Volume 16, No. 1(March 2015)

By | March 24, 2015

1. Hai-Yan Lv, Zheng-Wei Liang*, Bing-Sheng Lv and Hao-Bing Yin [Responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant ML04 and its wild type seedling growth to saline-alkaline stress]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 1-14 (2015). North-east Institute of Geography and Agroecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin-130 102, China *(e-mail : liangzw@neigae.ac.cn)

Abstract

Salinization and alkalization are worldwide problems of soil. To compare the effects of saline-alkaline stress on seedling growth between rice mutant and its wild type, we selected NaCl, Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to simulate saline-alkaline stress, respectively, and selected two rice materials, ML04 is rice mutant and G19 is its wild type. Under saline-alkaline stress, the rice biomass sharply decreased, and the shoot fresh weight of ML04 was higher than that of G19. The saline-alkaline stress promoted the rice taking up Na+ but inhibited absorbing K+ in shoots. The Na+ and K+ contents under the alkaline stress were much more than those of under saline stress, and the Na+ content of ML04 was higher than that of G19 under alkaline stress treatments. The saline-alkaline stress reduced the root numbers (RN), total root length (TRL), root surface area (RSA), root volume (RV) and shoot length, but increased the Na+/K+ ratio and the root diameter (RD). And all these root indices of ML04 were higher than G19 under alkaline stress treatments. The high pH of alkaline salt stress might be an important reason for the severe damage to rice root system, which further limited the rice aboveground parts growth. In conclusion, the saline-alkaline stress inhibited the rice seedling growth, and most of the indices showed that the rice mutant (ML04) was much more tolerant to alkaline stress than its wild type (G19).

2. C. Ramachandra, N. Shivakumar, M. P. Rajanna, R. Krishnamurthy and G. K. Ningaraju [Studies on response of varieties and different dates of sowing on productivity of aerobic rice]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 15-20 (2015). Zonal Agricultural Research Station V. C. Farm, Mandya-571 405 (Karnataka), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya, Karnataka to study the effect of varieties and their different dates of sowing on growth and yield of aerobic rice. Aerobic rice is a new method of growing rice characterized by direct seeding condition without standing water. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications and treatment consisting of two dates of sowing (20 and 30 July) were assigned in main plots and six varieties (MAS-26, MAS-946, BI-33, KMP-175, KRH-2 and KRH-4, early and medium duration varieties and hybrids) in sub-plots. The results revealed that aerobic rice sown between 20 and 30 July resulted in non-significant differences in all the three years of study. Among varieties/hybrids evaluated, KRH-4 rice hybrid recorded higher plant height (108.77 cm), more tillers/m2 (79.97 m2), lower weed dry weight (8.42 g), more panicle number (472/m2), higher panicle weight (3.50 g), higher grain yield (6209 kg/ha) and resulted in higher net returns and B : C ratio (Rs. 51516/ha and 2.05, respectively) which were on par with KRH-2 and found significantly superior to other varieties/hybrids. The lower yield was recorded in MAS-946-1 (5032 kg/ha). The higher water productivity was recorded with KRH-4 (54.47 kg/ha/cm) and KRH-2 (53.25 kg/ha/cm) compared to MAS-26 (43.95 kg/ha/cm) and MAS 946-1 (43.71 kg/ha/cm).

3. S. K. CHONGTHAM*, R. P. SINGH, R. K. SINGH, J. LHUNGDIM and IMTIYAJ AHMAD [Effect of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on weeds, growth and yield of direct-seeded rice]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 21-26 (2015). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : sunil.sunil.ch@gmail.com)

Abstract

Field trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on weeds, growth and yield of direct-seeded rice. Results indicated that bed planting of dry-seeded rice suppressed dry matter accumulation of weeds–grasses, sedges and broad leaf weeds most effectively among crop establishment methods, and as a consequence this crop establishment method had markedly higher growth rates, higher growth and yield attributes. Among different weed management practices, integrated weed management practices, namely, pre-emergence spray of pendimethalin 1 kg/ha followed by brown manuring of dhaincha by 2,4-D 0.50 kg/ha at 25 days after sowing (DAS) and combination of pre-emergence spray of pendimethalin 1 kg/ha followed by early post-emergence spray of bispyribac 0.025 kg/ha followed by brown manuring of dhaincha by 2,4-D 0.50 kg/ha at 25 DAS significantly lowered dry matter of all weeds than other weed management practices, thus improved growth and its rate and yield attributes of direct-seeded rice. Though crop establishment methods did not significantly influence grain yield of direct-seeded rice, protein content in grain and its yield were markedly improved by bed and no-till methods than conventional method. Integration of pendithalin application with brown manuring of dhaincha and pendimethalin followed by bispyribac followed by brown manuring of dhaincha registered significantly higher grain yield, protein content in grain and its yield than remaining weed management practices.

