Volume 16, No. 2 (June, 2015)

By | June 27, 2015

1. Kamini Kumari*, J. Prasad, Vipin Kumar and I. S. Solanki [Effect of crop residue and residual zinc on zinc fractions and their contribution to zinc uptake under rice-wheat cropping system in calciorthents]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 205-212 (2015). Department of Soil Science Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Samastipur (Bihar), India *(e-mail : kaminikumariaksch@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The long term effect of crop residue and residual zinc on Zn fractions in soil and their contribution to Zn uptake in rice-wheat system was studied in calciorthents of the Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar) during 2010-11 and 2011-12. Application of zinc and crop residue increased the water soluble+exchangeable, complexed, organically bound, carbonate and amorphous oxide, crystalline oxide, residual and total Zn in the soil. The order of dominance of different fractions in soil was total Zn (164.35 mg/kg)> residual-Zn (156.41 mg/kg) >Zn bound to crystalline oxide (3.06 mg/kg)>complexed Zn (2.27 mg/kg)>organically bound Zn (1.14 mg/kg)> water soluble plus exchangeable Zn (0.84 mg/kg) and Zn bound carbonate and amorphous oxide (0.73 mg/kg). All the soil Zn fractions were significantly correlated among themselves indicating existence of a dynamic equilibrium with each other. Zinc uptake by rice-wheat was improved with zinc along with crop residue plus compost. Among different Zn fractions, Zn bound to crystalline oxide, followed by Zn bound to carbonate and amorphous oxide played a key role in explaining the variation in yield and nutrient uptake by rice and wheat. The highest zinc uptake by rice and wheat was reported with the conjoint use of 100% crop residue and 10 kg Zn/ha.

2. K. P. SURESH NAIK*, N. KRISHNAMURTHY, C. RAMACHANDRA, G. R. HAREESH, H. M. JAYADEVA AND N. S. MAVARKAR [Effect of sources of nutrients on methane emission, production and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different methods of cultivation]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 213-218 (2015). 1Organic Farming Research Centre Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAHS), Navile, Shivamogga-577 204 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sureshpnaik@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mandya to study the effect of sources of nutrients on productivity, profitability and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different methods of cultivation. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three different methods of rice cultivation as main plot i. e. conventional method, system of rice intensification (SRI) and aerobic method and sub-plot treatment as five sources of nutrients including both organic sources and inorganic sources and replicated thrice. Among the different methods of rice cultivation, aerobic method of rice cultivation recorded significantly lower methane emission (3.95 mg/plant/day) and total methane production (24.21 kg/ha) as compared to SRI method (4.42 mg/plant/day and 28.07 kg/ha) and conventional method (6.25 mg/plant/day and 80.68 kg/ha) at 90 days after sowing. Among sources of nutrients, application of RDF (100% neem coated urea) recorded significantly lesser methane emission (4.35 mg/plant/day) and total methane production (37.93 kg/ha) compared to other sources of nutrients but higher methane emission and production resulted by application of 50% N through paddy straw incorporation+50% N through urea+Rec. P & K (5.56 mg/plant/day and 50.45 kg/ha) at 90 DAS. Significantly higher water productivity recorded in SRI method of rice cultivation (54.37 kg/ha-cm) compared to conventional method (46.64 kg/ha) and aerobic method of rice cultivation (29.91 kg/ha-cm). Among sources of nutrients, RDF (100% neem coated urea) recorded significantly higher water productivity (50.40 kg/ha-cm) compared to other sources of nutrients but lower water productivity was recorded by application of 50% N through paddy straw incorporation+50% N through urea+Rec. P & K (36.30 kg/ha-cm).

