Volume 5, Number 2 & 3 (August & December, 2004)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org


1. K. N. KALYANA MURTHY, V. SHANKARANARAYANA, K. MURALI AND B. V. JAYAKUMAR [Effect of different dates of planting on spikelet sterility in rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops. 5 (2&3) : 143-147 (2004). Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya-571 405 (Karnataka), India.


ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to study the effect of different dates of planting on spikelet sterility. The results revealed that rice genotypes Mukti and Mangala recorded higher grain yield and lower spikelet sterility during September, December and January plantings. These genotypes were relatively cold tolerant as they outyielded the other genotypes when planted in cold months.

2. P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. ARUNA GEETHA AND K. KUMARASWAMY [Effect of different manure-fertilizer schedules on the yield and potassium uptake by rice crop]. Res. on Crops. 5 (2&3) : 148-152 (2004). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.


ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to evaluate the response of rice crop to potassium as influenced by the different manure-fertilizer schedules adopted in the permanent manurial experiment on rice monoculture in operation at the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai since 1975. The present study was conducted on 38th rice crop raised during rabi 1997-98 season. The results showed the following. Grain, straw and total dry matter yields were significantly higher in the treatments that received one of the organic manures of FYM or green manure of urban compost @ 12.5 t ha-1 and N @ 120 kg ha-1 irrespective of P and K application. Percentages of K in the grain and straw were higher in the treatments that received one of the organic manures with K @ 60 kg K2O ha-1. However, the K uptake by rice crop was significantly higher in the treatments that received N @ 120 kg ha-1 with one of the manures irrespective of K application.

 

3. A. S. VENKATAKRISHNAN, P. SANTHI, A. NANDHAGOPALAN, U. SOLAIYAPPAN AND B. CHANDRASEKHARAN [Integrated nutrient management for mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa)]. Res. on Crops. 5 (2&3) : 153-155 (2004). Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai-612 101 (Tamil Nadu), India.

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was carried out during kharif 1998, 1999 and 2000 to find out the effect of application of different potentially available organic manures in combination with inorganic nitrogen on plant height (cm), basal diameter (cm), green weight (q/ha) and fibre yield (q/ha) of mesta. The results of the experiment revealed that during kharif 1998 and 1999, the effect of different treatments on plant height, basal diameter, green weight and fibre yield had no significant effect; however, during kharif 2000 application of FYM 5 t/ha+50% recommended nitrogen had the highest green weight (766.33 q/ha) and fibre yield (24.6 q/ha) which was significantly superior to all other treatments. The plant height and basal diameter were also significantly higher in this treatment. The pooled analysis data for the three years on fibre yield had no significant effect over different treatments though FYM 5 t/ha+50% recommended dose of nitrogen recorded highest fibre yield (15.44 q/ha).

4. K. MAHAVISHNAN, A. SAMBASIVA REDDY AND K. BHANU REKHA [Effect of nutrient management through organic and inorganic sources on yield of rice].  5 (2&3 156-158 (2004). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.

ABSTRACT

A field trial was carried out on sandy clay loam soils of N. G. Agricultural University, , during 2000 to find out the effect of use of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen on yield of rice. The experiment consisted of 14 treatments comprising three levels of fertilizers viz., 75%, 100% ( 60 : 40 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha), 125% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) alone and in conjunction with three organic sources (10 t FYM, 5 t poultry manure and 10 t ha-1) control and fertilizer based on soil test crop response (104 : 52 : 74 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha). The treatments were arranged in RBD and replicated thrice. The results showed that yield attributing characters and yield were higher from 125% RDF+5 t poultry manure ha-1 but were comparable with 100% RDF in conjunction with 5 t poultry manure ha-1.

5.       K. MAHAVISHNAN, A. SAMBASIVA REDDY AND K. BHANU REKHA [Effect of organic sources of plant nutrients in conjunction with chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of rice]. Res. on. crops 5 (2&3) : 159-161 (2004). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.

ABSTRACT

A field trial was carried out on sandy clay loam soils of Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2000 to find out the effect of conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth and yield of rice. The experiment consisted of 14 treatments comprising three levels of fertilizers viz., 75%, 100% (120 : 60 : 40 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha), 125% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) alone and in conjunction with three organic sources (10 t FYM, 5 t poultry manure and 10 t glyricidia ha-1) alongwith control and fertilizer based on soil test crop response (104 : 52 : 74 N, P2O5 and K2O kg/ha). The treatments were arranged in RBD and replicated thrice. The results showed that growth and yield attributing parameters and yield were higher from 125% RDF+5 t poultry manure ha-1 but was comparable with 100% RDF in conjunction with 5 t poultry manure ha-1.

