Volume 50, Number 1, 2 & 3 (July, September & November 2015)

By | December 10, 2015

1. SHEEJA K. RAJ*, ELIZABETH K. SYRIAC, L. GIRIJA DEVI, K. S. MEENAKUMARI, VIJAYARAGHAVAKUMAR AND B. APARNA [Impact of new herbicide molecule bispyribac sodium+metamifop on soil health under direct seeded rice lowland condition]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-8 (2015). Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695 522 (Kerala), India *(e-mail : sheejakraj70@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Soil microflora and soil enzymes are considered to be the biological indicators of soil health. Hence, an experiment was conducted in the farmer’s field to study the impact of bispyribac sodium+metamifop 14% SE (a combination of broad spectrum herbicide bispyribac sodium 9.5% and a grass effective herbicide metamifop 3.8%) on soil microflora and enzyme activity in soil during kharif 2014. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with seven treatments viz., bispyribac sodium+metamifop 14% SE applied at 60, 70, 80 and 90 g a. i./ha, bispyribac sodium 10% SC applied alone at 25 g a. i./ha, hand weeding twice on 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check. The study results revealed that, on 15 days after herbicide application, an increase in the population of bacteria and fungi and decline in the population of actinomycetes was observed. But on 45 days after herbicide application, an increase in population of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes was observed. In general, herbicides had no negative impact on total microbial population. An increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed in all herbicide treated plots on 15 days after herbicide application. The same trend was observed on 45 days after herbicide application. With regard to phosphatase activity irrespective of treatments decline in activity was observed on 15 days after herbicide application. On 15 and 45 days after herbicide application, bispyribac sodium applied at 70, 80 and 90 g a. i./ha was on par with weedy check. Similar to phosphatase, a decline in urease activity was observed on 15 days after herbicide application. At 15 and 45 days after herbicide application bispyribac sodium applied at 70, 80 and 90 g a. i./ha recorded higher urease activity than weedy check. From the results, it can be concluded that bispyribac sodium+ metamifop has no adverse impact on soil microflora and enzyme activity in the soil, implying that it is an ecofriendly herbicide.

2. Y. V. Singh*, Shiva Autar Mishra and Pradip dey [Soil test crop response based gradient experiment on rice (Oryza sativa L.) to NPK fertilizers in the alluvial soil of the Indo-Gangetic plains]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 9-11 (2015). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : yvsingh59@rediffmail.co.in)

ABSTRACT

To found the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on chickpea, a gradient experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2013-14. N0P0K0, N1P1K1 and N2P2K2 fertilizer levels were applied to strip I, II and III, respectively. NPK were applied through urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash fertilizers, respectively. Rice cv. Malviya Dhan-36 was grown as a gradient crop. At harvest, plant samples were collected and analyzed for NPK content and calculated uptake of nutrients. Grain and straw yields of rice were also recorded. The results revealed that an application of graded levels of NPK fertilizers significantly influenced NPK uptake, grain and straw yields of rice crop.

3. MD. LATHEEF PASHA, P. RAGHU RAMIREDDY, D. BHADRU, R. B. M. NAIK AND L. KRISHNA [Performance of rabi rice under different nursery densities and plant population]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 12-14 (2015). Agricultural Research Station, Kampasagar, Nalgonda-508 207 (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station during the rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to find out the effect of different nursery densities and plant population on grain yield and yield attributes. Pooled data of two years revealed that tiller number and panicle number/m2 were on par at 66 and 44 hills/m2 plant population. Sixty-six hills/m2 recorded significantly higher tiller and panicle number/m2 than 53 hills/m2. Panicle length and filled grains/panicle did not much vary among plant populations. 1000-grain weight was significantly higher in 44 hills/m2 than other plant population. Forty-four hills/m2 recorded significantly higher grain yield (5096 kg/ha) than 66 (4773 kg/ha) and 53 hills/m2 (4762 kg/ha). Nursery densities at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 kg/cent did not show any significant influence on yield attributes and grain yield.