4. VULEDZANI NDOU*, HUSSEIN SHIMELIS, ALFRED ODINDO AND ALBERT MODI [Agro-morphological variation among two selected wheat varieties after ethylmethanesulphonate mutagenesis]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 27-36 (2015). Department of Crop Science School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa *(e-mail : vince.ndou@gmail.com)

Abstract

The study was aimed at investigating variations in agro-morphological traits of two selected wheat varieties after chemical mutagenesis using ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS). Two varieties (SST 56 and SST 875) were subjected to EMS mutagenesis using 0.5% v/v EMS at 32.5oC for 1 h. Field trials were carried out at Ukulinga Research Farm of the University of KwaZulu-Natal using a randomized complete block design with two replications. Data on nine important agro-morphological traits were collected and analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) procedures. Significant variations were found among the agro-morphological traits between M1 individuals of the varieties after the mutagenesis compared to untreated checks. EMS significantly reduced seed germination in the field at 40% in both the varieties and significantly delayed days to heading by eight days. The mutagen caused a shortening of the days to maturity by 13 days in both the varieties. EMS treatment also significantly reduced plant height to18 and 21cm in SST 56 and SST 875, respectively. The spike length was also reduced by ~2.5 cm in both the varieties compared to control. 100-seed weight, flag leaf length and seeds per spike significantly increased in the treated seeds of both the varieties. Plant height had positive and significant correlation with number of tillers, number of seeds per spike, flag leaf length and 100-seed weight. However, it had negative correlation with the number of days to maturity. PCA revealed that three principal components (PC 1, PC 2 and PC 3) accounted to 57% of the total variations among the agro-morphological traits in both the varieties. PC 1 alone contributed to 27.7% of the variation which was correlated well with plant height (0.767), tiller number (0.812), number of seeds per spike (0.599) and seed yield (0.720). PC 2 explained 15.6% of the variation and well-correlated with germination percentage (0.784), spike length (0.554) and flag leaf length (0.772). PC 3 accounted to 12.4% of the variation and had negative correlation with days to maturity (-0.730). The study found that EMS had the potential to increase agro-morphological variations in wheat. This could be useful in selecting novel mutants with desired phenotypic traits.

5. SHER SINGH*, B. M. PANDEY, M. D. TUTI, SUKHBIR SINGH AND J. K. BISHT [Performance of rainfed wheat under different fertility levels and sowing methods in the mid hills of north-western Himalayas]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 37-41 (2015). Indian Council of Agricultural Research–Vivekananda Institute of Hill Agriculture Almora-263 601 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : shersingh76@gmail.com)

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during winter (rabi) seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14 at the experimental farm of the ICAR–Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan located at Hawalbagh, Almora. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications. The treatments consisted of two fertility levels viz., unfertilized control (F0) and recommended dose of fertilizers–60 : 30 : 20 kg NPK/ha (F1) in main plots, while three sowing methods viz., broadcasting/farmer’s practice (S1), line sowing –manual (S2) and line sowing with multi-crop planter (S3) in sub-plots. Under poor residual soil moisture, fertilizer application resulted in higher effective tillers/m2, plant height, yield attributes, yield and B : C ratio than control. Among sowing methods, multi-crop planter recorded the highest seedling emergence, number of tillers/m2, plant height, yield attributes, yield and B : C ratio. Sowing of wheat with recommended dose of fertilizer with multi-crop planter, which provides simultaneous placement of seed and fertilizer, was very effective under extremely low residual soil moisture conditions which are basic features during sowing of rabi crops in the region.

6. MAMTA GUPTA, VEENA CHAWLA*, S. S. DHANDA, R. P. SAHARAN, RENU MUNJAL AND PANKAJ GARG [Effect of terminal heat stress on yield and yield components of bread wheat genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 42-52 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : chawlainn.yahoo.co.in)

Abstract

Grain yield of wheat is severely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the abiotic stresses, heat (terminal high temperature) is one of the major causes of low productivity in the late sown conditions in India. In the present investigation, two F2 progenies, from PBW 373 x WH 1081 and PBW 373 x PBW 343 along with their parents and four check varieties (Raj 3765, WH 730, DBW 17 and WH 711) were evaluated in field. Parents and checks were sown under normal (29 Nov., 2011) and late (3 Jan., 2012) conditions, while F2 were sown under late condition only. Data were recorded on 152 plants from each of the both crosses along with parents and check varieties for yield, yield components and physiological traits. Two factors ANOVA exhibited highly significant differences for genotypes, environments and for genotype x environment interactions for days to heading, days to anthesis, days to physiological maturity, grain filling duration, plant height, productive tillers/plant, grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/plant, biomass/plant, harvest index and membrane thermostability (MTS). Heat susceptibility index (HSI) for 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant was observed to be low in all tolerant genotypes (PBW 373, Raj 3765 and WH 730). The performance of heat susceptible parents was affected to more extent in late sown conditions as compared to that in tolerant parents. Grain yield/plant showed a positive correlation with plant height (0.69** and 0.28**), biomass/plant (0.98** and 0.94**) and number of productive tillers/plant (0.89** and 0.85**) in both the crosses. A wide range of variation was observed for days to heading, days to physiological maturity, grain filling duration, productive tillers/plant, grains/spike, biomass/plant, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/plant, canopy temperature depression (CTD) and MTS in first cross, while there was lesser variability in this population as compared to the previous population, for grain filling duration, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per plant, biomass, CTD and chlorophyll fluorescence. A total of 10 segregants expected to yield better performing progeny in heat stress/late sown conditions were selected from each of the two F2 populations.