6. K. RAJENDRAN, A. S. VENKATAKRISHNAN, R. PANNEERSELVAM, U. SOLAIYAPPAN AND B. CHANDRASEKHARAN [Bioefficacy of new herbicides for wet seeded rice]. Res. on crops. 5 (2&3) : 162-164 (2004). Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai-612 101 (Tamil Nadu), India.


ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu during kharif 2001 to study the bioefficacy of five new generation herbicides (three liquid formulations and two wettable powders) for wet seeded rice under lowland situation of Cauvery delta zone. The major weed spectrum consists of Echinochloa crusgalli in grass, Cyperus iria L. in sedge, Eclipta alba L. in broad-leaved weeds and Marsilia quadrifoliata in aquatic weeds. The results revealed that application of combination of herbicides controlled effectively compared to single herbicide. Among the different new molecules, anilofos+ethoxysulfuron registered maximum grain yield (5.24 t/ha) which was on par with hand weeding twice followed by butachlor+propanil.

7. L. SARALA, M. MUTHUSAMY AND K. KARUNANITHI [Management of grain discolouration of rice with antagonistic organisms]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 165-167 (2004). Coconut Research Station, Veppankulam-614 906 (Tamil Nadu), India.

ABSTRACT

Grain discolouration in rice results in heavy losses to the crop by affecting the quantity and quality of rice. Among the pathogenic organisms, Saraclodium oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Curvularia lunata are important ones. In the case of S. oryzae, the bacterial antagonist B. subtilis was on par with P. fluorescens (Pf1) which accounted for 85.62 and 84.37% inhibition of mycelial growth under in vitro, respectively, over control. In the case of D. oryzae, B. subtilis was significantly superior to P. fluorescens (Ff1) which accounted for 78.91 and 71.76% inhibition over control. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens (Pf1) were superior in inhibiting C. lunata which accounted for 81.17 and 75.76% inhibition, respectively, over control. Among the eight antagonists screened, B. subtilis and P. fluorescens (Pf1) were effective against the grain discolouration pathogens viz., C. lunata, D. oryzae and S. oryzae.


8. D. B. PATEL, D. A. PATEL, M. M. BHATT, G. C. JADEJA AND A. R. PATHAK [Variability for salinity tolerance in rice genotypes at germination stage]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 168-175 (2004). Department of Agricultural Botany Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.


ABSTRACT

Fifteen rice genotypes were screened to study the effect of salinity on germination and seedling growth. Saline solutions of NaCl at five levels viz., EC 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 mmhos/cm alongwith control (distilled water) were used for screening. In general, effect of salinity was observed at higher levels i. e. 20 and 24 EC. Significant differences were observed among genotypes for different characters, due to different levels of salinity. Seven genotypes, namely, Jaya, IET-13766, IET-13768, IET-14654, IET-15681, IET-15702 and Jaya-Masuri 1-17-1-1 exhibited salt tolerance also at extremely higher concentrations (20 and 24 EC).


9. J. S. BRAR AND KUNDEEP SINGH1 [Distribution of cadmium into different fractions as influenced by Cd levels and Brassica genotypes]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 176-178 (2004). PAU Regional Research Station, Bathinda (Punjab), India.

ABSTRACT

Large areas of Indian soils have received significant amounts of cadmium (Cd) as an impurity of phosphatic fertilizers. Several sequential extraction methods have been used to partition metals into fractions defined as soluble. Soil cadmium concentration in different forms increased due to application of 80 mg Cd kg-1 soil. Cadmium in exchangeable, carbonate and organically bound form increased by 66, 11 and 41 fold at 80 mg Cd kg-1 soil. Exchangeable fraction is considered more mobile and phytoavailable. This may be harmful for ecosystem and transfer of Cd in food chain. Cadmium content as a sum of the exchangeable and carbonate forms recorded more than 27% of the sum of all the forms estimated at 80 mg Cd kg-1 added levels.


