25%.

13. SADHANA R. BABAR, S. BHASKAR, JAYWANT ARAKERI, M. UDAYAKUMAR AND S. KUMARASWAMY [Soil moisture content, water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity as influenced by different methods and levels of irrigation in baby corn (Zea mays L.) grown under polyhouse and open field condition]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 465-471 (2015). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of different methods and levels of irrigation on soil moisture content, water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity of baby corn under polyhouse and open field conditions for consecutive two years (kharif 2013 and 2014). The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with irrigation methods such as surface and sub-surface drip irrigation under polyhouse and open condition as main plots and scheduling of irrigation based on Epan ratios of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 as sub-plots. Gravimetric soil moisture content recorded at regular intervals varied significantly due to methods of irrigation at two different depths. It was significantly higher in surface method of irrigation at 0-15 cm depth and in sub-surface method of irrigation at 15-30 cm depth. Among levels, irrigation scheduled at 1.0 Epan recorded 21 and 20% higher moisture content over 0.6 Epan at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth, respectively. Green cob and fodder yields were significantly higher in open field condition under sub-surface drip fertigation (12.28 and 58.99 t/ha, respectively) compared to surface drip fertigation. Under polyhouse condition, due to low light availability the yields were significantly less as baby corn being a C4 plant requires high light. The increase in water use efficiency and water productivity for economic yield under open field condition was 15.9 and 16.6% over polyhouse condition, respectively.

14. P. M. Shanmugam [Productive and profitable bio-intensive complementary cropping systems]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 472-478 (2015). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted during 2011-14 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to identify the appropriate bio-intensive complementary cropping systems for irrigated uplands of Tamil Nadu. The experiments were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Among the different cropping systems tested, onion-cotton-maize cropping system produced significantly higher cotton equivalent yield of 5407 kg/ha and it was comparable with greengram-cotton+sunnhemp-sunflower (5116 kg/ha) and fodder sorghum-cotton+onion+sunnhemp-lablab cropping (5034 kg/ha) systems. This system also recorded higher production efficiency (16.38 kg/ha/day) and economic efficiency (561 Rs./ha/day), which indicates the need for integration of vegetable crops due to higher per day productivity over the other crops. The higher B : C ratio (3.18) and sustainability yield index (SYI) (0.98) were registered in onion-cotton-maize cropping system. The higher water use efficiency (WUE) was noticed in onion-cotton-maize cropping system (3.28 kg/ha/mm). Green manuring of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) improved organic carbon, available N, P and K level of the respective cropping sequence over the others.

15. S. M. HIREMATH and M. H. HOSAMANI [Influence of balanced fertilization on productivity and nutrient use efficiency of maize (Zea mays)-chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cropping system]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 479-484 (2015). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment conducted during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Gadag, Karnataka, India to study on-farm response of maize (Zea mays)-chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cropping system to fertilizers NPK input revealed that application of 150 kg N, 75 kg P2O5, 37.5 kg K2O and 25 kg ZnSO4/ha to maize and 25 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 and 15 kg ZnSO4 /ha to chickpea recorded significantly higher grain and stover/haulm yields. Maize-grain equivalent yield, net returns, benefit : cost ratio and total NPK uptake by maize-wheat cropping system (203.14 kg/ha) were recorded over rest of the treatments. This treatment also recorded the maximum production efficiency (88.80 kg/ha/day) and nitrogen use efficiency (35.20 kg/kg) in maize and 49.36 kg/kg in chickpea. Response studies indicated that maximum response was noted with NPK+ZnSO4 in maize (12.89 kg/kg) and NPK in chickpea (7.73 kg/kg).