7. K. M. Sellamuthu*, R. Santhi, S. Maragatham and P. Dey [Validation of soil test and yield target based fertilizer prescription model for wheat on inceptisol]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 53-58 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (T. N.), India *(e-mail : kmsella75@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Soil test crop response (STCR) based fertilizer prescription for desired yield target of wheat was developed under Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR-IPNS) on Periyanaickepalayam soil series (Vertic Ustropept) of Tamil Nadu. On-farm testing of fertilizer prescription equations are essential to demonstrate the effectiveness of technology delivery to the stake holders in need. The present study was undertaken in six locations to evaluate the model through field experiments in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu. The treatments included control, blanket recommendation, soil test crop response (STCR) based fertilizer dose for an yield target of 3.0 and 4.0 t/ha, STCR-IPNS based fertilizer dose for an yield target of 3.0 and 4.0 t/ha and farmer’s practice. Based on the initial soil test values of available N, P and K and the quantities of N, P and K contributed through farm yard manure (FYM), fertilizer doses were calculated and applied for STCR and STCR-IPNS treatments for the respective yield targets. The treatments were imposed and cultivation practices were carried out periodically and the grain yield was recorded at harvest. Using the data on grain yield and fertilizer doses applied, per cent achievement and response ratio (RR) were worked out. Post-harvest soil samples were collected and analyzed for available N, P and K status. The results of the experiments indicated that in all the six locations, the per cent achievement of the targeted yield was within±10% variation proving the validity of the equations for prescribing integrated fertilizer doses for wheat. The highest mean per cent achievement was recorded in the yield target of 4.0 t/ha (101.2) under STCR-IPNS followed by STCR-NPK alone 4.0 t/ha. The highest mean yield was recorded in STCR-IPNS–4.0 t/ha (4047 kg/ha) recording an increase of 62.1% over blanket recommendation. Among the treatments, STCR-IPNS recorded relatively higher RR than other treatments and the highest mean RR of 6.90 kg/kg was recorded under STCR-IPNS 4.0 t/ha. The highest benefit : cost ratio (1.81) was also recorded in STCR-IPNS 4.0 t/ha. The post-harvest soil available NPK indicated the build up and maintenance of soil fertility due to soil test based fertilizer recommendation under IPNS. The fertilizer prescription equations developed for wheat under IPNS can be recommended for mixed black calcareous soils of Tamil Nadu (Vertic Ustropept) for achieving an yield target of 4.0 t/ha with sustained soil fertility and it can be extrapolated to other agro-climatic zones of Tamil Nadu on similar and allied soil types.

8. S. K. CHOUDHARY*, A. K. MATHUR AND P. SINGH [Effect of micronutrient fertilization and methods of application on yield and quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in sub-humid southern plains zone]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 59-63 (2015). Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : suraj_rau@yahoo.co.in)

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during two consequent years (kharif) of 2010 and 2011 to assess the effect of micronutrient fertilization and method of nutrient application on productivity, quality and economics of sorghum. The experiment consisted of 24 treatment combinations and replicated three times in split plot design with three methods of nutrient application (soil application, foliar spray and soil+foliar application) and eight micronutrient treatments : Control–(RDF-NPK), RDF+Fe, RDF+Zn, RDF+B, RDF+Fe+Zn, RDF+Fe+B, RDF+Zn+B and RDF+Fe+Zn+B. The results of the study showed that method of nutrient application through soil+foliar spray significantly increased grain (13.88 and 12.13%), stover (10.68 and 8.58%) and biological yield (11.33 and 9.31%) and chlorophyll content at 60 DAS (9.23 and 7.53%) with combined application of micronutrient (RDF+Fe+Zn+B) significantly increased grain, stover and biological yield (25.44, 15.52 and 17.45%) and chlorophyll content at 60 DAS (20.32%) and protein content (8.98%) in sorghum crop on pooled data basis over control.

9. UPAMA RAWAT*, R. L. RAJPUT, G. S. RAWAT AND S. K. GARG [Effect of varieties and nutrient management on growth, yield and economics of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 64-67 (2015). Department of Agronomy Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior-474 002 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : uprs77@gmail.com)

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Gwalior (M. P.) during two kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of varieties and nutrient management on growth, yield and economics of clusterbean. Amongst the clusterbean varieties, HG 563 recorded maximum growth, yield and yield attributes and net income. Thus, HG-563 produced maximum 19.45 q/ha grain with net income up to Rs. 178151/ha. Amongst the fertility treatments, 75% RDF (N15P30K15) with 5 t/ha vermicompost raised all the above parameters up to maximum extent. The net income was highest Rs. 177089/ha with B : C ratio 9.78. The treatment interactions were non-significant for grain yield. For the sake of recommendation to the clusterbean growers in this region, HG-563 may be recommended with 75% NPK+5t vermicompost/ha. For maintaining good soil health and sustainable crop productivity, vermicompost would be most beneficial in the long run. The net income would reduce only slightly.

10. Yang Ping, Xian Meng-zhu, Zhang Zhe, Zhang Xiao-hong, Hu Li-yong and Xu Zheng-hua* [Cluster analysis for different rapeseed varieties on seed germination and seedling growth under low temperature stress]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 68-77 (2015). MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River/College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei-430 070, China *(e-mail : xzh@mail.hzau.edu.cn)

Abstract

In this study, the authors systematically evaluated the effect of low temperature stress on the germination of rapeseeds for 39 oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) varieties. The results indicated a significant variation in the low temperature resistance of the seeds for different rape varieties. Using clustering method, various varieties were divided into different types, among which Huayouza No. 13, Fengyou 5103, Huayouza 95, Huayouza 62 and Fengyou 701 germinated well at low temperatures, while Zhongshuang No. 8 and Zhongshuang No. 11 showed poor germination. Correlation analysis was performed for 18 indices of seed germination, of which any two of germination percentage (GP), emergence percentage (EP), germination index (GI) and seedling vigour index (SVI) had high significant positive correlation, and they were all high significantly negatively correlated to the mean germination time (MGT). The GP was significantly negatively correlated with dry weight (DW). The MGT also showed a negative correlation with the root length (RL) and the total length (TL). The MGT had a statistically significant positive correlation with DW, and a negative correlation with shoot length (SL). Both the GI and SVI were significantly negatively correlated with DW. No correlation was observed between root to shoot length ratio (RL/SL) and any other index.