10. N. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. NATARAJAN, V. MANIVANNAN AND R. DURAI SINGH [Influence of plant density and weed control methods on nutrient uptake, oil content and yield of groundnut]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 179-182 (2004). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India.


ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out at Agronomic Training Centre of Tamil Nadu Co-operative Oil Seed Growers Federation Limited (TANCOF) during July- November 1998 and January-April 1999 to evaluate the effect of various levels of plant density and weed management practices on growth and yield of groundnut cv. VRI 2. The treatment consisted of three levels of plant population viz., 30 x 10 cm, 25 x 10 cm and 20 x 10 cm in main plots and weed management practices viz., unweeded control, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, pre-emergence application of oxadiazon, pre-oxadiazon+one hand weeding at 40 DAS, pre-metolachlor, pre-metolachlor+one hand weeding at 40 DAS, pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin and pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin+one hand weeding at 40 DAS as sub-treatments. The experiment was carried out in split plot design with three replications. The yield of the groundnut crop was favourably influenced by 3.3 lakh plants ha-1 and pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg ha-1+one hand weeding at 40 DAS in both the experiments. While the oil content was not influenced by various plant densities and weed management practices. The results clearly showed that nutrient uptake by the crop viz., N, P2O5 and K2O were significantly higher with 5.0 lakh plants ha-1 with pre-plant incorporation of fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg ha-1+one hand weeding at 40 DAS in both in the crops.


11. S. BORDOLOI, K. K. SHARMA, L. C. DUTTA AND P. P. DUTTA [Determination of leaf area constant and prediction of leaf area in castor (Ricinus communis L.) by non-destructive method] Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 183-187 (2004). Department of Sericulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.

ABSTRACT

Rapid, non-destructive and accurate measurement of leaf area for agronomic and physiological studies is very important. Meagre information is available in this regard for different crops. The present study has been undertaken to develop the leaf area constant and instant leaf area estimation by empirical formula and to develop prediction equations for estimating leaf area of five castor varieties viz., Red Petiole, DCS-9, DCH-32, DCH-177 and 48-1. Leaf area constant (K) was determined by plannimeter method for different castor varieties and there were no significant differences occurred between the actual leaf area (plannimeter method) and estimated leaf area (L x B x K). Prediction equations were derived from independent variables involved in maximum leaf length squared (L2), maximum breadth squared (B2) and product of length and breadth (L x B) for the castor varieties. Results showed that independent variable L x B gave best fitted prediction equations (coefficient of determination, R2=0.9999). But to save the valuable time in estimating leaf area, only breadth measurement gave sufficiently high predictability of leaf area (R2=0.9900-0.9951) for all the castor varieties.


12. VIKRANT, VISHWAS RAJ AND B. P. SINGH [Effect of FYM and phosphorus application on the physical grain quality of moongbean]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 188-191 (2004). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

ABSTRACT

A 2-year field investigation was conducted on sandy loam (Typic Ustochrepts) soil at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the response of graded levels of farm yard manure (FYM) and phosphorus on the physical quality of moongbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Increased levels of FYM and phosphorus improved the physical quality of moongbean density, hydration capacity and its index and swelling capacity and index enhanced the seed weight.

13. VIKRANT, VISHWAS RAJ AND B. P. SINGH [Influence of FYM and phosphorus levels on nutrient content and uptake by moongbean]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 192-196 (2004). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02 to study the nutrient uptake of moongbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] under varying levels of farm yard manure (FYM) and phosphorus levels. Application of 60 kg P2O5/ha increased the NPK content by 7.90, 6.23, 11.62 and 9.21, 7.51, 7.84 and 6.84, 56.12 % in seed and stover, respectively, over control. The NPK content was increased by 6.72, 6.44, 7.51, 7.84, and 6.84, 56.12% in seed and stover, respectively, by 15 t ha-1 FYM over no FYM. At 60 kg P2O5/ha also increased the nutrient uptake in seed, stover and total uptake. Application of 15 t ha-1 FYM increased 24.95, 34.15, 28.65; 19.27, 18.76, 17.44, and 20.33, 29.66, 18.22%, in seed, stover and total uptake of NPK over control, respectively.

14. B. B. MAHALE, V. B. NEVASE, S. T. THORAT AND A. S. JAMBHALE [Response of lucerne varieties to levels of phosphorus and potassium]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 197-200 (2004). Grass Breeding Station, Palghar Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, District Ratnagiri-415 712, India.