16. Bahram Majd Nassiry, Elham Tavakoli, Amir Masoumi and Elham Fiez [Effect of planting date and amount of seed on light distribution and interception through canola cultivars canopy]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 485-492 (2015). Young Researcher Club Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Now-a-days, success in plant inbreeding science to increase yield in a large extent depends on light distribution and utility’s management in plant canopy. Evidence shows that whatever the amount of light interception is more, both economical and biological function will increase, the more amount of light absorption, the more both economical and biological yield, but ration’s increase as economical yield as compared with biological yield in grain crops, such as canola is considered. Therefore, in a successful cultivation, firstly, the sufficient leaf area should be provided to absorb the maximum irradiance in the plant association and secondary this leaf area should be obtained in a much shorter time. Management’s actions in planting plants such as canola for its planting adornment, plant density and cultivation’s time should include these purposes too. To study the connection between planting time and bush density by light transmission and depreciation method in the plant canopy of canola spring cultivars, this study was performed in 2006, in the farm of investigative designs of Isfahan natural resources and agricultural research center in Kabootarabad Agricultural Research Station. Three canola spring cultivars were studied in three winter planting dates and each of them in three seed amounts in the form of split-factorial statistical design with four replications. Results showed that light absorption in all of the present depth for all the studied cultivars in planting date of 9th February was more than its sooner and later cultivation. RGS003 cultivar with absorption 725 w/m2 showed the most amount of light absorption in the flowering stage. With comparison of different bush densities, also in general, the most using density i. e. 12 kg seeds used in each hectare, was the light depreciation amount in the present depth. The ability of these three planted cultivars was in absorption of solar irradiation resulted from planted seed amount. The amount of bush dry weight and grain yield resulted from the total amount of light absorption and the share of upper and lower half of canopy resulted from various cultivars showed difference in this case. The effect of the planted seed amount on the extinctioncoefficient (K) was performed through producing differences in the leaf area index (LAI). The maximum amount of planting density in all the cultivars and in each of three studied planting dates was closer to the absorption potential of maximum light in the canopy.

17. D. D. Tiwari, N. K. Katiyar and S. B. Pandey [Effect of polysulphate on yield and quality of mustard and sesame in the central plain zone soils of Uttar Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 493-496 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

Abstract

Field experiments were carried out at Oilseed Research Farm, Kalyanpur, Kanpur with mustard variety Varuna and at Fertilizer Research Station, Uttaripura, Kanpur on sesame variety T-78 both under C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (India) during 2013-14 to evaluate the response of polysulphateon yield and quality of mustard and sesame. Results of the experiments revealed that use of polysulphate as a source of sulphur significantly increased grain and stover yield of both the crops up to 100% sulphur level. Oil content in both the crops also significantly enhanced due to use of polysulphate up to 100% level of sulphur through polysulphate. Maximum grain yield of mustard and sesame crops was 25.20 and 11.10 q/ha with oil content of 43.45 and 45.50%, respectively, under T5 [100% NP+100% S through polyphosphate (Balanced K through MOP to make 100% K)]. Polysulphate proved its superiority over gypsum at 100% level of sulphur used.

18. S. M. HIREMATH, AND M. H. HOSAMANI [On-farm response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cropping system to fertilizers NPK+FeSO4/ZnSO4 input]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 497-503 (2015). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment conducted during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Gadag, Karnataka, India to study on-farm response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cropping system to fertilizers NPK input revealed that application of 25 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 25 kg K2O and 25 FeSO4 kg/ha to groundnut and 50 kg N, 25 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O and 15 kg ZnSO4/ha to sorghum recorded significantly higher pod/grain and haulm/stover yields. Groundnut pod equivalent yield (1743 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 43,892/ha), benefit : cost ratio (4.58) and total NPK uptake (140.96 kg/ha) by groundnut-rabi sorghum cropping system were also higher in recommended dose of fertilizers (T6) over rest of the treatments. This treatment also recorded the maximum production efficiency (8.11kg/ha/day) and nitrogen use efficiency (32.24 kg/kg) in groundnut and 14.56 kg/kg in rabi sorghum. Response studies indicated that maximum response was noted with NP in groundnut (7.57 kg/kg) and NPK+ZnSO4 in sorghum (8.09 kg/kg).