11. B. K. MEENA, G. S. CHOUHAN, N. K. PADIWAL AND H. K. SUMERIYA [Effect of sowing durations and stand geometries on growth indices, yield attributes and quality content of asalio (Lepidium sativum L.)]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 78-81 (2015). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan) India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan) during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to evaluate the performance of asalio under different sowing durations and stand geometries. The experiment was laid out in RBD (factorial) design with three replications, having four sowing durations (41 MW Oct. 08-14, 43 MW Oct. 22-28, 45 MW Nov.05-11 and 47 MW Nov.19-25) and four stand geometries (30 x 10 cm, 30 x 15 cm, 40 x 10 cm and 40 x 15 cm). The experimental results revealed that crop sown during 43 MW recorded significantly higher yield attributes viz., 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index as compared to 45 and 47 MW, respectively. Growth attributes viz., plant height (87.68 cm), leaf length (6.01 cm), crop growth rate g/m2/day and relative growth rate g/g/day were also higher with 43 MW. Stand geometry 30 x 10 cm increased significantly growth and yield attributes; contrarily 1000-seed weight was higher in 30 x 15 cm (1.993 g) when estimated with quality content parameters viz., oil, volatile essential oil, mucilage and phenol content was significantly higher with 43 MW and stand geometry 30 x 10 cm and it also recorded maximum B : C ratio (4.49 and 4.06), respectively.

12. Bhavana Gharpinde, S. G. Wankhade and V. K. Kharche [Soil fertility as influenced by different organic sources and inorganic fertilizer after harvest of kawach seed (Mucuna prurience)]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 82-84 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola (M.S.) during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the effect of different organic sources and inorganic fertilizer on soil fertility after harvest of kawach seed on Inceptisol. The experiment comprised nine treatments replicated thrice in randomized block design involving 2.5 and 5 t FYM/ha, 1 and 2 t sheep manure/ha, 2 and 4 t vermicompost/ha, 25 : 50 and 12.5 : 25 kg/ha NP through inorganic. The physico-chemical properties of soil viz., pH and EC were not significantly influenced by the application of various organic and inorganic treatments. Whereas the treatment differences were significant with reference to soil fertility changes in respect of organic carbon, available N, P, K and S in the soil. The highest organic carbon, available N, P, K and S were recorded with the treatment T6 (4 t vermicompost/ha) followed by treatment T7 (N and P through inorganic @ 25 : 50 kg/ha) and T2 (5 t FYM/ha) during both the years of experiment. The maximum availability of micronutrients viz., Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu was noticed in the treatment T6 (4 t vermicompost/ha) as compared to all the other treatments during both the years of experiment. However, the treatments involving other organic manures application were also effective in increasing the availability of micronutrients than inorganic treatments and control.

13. R. BASKARAN* AND R. KAVIMANI [Effect of conservation tillage and supplemental drip irrigation on growth, yield attributes and yield of Bt cotton]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 85-89 (2015). Cotton Research Station, Veppanthattai-621 116, Perambalur District (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : rbsaki73@gmail.com)

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted at Cotton Research Station, Veppanthattai during 2012-13 and 2013-14 to carry out the studies on tillage with crop residues and supplemental irrigation through drip system on rainfed Bt cotton. The experiments were laid out in a strip plot design with three replications. The main plot treatments were conventional tillage, minimum tillage without crop residue, minimum tillage with crop residue @ 2.5 t/ha and minimum tillage with crop residue @ 5 t/ha. Conventional tillage comprised one disc ploughing, four cultivator ploughings and two harrowings (0.3-0.4 m deep). Minimum tillage included only one ploughing (cultivator) and two harrowings (0.1-0.12 m deep). The sub-plot comprised irrigation treatments viz., supplemental drip irrigation through drip system one, two and three times and without irrigation (control) during the cropping period. Under paired row planting system (120+30 x 60 cm spacing), one 12 mm lateral was laid out between two rows of Bt cotton. The supplemental irrigations were given to the crops at the time of moisture stress period determined based on the visual symptoms of wilting. Recommended dose of fertilizers viz., 120 : 60 : 60 kg NPK/ha was applied to Bt cotton. The results revealed that minimum tillage (BBF) with crop residue application @ 5 t/ha (M4) recorded higher plant height, dry matter production, LAI, number of sympodial branches/plant, number of bolls/plant and seed cotton yield.

14. Rudragouda F. Channagouda* [Impact of organic nutrient management practices on yield, quality parameters, energy use efficiency and energy productivity of cotton]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 90-97 (2015). UAS Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), Dharwad-580 001 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : rfc1234@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out at MARS, Dharwad during kharif 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the impact of organic nutrient management practices on yield, quality parameters, energy use efficiency and energy productivity of cotton. The results of the two years’ pooled data revealed that application of EC (1/3)+VC (1/3)+GLM (1/3) equivalent to RDF recorded significantly higher kapas yield (1944 kg/ha). Foliar spray of panchagavya @ 5% recorded significantly higher kapas yield (2038 kg/ha). Among the nutrient management practices, integrated application of EC (1/3)+ VC (1/3)+GLM (1/3) equivalent to RDF recorded significantly higher uniformity ratio (43.19%), fibre length (27.27%) and lint index (5.33) over FYM @ 5 t/ha+RDF and was on par with EC (1/3)+VC (1/3)+gliricidia GLM (1/3) equivalent to RDN. The foliar spray of panchagavya @ 5% recorded significantly higher uniformity ratio (41.43%), fibre length (27.83%), maturity ratio (0.67), bundle strength (22.14 g/t) and lint index (5.36) over foliar spray of bio-digester @ 20%. Among the different treatment combinations, application of EC (1/3)+VC (1/3)+gliricidia GLM (1/3) equivalent to RDF with foliar spray of panchagavya @ 5% recorded significantly higher uniformity ratio (44.65%), fibre length (28.23%), maturity ratio (0.69), bundle strength (22.65 g/t) and ginning percentage (35.60%) over RDF+FYM.

