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1. R. K. MAITI, P. VIDYASAGAR AND V. P. SINGH [ A review on research trends on seeds, germination, seed vigour and seedling establishment in maize (Zea mays L.) ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 611-626 (2006). Vibha Agrotech Ltd. 501, Subhan Sirisampada, Rajbhavan Road Samajiguda, Hyderabad- 500 082 (A. P.), India
In the present review, recent trends on research on maize seeds and seedling establishment are discussed in brief. Several studies are on the biochemistry and biotechnology of maize seeds such as Vp1-mediated repression of alpha-amylase genes, hexose phosphorylation at distinct cellular sites, characterization of thiamine-binding proteins, a transcript encoding a nucleic acid-binding protein, etc. The paper discusses various factors affecting seed viability, biochemistry of germination and seedling development, emergence, photomorphogenesis, seedling establishment such as fungal infection, accelerated ageing, water stress, salinity, cold tolerance, its mechanism and various other factors. Concerted studies need to be undertaken on the genotypic variability of maize cultivars for various seed and seedling establishment traits and their adaptations to various stress factors and in understanding the mechanism of tolerance to these stress factors.
2. D. kalyanasundaram, S. R. vinod kumar and K. P. Senthil kumar [ Studies on integrated weed management in direct-seeded lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 627-629 (2006). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India .
Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of butachlor without and with safener in relation to different times of application in direct seeded puddled lowland rice. Results of the study revealed that butachlor with safener was significantly superior to alone application of butachlor in decreasing phytotoxicity and dry matter of weeds. Among all the combinations, butachlor with safener four days after sowing (DAS)+hand weeding 30 DAS increased the grain yield significantly by controlling the weeds effectively without causing any phytotoxicity on crop.
3. Dhiman Mukherjee, R. P. Singh and Rajesh Kr. Singh [ Studies on weed management in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 630-632 (2006). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University , Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India .
A field experiment was conducted during rainy (kharif) seasons of 1999 and 2000 to work out the relative efficacy of herbicides applied alone or in combination with supplemental hand weeding to control weeds in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the research farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Pre-emergence application of butachlor 1.5 kg ha -1 supplemented with one hand weeding at 35 days after transplanting (DAT) showed the highest weed control efficiency (81.40%) and yield attribute 246.1 effective panicle m -2, 136.0 filled grains per panicle and 28.64 g 1000-grain weight as well as grain (70.64 q ha -1) and straw (84.13 q ha -1) yields of rice with maximum additional net return (Rs. 3756). However, pendimethalin 1.5 kg ha -1 and 2, 4-DEE 1.0 kg ha -1 proved at par with butachlor when applied alone. Two hand weeding treatments significantly reduced the weed biomass and improved the grain yield, but reduced the benefit : cost ratio as compared to herbicidal treatments and with their hand weeding combination.
4. B. R. Premalatha and V. V. Angadi [ Performance of growth and yield components of direct seeded rainfed lowland rice under integrated nitrogen management ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 633-636 (2006). Dryland Agriculture Project University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India .
A field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Mugad, Dharwad during kharif seasons of 2000 and 2001 to study the performance of growth and yield components of direct seeded rainfed lowland rice under integrated nitrogen management through leaf colour chart (LCC). Green manuring with sunhemp or eupatorium with nitrogen management at LCC-3 gave higher grain yeid than all other treatment combinations. The grain yield was greatly influenced by growth attributing characters like leaf area and leaf area index and yield attributes like panicles per metre row length and filled grains per panicle.
5. C. RAMACHANDRA, O. P. RAJPUT, M. SYED ANWARULLA, G. JANARDHAN AND PARASHIVAMURTHY [ Production potential of rice-based cropping systems under various levels of nutrient management in hill zone of Karnataka* ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 637-639 (2006). UAS Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mudigere (Karnataka), India .
Field experiments were conducted during the years 2002-03 and 2003-04 to study the productivity, profitability and energy equivalent of eight different rice-based cropping systems under low land rice eco-system with five different fertility levels on red sandy loam soils at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mudigere. Rice-soybean sequence recorded sustainable rice yield on long term basis. However, rice-bell pepper (181.0 q/ha) and rice-marigold (Rs.165.6 q/ha) gave the highest rice grain equivalent yield (RGEY) and mean net returns. Rice-fodder maize system recorded the highest digestible protein (1372.80 kg/ha) and fat productivity (231.80 kg/ha) and rice-marigold system produced the highest amount of digestible carbohydrate (9169.80 kg/ha). The production use efficiency of rice-fodder maize (111.0 kg/ha/day) was higher than other cropping sequences. The highest land use efficiency was observed in rice-bell pepper cropping sequence (75.20%). Rice-rice or fodder maize sequence had an adverse impact on yield sustainability as it decreased the yield. Recommended dose of fertilizer was found to be productive and profitable than other fertility levels.
6. M. Ganapathy, N. Ramesh and G. Baradhan [ Studies on the effect of integrated management of farmyard manure, composted bone sludge, composted press mud and inorganic fertilizers on rice fallow sunflower crop ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 640-642 (2006). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India .