ABSTRACT

Field studies were undertaken at Palghar (Maharashtra) during rabi seasons of 1992-93, 1993-94 and 1994-95 to estimate the phosphorus and potassium requirements of lucerne varieties for maximizing the green as well dry forage production. Results revealed that the variety Anand-2 gave significantly higher dry fodder yield over Anand-3 in the pooled data. However, the green fodder yield differences due to both the varieties were non-significant. Application of P2O5 @ 150 kg/ha and potassium @ 50 kg/ha produced significantly higher green fodder yield of lucerne. Application of phosphorus @ 150 kg/ha produced maximum dry fodder yield which was at par with 100 kg P2O5/ha and significantly higher over remaining levels of phosphorus. Application of K2O @ 150 kg/ha and K2O @ 50 kg/ha to lucerne variety Anand-2 gave significantly higher green fodder yield over Anand-3, whereas both the varieties equally responded to 150 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O/ha as far as dry fodder yield was concerned.


15. J. A. RAJI AND P. O. OYEKAN [Determination of optimum planting pattern in cassava/soybean intercropping]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 201-206 (2004). Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Obafemi Awolowo University, P. M. B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan.


ABSTRACT

Planting sole soybean or sole cassava on ridge increased mean yield by 10.6 and 33.3%, respectively. Intercropping soybean with cassava on flat reduced yields by 2.2-39.6% and on ridge by 20.1-46.9%. Conversely, intercropping cassava on flat enhanced mean yields by 13.3-14.0% but intercropping on ridge reduced mean yields by 10.7-19.5% except at the inter+intra-crop arrangement on ridge where cassava yield was increased by 3.7%. Inter+intra-row planting arrangement on flat was most superior (LER=1.9) among other treatments. All soybean intercrop arrangements resulted in higher revenue/hectare than the sole soybean. Revenue from sole cassava on flat was less than all intercrop arrangements, whereas revenue from sole cassava on ridge was greater than all intercrop revenue except at the inter+intra-row arrangement on ridge (Ttreatment J) which was higher than revenue from sole cassava by 13.6%. Hundred-seed weight of sole and intercropped soybean on ridge was higher than on flat by 28.6 and 2.7-12.9%, respectively. Cassava plant height, total number of tubers and number of damaged tubers on flat were greater than on ridge. Converse was true for weight of damaged tubers. Inter+intra-row arrangement of cassava on ridge was recommended as it resulted in optimum revenue despite that inter+intra-row arrangement on flat resulted in highest LER value.


16. P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. ARUNA GEETHA AND P. SAVITHRI [Comparison of CVA, DRIS, MDRIS and CND norms in rhizomes of turmeric crop in Erode district of Tamil Nadu state]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 207-215 (2004). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India.

ABSTRACT

The turmeric growing soils of Erode district were free from salinity and the pH tended to be above neutral range and excess CaCO3 was also observed in the soils. The alkaline KMnO4 was in the lower range, whereas P and K status was in medium to very high status. The S was deficient in 94% soils. Zinc and B deficiencies are seen to an extent of 72 and 62%, respectively. Using the new norms of DRIS/MDRIS for leaves and rhizomes, the extent of deficiency of none of the micronutrients (Zn, B and Fe) matched with the values assessed with the soil analysis in both the districts. In Erode district, the actual values arrived in CND analysis were very near to the picture depicted by soil analysis. Based on the above classifications of NIIs in turmeric growing areas, 9 and 17% in leaves and in rhizomes 26 and 17% in Coimbatore and Erode districts, respectively, were severely limited by mineral nutrition. About 20 and 23% in Coimbatore district and 32 and 28% of turmeric growing areas of Erode district in leaves and rhizome, respectively, were identified as having possible imbalances. Based on the order of requirement, predominance of Zn deficiency was well indicated by CND than DRIS that too in rhizomes than leaves in both the areas.


17. R. K. MAITI, F. P. SANTA AND C. D. R. ZAIDA [Evaluation of selected genotypes of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) for Mexican high lands in Tlaxcala for forage purpose] Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 216-219 (2004). Instituto Tecnológico Agropecuario No. 29 Xocoyucan Tlaxcala, Km. 7.5 Carr. Fed. San Martin Texmelucan Tlaxcala Apartado Postal 476, C. P. 75120, Tlaxcala, México.