4. Marieh Behdad, Farzad Paknejad*, Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani, Saeed Vazan and Maryam Moarefi [Studies on physiological effects of drought stress on wheat using meta-analysis approach]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 15-24 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : FarzadPaknejad@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on wheat yield and yield components. A large number of studies were conducted regarding damage to crops due to drought over the world. Since there is a considerable amount of field studies, the use of these data can provide an overall view of the factors and variables affecting crop attributes by meta-analysis methodology. To do this, after reviewing the articles, traits and treatments that had the most frequency in the articles including grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight were selected. According to the information obtained, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight in most articles were placed on the left of forest diagram, highlighting a decrease in the average of each trait under drought stress. In these studies, the standardized mean difference (SMD) between treatments was 0–(-4.10) for grain yield, 0–(-1.78) for harvest index and 0–(-2.95) for 1000-grain weight. It can be said that the effect size of changes in stress treatment compared to control was low to moderate and the per cent changes for the above-mentioned traits were 32, 15 and 20%, respectively. The effect size indicators were used to evaluate the differences between treatments in different studies. Cohen indicator changes between traits were in the range of 1.9248-4.4280. The maximum and minimum Cohen indicator changes were found for grain yield and harvest index, respectively. Low amounts of Cohen indicator for harvest index indicated less change in this trait under drought stress and its stability.

5. Fariborz Shekari, Amin Abbasi* and Seyed Hamid Mustafavi [Effect of gibberellic acid, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol on oxidative stress in wheat seed under accelerated ageing]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 25-32 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Faculty of Agriculture,University of Maragheh, P. O. Box 55181-83111, Iran *(e-mail : a.abbasi25@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Seed ageing during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological process that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon was associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during ageing. To study the effects of hormones on seed ageing, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, salicylic acid and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system was investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigour. The results showed that seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX and GPX activities. Maximum germination percentage was achieved in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also ageing increased MDA and H2O2 content. MDA was considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2 resulted in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the ageing time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in salicylic acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activities were obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 were shown in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under ageing treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatment had a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedlings. Generally, ageing seed increased ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

6. AREZOO KARIMI AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* [Assessment of diversity using principal component and factor analysis of seed and protein yield in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) cultivars]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 33-35 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Randomized complete block design with three replications was used in this research. Relationship among measured traits was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and factor analysis. Correlation analysis showed the significant relation of grain and protein yield with all the traits except correlation of grain filling duration and peduncle length with grain yield as well as spike yield and peduncle length with protein yield. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis method and varimax rotation indicated that four important factors accounted for about 98% of the total variation among traits studied. The first factor assigned 42% of total variation between traits and was significantly related with traits grain yield, biological yield, protein yield and protein percentage. This factor was regarded as quantitative and qualitative yield improvement factor. Other factors accounted for 20, 19 and 17% of variation between traits so were entitled as spike yield, grain filling ability and photosynthesis reservoir enhancement factors, respectively. In conclusion, results revealed effect of grain filling rate, biological yield, number of grains/spike, spike yield and protein percentage on grain and protein yield. Hence, these traits were recommended as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of grain yield especially in early generations. Biplot display classified the genotypes into four groups based on the measured traits. This revealed diversity among durum wheat cultivars.

7. Ershad Majma*, Peyman Azizi and Nabiollah Nemati [Effect of plant density and mineral super absorbent (zeolite) on agro-physiological and morphological characteristics of Shimmer hybrid sweet corn at Varamin region of Iran]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 36-42 (2015). Department of Agronomy Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : ershadmajma@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to study the effects of zeolite application on growth, yield and yield components of corn grown under conditions of different density, an experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2014 growing season. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main plots included four different levels of density (6, 8, 10 and 12 plants per meter) and sub-factors included zeolite application (0, 10, 20 and 30 t/h). The obtained results showed that the effect of compression at a rate of stem diameter, number of rows per corn, number of seeds per row, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, electrical conduction and the extinction coefficient at the level of 5% on plant height and seed yield was significant. In addition, the results showed that effect of zeolite on biological yield, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll at the level of 1% and on the number of seeds per row, 1000-seed weight and extinction coefficient at the level of 5% was significant. Comparison of the results suggests that the use of zeolite with different densities of 20 t/ha with a density of 8 plants per square meter would be the highest yield and yield components.