3. T. B. BAGCHI*, P. BHATTACHARYA, S. G. SHARMA, U. KUMAR AND T. ADAK [Enhanced antioxidants and physico-chemical properties of aromatic rice under long term organic nutrient management]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 219-225 (2015). Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753 006 (Odisha), India *(e-mail : torit.crijaf09@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The effects of long term organic nutrient management (after 10 years of organic farming) on rice quality, especially with reference to the antioxidant properties of an aromatic indica rice cultivar Geetanjali were investigated during wet and dry season of 2012-13. Seven different combinations of organic manures were applied as a nutrient source. The estimation of total phenolic content, DPPH antioxidant activity and total flavonoids were carried out by spectrophotometer and g-oryzanol content (GO) by HPLC. All other physico-chemical parameters were measured by standard laboratory methods. It was observed that total antioxidant capacity (88.38% inhibition of DPPH), g-oryzanol (417.4 µg/g) and total phenolic content (277.67 µg/g) were higher in farm yard manure (FYM) + green manure (GM with Sesbania aculeate) treatment, whereas flavonoids, soluble protein and crude oil content were highest under only GM treated field. The physico-chemical and cooking properties of grain did not vary significantly among the treatments except amylose content (AC) and gel consistency (GC). The nutritional quality in terms of antioxidant compounds, protein and crude oil content was depleted after cooking of the grains. Therefore, application of FYM+GM (with Sesbania aculeate; 1 : 1 N basis) or at least GM application instead of any other combinations of organic manure at the time of land preparation may be useful for improving nutritional quality of rice under long term organic nutrient management.

4. R. S. Dadarwal, Roshan Choudhary*, R. S. Choudhary and Rajesh Chaudhari [Effect of tillage practices and nutrient management on nitrogen content, uptake and yield of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 226-229 (2015). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : roshan6109@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture with medium in available nitrogen (268.40 and 270.80 kg/ha) and phosphorus (19.80 and 19.70 kg/ha) and high in available potassium (288.52 and 290.50 kg/ha) and alkaline in reaction with pH 7.85 and 8.01 during 2010 and 2011, respectively. The experiment consisting of 18 treatment combinations and replicated four times was set out in split plot design with three tillage practices (conventional, reduced and minimum tillage) as main plots and six nitrogen management treatments (control, 100% through urea, 50% through chemical fertilizer+50% through VC, 50% through chemical fertilizer+50% through FYM, 25% through chemical fertilizer+75% through VC and 25% through chemical fertilizer+75% through FYM as sub-plot treatments. Sorghum variety CSV-23 was taken as test crop during both the years. Maximum content and uptake of nitrogen in grain and fodder were also observed through 100% chemical source.

5. S. Barik* and P. Roy [Agronomic practices for the development of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop in Birbhum district of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 230-235 (2015). Agricultural & Ecological Research Unit Biological Sciences Division Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700 108 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : sbarik@isical.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) crop is considered to be a promising bio-ethanol crop and it has higher tolerance to salt and drought compared to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and corn (Zea mays) that are currently used for bio-fuel production around the world. In addition, high carbohydrate content of sweet sorghum stalk is similar to sugarcane but its water and fertilizer requirements are lower than sugarcane. A field experiment was conducted to determine the response of sweet sorghum to different N : P : K doses in this agro-climatic region. The experiment was conducted at the Sub-divisional Adaptive Research Farm (SARF) located at Bolpur, Birbhum, West Bengal (175 km away from Kolkata) in the year 2012-13. Randomized block design (RBD) was used for the experiment. The total number of treatment combinations was 32 (N4 × P2 × K4) replicated thrice and total number of plots was 96. Data were collected at 30 days interval starting from 40 to 130 days after sowing (DAS). The maximum plant height of 237.27 cm was observed in N4P2K4treatment at 130 DAS, maximum green biomass of 40.19 t/ha was observed with N4P2K4 treatment at 100 DAS, maximum sugar concentration of 9.68% was observed with N4P2K4 treatment at 100 DAS and maximum sugar yield of 3888.24 kg/ha was observed with N4P2K4 at 100 DAS. Harvesting at 130 to 140 DAS might be suitable for sweet sorghum for this agro-climatic zone of West Bengal.