15. S. K. Pattanaaik*, L. Wangchu, Barun Singh, B. N. Hazarika, S. M. Singh and A. K. Pandey [Effect of hydrogel on water and nutrient management of Citrus reticulata]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 98-103 (2015). College of Horticulture and Forestry Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102 (Arunachal Pradesh), India *(e-mail : saroj_swce@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

The hydrogel is a soil conditioner able to retain water and plant nutrients. Hydrogel is commercially available as stockosorb/raindrop/agrosorb. Stockosorb releases water and nutrient to the plants when surrounding soil near root zone of plants starts to dry up, this was also observed in case of soils of Arunachal Pradesh, which are eroded, porous and gravely in nature. The soils vary from sandy loam to loamy sand with acidic in reaction with varying N : P : K status. The cultivated lands occur mostly in the hill slopes and few in valley. Horticulture is usually practised as a remunerative profession in the state. Citrus is the most occupied crop among the horticultural crops. Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is one of the important crops among citrus growers. Planting of citrus on steep hill slopes and lack of supplementary irrigation and application of nutrients, cause gradual decrease in their productivity. One of the mandarin orchards of the village Mirem was used for the experiment. The orchard is in a land having slope of 38%. The village is located in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The effect of stockosorb on the growth and yield of Khasi mandarin was evaluated. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design with three replications and seven treatments (T1–Control, T2–20 g of stockosorb, T3–40 g of stockosorb, T4–60 g of stockosorb, T5–80 g of stockosorb, T6–100 g of stockosorb and T7–120 g of stockosorb). The treatments were applied during December 2012 with application of recommended doses of N : P : K i. e. 450, 450 and 900 g, respectively, to each tree. Among the treatments, treatment T4 was found to be the best. Significant yield i. e. 283 fruits per tree was recorded for the treatment T4. This is the highest yield among all the treatments. The fruits from T4 also produced reducing sugar content as 7.16% and the ascorbic acid content of 106.6 mg/100 g. In case of the treatment T4, the WHC of the soil increased from 19.65 to 30.8%. This may be due to the fact that the soil was wet for a longer time increasing the microbial activity as well as reducing the fruit drop due to water stress. With respect to mean increase in tree height, treatment T4 was found to be superior among all the treatments. Moreover, with respect to growth of the tree, it was found that there was appreciable increase in the growth of the tree in all the treatments where stockosorb was used as compared to control. It was also observed that stockosorb also held available water for the plant up to 15 days.

16. Fekadu Gurmu*, Shimelis Hussein and Mark Laing [Diagnostic assessment of sweet potato production in Ethiopia : Constraints, post-harvest handling and farmers’ preferences]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 104-115 (2015). African Centre for Crop Improvement, Private Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa *(e-mail : fekadugurmu@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Production and post-harvest handling of sweetpotato are constrained by many factors. The objective of the study was assessing and documenting the major constraints affecting production, pre- and post-harvest handling and farmers’ preferences for sweetpotato in Ethiopia. It was conducted in three selected major sweetpotato growing zones in Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal methodology. The identified production constraints were heat and drought at 21.6%, shortage of planting materials (20.1%), shortage of land (15.7%), diseases (10.0%), insect-pests (9.4%), a lack of draft power (8.1%), shortage of money (7.9%), a lack of labour (5.1%) and weeds (2.0%). Poor access to markets at 22.6%, poor market prices (19.1%), low yields (14.2%), low root dry matter content (13.6%), a lack of knowledge on processing (11.7%), a lack of processing equipment (11.1%) and transportation problem (7.7%) were identified as the major post-harvest constraints. The major farmers’ selection criteria for sweetpotato varieties were resistance to heat and drought (19.6%), dry matter content (16.4%), taste (14.3%), root yield (13.6%), resistance to disease and insects (13.3%), earliness (11.6%) and cookability (8.9%). Results of this study can serve as a baseline reference for strategic breeding and other interventions to develop sweetpotato varieties according to the needs of the farmers.

17. P. Sudharshan Reddy* and V. P. Chaudhary [Isolation of desirable induced morphological mutations in elite lines from a population of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench by gamma rays and EMS]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 116-122 (2015). International Crop Research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics Patencheru, Hyderabad-502 324 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : psudharshanreddy85@gmail.com)

Abstract

Induced mutation often produces abnormalities which cause morphological alterations in external form of plants including colour, shape, size, etc. In the present study, evaluation was performed during summer and kharif seasons of 2010-11 on Abelmoschus esculentus. Seeds of two elite varieties (GO-2 and GJO-3) were subjected to physical (gamma rays) and chemical (ethyl methane sulphonate; EMS) mutagenesis to find out the frequency and spectrum of induced desirable morphological mutations. In M2 generation, 12 different morphological mutations were induced in both the varieties. It was found that the spectrum of these mutations and their frequency varied with the type and dose of mutagens and the genotype used. Gamma radiations induced more number of morphological mutants as compared to EMS treatments in both the varieties. The highest mutation rate (11.19%) was detected in 40 kR gamma rays treatment followed by 0.25% EMS treatment in GO-2. In general, gamma irradiation treatments seemed to be superior in producing greater frequencies over all doses for both the varieties GO-2 (19.17%) and GJO-3 (16.33%).