19. Nisha S. Bhadauria and R. L. Rajput [Seed yield and nutrient uptake studies on clusterbean as influenced by mulching practices, varieties and nutrient management]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 504-508 (2015). College of Agriculture Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Race Course Road, Gwalior-474 002 (M. P.), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, Gwalior in M. P. during the rainy (kharif) seasons of 2013 and 2014 to study the seed yield and nutrient uptake studies on clusterbean as influenced by mulching practices, varieties and nutrient management. Results revealed that plastic mulch significantlyincreased the seed and stover yields as well as N, P and K uptake over the weed biomass mulch and no mulch. Variety HG-563 recorded significantly higher seed, stover yield, N, P and K uptake by seed, stover and total uptake as compared to RGC-1055. Among the fertility levels, application of 75% RDF+VC 5 t/ha resulted in significantly higher seed, stover yield, N, P and K uptake by seed, stover and total uptakeover all the remaining fertility levels.After harvest of crop, the available N, P and K in the soil increased in weed biomass mulch with RGC-1055 under 50% recommended dose of fertilizer+vermicompost 5 t/ha as compared to other treatments during both the years.

20. G. V. PRAJAPATI AND R. SUBBAIAH [Response of Bt cotton productivity to conjunctive stimulus of irrigation regimes and mulching]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 509-514 (2015). Centre of Excellence on Soil and Water Management, RTTC Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

Bt cotton is the major cash crop of Gujarat. Scarcity of groundwater, high evaporative conditions and deficient rainfall condition compelled farmers to adopt drip irrigation with mulch. Lack of knowledge on combined impact of drip irrigation regimes and mulch on water saving and its economy constrained mass adoptability of this technique. Keeping this in view, an experiment was conducted at Junagadh for two consecutive years (2012-13 and 2013-14) to assess the combined impact of irrigation regimes (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 ETc), mulch material (silver black plastic mulch, biodegradable plastic mulch and wheat straw mulch), and irrigation systems (drip and furrow) on yield of Bt cotton Hybrid-6. Split plot design with three treatment replications was adopted. Drip irrigation with silver black plastic mulch scheduled at 0.8 ETc yielded high morphological variables, yield attributes and WUE than other treatments accounted in the study. Drip without mulch outperformed than furrow irrigation system (4.82 kg/ha/mm). Seed cotton yield of drip with silver black plastic mulch was 2.1 folds over furrow method, 1.40 folds over drip irrigated cotton, 1.15 folds over biodegradable plastic mulch and 1.31 folds over wheat straw mulch at 0.8 ETc. The drip irrigation technique coupled with silver black plastic mulch improved the crop productivity. Highest benefit : cost ratio was 2.64 for silver black plastic mulch at 0.8 ETc. B : C ratio for wheat straw and drip irrigation without mulch were at par and furrowly (B : C ratio 1.60) grown cotton.

21. Sudeshna Baruah and Utpal Kotoky [Influence of prevailing temperature on regeneration and acclimatization of banana during macro-propagation]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 515-518 (2015). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam-785 013 (Assam), India

Abstract

Commercial cultivation of banana very often faces the problems of pests and diseases and scarcity of quality planting materials. Production of disease free planting material by tissue culture method requires high capital investment and skill and, therefore, is not readily practicable at farm level. Whereas mass multiplication of banana through macro-propagation is a farmer’s friendly method for disease free planting material generation at field level. The complete process of macro-propagation takes 5-7 months (including a hardening period of 45 days) for production of suckers ready for planting. The length of this period varies with the prevailing temperature at the time of planting of the corms for propagation and it is also necessary to produce the suckers as per the proper time of planting in the particular region. Planting the decapitated and decorticated corms, weighing 1-1.5 kg, in the month of October, taking sawdust containing Bacillus subtilis as initiation media and treating the corms with 40 ppm BAP results in production of 25-27 numbers of uniform tertiary suckers that are ready for field planting by the month of March-April, which is the recommended planting time for the state of Assam.