6. R. D. BEDSE, A. M. PATEL, C. H. RAVAL, B. S. RATHORE AND K. G. VYAS [Forage equivalent yield, quality, soil status and economics of maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by intercropping of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and fertility levels during kharif season]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 236-242 (2015). Directorate of Research S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soils of Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during the years 2011-12 and 2012-13. The soil of the experimental plot was very low in organic carbon (0.19%) and available nitrogen (169 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus (39.65 ka/ha) and potash (271 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in spit plot design with four replications. Fifteen treatment combinations comprised five intercropping treatments viz., IC1 (sole maize), IC2 (sole cowpea), IC3 (maize+cowpea 2 : 1), IC4 (maize+cowpea 3 : 1) and IC5 (maize+cowpea 3 : 1) and three fertility levels viz., F1 (75% RDF), F2 (100% RDF) and F3 (125% RDF). Maize equivalent yield was significantly influenced by intercropping levels. Treatment IC4 (maize+cowpea 2 : 1) recorded significantly higher maize equivalent yield than rest of the treatments. Application of treatments IC4 (maize+cowpea 2 : 1) recorded significantly higher nitrogen content, crude protein content, crude fiber content and phosphorus content in both the crops. Intercropping levels failed to exhibit their significant influence on total ash content, potash content and neutral detergent fiber of both the crops. Regarding soil available nutrients, treatment IC2 (sole cowpea) registered maximum values of nitrogen content but phosphorus and potash content was not influenced significantly by intercropping after harvest of crops. The maize equivalent yield was significantly influenced by fertility levels. Application of F3 (125% RDF) produced significantly higher maize equivalent yield but it was statistically similar with treatment F2 (100% RDF). Application of 125% RDF recorded significantly higher nitrogen content and crude protein content and crude fiber content in both the crops as well as phosphorus content and total ash content in maize crop and it was at par with 100% RDF. Fertility levels failed to exhibit their significant influence on phosphorus content and total ash content in cowpea as well as potash content and neutral detergent fiber in both the crops. Regarding soil available nutrients, treatment F3 (125% RDF) registered maximum values of nitrogen but it was at par with F2 (100% RDF). Application of intercropping IC4 (maize+cowpea 2 : 1) recorded higher net realization of Rs. 30185/ha and higher BCR value of 2.85. Among different fertility levels, application of 125% RDF resulted in higher net realization (Rs. 28865/ha) but higher BCR (2.68) was recorded with treatment F2 (100% RDF) with net realization (Rs. 28411/ha) closely followed by F3 (125% RDF). The land equivalent ratio (1.22) was highest with IC4 (maize+cowpea 2 : 1).

7. RAKESH KUMAR*, J. S. BOHRA, NARENDRA KUMAWAT AND AMITESH KUMAR SINGH [Fodder yield, nutrient uptake and quality of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by NPKS and Zn fertilization1]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 243-249 (2015). Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : rakeshbhu08@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the two consecutive pre-kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Varanasi to study the effect of NPKS and Zn application on fodder yield, nutrient uptake and quality of baby corn (Zea mays L.). Results revealed that cob, corn and green and dry fodder yield, net profit, nutrient content (NPKSZn) and their uptake were recorded significantly higher with application of 125% RDF. Further, application of 50 kg S/ha resulted in significant increase in cob, corn, green fodder yield, net profit and nutrient content and uptake of baby corn over control but it remained at par with 25 kg S/ha. Similar trend was also observed with application of Zn levels. Increasing levels of sulphur and zinc progressively improved the fodder quality of baby corn viz., crude protein, ash, calcium content except crude fibre content which followed reverse trend. Hence, application of 125% RDF along with 50 kg S/ha and 10 kg Zn/ha was found optimum to obtain the higher green and dry fodder yield, net profit and quality of baby corn under irrigated condition of Varanasi.

8. CHANGXING ZHAO, LIHUA JIA, XIAOJUN ZHANG, MINGLUN WANG, YUE-FU WANG* AND J. R. MILT E. MCGIFFEN [Study on nitrogen accumulation characteristics of peanuts in different texture soils]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 250-257 (2015). 1Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming Technology College of Agronomy and Plant Protection Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong-266 109, P. R., China *(e-mail : wangyuefu01@163.com)

