1. R. K. Maiti* AND V. P. SINGH [Biodiversity of cactus biology : A review]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-15 (2016). 1Department of Chemistry and Biology Universidad de la Americas, Puebla, Mexico *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Cactus occupies dominant species in a desert which are mostly endangered owing to illegal human activities. There is a necessity of development of efficient technique for its germination and propagation. The present paper makes a review of research undertaken by Maiti and his team in highlands of Puebla. This deals with variability in seed morphology, technique of germination and seedling establishment, phenology, propagation and conservation and formation of a germplasm bank. These techniques can be utilized in the propagation and conservation of cactus species elsewhere.
2. Minsura Begum* and S. Mondal** [Effect of arsenical toxicant on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 16-19 (2016). Department of Plant Physiology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : email@example.com; **firstname.lastname@example.org)
Arsenic is a potential contrminant of groundwater as well as soil in many parts of the world. Elevated soil arsenic levels resulting from long term use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for irrigation may inhibit seed germination and seedling establishment of rice, the country’s main food crop. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of arsenical toxicant on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). For this purpose, seeds were treated with 0, 15, 10, 15 and 20 ppm of arsenate and arsenite solution individually. Resluts revealed that root, shoot and seedling length, seedling vigour, dry weight and indices of pigments decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in concentration of arsenate and arsenite as compared to control. Arsenite was found to be more toxic than arsenate on germination and early growth of rice seedlings.
3. Minsura Begum* and S. Mondal** [Effect of arsenic on photosynthesis and oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 20-23 (2016). Department of Plant Physiology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : email@example.com; **firstname.lastname@example.org)
The contamination of the irrigation waters with arsenic is a significant ecological problem. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of arsenate and arsenite on photosynthesis and oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenic was applied as Na2HAs3O4 and As2O3 at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/l. The results showed that plastid pigment content and leaf gas-exchange decreased significantly with increase in the concentration of arsenic. The inhibitory effect of arsenite was more pronounced in reducing pigment content and gas exchange than arsenate contaminated plants. The increase in lipid peroxidation with decline in catalase activity in rice indicated a typical reaction of the plants to oxidative stress.
4. K. Vishwanathan and R. Singaravel* [Effect of clay and organic amendments on yield and nutrient uptake of rice in coastal sandy soil]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 24-27 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
One pot experiment was conducted in the Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University during July to October 2015. The initial experimental soil sample recorded a pH (8.07), EC (2.45 dS/m) and available N (130.64 mg/kg), P (4.12 mg/kg) and K (79.28 mg/kg). The design of experiment was completely randomized design. The treatments studied were : T1–Control (100% recommended NPK), T2–NPK+20 t clay/ha, T3–NPK+40 t clay/ha, T4–NPK+20 t clay/ha+FYM @ 12.5 t/ha, T5–NPK+40 t clay/ha+FYM @ 12.5 t/ha, T6–NPK+20 t clay/ha+Lignite humic acid @ 20 kg/ha and T7–NPK+40 t clay/ha+Lignite humic acid @ 20 kg/ha. All the treatments were replicated thrice. Rice var. ADT-43 was test crop. The various yield characters, grain and straw yield were recorded. At harvest, plant samples were collected and analyzed for the N, P and K content and their uptake by rice. The results indicated that application of NPK along with clay+organic amendments increased the yield and nutrient uptake of rice in coastal sandy soil. Among the treatments, the highest grain yield (54.73 g/pot) and straw yield (76.86 g/pot) was recorded in the treatment T7.