22. MUKESH KUMAR MEENA, D. D. SHARMA AND O. P. MEENA [Effect of different weed management practices on weed population, yield potential and nutrient status of peach cv. July Elberta]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 519-525 (2015). Department of Fruit Science Horticultural Research Station, Kandaghat Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 215 (H. P.) India

Abstract

The investigation was carried out in the experimental farm of Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H. P.) to see the effect of different weed management practices on weed population and yield potential of peach cv. July Elberta during the years 2012 and 2013. The experiment was laid out with 13 treatments in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The peach trees of cv. July Elberta were treated with different treatment combinations viz., T1 : Pendimethalin (1.0 kg/ha), T2 : Pendimethalin (1.5 kg/ha), T3 : Pendimethalin (2.0 kg/ha), T4 : Glyphosate (0.8 kg/ha), T5 : Glyphosate (1.6 kg/ha), T6 : Glyphosate (2.4 kg/ha), T7 : Pendimethalin (1.0 kg/ha) followed by glyphosate (0.8 kg/ha), T8 : Pendimethalin (1.5 kg/ha) followed by glyphosate (0.8 kg/ha), T9 : Pendimethalin (2.0 kg/ha) followed by glyphosate (0.8 kg/ha), T10 : Pendimethalin (2.0 kg/ha) followed by grass mulch, T11 : Grass mulch followed by glyphosate (0.8 kg/ha), T12 : Hand weeding at 30 days interval and T13 : Control. The results revealed that the treatment combination of grass mulch followed by two applications of glyphosate 0.8 kg/ha (first week of April and second mid-July) was found to be the best treatment for most of the characters among all the treatments and maximum weed control efficiency was registered in T9. Finally, the treatment T11 : Grass mulch followed by two sprays of glyphosate 0.8 kg/ha was found to be the most economical (B : C ratio 4.31:1) for fruit grower’s point of view.

23. U. A. Raut, S. G. Bharad and A. F. Bhogave [Effect of different types of cuttings and IBA levels on pomegranate cuttings]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 526-530 (2015). Commercial Fruit Nursery Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola- 444 104 (Maharashtra), India

Abstract

The present investigation was conducted at Commercial Fruit Nursery, College of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during three years (2010-13). The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized design, comprising two types of cuttings (semi-hardwood and hardwood) and different IBA concentrations (50, 100, 200, 2500, 5000 ppm IBA and control), replicated thrice. The results of three years pooled data revealed that hardwood cuttings had maximum sprouting (72.62) and success (55.42) percentage. Shoot and root length (21.50 and 20.30 cm, respectively) and number of shoots, number of leaves and number of roots per cutting (20.87, 68.45 and 26.34, respectively) were maximum in the same treatment. In case of different IBA levels, IBA 5000 ppm had higher success percentage (74.24), number of leaves per cutting (80.72) and root length (22.84 cm). However, IBA 2500 ppm recorded maximum sprouting percentage (75.25), shoot length (25.55 cm), number of shoots per cutting (28.33) and number of roots per cutting (31.59).

24. RAMULU, B. K. RAMACHANDRAPPA, A. SATHISH, MUDALAGIRIYAPPA AND H. V. NANJAPPA [Growth and yield of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) in agri-horti system]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 531-536 (2015). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

An investigation was carried out to assess the performance of custard apple (CA) in an intercropping system in alfisols of dryland at the All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore during kharif 2012 and 2013.The experiment consisted of 15 treatments viz., T1 : CA+Finger millet, T2 : CA+Fodder maize, T3 : CA+Field bean, T4 : CA+Niger, T5 : CA+Chilli, T6 : CA+Cowpea, T7 : CA+Foxtail millet, T8 : Finger millet, T9 : Fodder maize, T10 : Field bean, T11 : Niger, T12 : Chilli, T13 : Cowpea, T14 : Foxtail millet and T15 : Custard apple alone. Among these, custard apple alone recorded significantly higher plant height (197.7 cm), number of branches/plant (3.3), collar stem diameter (11.3 cm), canopy spread/plant (231.33), biomass (1675.4 kg/ha), leaf litter (315.7 kg/ha), number of fruits/plant (17.8), fruit weight (395 g), fruit size (102.4 cm), fruit volume (314.1 cc), total soluble solids (32.5%) and higher fruit yield (314.1 kg/ha) followed by custard apple intercropped with foxtail millet and cowpea.