18. SHWETA GUPTA*, RAJESH KAUSHAL, KIRTI KAUNDAL, ANJALI CHAUHAN and RANJIT SINGH SPEHIA [Efficacy of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on capsicum yield and soil health]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 123-132 (2015). Department of Basic Sciences Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan-173 230 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : shivi_rs88@yahoo.co.in)

Abstract

Screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was carried out by isolating 56 bacterial isolates from rhizosphere and roots of capsicum. The isolates were grouped on morphological similarities (RS1 to RS10), characterized biochemically and evaluated for various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Among all, six best isolates (RS2, RS3, RS4, RS7, RS8 and RS10) were evaluated for their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of capsicum under controlled conditions. Out of six, four best performers (RS2, RS3, RS4 and RS7) were evaluated for their effect on growth and yield of capsicum under net house conditions. Among which RS2 isolate possessed maximum P-solubilization (80.0%) and auxin production (29.67 µg/ml). However, RS7 isolate possessed maximum siderophore production (83.3%) and antagonism against Pythium spp. (41.7%), Phytophthora spp. (42.5%) and Colletotrichum spp. (40.1%). Seed bacterization with RS7 isolate (Bacillus sp.) showed maximum increase in shoot length (48.0%), shoot biomass (43.7%), root length (50.0%), root biomass (42.1%), yields (33.7%) and nutrient uptake N (40.0%), P (36.8% ) and K (23.6%) over control which was statistically at par with treatment receiving RS2 isolate (Bacillus subtilis). Hence, the two bacterial isolates (RS2 and RS7) were strong to be used as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent for capsicum under mid-hill conditions of north-western Himalayan region.

19. GEETIKA SHEEMAR* AND AJMER SINGH DHATT [PCR-based rapid identification of Indian onion populations possessing S-cytoplasm for isolation of CMS lines]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 133-138 (2015). Department of Vegetable Science Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : geetika.pf@gmail.com)

Abstract

As a novel method of identifying S and N cytoplasms in onion, a mitochondrial DNA based marker cytochrome b (cob) was used to cytoplasmically characterize Indian onion populations. The oligonucleotides amplified 414 bp DNA for S-cytotype and 180 bp for N-cytotype in open-pollinated populations, namely, Punjab Naroya, Punjab Selection, Punjab White, PRO-6, PBR-4 and P-266. Out of the 200 seedlings screened in each population, 19 in Punjab Naroya, 15 in Punjab Selection and 5 in Punjab White showed amplification of 414 bp revealing S-cytoplasmic proportion of 9.5, 7.5 and 2.5%, respectively. While PRO-6, PBR-4 and P-266 showed amplification of 180 bp only, indicating the absence of S-cytoplasm. The results suggest that Punjab Naroya, Punjab Selection and Punjab White can be exploited for development of male sterile (A) and maintainer (B) lines, while PRO-6, PBR-4 and P-266 can be utilized to isolate maintainer and restorer (R) lines. The study establishes a rapid method of cytoplasm identification in onion, which is pre-requisite to developing CMS lines. In contrast to 4-8 years taken by conventional approach used in India, this technique identifies cytoplasm within 15 days of sowing and proves its practical efficacy for future onion F1 breeding in the country.

20. Davinder Sharma, H. M. Mamrutha, Vijay Kumar Gupta, Ratan Tiwari and Rajender Singh* [Association of SSCP variants of HSP genes with physiological and yield traits under heat stress in wheat]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 139-146 (2015). Directorate of Wheat Research (ICAR), Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : rajenderkhokhar@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Heat stress alters various physiological phenomenons which adversely affect yield components and ultimately lead to a severe reduction in economic yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To cope with heat stress, plants have army of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which acts as molecular chaperones stabilizing the polypeptides and membranes. The thermo-tolerance ability of different genotypes of a plant species resides in their genetic diversity of HSP genes. In this study, association of HSPs with physiological and yield traits under heat stress was investigated. Results showed that wheat genotypes differed significantly in their response to high temperature. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of targeted coding sequence of different HSP genes produced seven different haplotypes from HSP 16.9, while only two haplotypes were produced from HSP 23.5, HSP 90a and HSP 90b. Among 25 SSCP variants detected in HSP 16.9 targeted coding sequence, 12 were polymorphic and three of them were found significantly associated with canopy temperature (CT), relative water content (RWC), thousand grain weight (TGW) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). These associated alleles explained 11.4 to 32.9% of the variation for individual trait. The association between HSP variants and these traits may provide new insight for HSPs potential contribution to thermo-tolerance which can be used for improvement of thermo-tolerance in wheat through marker assisted selection.