5. K. Vishwanathan and R. Singaravel* [Role of clay and organic amendments on the influence of soil properties and yield of rice in coastal sandy soil]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 28-31 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Coastal sandy soil lacks structure and shows poor organic carbon, CEC and nutrient retention properties. The natural amendments like clay and organics play a dominant role in shaping these properties. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted in the Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University during July to October 2015. The initial soil sample was characterized as sandy texture with slightly alkaline (pH 8.07) and saline (EC 2.45 dS/m) nature. The status of N, P and K was low. The following treatments viz., T1–Control (100% recommended NPK), T2–NPK+20 t clay/ha, T3–NPK+40 t clay/ha, T4–NPK+20 t clay/ha+FYM @ 12.5 t/ha, T5–NPK+40 t clay/ha+FYM @ 12.5 t/ha, T6–NPK+20 t clay/ha+Lignite humic acid @ 20 kg/ha and T7–NPK+40 t clay/ha+Lignite humic acid @ 20 kg/ha were studied in CRD with three replications using rice ADT-43. The various physico-chemical characters, namely, pH, EC and CEC, organic carbon and soil available nutrients were recorded at flowering and harvest stages of crop in addition to yield characters and yield of rice. The results of the study showed that among the treatments T7–Application of NPK+clay @ 40 t/ha+HA @ 20 kg/ha recorded highest soil available nutrients viz., NH4+-N (48.26 mg/kg), NO3- -N (36.33 mg/kg), Olsen P (5.13 mg/kg) and NH4OAc-K (91.21 mg/kg) at harvest stage. This treatment also recorded the highest yield characters and yield of rice.
6. A. V. Bulbule*, P. N. Gajbhiye, R. D. Nigade and N. Y. Patil [Direct and residual effect of sulphur fertilization to soybean-wheat cropping sequence]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 32-37 (2016). Zonal Agricultural Research Station Shenda Park, Kolhapur-416 012 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Field experiments were conducted during 2012 to 2015 to study the influence of direct and residual effect of sulphur fertilization to soybean-wheat cropping sequence. The location represents sub-montane zone of Maharashtra. It receives heavy rains in the months of July and August causing loss of soil and nutrients. The treatments consisted of four levels of S (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S/ha) to soybean crop in addition to the recommended basal dose. The residual effect of applied sulphur was studied on wheat crop in the soybean-wheat cropping sequence. Increasing levels of elemental sulphur significantly increased yield, uptake and quality of soybean in the soybean-wheat cropping sequence. Application of 40 kg elemental S/ha recorded the highest values for the yield of soybean (30.7 q/ha) which was at par with 20 kg S/ha (29.1 q/ha) and 30 kg S/ha (30.3 q/ha). The residual effect of applied sulphur on the wheat crop also recorded similar pattern. The soybean equivalent yield recorded significantly superior yield of soybean due to sulphur application @ 20 kg S/ha (51.3 q/ha) over application @ 10 kg S/ha (47.3 q/ha), while at higher levels of 30 and 40 kg S/ha the differences were not significant. The oil contents of soybean crop did not differ significantly due to the different levels of sulphur treatments; however, application of elemental S @ 20 kg S/ha significanty recorded superior oil yield (537 kg/ha) over S @ 10 kg/ha (481 kg/ha) and was at par with treatments of higher levels. Application of 40 kg S/ha recorded highest total N, P, K and S nutrients uptake and B : C ratio by soybean and wheat crop.
7. NARESH KUMAR, S. K. SHARMA, S. K. YADAV, ROSHAN CHOUDHARY AND R. S. CHOUDHARY* [Nutrient content, uptake and economics of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) spp. saccharata] grown under organic management practices]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 38-44 (2016). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2014 at Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan)to study the nutrient content, uptake and economics of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) ssp. saccharata] grown under organic management practices.The significantly increased nutrient content and uptake of N, P and K by grain and fodder of sweet corn were registered with vermicompost 6 t/ha+intercropping with blackgram+mataka khad+compost tea at 45 and 60 DAS which was at par with vermicompost 6 t/ha+intercropping with blackgram+BD-500 75 g/ha+BD-501 2.5 g/ha and vermicompost 6 t/ha+mataka khad+compost tea at 45 and 60 DAS. Results revealed that application of vermicompost 6 t/ha+intercropping with blackgram+mataka khad 5%+compost tea 2% at 45 and 60 DAS significantly increased the content and uptake of N, P and K. Similarly maximum gross returns, net returns and B : C ratio were recorded under treatment of vermicompost 6 t/ha+intercropping with blackgram+mataka khad 5%+compost tea 2% at 45 and 60 DAS.