8. Mahsa Zarandi, Arash Roozbahani* and Saeed Safari Dolatabad [Effect of biological fertilizer and nano zinc on morphophysiological traits and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 43-47 (2015). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran *(e-mail : aroozbahani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of biological fertilizer and nano zinc and their interaction on morphophysiological traits and yield of maize, an experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Natural Resource Research Institute of Damavand city in Iran in 2013. In this experiment, factors including biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizers at four levels : (control or without the use of chemical and biological fertilizer, biological fertilizer application only (Nitragin), applying recommended amounts of chemical fertilizer (100% dose), chemical fertilizer (75% dose and Nitragin application) and zinc fertilizers on three levels (control or no fertilizer, application of chelated zinc and zinc application of nano zinc), respectively. Traits such as plant height, ear height, total chlorophyll, SLA and yield were measured. The results showed that the impact of biological fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer was significant on all traits. The results showed that the impact of zinc on stem height, total chlorophyll, SLA and yield was significant. As well as their interaction effects on plant height, ear length and SLA were significant.

9. Reza Imani*, Farzad Paknejad, Gorban Noor Mohamadi and Saeed Vazan [Capability of the CERES-Maize model for stimulation of growth and yield of corn (variety 704) under deficit irrigation]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 48-54 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : Reza_emani1980@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Crop simulation models are broadly applied for improving crop production management. To estimate the performance of CERES-Maize model on maize variety single cross 704 under three levels of irrigation (I1 : 70 mm evaporation, I2 : 100 mm evaporation and I3 : 120 mm evaporation), an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran, during 2012-13. CERES-Maize model provided very satisfactory estimates of grain dry matter, total dry matter and grain yield. Wilmot’s index of agreement was higher than 0.6 for grain dry matter and total dry matter. RMSE estimated for grain dry matter, total dry matter and grain yield were calculated as 827.318-931.73, 2027.63-3953.338 and 295-823 kg/ha, respectively. R2 for grain dry matter, total dry matter and grain yield was at the range of 0.937-0.982, 0.799-0.844 and 0.972. CERES-Maize model provided unsatisfactory estimates of LAI. Thus, with respect to satisfactory simulations of CERES-Barley model, this model can be used for the research purposes and management programmes in Karaj region after calibration and the accuracy test of model.

10. Faezeh Heidari, Ali Bandehagh*, Davoud Farajzadeh, Bita Kazemi Oskuei and Pouya Motie Noparvar [Response of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars inoculated with P. fluorescens FY 32 to drought stress]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 55-62 (2015). Department of Plant Breeding & Biotechnology University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471, Iran *(e-mail : bandehhagh@yahoo.com; bandehhagh@tabrizu.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been known to reduce harmful effects of stresses such as water deficit. This study was designed to investigate the inoculation effects of P. fluorescens FY 32 on the growth of canola spring cultivars under drought stress. A factorial-split plot design in completely randomized blocks with three replications was conducted in hydroponic cultivation system. Six canola cultivars, including Hyola 308, Sarigol, RGS 003, Amica, Hyola 420 and Olga were inoculated with P. fluorescens FY 32 or left non-inoculated as control. Three levels of drought stress (control, 70 and 50% FC) were applied to the hydroponic cultivation system. Drought stress significantly reduced relative water content (RWC), leaf area, shoot height, root length and soluble sugar but augmented chl a and total chl content and the total proline. Our results showed that bacterial inoculation had a positive effect in reducing the deleterious effects of drought stress in some cases.