ABSTRACT

In this study, to adopt measures suiting local conditions, reasonable nutrition management and improve the yield of peanuts, the nitrogen absorption, accumulation and distribution characteristics of peanuts in different texture soils were investigated using box-planting methods. The results demonstrated that the times when the nitrogen accumulation of the root, stem and leaf of the peanuts in the sandy soil achieved the maximum value were earlier than those of the peanuts planted in the loam and clay. The nitrogen accumulations of the root, stem, leaf and seed exhibited that the nitrogen accumulation of the peanuts in the sandy soil was high at the early growth stage, that in the loam was high in the middle and late growth stages, and that in the clay was high in the late growth stage. The nitrogen accumulation of the peanuts in the mature period mainly existed in the reproductive body, accounting for 63.76-65.45%, and the accumulated nitrogen in the nutrients accounted for 34.55-36.24%. The accumulated nitrogen amount distributed in the reproductive body in different soils was clay > loam > sand, while the accumulated nitrogen amount distributed in the nutrients in different soils was sand > loam > clay, which was opposite to that of the accumulated nitrogen amount distributed in the reproductive body. The nitrogen of the peanut pods in the sand soil was mainly derived from the translocated amounts of the nitrogen accumulated in the root, stem and leaf, which accounted for a large proportion. The nitrogen of the peanut pods in the clay was mainly derived from the direct absorption by the roots, which accounted for a large proportion. The nitrogen of the peanut pods in loam was mainly derived from both the translocated and accumulated amounts of the nitrogen in the root, stem and leaf and the direct absorption by roots, which accounted for a moderate proportion.

9. KULVIR SINGH* AND PANKAJ RATHORE [Effect of different defoliants and their rate and time of application on American cotton cultivars under semi-arid conditions of north-western India]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 258-263 (2015). Regional Research Station (PAU) Circular Road, Faridkot-151 203 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : kulvir@pau.edu.)

ABSTRACT

Field studies were conducted to determine the effect of different defoliants i. e. Dropp ultra® and Ethrel (ethefon), their rates and time of application (140 and 150 DAS) to influence earliness and yield in three cotton cultivars. MRC 7361 BGII (3171.8 kg/ha) and MRC 7017 BGII (3083.3 kg/ha) gave significantly higher yield as compared to F 1861 (2454.9 kg/ha) due to better boll retention, boll weight and sympods. Dropp ultra® @ 200 ml/ha recorded significantly highest yield (3111.6 kg/ha) followed by Ethrel @ 2000 ppm (2948.3 kg/ha) and control (2878.9 kg/ha), while statistically least yield (2674.5 kg/ha) was observed with Dropp ultra® @ 225 ml/ha. Defoliants applied at 150 days after sowing (DAS) resulted in significantly higher yield (3017.7 kg/ha) as compared to early application at 140 DAS (2789.0 kg/ha) owing to significantly improved boll retention and better boll weight. Data indicated that Dropp ultra® @ 200 ml/ha had potential to promote crop earliness, better boll retention by keeping vegetative and reproductive growth in harmony to enhance seed cotton yield.

10. R. F. Channagouda*, H. B. Babalad and R. K. Patil [Performance of cotton under organic production system]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 264-270 (2015). Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Babbur Farm, Hiriyur University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamoga (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : rfc1234@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was carried out at MARS, Dharwad during kharif 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the impact of organic farming practices on yield and economics of organic production system. The results of two years’ pooled data revealed that combined application of compost (50%)+vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF+green leaf manure as mulch with application of jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha recorded higher kapas yield (1640 kg) and it was superior over RDF alone (1522 kg/ha). Combined application of crop residue (50%)+vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDN with lucerne with jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha surface application recorded significantly higher net returns (Rs. 60009/ha) over other combinations.

11. Huang Zhenrui, Lu Yinglin, Chen Diwen, Huang Ying, Jiang Yong, Li Qiwei, Chen Qing* and Zhang Fusuo [Selection of suitable variety for improving nutrient use and productivity of sugarcane]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 271-280 (2015). 1Guangzhou Sugarcane Industry Research Institute Guangdong Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Improvement and Biorefinery, Guangzhou-510 316, China *(e-mail : qchen3822@qq.com)