8. Rinjumoni Dutta*, Joshila Enghipi and K. Thakuria [Effect of dates of sowing on yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. trilocularis) under graded doses of nitrogen in rice fallow]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 45-49 (2016). Department of Agronomy Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experimentwas conducted at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during the rabi season of the year 2013-14 with a view to study the effect of sowing dates and doses of nitrogen on growth and yield of yellow sarson. Experimental findings revealed that among the different dates of sowing, delay in sowing of the crop from 25 November to 15 December led to a significant reduction in the growth and yield attributing characters that consequently led to yield reduction. Highest seed yield (724.71 kg/ha), stover yield (2036.52 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 33253.07) and benefit : cost ratio (2.09) were recorded at 25 November sowing, whereas the seed and stover yield decreased significantly due to delay in crop sowing. The yield attributing characters, seed and stover yield increased significantly up to 80 kg N/ha which was at par with 60 kg N/ha. Among the different nitrogen levels, highest benefit : cost ratio (1.89) was found in 60 kg N/ha.
9. H. B. PATIL*, A. V. SOLANKE and R. R. HASURE [Performance of nutrient management in potato preceding by green manuring crops]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 50-56 (2016). Department of Agronomy, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present investigation was conducted atDepartment of Agronomy, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra to study the performance of nutrient management in potato preceding by green manuring crops for two consecutive years during 2013-14 and 2014-15.The soil of experimental field was sandy clay loam in texture with low in available nitrogen (168.33 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus (22.43 kg/ha) and high (361.30 kg/ha) in available potash. The experiment was carried out in split-plot design with three replications. The incorporation of dhaincha at 50% flowering stage as a green manuring crop in kharif season followed by growing of potato in rabi season with 100% general recommended dose of fertilizers (GRDF–120 : 60 : 120 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha+20 t of farm yard manure/ha) found superior for recording maximum potato tuber yield (35.03, 38.61 and 35.81 t/ha) in 2013-14, 2014-15 and pooled data.
10. Jamini Saikia*, Luchon Saikia and Dhruba Jyoti Nath [Assessment of biofertilizer consortium for French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 57-60 (2016). Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
An experiment was carried out during 2014-15 at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat to assess the growth, yield and soil characters with seven treatments and three replications in randomized block design (RBD). The treatments were T1 : FYM 20 t/ha+NPK @ 30 : 40 : 20 kg/ha (RDF), T2 : Enriched compost @ 3 t/ha, T3 : Enriched compost @ 3 t/ha+Consortium, T4 : Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha, T5 : Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha, T6 : Vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha+ Consortium and T7 : Consortium (Rhizobium+Azotobacter+Azospirillum+PSB). The performance of French bean was greatly influenced by different treatments. Results indicated that T1 recorded maximum for most of the growth and yield characters viz., plant height (43.07 cm), number of branches (6.90),number of leaves/plant (76.71), pods/plant (28.57), pod length (15.07 cm), pod girth (0.96 cm), seeds/pod (6.73), pod yield (11.27 t/ha) and harvest index (67.67%). Then, T3 reflected the maximum nodules/plant (19.33) and nodule nitrogen content (5.54% DW) at final harvest. Further, T3 also recorded the best for all the soil parameters viz., bulk density (0.83 g/cm3), pH (5.33) and P2O5 (47.40 kg/ha); T5 recorded highest organic carbon (0.68%), while T1 revealed maximum N and K (220.56 and 119.31 kg/ha) content. In accordance with soil physico-chemical characters as found in T3 soil biological characters were also found to be statistically superior in respect of microbial biomass carbon (630.33 µg/g/24 h) and dehydrogenase activity (711.50 µg TPF/g/24 h).