ABSTRACT

The present research has been undertaken in the municipality of Atltzayanca Tlaxcala, México, with an objective to obtain data about the response of 12 genotypes of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leek], which were selected by Vélez (2001) for forage characteristics. For analyzing the degree of adaptability of the same in the climatic conditions in north-east of the State, whose climate is semi-arid with an average temperature of 6.3°C to 23.3°C, with a maximum average precipitation of 122.7 mm. In conclusion, the 10 genotypes presented a good adaptability as well as good potential for seed production, with respect to the quality and sanity.


18. A. BARUAH AND R. N. SARMA [Genetic polymorphism of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from north-east India as revealed by RAPD assay] Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 220-226 (2004). Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.

ABSTRACT

Biodiversity was studied in some rice varieties from north-eastern India using RAPD marker. A total of 63 useful markers, obtained from 10 decamer primers, revealed significant genetic divergence of rice varieties of this region from modern high yielding varieties. Sufficient polymorphisms exist in different morpho-ecotypes of rice of north-eastern India. The study demonstrated the potentiality of RAPD marker in the management of rice germplasm of north-eastern India.


19. HEMLATA SHARMA, K. P. SINGH, R. K. YADAVA AND RAVINDER KUMAR [Variability parameters in blackgram type amphidiploid derivative of Vigna radiata x Vigna mungo population] Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 227-231 (2004). Department of Genetics CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.


ABSTRACT

Amphidiploid derivatives of blackgram type population viz., Amp 36, Amp 56 and Amp 62 were evaluated for observing variability, heritability and genetic advance for morphological productivity and quality traits. The GCV and PCV estimates of Amp 36 derivatives were higher than Amp 62 and Amp 56 derivatives for days to first flowering, plant height, clusters per plant and 100-seed weight indicating prevalence of greater variability in Amp 36 derivatives. However, for branches per plant, pods per plant and seeds per pod, the derivatives of Amp 56 revealed greater estimates of these parameters. For pod length and width, the derivatives of Amp 62 population indicated higher estimates of GCV and PCV as compared to other two population. In the present study, some derivatives of Amp 36, Amp 56 and Amp 62 recorded higher yield per plant than check variety T 9. Some of these derivatives had better performance for branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per plant and grain weight even. Genotypes, namely, Amp 36-16, Amp 36-7, Amp 56-21, Amp 56-25 and Amp 62-8 had high protein content (>20%) and were better in yield also. Highest yield per plant was recorded in Amp 62-20 followed by Amp 36-13 and Amp 62-3. Moreover, the traits having high coefficient of variation were also having high heritability and genetic advance. This indicated that additive gene effect was more important in the inheritance of these characters and there is ample scope for improving these traits through simple selection.

20. S. P. S. CHAUDHARY, A. K. CHOUDHARY, R. V. SINGH, N. P. SINGH AND M. K. SHRIMALI [Genotype x environment interaction for yield contributing characters in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss]]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 232-239 (2004). Plant Breeding & Genetics Section R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Durgapura, Jaipur-302 018 (Rajasthan), India.

ABSTRACT

The phenotypic stability of 43 genotypes of Indian mustard grown over three different environments was studied for 13 characters. The environment linear component was highly significant for all the characters studied. However, genotype x environment (linear) components were significant for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, seed yield/plant, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil content. Pooled deviation was significant for all the characters except siliquae/plant and siliqua length and seeds/siliqua. Both linear and non-linear components were important for all the characters, but linear component was predominant for days to flowering, days to maturity, siliquae on main axis, siliquae/plant, seed yield/plant, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil content. Non-linear component was predominant for primary branches and siliqua length. Both components were equally important for plant height, secondary branches and seeds/siliqua. All the yield components under study varied in a compensatory fashion to impart homeostasis to the ultimate and complex character of seed yield. The genotypes viz., TM-9, Pant-Rai-1002, RH-30, T-16, P26/21, RLM-196 and Durgamani expressed high per se performance; stability and average responsiveness for seed yield and could be useful for development of new genotypes through hydridization.


21. K. ELAYARAJA, M. PRAKASH, K. SARAVANAN, B. SUNIL KUMAR AND J. GANESAN [Studies on variability and heritability in M2 generation of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 113-114 (2004). Department of Agricultural Botany Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India.