ABSTRACT

Agronomic traits and quality indices are closely related to patterns of nutrient uptake among different sugarcane varieties. Knowing the optimal nutrient needs of specific varieties could help growers provide adequate fertilizer while avoiding over-fertilization. Field trials on the variations of growth, uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and related quality indices among different new varieties of sugarcane were compared to the widely planted variety ROC 22, which was conducted in Zhanjiang, Guangdong, in southern China. The results showed that the highest germination rate was observed inYT 55, and both the highest tillering rate and both the formative rate of stalk and millable canes were observed in BC 2-32, respectively. YT 55 had the highest cane yield (154.1 t/ha) and sugar yield (20.4 t/ha). The accumulation of N, P and K in YT 55 reached 290.5, 67.9 and 447.5 kg/ha, respectively, which was 1.6, 1.6 and 1.4-fold higher than observed in ROC 22. The nutrient use efficiency of nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium fertilizer (NPK) to produce cane and sugar in ROC 22 and YT 60 was superior among the tested varieties. The differences in cane and sugar yield, and nutrient utilization efficiencies among the investigated varieties point out the need for variety specific nutrient recommendations. This study also confirmed that distinct differences existed in the yield of both cane and sugar produced in different sugarcane varieties if more fertilizers are supplied to sugarcane during the tillering and elongation stage.

12. K. D. Babu*, N. V. Singh, R. Chandra, J. Sharma, A. Maity and P. C. Sarkar [Improvement in keeping quality of pomegranate fruits during storage]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 281-287 (2015). National Research Centre on Pomegranate (ICAR), Kegaon, Solapur-413 255 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : dh_babu@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Due to its exquisite fruit quality, enriched nutritional values and enormous medicinal usage, it has great demand in domestic and export market. Among the different varieties of pomegranate grown in India, Bhagwa has become the predominant commercial cultivar. The fruits of Bhagwa have bold red arils (edible portion), soft seeds, thick rind which is dark red with attractive shininess. However, loss of surface moisture leads to shrinkage and fading of gloss (brightness) which makes the fruits to become unattractive and fetch poor price apart from reducing its keeping quality. Lac formulations developed at ICAR-IINRG, Namkum, Ranchi are natural edible coatings that enhance the shelf life/keeping quality of fruits by acting as barrier for moisture exchange from fruit surface. With the objective of improving the keeping quality, fruits of pomegranate cv. Bhagwa were dipped in lac formulations. The outcome of the study revealed that lac formulation SH 2 was found to be superior compared to others. Lac formulation SH 2 when applied at 100% concentration was found most effective in improving the keeping quality of pomegranate fruits by 6.0 days under ambient conditions over the untreated control (16.7 days) by reducing the physiological loss in weight, enhancing the brightness (gloss), and increasing the brix acid ratio of the fruits.

13. V. P. S. PANGHAL*, D. S. DUHAN and Makhan Lal [Influence of biofertilizers along with inorganic source of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 288-292 (2015). Department of Vegetable Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : vijaypalpanghal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Hisar (Haryana) during the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 to study the response of biofertilizers and inorganic source of nitrogen and phosphorus on fenugreek variety Hisar Sonali with 16 treatment combinations in factorial RBD with three replications. The soil of the experimental field was low in organic carbon, available nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and high in respect to available potassium. Application of 60 kg N and 50 kg P2O5 per hectare gave significantly higher plant height, branches per plant, pod length, pods per plant, and seed, straw and biological yields as well as standard germination percentage over 50 kg N and 40 kg P2O5 per hectare. Combined inoculation of seed with Rhizobium and PSB and their sole application significantly gave higher plant height, branches per plant, pod length and seeds per pod. Whereas pods per plant and seed yield were recorded with combined inoculation of seed with Rhizobium and PSB, which were higher over their individual application and control.

14. B. L. JAKHAR*, BINDU PANICKAR AND Y. RAVINDRABABU [Evaluation of botanicals for the management of pod borers and pod fly in pigeonpea]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 293-295 (2015). Centre of Excellence for Research on Pulses S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bjakhar@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at Centre of Excellence for Research on Pulses, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during kharif 2012-13 and 2013-14 for knowing the impact of certain botanicals in comparison to insecticide indoxacarb. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design having three replications and eight treatments. Spays were given at 50% flowering stage and then at 15 days interval. The results showed that both in individual years as well as in pooled data, three sprays of indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 0.5 ml/l of water gave maximum control of pod borers (10.17%) and pod fly (5.84%) with maximum grain yield (2144.17 kg/ha) but was at par with neem soap @ 10 g/l followed by two sprays of indoxacarb @ 0.5 ml/l for pod borers damage (11.0%) and pod fly (6.50%) damage with a grain yield (2100.0 kg/ha).