21. Di Liu, Shanfu Li, Jianmin Li, Le Wei, Xiujuan Hou, Wenjie Chen, Bo Zhang, Dengcai Liu, Baolong Liu* and Huaigang Zhang [A new SSR marker for puroindoline genes of wheat]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 147-153 (2015). Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota (AEPB) North-west Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qinghai Xining-810 008, China *(e-mail : blliu@nwipb.cas.cn)

Abstract

Allelic variation in puroindoline genes determines the hardness of the important quality traits in wheat grain. In this study, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) SSR 7 was chosen from the puroindoline genome sequence. It resided at 495 bp before the start codon of Pina. The repeat number of SSR 7 was different in different types of common wheat and Ae. tauschii. Four repeat types existed in 34 wheat cultivars with the repeat numbers 16, 18, 19 and 20, respectively. Among the 24 classes of materials of Ae. tauschii, only two repeat types, 6 and 10 times, could be found. Moreover, common wheat cultivars had one or two ‘AC’s more than Ae. tauschii. Except for AS 61 and AS 81, a 13 bps deletion appeared at 165 bp upstream of the SSR 7 site of the rest varieties of Ae. tauschii. The segment sizes of SSR 7 PCR product in common wheat were predicted from 154-182 bps, with the segment size not linked closely to puroindoline genotype. The allelic variations existing at SSR 7 loci can provide the theory basis for marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat hardness.

22. Praveen Pandey*, Rajesh Kumar and Vankat Raman Pandey [Genetic studies for quantitative traits in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 154-161 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.) India *(e-mail : pandeypraveen1986@yahoo.com)

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine nature and magnitude of genetic parameters and their utilization in development of superior varieties/hybrids of pigeonpea. Results showed that the sufficient amount of variability was found in the entire gene pool for all the traits studied. Secondary branches/plant showed highest phenotypic as well as genotypic coefficient of variation followed by seed yield/plant and biological yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed by 100-seed weight, pods/plant, seed yield/plant, biological yield/plant and secondary branches/plant suggesting preponderance of additive gene action in the expression of these characters, while plant height, primary branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod and harvest index showed high heritability with moderate genetic advance as per cent of mean suggesting greater role of non-additive gene action in their inheritance. Biological yield/plant, pods/plant, 100-seed weight, harvest index and secondary branches/plant showed positive and highly significant correlation with grain yield/plant to emerge as most important associates of seed yield. Path analysis identified biological yield/plant followed by harvest index, pods/plant, days to maturity, primary branches/plant, 100- seed weight and seeds/pod as most important direct yield contributing traits which merit due consideration at the time of devising selection strategy aimed at developing high yielding varieties in pigeonpea.

23. XICUN DONG*, WENJIAN LI, RUIYUAN LIU AND WENTING GU [Phenotypic variation of sweet sorghum after carbon ion beam irradiation]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 162-169 (2015). Department of Radiobiology, Institute of Modern Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou-730 000, China *(e-mail : dongxicun@impcas.ac.cn)

Abstract

The survival rate, DNA mutation rate, phenotype variation, sequence analysis of Hd1 and Hd3a were investigated after the dry seeds of sweet sorghum were irradiated by carbon ions. The results indicate that there was a marked stimulatory effect under low doses in terms of survival rate. The carbon ion irradiation also induced phenotypic variation and the mutation frequency differed as the dose increased. The maximum DNA mutation rate was 18.95%, which occurred at 200 Gy, whereas the mutation rate decreased to 17.87% at 240 Gy. The sequence analysis indicated that there was no difference between KF and KC for the Hd1 gene, but 2bp insertions were clearly observed in KF compared to KC in the case of the Hd3a gene. In conclusion, there was a significant phenotypic variation after carbon ion beam irradiation in sweet sorghum.

24. D. SAGAR* AND R. A. BALIKAI [Toxicity of neonicotinoids against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) in Karnataka, India]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 170-175 (2015). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : garuda344@gmail.com)

Abstract

Laboratory experiments were carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the toxicity of neonicotinoids against leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) population of major cotton growing districts of Karnataka state, India. Leafhopper population of Haveri district recorded a maximum LC50 value followed by the population collected from Belgaum district against imidacloprid 17.8 SL and thiamethoxam 25 WG. While, leafhopper population of Raichur district recorded a maximum LC50 value against acetamiprid 20 SP. Clothianidin recorded relatively lower LC50 values as compared to other neonicotinoids bioassayed in all six cotton growing districts of Karnataka state.

25. Sushil, Anil Duhan, S. P. Singh and Beena Kumari* [Bioefficacy and residues of imidacloprid in rapeseed-mustard]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 176-181 (2015). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : beenakumari.958@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

Imidacloprid formulations, 70 WS and 17.8 SL were applied as seed treatment @ 5 and 7 g/kg and as foliar spray @ 20 and 40 g a. i./ha, respectively, at flowering stage on mustard (Brassica campestris Linn.) to control the population of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. Both the treatments effectively controlled the aphid population when used as seed as well as foliar spray treatment. The highest cost : benefit ratio was found with lower doses (seed treatment 5 g/kg and foliar spray @ 20 g a. i./ha) in both the treatments and proved sufficient to optimize the yield of mustard crop. Residues of imidacloprid in mustard seed and soil were estimated on HPLC reverse phase system. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of determination/quantification (LODe/LOQ) was calculated to be 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Residues were below determination level (BDL) of 0.01 mg/kg in mustard seeds as well soil at harvest in both the treatments and doses.