25. U. A. Raut, G. G. Jadhav, A. F. Bhogave and M. S. Deshmukh [Effect of different IBA levels on air layering of karonda (Carissa carandas L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 537-541 (2015). Commercial Fruit Nursery, College of Horticulture Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola- 444 104 (Maharashtra), India

Abstract

The present investigation was conducted at Commercial Fruit Nursery, College of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during three years (2010-13). The study was undertaken with objectives to study the effect of different IBA levels on rooting and survival of karonda air layering and to find out the suitable IBA level for rooting and survival of karonda air layers. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design. The treatments consisted of six different levels of IBA (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 ppm) and one control, replicated thrice. The results of three years pooled data revealed that different levels of IBA had significant effect on root and shoot characters of karonda air layers. IBA 5000 ppm was effective with respect to minimum days for rooting (10.73 days), increased number of roots per layer (102.55), height of rooted layers (44.53 cm) and number of leaves (145.77). In addition, root to shoot ratio (1.17) and highest survival percentage (90.82%) were recorded in 5000 ppm IBA treatment. However, least values for these characters were associated with control treatment. IBA 6000 ppm was also found effective with respect to days required for rooting, rooting percentage and survival percentage next to IBA 5000 ppm treatment. Thus, it is worthwhile to use 5000 ppm IBA for commercial multiplication of karonda through air layering.

26. Bimal Das, K. Debnath, K. K. Sarkar, B. Priya and S. Mukherjee [Effect of different nanoparticles on germination and seedling growth in tomato]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 542-550 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Bidhan Chandra Krishi Visvavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

Abstract

Nanotechnology, the process to generate, manipulate and deploy nanomaterials, represents an area holding significant promise in agricultural scenario. The present experimental investigation demonstrated the effect of nano ZnO, P and Anatase–TiO2 (<100 nm size), particles on the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using local variety Patharkuchi. Tomato seeds were treated with different concentrations of nanoscale ZnO (0, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 14 ppm), P and TiO2 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) including control and their effect was studied on seed germination and seedling growth at 25 days. The experiment was conducted on RBD with three replications. Application of nZnO, P and TiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination and seedling growth for most of the treatments as compared with control. Based on biomass assay, it was found that the seedlings displayed good growth over control, demonstrating a positive effect of the nanoparticle treatment. The response to nano treatment on seed germination along with seedling growth suggested optimum dose limit on these characters and decreased concentration of the performance in highest concentration could be explained as toxic effect of nanoparticle. A significant positive effect on these parameters in different concentrations nanoparticle could be due to highly positive responses of nanoparticle on various seedling growth characteristics.

27. Sewali Saikia, Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar and Dhrubajyoti Nath [Effect of organic manure application on soil microbial and biochemical properties on gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus.) varieties under naturally ventilated greenhouse]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 551-554 (2015). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India

Abstract

Soil enzymes, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil biochemical properties were assessed to understand the influence of different growing media on black centered gerbera varieties under naturally ventilated greenhouse during 2012-13 to 2013-14. Three varieties viz., Batavia, Faith and Antibes were grown on five different growing media i. e. partially decomposed rice husk, vermicompost, enriched compost, soil-based biofertilizer and control. The experimental design was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The soil enzymes fluorescein di-acetate (FDA), phosphomonoesterase (PMEase) and dehydrogenase (DH) involved in energy flow and nutrient cycling showed significant higher activities under different growing media. Enriched compost demonstrated clear increase in FDA (7.42 µg fluorescein/g soil/h), PMEase (362.46 µg p-nitrophenol/g soil/h), DH (270.70 µg TPF/g soil/24 h) and MBC (226.39 µg/g soil) in gerbera. Maximum organic carbon (0.67%) accumulation was observed in enriched compost. Available N, P2O5 and K2O in soil were also increased in application of enriched compost.