15. J. Shakarami*, R. Eftekharifar, M. Latifian and S. Jafari [Insecticidal activity and synergistic effect of Beauvaria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and three botanical compounds against third instar larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 296-303 (2015). 1Department of Plant Protection College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran *(e-mail : shakarami.j45@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller) is a worldwide pest of stored grains and other grain-based foods. In this research, the insecticidal activity and synergistic effects of the entomopathogenic fungus (Beauvaria bassiana) and three botanical compounds including : essential oils of Artemisia haussknechtii and Citrus vulgaris and extract of Azadirachta indica were tested against third instar larvae of E. kuehniella. All experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions at 28±1ºC, 65±5% RH and a photoperiod of 12 : 12 (L : D). Results showed that all the botanical compounds and entomopathogenic fungi exhibited larvicidal activity against E. kuehniella. The LC50 values by probit analysis were 479.13 and 110.98 µl/l air, for essential oils of A. haussknechtii and C. vulgaris, 47502.6 ppm for extract of A. indica and 6.3 × 104 conidia/ml for B. bassiana, respectively. Results showed that the mixture of essential oil of C. vulgaris and B. bassiana fungi had synergistic effect on mortality of E. kuehniella larvae (SR=1.20).

16. Rajkumari Padamini*, Kusum Mathur, Amit Trivedi and Surendra Rathore [Efficacy of different fungicides and bio-agents against wilt and root rot complex of chickpea]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 304-310 (2015). Department of Plant Pathology Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : padaminirajkumari@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation were undertaken to develop an effective strategy for the integrated management of wilt and root rot complex diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), which is widely prevalent in moderate to high severity in different parts of Rajasthan. The pathogens were isolated from disease chickpea plants showing typical wilt and root rot symptoms collected from farmer’s field of different chickpea growing areas of Rajasthan. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (one isolate), Fusarium solani (five isolates) and Rhizoctonia solani (six isolates) were isolated and their pathogenicity was confirmed by growing chickpea in pathogen inoculated soil. The fungicides, botanicals and biocontrol agents found effective in vitro, were further evaluated in field for two consecutive seasons as seed treatment individually as well as in combinations for suppression of wilt and root-rot complex of chickpea. It was found that combined treatments were superior in terms of better germination, lower mortality and higher yield as compared to the individual treatments. The most effective treatment was seed treatment with tebuconazole+T. harzianum followed by vitavax+T. harzianum as compared to control as well as other treatments.

17. Monika A. Joshi*, Divya Aggarwal, Anupama Pandey, Devmani Bind and Md. Wasi Alam [Generation of distinct profiles of rice varieties based on agro-morphological characters and assessment of genetic divergence]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 311-319 (2015). Division of Seed Science & Technology Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : monikakshat622@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Twenty-eight rice varieties were evaluated for distinctiveness based on morphological DUS descriptors. Out of 46 visually assessed characters, 14 were monomorphic, 11 dimorphic and the remaining 21 were polymorphic in nature, indicating their potential for variety identification. The expression of each character was found to be stable in both the seasons in all cultivars, thereby emphasizing their consistency. Unique identification profiles were generated on the basis of grouping characters prescribed by DUS Guidelines of PPV & FR Authority. However, distinctive profiles were obtained for 12 varieties only and rest of the 16 varieties remained in six different groups and no further distinctive profile could be obtained. Hence, the morphological DUS descriptors were successful for identification and grouping of varieties up to a certain extent only. The 11 agro-morphological traits were used to assess the variability of these varieties using Ward’s Minimum Variance Cluster Analysis which helps in the assessment of pattern and extent of variation in the germplasm. Twenty-eight cultivars were grouped into three clusters revealing sufficient amount of variability among the genotypes. Days to 50% flowering and plant height contributed considerably, accounting for 61% of total divergence. Information, thus, generated through cluster analysis can be efficiently used in breeding rice varieties harbouring desirable traits.