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to study the nature and amount of induced genetic variability in Oryza sativa L. The study consisted of a variety PY 5 treated with physical mutagen viz., gamma rays at 5, 10, 15 and 20kR. The maximum variability was observed in plant height (20 kR), leaf area index (15 kR), grain yield per plant (5 kR), dry matter production and harvest index (10 kR) in M2 generation. A high heritability associated with a high genetic advance as percentage of mean was observed for plant height, leaf area index, grain yield per plant and harvest index in all the treatments of M2 generation.


22. A. MOTHILAL, K. N. GANESAN AND V. MANOHARAN [Inter-relationship and path coefficient analysis in parents and F1 hybrids of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 243-245 (2004). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vridhachalam-606 001 (Tamil Nadu), India.


ABSTRACT

Character association and path analysis were carried out for yield and its six attributes in 32 hybrids and 12 parents of sesame. The genotypic correlation coefficient of all the six component characters with seed yield was positive. Number of capsules on main stem, number of seeds per capsule, number of capsules on branches and number of branches had positive direct effect on seed yield indicating that selection for these characters will improve yield in sesame.

23. RAKESH KUMAR, VINITA SHARMA, RATUL SAIKIA AND G. KUMAR [Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus leaves on morphology and cytology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 246-251 (2004). Laboratory of Applied Mycology Department of Botany Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.


ABSTRACT

Allelopathic effects of different quantities of Parthenium hysterophorus L. leaves on morphology and cytology of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were studied. The experiment was conducted in earthen pots containing 2 kg soil. Fresh Parthenium leaves were collected from field, chopped into pieces incorporated into the soil in different quantities i. e. 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 gm and allowed to decompose by watering the pots for seven days then Trigonella seeds were grown. Lowest quantity of Parthenium leaves exhibited stimulatory effect on plant height, number of branches per plant, length and breadth of leaves, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod, etc., while higher doses caused inhibitory effect on these morphological characters. Cytological studies showed many chromosomal abnormalities like stickiness, fragmentations, laggards, chromosomal bridges, multipolarity and micronuclei, etc.


24. A. D. BANJO, A. T. HASSAN, I. J. EKANAYAKE, A. G. O. DIXON AND L. E. N. JACKAI [Effect of Aleurodicus dispersus Russel (spiraling white fly) on growth indices and yield of three genotypes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 252-260 (2004). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


ABSTRACT

Assessment of comparable yield loss due to Spiraling White Fly (SWF) infestation on three cassava genotypes was undertaken in the screen house for six months. Six-month cassava is a preferred dry season alternate in inland valleys. In this short season experiment, yield loss was not significantly different between infested cassava genotypes and those not infested. There were no significant differences between the growth indices leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), harvest index (HI), net assimilation rate (NAR) and total plant biomass used in assessing yield (at P<0.05). The cassava genotypes used seemed to undergo compensatory growth even at high infestation level and effect of SWF injury on yield was not observed rather the yield may depend very much on the cassava growth process, its genetic constitution, stage of development and on various environment factors affecting growth. Since the cassava genotypes were not water stressed, a redirection of limiting nutrient resources to undamaged tissue and development of surplus capacity by those undamaged tissues may have occurred. SWF feeding seemed to have a “pruning effect” by suppressing the growth of one organ and increased the size or weight of others.


25. A. S. VASTRAD, S. LINGAPPA AND K. BASAVANAGOUD [Management of insecticide resistant populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Yponomeutidae : Lepidoptera)]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 261-267 (2004). Department of Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India.


ABSTRACT

Thiodicarb, lufenuron, spinosad and biobit emerged as the most promising insecticides for managing resistant field populations of DBM. Reduction of larval population in plots treated with these chemicals ranged from 57.13 to 99.99%. Incidentally efficacy of these products resulted in the production of maximum yield during two field trials. Fipronil, carbosulfan, MPO 62 and diafenthiuron also performed well compared to the standard check (malathion) which recorded lowest reduction (30.63 to 64.18%) in larval population as well as lowest yield (88.89 and 99.67 kg plot-1) during both the trials. Due to diverse modes of action, these chemicals could be excellent choices in a rotational strategy aimed at prolonging their efficacy by delaying the onset of resistance development.


26. U. R. BISHNOI*, R. S. PAYYAVULA AND S. KUMAR [Enhancing disease resistance and yield in tomato and canola with plant activators]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 268-273 (2004). Department of Plant and Soil Science Alabama A & M University, P. O. Box 1208, Normal, AL 35762, USA *(e-mail : ubishnoi@aamu.edu).