11. XiangRong Xue, XingWang Ma, Tao Yang and WenXuan Mai* [Most appropriate leaf site for the estimation of nitrogen status in cotton plants from the SPAD value]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 61-67 (2016). 1Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi-830 011, China *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A hydroponic experiment was performed with three nitrogen application levels to identify the most appropriate site on a cotton leaf to estimate the nitrogen status of a cotton plant from the SPAD value. The results from the hydroponic experiment were compared with those from a field trial. Distinct regional differences in the SPAD value were observed among the 17 measurement sites on the leaf. The leaf tip yielded the highest SPAD value, whereas measurement sites closest to the petiole showed the lowest SPAD values. The correlation between nitrogen status and SPAD value differed among the measurement sites; only sites near the leaf tip showed a significant correlation between SPAD value and nitrogen content of the shoot. The field trial showed the same results. These findings suggest that a location near the leaf tip is the most appropriate site to estimate the nitrogen status of cotton plants from the SPAD value.
12. PARVANEH TISHEHZAN*, ABD ALI NASERI, ALI REZA HASSANOGHLI AND MUSA MESKARBASHI [Estimation of groundwater contribution to water needs of date palm seedlings under different farm management practices]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 68-77 (2016). 1Irrigation and Drainage Department Water Science and Engineering College Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Date palm usually grows in the arid and semi-arid areas. Shallow saline water tables and reducing fresh water are the major problems in these regions. Therefore, groundwater contribution to crop water use may be important. The objectives of this study were to finding out the model of groundwater contribution to supply water needs of palm seedling. To obtain this goal, the experiment was performed in three replicated split-split-plot designs inclusive of three levels of groundwater salinity (<4, 8 and 12 dS/m), groundwater depth (60 and 90 cm) and two levels of soil surface cover (mulching with cutted leaves of date palm and no mulch). The data were analyzed and investigated using software MSTATC (V.2), Excel 2007 and SPSS.19. Results showed that the mulch effect on groundwater contribution was very significant (1%). The effect of groundwater salinity and depth on groundwater contribution was not significant at 5% level. The best regression by using three factors was multivariate linear regression with r2=0.6 and significant at 0.05. Also the results showed that the constant coefficient, mulch coefficient, depth coefficient and the salinity coefficient were correct with 99, 99, 85 and 50% possibility, respectively.
13. Azadeh Farhadi, Naeimeh Enayatizamir, Ahmad Farrokhian FirouzI1 and Hamid Howeizeh [Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi inoculation on blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale) growth under water-deficit condition]. Crop Res. 51 (1, 2 & 3) : 78-85 (2016). 1Department of Soil Science, Agriculture Faculty Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Water-deficit and drought has been caused environmental problems in recent years. One of the approaches to sustainable agriculture is using mycorrhizal symbiosis which reduces the impact of drought stress on growth and yield characteristics of plant. This study was conducted to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae symbiosis under drought stress on morphological characteristics and also, sugar and proline contents of blue panic grass. The treatments included microbial inoculation [control (NM), Glomus mosseae (GM), Glomus intraradices (GI) and both fungus inoculation (MI)], and drought stress (80% (S1), 50% (S2) and 20% (S3) of field capacity) which was carried out in factorial randomized design at 3 replications. Three months after growing plants, they were clipped from height of 30 cm from the soil surface and then drought stress was imposed for 15 weeks. Results showed that increasing drought stress led to significant reduction in plant height, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, shoot fresh and dry weight and colonization percentage of roots. Mycorrhizal symbiosis caused significant increase in all mentioned attributes. Drought stress caused to increase proline and soluble sugar concentration in leaves. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorhizae to growth medium significantly (P<0.05) increased proline and soluble sugar concentration of plant when grown under normal as well as in water-deficit environments indicating its importance in tolerance of blue panic grass.