11. RAMIN BALJANI, FARIBORZ SHEKARI* AND NASER SABAGHNIA [Biplot analysis of trait relations of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes in Iran]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 63-73 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, P.O. Box 55181-83111, Iran *(e-mail : Shekari_Fb@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the major oilseed crops worldwide and its genetic improvement for oil yield is very important in breeding of this crop. Effective analysis of obtained dataset from breeding programmes is important at all stages of plant improvement. The genotype by trait (GT) biplot was used for two-way safflower dataset as various genotypes with multiple traits. For this propose, 64 safflower genotypes with specific characteristics were tested. The GT biplot explained 79% of the total variation of the standardized data. The polygon view of GT showed sevenvertex genotypes as 34, 43, 45, 24, 61, 58 and 59. Genotype 34 had the highest values for all of the measured traits except plant height, total biomass and 1000-seed weight. The genotype 58 and the other genotypes of this sector had good amounts of 1000-seed weight, while the vertex genotype 24 and its related genotypes which fall in its sector were good for plant height. Generally, based on vector view, ideal genotype and ideal tester biplots, it was demonstrated that the selection of high seed yield will be performed via number of seeds per capitulum, harvest index, main capitulum diameter, lateral capitulum diameter and number of capitulum per plant. Also, for genetic improvement of oil yield, traits seed yield and harvest index must be considered. These traits should be considered simultaneously as effective selection criteria evolving high seed or oil yielding safflower genotypes because of their large contribution to these traits. The genotypes 34, 42, 43 and 60 could be considered for developing desirable progenies in selection strategy of safflower improvement programmes. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to delineate predictive, more rigorous selection strategies as well as to help define breeding concepts for improvement of new safflower cultivars and other crops in the other areas of the world.

12. k. sujatha* and v. vijayalakshmi [Comparative account of different methods of seaweed extracts and their effect on seed quality and biochemical constituents of sesame var. TMV 3 (Sesamum indicum)]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 74-80 (2015). Department of Seed Science & Technology Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : sujathakvk@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of seaweed extracts of Sargassum myricocystum and Caulerpa racemosa on growth and biochemical constituents in sesame during February 2013. The seaweeds extracted through rotary evaporator method were better compared to autoclave method. Among the two seaweeds, C. racemosa showed better results of seed germination, dry matter and biochemical constituents. The concentration 5% exhibited germination in C. racemosa (96%) and dry matter (0.0234 mg), dehydrogenase (0.039 OD value), peroxidase (0.0400 units/g) and catalase (1178 units/g).

13. N. K. JENA* AND K. C. MUDULI [Seed yield and quality as influenced by integrated nutrient management in groundnut]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 81-85 (2015). Department of Seed Science & Technology Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa), India *(e-mail : jena.niroj@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the influence of various integrated nutrient management practices on the seed yield, yield components and quality characteristics of groundnut variety TAG 24, an experiment was carried out during the kharif season of 2013-14. The soil of the experimental plot was acidic, loamy sand texture, with low in available N, P and S and medium in boron. The trial was conducted in split-plot design with three replications, where the four main plot treatments included the soil application of FYM @ 7.5 t/ha, RDNPK @ 20 : 40 : 40 kg/ha and borax @ 15 kg/ha applied singly or in combination. The sub-plot treatments comprised absolute control, urea 2% spray at 30 days after sowing, urea 2% spray at 30 and 60 days after sowing and application of gypsum @ 300 kg/ha as topdressing at 20 days after sowing. Plant height, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity were not influenced by the various treatments of nutrient management through both soil and foliar applications. The combined soil application of FYM+RDNPK+borax showed the highest mature pods/plant, pod weight, seeds/pod and test weight resulting in maximum pod yield/plant and yield/ha with 24.5 and 13.8% increase over RDNPK, respectively. Both the shelling percentage and percentage of bold seeds were significantly higher in this treatment as compared to FYM and RDNPK. Among foliar treatments, top-dressing of gypsum also exhibited similar trend for the above characters. These two treatments also showed better seed quality parameters like germination percentage, field emergence, index of speed of germination, vigour index as well as storability as revealed by accelerated ageing test of seeds. Hence, integrated soil application of FYM 7.5 t/ha+RDNPK @ 20 : 40 : 40 kg/ha+borax @ 15 kg/ha and also foliar application of gypsum @ 300 kg/ha may be useful for maximization of seed yield, quality and storability.