ABSTRACT

The use of plant activators to control diseases in crops has been reported but their effect in canola (Brassica napus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. esculentum Mill.) has not been studied. Therefore, the two activators, Messenger® @ 159.3 and 318.8, and ActigardTM @ 23.6 and 53.2 g ha-1 were applied on three tomato cultivars (Mountain Pride, Floralina and Florida-47), whereas Messenger® @ 283.5 and 567.0 and ActigardTM @ 23.6 and 53.2 g ha-1 were tested on two canola cultivars (Flint–resistant to Blackleg, and 188-20B–susceptible to Blackleg), each planted in field as canola after canola and after soybean. Results showed that in tomato Messenger® and ActigardTM decreased early blight infection from 8-20% and increased tomato yield from 10-13% in comparison to control. Response to activators varied among cultivars. In canola, effect of both activators on crop maturity and blackleg disease infection was non-significant. But activators significantly increased plant height with application of Messenger® @ 567.0 g ha-1. The use of ActigardTM @ 53.2 g ha-1 in resistant and susceptible canola cultivars resulted in 7.2 and 8.6% increase in number of pods/plant and 9.7 and 7.2% increase in seed yield, respectively. Application of elicitor chemicals called plant activators stimulated plant genes, reduced disease infection on plants and thus increased crop yield.


27. K. M. AZAM, MAHMOUD S. A. AL-ANSARI AND ALI A. AL-RAEESI [Management of insecticide resistant populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Yponomeutidae : Lepidoptera)]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 261-267 (2004). Department of Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India.


ABSTRACT

Thiodicarb, lufenuron, spinosad and biobit emerged as the most promising insecticides for managing resistant field populations of DBM. Reduction of larval population in plots treated with these chemicals ranged from 57.13 to 99.99%. Incidentally efficacy of these products resulted in the production of maximum yield during two field trials. Fipronil, carbosulfan, MPO 62 and diafenthiuron also performed well compared to the standard check (malathion) which recorded lowest reduction (30.63 to 64.18%) in larval population as well as lowest yield (88.89 and 99.67 kg plot-1) during both the trials. Due to diverse modes of action, these chemicals could be excellent choices in a rotational strategy aimed at prolonging their efficacy by delaying the onset of resistance development.

28. U. R. BISHNOI*, R. S. PAYYAVULA AND S. KUMAR [Enhancing disease resistance and yield in tomato and canola with plant activators]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 268-273 (2004). Department of Plant and Soil Science Alabama A & M University, P. O. Box 1208, Normal, AL 35762, USA *(e-mail : ubishnoi@aamu.edu).


ABSTRACT

The use of plant activators to control diseases in crops has been reported but their effect in canola (Brassica napus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. esculentum Mill.) has not been studied. Therefore, the two activators, Messenger® @ 159.3 and 318.8, and ActigardTM @ 23.6 and 53.2 g ha-1 were applied on three tomato cultivars (Mountain Pride, Floralina and Florida-47), whereas Messenger® @ 283.5 and 567.0 and ActigardTM @ 23.6 and 53.2 g ha-1 were tested on two canola cultivars (Flint–resistant to Blackleg, and 188-20B–susceptible to Blackleg), each planted in field as canola after canola and after soybean. Results showed that in tomato Messenger® and ActigardTM decreased early blight infection from 8-20% and increased tomato yield from 10-13% in comparison to control. Response to activators varied among cultivars. In canola, effect of both activators on crop maturity and blackleg disease infection was non-significant. But activators significantly increased plant height with application of Messenger® @ 567.0 g ha-1. The use of ActigardTM @ 53.2 g ha-1 in resistant and susceptible canola cultivars resulted in 7.2 and 8.6% increase in number of pods/plant and 9.7 and 7.2% increase in seed yield, respectively. Application of elicitor chemicals called plant activators stimulated plant genes, reduced disease infection on plants and thus increased crop yield.

29. K. M. AZAM, MAHMOUD S. A. AL-ANSARI AND ALI A. AL-RAEESI [Fruit flies of Oman with a new record of Carpomya vasuviana Costa (Diptera : Tephritidae)*]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 274-277 (2004). Department of Crop Sciences College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman.