Field experiments were conducted on sunflower as a rice fallow crop during 2001 and 2002, to study the effect of different nutrient combinations viz., 0, 75 and 100% recommended dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), 75% NPK+farmyard manure (FYM) @ 10 t/ha, 75% NPK+composted pressmud (CPM) @ 10 t/ha and 75% NPK+composted bone sludge (CBS) @ 10 t/ha on growth and productivity of sunflower crop cultivation. The results showed that with the increase in NPK dose from 0 to 100% there was significant improvement in growth components at 60 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest. Integrated use of organic and inorganic manures accelerated the growth and yield components compared to inorganic fertilizer application. The growth was more with NPK+FYM, NPK+CPM and NPK+CBS, respectively, compared to 100% NPK. The organic fertilizers in combinations with inorganic fertilizer were superior to sole inorganic fertilizer for growth and yield components. Overall application of 75% NPK and CBS @ 10 t/ha recorded h ighest seed yield and yield attributes (head diameter, number of seeds/head and 100-grain weight of sunflower). The performance of nutrient combination followed the order of 75% NPK+CPM>75% NPK+CBS>100% NPK.
7. Thakar Singh, Taranvir Pal Singh and Savita Sharma 1 [ Effect of date of transplanting, plant population and nitrogen level on yield and quality of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa) ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 643-646 (2006). Department of Agronomy and Agrometeorology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 ( Punjab ), India .
A field experiment conducted at Ludhiana during kharif 2003 showed that date of transplanting did not influence the plant height, LAI, straw yield and other yield attributing characters and produced statistically similar grain yield. Plant population of 25 and 33 hills m -2 produced taller plant, whereas population of 44 hills m -2 recorded significantly higher LAI. Number of effective tillers plant -1 decreased significantly with increase in population. All levels of plant population produced statistically similar grain and straw yields. Nitrogen application significantly increased the plant height, number of grains panicle -1, 1000-grain weight and LAI but it did not influence the number of effective tillers plant -1, panicle length and branches panicle -1. A progressive and significant increase in grain and straw yield was observed with each increment of nitrogen upto 40 kg ha -1. The quality characters viz., brown rice, milled rice and head rice recovery, L : B ratio, elongation ratio and cooking coefficient were not influenced by different dates of transplanting, plant population and nitrogen levels. Water absorption ratio was significantly more in produce from early transplanting. Plant population of 25 hills m -2 took significantly more time of cooking than higher population. Overall acceptability score with respect to aroma, colour, flavour, tenderness and cohesiveness was increased with early transplanting, less plant population and application of different levels of nitrogen as compared to control.
8. M. de Roy, P. K. Chhonkar and A. K. Patra [ Effect of crop residue incorporation on N-uptake and dry matter yield of rice and wheat grown in sequence ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 647-652 (2006). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-100 012, India .
Green house experiment was undertaken to monitor the effect of crop residues (viz. no residue, wheat residue and rice residue) incorporated @ 5 g kg -1 soil, 20 days before rice transplanting and four levels of 15N labelled as well as unlabelled urea-N (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg N kg -1 soil) on N-uptake and dry matter yield under rice-wheat cropping sequence. Application of rice and wheat straw increased plant recovery as well as soil retention of fertilizer nitrogen in both rice and wheat crops as evidenced from 15N study. Crop residue incorporated with urea showed no significant increase in rice yield as compared to control but the residual effect of crop residue on succeeding wheat increased the yield of the crop.
9. A. K. Sinha and R. P. Singh [ Effect of tillage and herbicides on nutrient uptake by wheat and weeds and their economics ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 653-656 (2006). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University , Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India .
The results of field experiments carried out to assess the effect of tillage and herbicides indicated that adoption of zero tillage significantly reduced the NPK depletion by weeds as compared to reduced and conventional tillage. Minimum weed dry matter accumulation and nutrient depletion were achieved under isoproturon+2, 4-D (1.0+0.5 kg) as compared to other herbicidal treatments, isoproturon (1.0 kg), sulfosulfuron (25 g) and glyphosate+isoproturon (0.5+1.0 kg). Averaged over two years, isoproturon+2, 4-D (1.0+0.5 kg) increased the grain yield by 42.33, 38.04 and 39.13% over weedy check in zero, reduced and conventional tillage, respectively. The output : input ratio was maximum in zero tillage and isoproturon+2, 4-D as compared to other treatments, respectively.
10. B. L. VERMA, YOGESH SHARMA AND R. A. SINGHANIA [ Conjunctive use of saline water to supplement canal water in pearl millet-wheat crop rotation ]. Res. on Crops 7 (3) : 657-659 (2006). Soil Salinity Project Agricultural Research Station, Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India .
A field experiment was conducted during 1997-98 and 1998-99 on sandy soil at Agricultural Research Station, Bikaner (Rajasthan) to find out the most suitable cyclic and mixing modes of canal and saline water irrigation for pearl millet and wheat crop in IGNP Command area. Wheat was grown in rotation with pearl millet and was irrigated with canal (0.25 dSm -1) and saline (8.0 dSm -1) waters. Maximum grain yield of pearl millet was recorded with canal water followed by cyclic mode of 2 CW-1 SW and 1 CW-1 SW, whereas in case of wheat maximum grain yield was recorded when only canal water was used. Further, the yields obtained in cyclic mode of 2 CW-1 SW, 1 CW-1 SW and 1 CW-RSW were at par with mixing mode of irrigation. The lowest yield and yield attributes of both the crops were recorded when only saline water was used. EC e and pH e of soil profile increased with the use of saline water.