14. M. HAJIABBASI, R. TAVAKKOL AFSHARI* AND A. ABBASI [Effects of salicylic acid and ethylene on germination improvement of deteriorated seed of Glycine max (L.)]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 86-94 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : Tavakkol@ut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Glycine max is a worthy legume with multiple functions in food, feed and pharmaceutical applications. One of the problems of G. max production is seed deterioration and low vigour during planting time. In order to investigate the effects of salicylic acid and ethylene on germination improvement of deteriorated seed of G. max, series of experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments included non-deteriorated seeds, stored seeds (kept in 25°C for one year) and accelerated aged seeds (kept in 40°C and relative humidity of 100% for one, two and three days). Salicylic acid (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.9 mM concentration) and ethephon (0, 1, 5 and 9 mM concentration) were used. Hormones were used before and after seed aging except for stored seeds, these seeds were treated by hormones only after aging. Germination percentage, vigour index and electrical conductivity were evaluated. Results showed that salicylic acid did not change electrical conductivity but it had inhibitory effect on the rest of germination indices. When ethephon was used before aging it could improve germination indices but after aging it did not improve germination indices and electrical conductivity.

15. Alireza Pirzad*, Sevil Mohammadzadeh and Behnaz Saadat [Response of mycorrhizal grass pea to salinity under water deficit conditions]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 95-100 (2015). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran *(e-mail : a.pirzad@urmia.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of salinity on mycorrhizal grass pea plants in two water supply conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted based on complete block design at Research Farm of Urmia University in 2012. Treatments were two levels of irrigation [irrigation at field capacity (FC) and 50% FC], which were applied from two-leaf stage, five levels of salinity (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dS/m of irrigation water from Lake Urmia) and mycorrhizal specie (inoculated by Glomus mosseae and non-inoculated treatment as control). Results of ANOVA showed the significant interaction among mycorrhizal, salinity and irrigation on the protein per cent and protein yield. Interaction between water deficit stress and salinity stress significantly decreased chlorophyll, protein per cent and protein yield, whereas the application of mycorrhizal fungi compensated the stress damages. The highest protein per cent (17.75) and protein yield (0.82 g/plant) were obtained from mycorrhizal plants irrigated at 100% of field capacity by non-saline water (0 dS/m). The highest chlorophyll a (4.6 mg/g) and carotenoid (1.42 mg/g) were obtained from mycorrhizal plants affected by non-saline water (0 dS/m). These findings strongly suggested that the irrigation intervals of Lathyrus sativus could be increased by application of mycorrhizal fungi without significant reduction in productivity.

16. Sanaz Pourali and Arash Roozbahani* [Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative traits of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under amino acids and iron application]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 101-106 (2015). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran *(e-mail : aroozbahani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of amino acids foliar application and the use of iron nano-particles and chelate iron on quantitative and qualitative traits, a factorial experiment  based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed at Natural Resource Research Institute of Damavand city in Iran in 2013. The first factor was amino acid (Botamisol 45%) in both the application and non-application levels and the second factor was iron fertilizer in five levels : the lack of iron fertilizer (control), the soil application of iron nano-particles, the foliar application of iron nano-particles, the soil application and the foliar application of iron nano-particles and the soil application the foliar application of iron chelate. The attributes included the performance of marketable tuber, harvest index, percentage of iron and protein, the number of tubers, and tubers average weight. The results of variance analysis showed that all the studied attributes in both amino acid and iron fertilizer factors (nano and chelate) were statistically significant at the 1% level. In addition, the results of mean comparison showed that the best result was obtained in the studied attributes at the levels of amino acids application than non-application. Among iron levels, the soil application and foliar application of iron nano-particles had the best results, so that the application of iron nano-particles (in both soil and foliar application methods) in this study had a better effect on the desired attributes than the application of iron chelate. The results of amino acids and iron fertilizer interaction in this study indicated that the application of amino acids, foliar application, and soil application of iron nano-particles had the best results in the studied attributes (the percentage of protein, the percentage of iron, the average weight of a single tuber and the economic yield).