ABSTRACT

Five species of fruit flies viz., Carpomya vesuviana Costa, Carpomya incompleta (Becker), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Dacus ciliatus Loew and Dacus longistylus Wiedemann were obtained from the fruits collected in different fruit gardens in Sultanate of Oman. One species, Carpomya vesuviana Costa is a new record from Oman, whereas the other four species are present in the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and Natural History Museum, Ministry of Heritage and Culture, but no published record is available in scientific research journals.

30. S. Y. JADHAV, R. R. KULKARNI AND M. V. AJOTIKAR [A study of knowledge level of water utilization possessed by farmers from command area]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 278-283 (2004). Department of Extension Education Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani-431 402 (M. S.), India.


ABSTRACT

The knowledge of applying the right amount of irrigation water by the right method at the right time is an essential pre-requisite to good on-farm water management and high irrigation efficiency. Hence, the knowledge of water utilization possessed by farmers from command area was studied. Most of the respondents were having complete knowledge of irrigation schedule for cotton, sugarcane and banana crops and incomplete knowledge for gram, tur and groundnut crops. Farmers had knowledge of recommended irrigation layout for cotton and sugarcane crops. Upto 40% farmers had knowledge of recommended irrigation schedule and layout for wheat and sorghum crops. Majority of the respondents (60.77%) had medium level of knowledge of water utilization. Education, caste, social participation and sources of information had positively significant relationship with knowledge of water utilization possessed by the farmers, whereas the age, size of family and occupation had negatively significant relationship. Alongwith cash crops, knowledge of appropriate water utilization in cereals, pulses and oilseeds should be imparted to the farmers from command area by organizing trainings and through group discussions and personal visits. Farmers from lower castes, having lower education, social participation and sources of information utilization should be given priority for imparting knowledge on water utilization.


31. K. V. SUDHAKAR* AND V. P. SINGH [Fatigue properties of a duplex steel and its suitability in horticultural and agricultural tools]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 284-286 (2004). Department of Mechanical Engineering Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Puebla, CP 72820, Mexico *(e-mail : ua014301@mail.udlap.mx).


ABSTRACT

This article investigates the suitability of duplex steel for use in horticultural and agricultural tools based on its fatigue properties. The fatigue properties of duplex steel containing 60% martensite and 40% ferrite structures were studied. Fatigue characterizing properties, namely, fracture toughness and endurance limit were determined as per the relevant ASTM standards. The investigated duplex steel is considered as a cost effective material with excellent fatigue properties based on the results obtained in the present experiments.


32. K. V. SUDHAKAR* AND V. P. SINGH [Evaluation of tensile and corrosion properties in duplex steel for use in agricultural machineries]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 287-289 (2004). Department of Mechanical Engineering Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Puebla 72820, Mexico *(e-mail : ua014301@mail.udlap.mx).


ABSTRACT

This paper describes the tensile and corrosion properties of duplex steel containing martensite (40%) and ferrite (60%) structures. Tensile and general corrosion tests were carried out as per the relevant ASTM standards, E8 and G31, respectively. Tensile properties, namely, tensile strength, 0.2% proof stress, % elongation and also corrosion properties were evaluated for the duplex steel. Based on the tensile and corrosion test results, the investigated duplex steel is suggested as a potential cost effective material with outstanding tensile and corrosion properties.


33. R. H. PATEL, VISHAL SHARMA AND V. P. USADADIA [Influence of irrigation schedule, spacing and nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss]]. Res. on crops 5 (2&3) : 290-293 (2004). Department of Agronomy Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.


ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Farm, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand during rabi 1999-2000 to study the effect of irrigation schedule based on critical growth stages, spacing and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of mustard on sandy loam soils. Application of three irrigations (at vegetative, branching and flowering stages) resulted in statistically equal yield to four irrigations (at vegetative, branching, flowering and siliqua development stages), but the highest BCR was recorded under three irrigations. Differences in seed yield due to spacing were non-significant. However, combined application of irrigation, spacing and nitrogen showed significant difference. Application of three irrigations (at vegetative, branching and flowering stages) with highest levels of N (100 kg/ha) at wider spacing of 45 cm significantly increased the seed yield of mustard. Significant response of N on all growth, yield attributes and seed yield was observed at successive level of N. The oil content (%) decreased significantly with each successive increase in N levels. The highest BCR was also recorded at higher level of N (100 kg/ha).

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