26. H. K. SINGH*, R. B. SINGH and K. N. MAURYA [Management of major fungal foliar diseases of rapeseed-mustard]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 182-188 (2015). Department of Plant Pathology N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : hksndu@gmail.com)

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2012-13 to manage the major fungal foliar diseases of rapeseed-mustard by integrating bioagents–Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescence; plant product–garlic bulb extract and fungicides–apron and ridomil MZ. Total 18 treatments were prepared by using them alone or in combination as seed dressers and/or as foliar spray. Among these, treatment–seed treatment (ST) followed by three foliar sprays (FS) with garlic bulb extract 1% concentration (w/v) was recorded the most effective with minimum mean severity of alternaria blight (38.00%), white rust (11.33%) and powdery mildew (49.31%). It was followed by treatment ST with apron (6 g/kg seed)+2 FS of ridomil MZ (0.2%) and treatment ST with T. harzianum (10 g/kg seed)+3 FS of T. harzianum (1.0%), respectively, but all were at par. Similar trend was noted in case of seed yield also. Maximum average seed yield of 1380 kg/ha with highest cost : benefit ratio of 4.8 was recorded with garlic bulb extract. Thus, garlic bulb extract @ 1% w/v can be recommended as seed dresser and foliar spray bio-pesticide for the eco-friendly management of fungal foliar diseases of rapeseed-mustard. Out of 225 genotypes screened, only three genotypes, namely, PBC-2002-2B, PBC-2004-1 and NPC-14 were recorded resistant against four major diseases like downy mildew (DM), alternaria blight (AB), white rust (WR) and powdery mildew (PM). Besides this, genotypes PBN-2001 and PBN-2002 were recorded resistant to AB, WR, DM and GSL-1, HNS-004, NUDB-26-11, OCN-3, CAN-133, EC-338997, EC-339000 and NPN-1 resistant to DM, WR and PM.

27. SYED ZAMEER HUSSAIN*, BALJIT SINGH AND ASIMA RAFIQE [Cooking behaviour of re-fabricated rice as affected by extrusion : A response surface analysis]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 189-194 (2015). Division of Post Harvest Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Srinagar-191 121 (J & K), India *(e-mail : zameerskuastj@rediffmail.com)

Abstract

The effect of feed moisture, screw speed and barrel temperature on cooking characteristics of re-fabricated rice grains was investigated in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder using response surface methodology. The rice flour obtained from broken rice (< 1/8th of actual kernel size) of PR-116 after mixing with structural components was used in the study. The screw speed was set at five levels between 49 and 150 rpm, barrel temperature between 59 and 110oC and feed moisture between 31 and 45%. All cooking parameters of the re-fabricated rice grains evaluated—Kernel length before cooking (KLBC), kernel length after cooking (KLAC), volume expansion ratio (VER), water uptake (WU) and cooking coefficient (CC) –were significantly (P<0.01) affected by the three process variables. Barrel temperature was the most significant variable with quadratic effect on KLAC and WU. Response surface regression models were established to correlate the cooking parameters of re-fabricated rice grains to the process variables. The optimized extrusion conditions for preparation of re-fabricated grains were 38% moisture content, 130 rpm screw speed and 890C barrel temperature. Understanding the effect of process variables on the cooking properties and optimization of extrusion conditions was deemed useful for the development of re-fabricated rice.

28. HYEUSOO KIM, SEA HYUN KIM, CHANG-KI HUH, KYOUNG-SUN SEO, TAE-YOUNG PARK AND KYEONG WON YUN* [Determination of saikosaponins in three Bupleurum plants by HPLC analysis]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 195-199 (2015). Department of Forest Genetic Resources Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon 441-847, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : ykw@sunchon.ac.kr)

Abstract

In this study, saikosaponins were determined from roots of three Bupleurum plants collected in June 2009. Bupleuri Radix (Bupleurum spp. root) is one of the most important crude drugs in Korea, China and Japan. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of saikosaponin ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’ in three Bupleurum plants. The highest total saikosaponin content was found in the B. falcatum ‘Mishima’ (1281.94 mg%). Total saikosaponin contents of B. falcatum and B. latissimum were 669.67 and 489.95 mg%, respectively. B. falcatum ‘Mishima’ and B. falcatum contained more saikosaponin ‘a’ than other saikosaponins. The contents of saikosaponin ‘a’ of B. falcatum ‘Mishima’ and B. falcatum were 745.74 and 484.60 mg%, respectively. In contrast, B. latissimum, an endemic species of Korea had higher saikosaponin ‘c’ (351.90 mg%) content than the other two saikosaponins and the content was higher than B. falcatum (181.71 mg%). B. latissimum, a Korean endemic species, is a good source for extraction/production of saikosaponin ‘c’.

29. A. G. Kulkarni, P. K. Lokhande, U. S. Dalvi* and R. M. Naik [Biochemical evaluation of low temperature stress tolerant groundnut genotypes]. Res. on Crops 16 (1) : 200-203 (2015). Department of Biochemistry Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, District Ahmednagar-413 722 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : usdalvi2008@gmail.com)

Abstract

Sixteen low temperature stress tolerant groundnut genotypes were evaluated for the levels of crude fat, crude protein, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and total sugars from the defatted meals. Out of 16 genotypes, four genotypes viz., NRCG 1613, NRCG 9799, NRCG 12212 and NRCG 2510, germinated at 150C, and the contents of proline and extracted soluble proteins from leaf material were resolved on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel in order to observe the differences, if any, in banding patterns under stressed condition. The seeds of low temperature stress tolerant genotype ICG 6888 demonstrated the highest fat content of 52.46%, followed by 49% in NRCG 9799. Among the 16 genotypes, ICG 1298 and ICG 6570 recorded the highest crude protein content of 38.5% in their defatted meals followed by 37.62% in ICG 7005. The reducing sugar content in defatted groundnut seeds was also recorded and the genotype ICG 1256 showed the highest reducing sugar content of 1.60%, followed by 1.40% in ICG 3942. The highest total sugar content was recorded in ICG 1298 with 9% followed by 8.10% in ICG 1256.

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