28. K. M. Sellamuthu, R. Santhi, S. Maragatham and P. Dey [Balanced fertilizer prescription for glory lily through inductive-cum-targeted yield model on an alfisol]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 555-561 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Karnataka), India

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted on a Typic Rhodustalf (Palaviduthi soil series) soil of Southern Zone of Tamil Nadu by adopting the inductive-cum-targeted yield model, and fertilizer requirements were quantified for glory lily based on soil test and yield target. The basic parameters viz., nutrient requirement (NR) and contribution of nutrients from soil (Cs), fertilizer (Cf) and farm yard manure (Cfym) were computed from the field experimental data. Using the basic parameters, fertilizer prescription equations were developed based on integrated plant nutrition system (IPNS), and nomograms were formulated for desired yield target of glory lily for a range of soil test values. The extent of saving of inorganic fertilizers for glory lily was computed using the fertilizer prescription equations under IPNS. The estimates showed that for the application of FYM @ 12.5 t/ha with 25% moisture and 0.528, 0.261 and 0.501% of N, P and K, respectively, when applied along with the N, P and K fertilizers as per soil test and desired yield target, the saving was 35, 22 and 30 kg of fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively.

29. M. A. Hanif, M. S. Bari and Md. Abiar Rahman [Potentiality of carbon sequestration by agroforestry species in Bangladesh]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 562-567 (2015). Department of Agroforestry and Environment Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh

Abstract

Agroforestry, a land-use system, is receiving wider attention not only in terms of agricultural sustainability but also in issues related to climate change. The potentiality to sequester carbon by agroforestry species in sub-tropical regions like Bangladesh is promising. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the carbon sequestration potentiality of three agroforestry species (Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala and Melia azedarach) in the northern part of Bangladesh. The carbon sequestration potential of three agroforestry species varied from 115 to 135 Mg C/ha/year at the age of seven years after plantation. Among the agroforestry tree species, L. leucocephala sequestrated maximum amount (135 Mg C/ha/year) of carbon from the atmosphere followed by M. azedarach (120 Mg C/ha/year) and A. lebbeck (115 Mg C/ha/year). Therefore, carbon sequestration potentiality of the studied agroforestry species can be ranked as L. leucocephala>M. azedarach>A. lebbeck.

30. R. P. S. DESWAL, N. KAUSHIK, N. PANWAR, LAXMI RAWAT AND K. S. BANGARWA [Seed viability and oil content in seeds of Pongamia pinnata of five sources stored at different moisture and temperature regimes]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 568-578 (2015). Regional Research Station (CCSHAU), Bawal-123 501, Rewari (Haryana), India

Abstract

The present research was conducted with the objective to study the variation in seed oil content among five seed sources across diverse agro-climatic conditions and storage behaviour of seeds up to two years. Seeds collected in May 2010 were stored up to May 2012 at three moisture levels (6%, 9% and normal), two temperature regimes (room temp. and -50C) and three types of containers (cloth bags, polythene bags and air tight containers). The parameters of oil content (%), germination (%), seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg) and seedling vigour (index-I & II) were measured. Seeds collected from the test trees of different agro-climatic zones were bulked zone-wise (seeds collected from all the 10 test trees from one agro-climatic zone were bulked). The seeds from each agro-climatic zone were divided into three equal parts. The maximum oil content was in RJ-7 agro-climatic zone and minimum in PB-3 agro-climatic zone. The oil content decreased with passage of time. Decline in the seed oil content was not significant up to a period of 12 months but by 24th month of storage the oil content declined significantly up to 6%. There was no germination after 12 months in the seeds stored at room temperature with normal and 9% moisture content irrespective of the type of containers used for storage. Seedling vigour declined significantly with increasing period of storage. Seeds stored in polythene bags and air tight containers had higher seedling length than cloth bag storage. Seeds with 6% moisture level stored at -50C retained viability up to 16 months in air tight containers. The oil content was maximum (34.75%) in RJ-7 agro-climatic zone.