17. P. RAJKUMAR AND V. SUNDARAM* [Diversity studies in bhendi [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 107-111 (2015). Department of Horticulture Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute Karaikal-609 603 (Puducherry), India *(e-mail : sundaramsvn@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Genetic divergence analysis in bhendi revealed the presence of wide genetic diversity among the 33 genotypes studied, resulting in the formation of 11 group constellations. The contribution by crude fiber content, yield/plant and seed number towards genetic divergence was high, suggesting the significance of considering these traits in exercising selection for improvement of bhendi. Higher inter-cluster distance between clusters I and VI indicated the possibility of getting transgressive segregants in advanced generations by intermating genotypes belonging to these clusters. The genotype 3 and IC-69257of cluster VIII which had also recorded high mean for yield/plant (463.49 and 419.70 g, respectively) and 1773 of cluster VII with high mean for intermodal length (4.60 cm) and seed number (46.16) could be identified as parents for crop improvement. Among the 20 traits studied, crude fibre content was found to be the maximum contributor for genetic divergence followed by yield/plant and seed number.

18. MOHAMMAD BARGHUL AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR* [Assessment of genetic diversity of alliin, allicin and alliinase content in garlic (Allium sativum L.) genotypes cultivated in Iran]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 112-116 (2015). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Garlic (Allium sativum), belonging to the family Alliaceae, is a widely distributed plant used throughout the world not only as a spice and a food, but also as a folk-medicine. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from different areas in Iran.The total alliin, allicin and alliinase contents of the garlic ecotypes were determined by HPLC system. The data were subjected to analysis of variance based on the model of completely randomized design with three replications. A significant difference (P<0.01) in alliin, allicin and alliinase content was obtained from the different ecotypes. Results indicated that the highest mean of alliin content (27.36%) was obtained in Heydareh (Hamadan) province, the highest mean of allicin content (25.66%) in Tu’in (Hamadan) province and the highest mean of alliinase content (27.33%) was observed in Sabzevar province. Since morphological characteristics can vary under different agroclimatic conditions, interactions between genotype and environment can complicate the characterization of garlic clones. In conclusion, Heydareh, Tu’in and Sabzevar as the superior garlic ecotypes have the best genetic potential to use in the breeding programmes.

19. H. CHOUDHURY*, P. KALITA, RANJAN DAS, R. K. GOSWAMI, L. SAIKIA and TULIKA MEDHI [Carbon sequestration potential of Mokal bamboo (Bambusa nutans)]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 117-120 (2015). B. N. College of Agriculture Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali, Sonitpur-784 176 (Assam), India *(e-mail : hemenchou67@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to evaluate the carbon sequestration potential of Bambusa nutans. The total biomass and its components of B. nutans were estimated for one, two, three and four years old culm separately. The results revealed that the culm height and DBH reached their maximum capacity within one year and did not increase after that. However, all other biomass components increased gradually with age from one year to four years old culm. The highest culm dry weight (23.28 kg/culm), branch dry weight (2.79 kg/culm), AGB (26.68 kg/culm), rhizome dry weight (2.30 kg/rhizome) and grand total biomass (28.98 kg/culm) were recorded in four years old culm, while highest leaf dry weight (0.70 kg/culm) was found in three years old culm. On the other hand, the lowest culm dry weight (17.04 kg/culm), branch dry weight (1.93 kg/culm), leaf dry weight (0.58 kg/culm), AGB (19.55 kg/culm), rhizome dry weight (1.70 kg/rhizome) and grand total biomass (21.25 kg/culm) were recorded in one year old culm. The AGB of 201.02 t/ha and grand total biomass of 218.02 t/ha were recorded in 5th year of bamboo plantation in 2013 which in terms of carbon were 88.95 and 96.46 t/ha at the rate of 22.24 and 24.12 t/ha/year, respectively.

20. C. R. Koyani, P. K. Chovatia and N. M. Thesiya [Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on nutrient content, uptake and yield of direct seeded rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 121-124 (2015). Department of Agronomy Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of the year 2011-12 to study the nutrient content, uptake, quality and yield of direct seeded rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) to varying levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. There was a significant effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on nutrient content, uptake, quality and yield. Significantly the highest nutrient content, uptake and seed yield (18.67 q/ha) were recorded under 120 kg N/ha (N3) which were at par with 90 kg N/ha (N2). Application of phosphorus at 60 kg P2O5/ha (P2) registered significantly the highest nutrient content, uptake and yield and were found at par with 30 kg P2O5/ha (P1).