18. SWAPAN K. TRIPATHY*, B. R. MOHAPATRA, P. K. NAYAK, S. PAL, N. SENAPATI, G. B. DASH, D. LENKA, D. SWAIN AND R. RANJAN [Revealing genetic variation in upland rice using seed storage protein profiling]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 320-331 (2015). Sinha Molecular Breeding Laboratory Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa), India *(e-mail : swapankumartripathy@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A set of 36 upland rice varieties including 24 popular short duration ruling rice varieties and 12 mutants were electrophoresed following SDS-PAGE of total seed storage protein. The SDS-PAGE of total seed storage protein revealed altogether 23 scorable polypeptide bands with molecular weights ranging from 10.0 to 116.0 kD. Polypeptide bands at 37-39 kD and 22-23 kD were monomorphic and rest of the bands had shown polymorphism to the extent of 91.3% among the test genotypes. Rudra, Zhu 11-26, Vandana, Anjali, Annada, Saria, ORT 28 and ORT 36 had shown maximum 22 polypeptide bands, while Badami and ORT 39 revealed as low as 11 bands only. ORT 39 can be identified from rest of the test genotypes by absence of 57.0, 53.0 and 51.2 kD polypeptide bands. Similarly, Badami had unique absence of bands at 93.0, 70.0, 67.3 and 60 kD which were present in all other short duration test genotypes including mutants of Mandakini as well as Zhu 11-26. The polypeptide band at 27.5 kD was characteristically absent in cv. Sneha. Similar is the case for Badami and Mandakini which lacked 108.0 kD polypeptide band. In this context, a low mol. wt. band (16.0 kD) was specifically revealed only in five genotypes e. g. Rudra, Zhu 11-26, Kalinga-III, Vandana and Annada. Such a genotype-specific fingerprint is of immense value for varietal certification. ORT 28 and ORT 10 revealed inducement of an additional band at 65 kD, while a low mol. wt. polypeptide band at 16.0 kD was absent in both these mutants as compared to their parent (Zhu 11-26). All mutants of Mandakini revealed 108.0, 47.0 and 45.0 kD polypeptide bands, but these were specifically absent in their parents. In contrast, Mandakini revealed the 13.0 kD, but it was absent in its mutants e. g. ORT 30, ORT 5, ORT 11 and ORT 22. This signifies mutational change which has direct bearing in total seed protein expression. ORT 39 and Mandakini were identified to have medium amylose content based on the staining intensity of the protein marker at 60 kD, whereas Keshari and four mutants of Mandakini (ORT 30, ORT 5, ORT 11 and ORT 22); and one mutant of Zhu 11-26 (ORT 32) were identified to be qualitatively superior for high lysine content owing to lack of the 13.0 kD prolamin polypeptide band. The test genotypes were distributed into three clusters at about 72% phenon level. Badami and ORT 39 formed two single variety divergent clusters (Clusters I and II), while cluster III was a large multivariety cluster comprising 34 upland genotypes which were further grouped into four sub-clusters (Clusters IIIA-IIID) at around 88.4% phenon level. Besides, the seed protein based clusters revealed some sort of characteristic morphological features. Genotypes comprising cluster I (Badami), cluster II (ORT 39) and cluster IIIA (ORT 30 and ORT 11) were identified as highly divergent which may serve as a valuable source genotypes in recombination breeding. The entire work was carried out during 2012-14.

19. R. SADHUKHAN, A. H. HOTTI, P. K. SINGH* AND C. CHATTERJEE [Stability analysis of elite chickpea genotypes tested under rice fallow condition in West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 332-335 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 235, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : singhpk.gpb@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Ten elite chickpea genotypes with two check varieties were grown in rice fallow condition at three diverse environments of winter season during 2011 to 2014 in West Bengal province to check their stability. The pooled analysis of variance over environments displayed highly significant differences between genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction demonstrating the presence of considerable variations among genotypes as well as diversity of environments in rice fallow condition. Among 10 genotypes, the maximum mean seed yield over the environments was recorded in GCP-105 (1180.78 g) and the highest mean seed yield producing environment was during 2013-14 (1152.72 g). The genotypes GCP-105, JG-11 and PUSA-547 were found to be high yielding, most adaptable and less susceptible to the changes in the environment.

20. Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Muhammad Aslam*, Hina Ali, Tariq Mahmud Shah, Babar Farid and Qamar U Zaman1 [Drought tolerance indices based evaluation of chickpea advanced lines under different water treatments]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 336-344 (2015). 1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan *(e-mail : aslampbg@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Chickpea is mainly grown on marginal lands across the Pakistan where it has to face the problem of water shortage due to erratic water availability. For improvement of chickpea production, there is dire need for development of drought tolerant chickpea genotypes with high yield potential. Therefore, 20 advanced lines were evaluated against three water treatments (irrigated, rainfed and rain shelters) by following two-factor factorial randomized complete block design. Treatment mean comparison showed that irrigation at initiation of flowering promoted the vegetative growth and reduced the grain yield by redirecting the translocation of assimilates to the vegetative parts instead of grains. Rain shelter treatment induced the earliness in chickpea genotypes to complete the life cycle as early as possible to avoid severe water shortage but due to earliness there was great yield penalty in genotypes. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on drought tolerance indices converted the traits into principal components (PCs) in which PC 1 and PC 2 contributed 84.62% cumulative variability. So, these components were used for making biplot graph. Biplot categorized the genotypes into four distinct groups. Group-1 which was characterized to have the genotypes with superior performance under normal and stressed conditions included CM 1403/08, CM 1909/08, CM 516/06, D 096-11, CH 51/07, CH 54/07 and TGDX 203. Genotypes of group-1 were selected to be used as parents to develop high yielding genotypes because these genotypes showed highest yield under diverse water regimes. Other three groups had least importance as their tolerance level and potential yield was lower than Group-1.

21. Amit Singh, Ram Avtar*, Nisha Kumari, O. Sangwan and R. K. Sheoran [Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses for classification and categorization of sesame germplasm]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 345-350 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : ramavtarola@yahoo.in)

ABSTRACT

Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses were carried out with 19 agro-morphological traits in 80 germplasm accessions of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Principal factor analysis identified eight principal components which explained about 65% variability. PC 1 explained maximum i. e. 10.40% of total variation in agro-morphological traits and PC 2 depicted 8.84% of total morphological variability, while PC 3 had 8.52% of the total variation. Varimax rotation enabled loading of similar type of variables on a common principal factor permitting to designate them as seed yield, maturity, capsule characters and oil content factors. The germplasm accessions viz., GC 19, GC 23, GC 25, GC 26, GC 48 and GC 49 were found to be superior on the basis of principal factor scores with regard to seed yield, its main components and oil content when both the principal factors were considered together. These accessions may further be utilized in breeding programmes for evolving sesame varieties with high seed yield and superior oil content. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized all the 80 accessions into eight clusters containing 1 to 40 accessions. Based on the inter-cluster distances, maximum genetic diversity was observed between C V and C VIII (92.57) followed by C I and C VIII (91.99), C IV and C VII (88.60) and C V and C VII (87.96) which indicated that germplasm accessions from these clusters could usefully be hybridized for getting superior recombinants in segregating generations. The results of cluster and principal factor analyses supported each other.

22. Ying ZHANG, Xinyu GUO, Jianjun DU and Chunjiang ZHAO* [Review on characterization of maize phenotypic diversity : from genome and genotyping to phenomics and high-throughput phenotyping]. Res. on Crops 16 (2) : 351-364 (2015). Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences No. 11 Shuguang Huayuan Middle Road, Haidian District Beijing, 100 097, People’s Republic of China *(e-mail : zhaocj@nercita.org.cn)

ABSTRACT

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the world’s most widely grown crop, which is of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products. In the face of the challenges presented by global environmental change and the rapidly growing human population, methods to exploit the high production and high quality potential of maize with reduced input are urgently needed. Since the functional analysis of maize genome has entered into a high-throughput stage, large scale and high density genotyping and genome-wide selection are two important components of maize breeding procedures. In this article, we discuss the enormous genetic diversity during different growth stages in maize; review the development processes of technologies through genotyping and phenotyping methods in understanding and manipulation of the genetic, physiological and molecular traits of maize. We also note the future genetic studies of maize in conjunction with genomics and precision phenotype and phenomics will lead to an accelerated rate of genetic gain in crop improvement.

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