31. Sandip Patra, B. C. Das, V. W. Dhote and A. Samanta [Efficacies and economics of some novel insecticides for management of major lepidopteran pests of tomato]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 579-589 (2015). Division of Crop Protection ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793 103, India

Abstract

Efficacies and economics of some new insecticides were evaluated for the management of major lepidopteran pests of tomato at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, West Bengal during 2012-14. Three novel insecticides viz., pyridalyl 10 EC (56.25, 75, 112.5 and 150 g a. i./ha), indoxacarb 14.5 SC (56.25, 75, 112.5 and 150 g a. i./ha) and chlorfenapyr 10 SC (75,100, 150 and 200 g a.i./ha) were applied twice with four doses along with two standard checks (chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 350 g a. i./ha and triazophos 40 EC @ 350 g a. i./ha) and untreated control. Pooled results revealed that pyridalyl and indoxacarb @ 150 g a. i./ha were found to be very effective insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (3.10 and 2.60% fruit damage) and Spodoptera litura (3.34 and 3.59% fruit damage) with 211.21 and 209.59 q/ha marketable yield, respectively. Results indicated that traditional insecticides such as triazophos and chlorpyriphos were most cost effective insecticides with 10.24 and 9.56 benefit : cost ratio, respectively, whereas pyridalyl and indoxacarb at lower doses showed cost efficiency for management of lepidopteran pests of tomato.

32. Gautam Handique, Archita Barua, Foridur Rahman Bora and Somnath Roy [Potential of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis Nees and Sapindus mukorossi L. as novel acaricides of natural origin]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 590-597 (2015). Department of Entomology Tocklai Tea Research Institute Tea Research Association, Jorhat-785 008 (Assam), India

Abstract

Aqueous extract of three indigenous medicinal plants viz., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae), Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis Nees (Acanthaceae) and Sapindus mukorossi L. (Sapindaceae) was evaluated in the laboratory against the tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae) to determine its effect on adult mortality, viability of eggs, oviposition deterrence and repellent properties. The direct spray method was used in the laboratory at concentrations of 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/l. Mortality of O. coffeae was dependent on both concentration and time after application. Deposition of eggs by adult mites on treated leaf surfaces decreased significantly and the viability of eggs was also significantly reduced. In addition, different concentrations of the aqueous extract of these chosen plants also exhibited repellent properties against adult mites. Among the chosen plant extracts, S. mukorossi registered highest mortality in both adults and egg forms, whereas P. thyrsiformis showed significantly higher repellence property against O. coffeae. The plant extracts caused no mortality to the adults and 4th instar larvae of Stethorus aptus, a natural predator of O. coffeae and no significant change in predatory efficiency was recorded in comparison with untreated control. Availability and distribution of these plants in and around tea growing areas of Assam, along with the feasibility of processing, may be thus included in the current IPM programme in tea.

33. Jagdeep Singh, Surjeet Singh and Ashwani Kumar [Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr. Karst) using different agro-residues]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 598-603 (2015). Department of Plant Pathology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum was cultivated for the first time in Haryana after standardizing the different parameters required for its seasonal cultivation. Wheat straw+saw dust (1 : 1) supplemented with wheat bran @ 20% was most suitable substrate. Time required for its mycelial growth and complete colonization was least (8.8 days), when a combination of wheat straw+saw dust (1 : 1) supplemented with wheat bran @ 20% was used. Out of the four base materials (wheat grain, sorghum grain, bajra grain and saw dust) evaluated for spawn production, wheat grain was the most suited as it was completely colonized within 12 days after inoculation. Studies were carried on cultivation of G. lucidum during 2013 and 2014. A mixture of wheat straw+saw dust (1:1), having wheat bran as supplement and amended with calcium sulphate (3%) and calcium carbonate (1%), was filled in polypropylene bags, plugged, sterilized and inoculated with wheat grains based spawn @ 3%. The bags were placed in mushroom house at 30±1°C, high CO2 and 90±1% relative humidity. These conditions were optimum in terms of spawn run and pinhead formation, while the conc. of CO2 was lowered during the fruiting phase of G. lucidum. The cultivation was done under natural conditions for two consecutive years and during both the years two flushes were obtained in 90 days crop cycle, with 27.52% biological efficiency.