21. Neda Bayat*,1, Roohangiz naderi and Ardeshir Rahimi maidani [Greenhouse screening of cactus rootstock and scion for the best rootstock-scion combination]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 125-130 (2015). 1Department of Horticulture Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : nb.136886@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae which can be propagated by several techniques. Graftingis a usual method playing major role in cactus propagation. Grafting contains the uniting of two living plant parts so that they grow as a single plant. This experiment screened different combinations of rootstock-scion in cactus.The experiment was set up with a factorial based on completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were time of grafting at two levels (spring and autumn), rootstocks at five levels (Cereus argentinensis, Borzicactus samaipatanus, Cleistocactus candelilla, Harrisia pomanensis and Eriocereus jusbertii) and scions at fives levels (Gymnocalycium, Echinocereus, Mammillaria, Rebutia and Coryphantha). Factors studied were plant fresh and dry weight and grafting quality. Results showed that fresh and dry weight of cacti grafted in the autumn was significantly affected by different rootstocks and scions. The maximum fresh weight in plants grafted in the spring was obtained for Gymnocalycium and Coryphantha, while the maximum dry weight was observed at Coryphantha. The maximum dry weight in plants grafted in the spring was related to Harrisia pomanensis, while the minimum dry weight was obtained for Borzicactus samaipatanus and Cleistocactus candelilla. No significant difference was found among the treatments in terms of grafting quality in the spring and autumn. Overall, comparison between the results obtained in the spring and autumn showed that grafting quality was different under various combinations of rootstocks and scions.

22. M. Sudha* and B. Valarmathi [Back propagation neural network : An interactive tool for effective rainfall prediction]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 131-140 (2015). Information Systems Division School of Information Technology and Engineering Silver Jubilee Towers (SJT) 111-A06, VIT University, Katpadi-632 014 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : msudha@vit.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

Natural water source is one of the influencing factors for crop cultivation and production in agricultural sector. At the same time most of the agro industrial development interdepends the natural resources and its impact for its progress. Hence, there exists an ever growing demand for effective rainfall prediction system. The ongoing demand for precise forecast methods has led to thedevelopment of computerized rainfall forecastsscenarios. This investigation makes an attempt to achieve precise rainfall predictions using Neural Network (NN) approach. This researchintroduces a novel exhaustive search based Maximum Frequency Weighted Feature Selection (MFWFS) using approach to identify the significant weather parameterfor prediction.The effects of feature selectionin model performance were also investigated. This was done by examining the performance of the neural networksprediction model using both complete and reduced parameters. A meticulous comparison of the overall performance indicated that the back propagation algorithm approach based neural network model outperformed better than existing methods. The proposed NN architecture achieved 0.0499 error rate and 95.01% prediction accuracy using effective weather parameters. This investigation introduces acompact interactive graphical user interface (GUI) based tool developed using C# and net platform to enable users to conduct meteorological assessment on their own ease. This tool enables users to train and test the NN model for various input options and to visualize the resultsby processing the rainfall forecast scenarios.

23. PRANJAL PRATIM NEOG, J. BORTHAKUR, D. N. HAZARIKA, M. K. KALITA AND SUPRIYA LANGTHASA [Association of plant parasitic nematodes in rhizosphere of different banana cultivars (Musa AAA group) in Assam]. Crop Res. 50 (1, 2 & 3) : 141-142 (2015). B. N. College of Agriculture Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali-784 176 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

Association of plant parasitic nematodes of 10 different banana cultivars was studied. Four dominant plant parasitic nematode viz., Meloidogyne incognita, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Hoplolaimus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus leviterminalis were recorded in different cultivars. Highest total nematode population was recorded on banana cultivar Barjajaji and lowest was recorded on Maan Jahaji.