34. M. Bazgir, H. Ahmadi, M. Darvishnia and D. Goodarzi [Correlation, path analysis and step-wise regression in yield and yield components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under pathogenic and non-pathogenic stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 604-608 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran

Abstract

Stripe, or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Westend. tritici Eriks is a common disease of wheat in cool and humid climates. Use of genetic resistance is the most economical and environmentally method of disease control.Genetic diversity is the basis of plant breeding and selection depends upon the existence of an appropriate diversity for the trait being selected for. Given that the yield of crops is a function of genotype, environment and their interactions and that to realize a high yield, the selection is more efficient when conducted for the yield components rather than yield itself, the study of the relationship between yield and its components is crucially important in breeding programmes. In the current study, 30 bread wheat genotypes originated from Iran were planted on the basis of a randomized complete block design with two replications under pathogenic and non-pathogenic stressconditions in Khoramabad, Iran. The results of the analysis of variance of the evaluated traits showed that the effects of genotype and the interaction between genotype and environment were significant. Since the interaction between genotype and environment was significant, genetic correlation rather than phenotypic correlation was used for studying the relations among the traits. The results of genetic correlation analysis between yield and the traits remained in ridge regression model showed that spikes number per plant had the highest direct effect on yield, but the highest indirect effect of this trait was applied through plant although 1000-grain weight showed the highest direct effect in phenotypic correlation analysis, too.

35. Syed Berjes Zehra, Shabir Hussain Khan, Baseerat Afroza, Zahoor Ahmad Dar and Asif Shikari [Genetic divergence studies in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under temperate conditions]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 609-616 (2015). Division of Vegetable Science Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar-190 025 (J. & K.), India

Abstract

The genetic divergence study was conducted in 64 genotypes of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) for 15 agro-morphological traits. Significant divergence existed among 64 chilli genotypes almost for all the traits. The genotypes under study were grouped into eight clusters as per Mahalanobis D2 (1928) analysis employing Tocher’s method with maximum number of genotypes in cluster I (37) followed by cluster IV (12), cluster II (6), cluster V (5) and rest of the clusters were monogenotypic. Maximum intercluster distance was observed between clusters II and VI (19369.21), while maximum intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster IV (4230.34). The per cent contribution towards the total genetic divergence revealed that plant spread (29.76%), seed yield per plant (25.69%), average fruit weight (17.41%), number of fruits per plant (10.22%), days to first flower (4.01%), fruit length (4.76%), number of branches per plant (4.51%) and fruit diameter (2.88%) were the major contributing characters towards total genetic divergence. The crosses between the genotypes from cluster VI with II and VIII and cluster VIII with those of I, III and IV are likely to exhibit high heterosis and produce recombinants with desired traits in segregating generations.

36. Ashok K. Rohilla, Anil Sindhu, Subhash Kajla, Sushma Kumari, Mukesh Kumar and J. S. Rana [Highly efficient in vitro rooting of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.–A medicinally important woody shrub, by auxins and root promoting agents]. Res. on Crops 16 (3) : 617-623 (2015). Department of Biotechnology DCR University of Science & Technology, Murthal-131 039 (Haryana), India

Abstract

Silver nitrate and phloroglucinol induced enhanced in vitro rooting was achieved on Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn., a woody aromatic medicinal shrub. The frequency of rooting varied from 0 to 86.66% for different treatments with various concentrations and type of growth regulators as well as solid and liquid nature of nutrient medium. Modified MS liquid medium augmented with IBA at 2 mg/l was found to be the most effective among different auxins, which showed highest (70%) per cent root induction with a mean of 4.23±0.19 roots per shoot within 21 days of culture, while the maximum length (4.6±0.19 cm) of root was recorded with 3 mg/l of IAA. Liquid medium fortified with various concentrations of different auxins was superior to solid culture in terms of per cent root induction, mean number of roots per shoot and mean root length. An enhanced rooting frequency (83.33 and 86.66%) with a statistically greater mean number of roots per shoot (6.9±0.1 and 7.2±0.07) with average length of 5.0±0.06 cm and 5.2±0.09 cm were obtained on inclusion of 2.0 mg/l AgNO3 and 9.0 mg/l PG, respectively, to modified MS basal medium containing optimal concentrations of IBA (2.0 mg/l) or IAA (3.0 mg/l). After a period of four weeks, the well rooted plantlets were transferred to pots containing a mixture of sand : soil : vermicompost (1 : 1 : 1) and hardened for six weeks before their field transfer with almost 92% survival rate.

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