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1. R. K. MAITI1, E. SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA AND V. P. SINGH [In vitro micropropagation of Agave and a few plants of economic importance–A review]. Res. on Crops. 5 (1) : 1-10 (2004). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir Cholula, C. P. 72820, Puebla, México.
This article gives a brief review on research progress on the use of tissue culture in the micropropagation of agaves and a few economic plants. Fragments of leaf meristem, rhizomes, meristematic apex, root and excised embryo are used as explants in MS medium. Techniques used in the micropropagation of several species of Agave gave promising results. In vitro propagation is extensively used for propagation of Agave spp. and native plant species in some established centers in some countries. In vitro somatic embryogenesis is considered as an important pre-requisite for genetic improvement, as well as for mass propagation. The asceptic mass production of callus is efficiently used in the extraction of secondary metabolites of medicinal use. The technique is recommended specially for the propagation of perennial native economic plant species like Agave which takes more than eight years to reach reproductive stages and produces seeds. The massive production of micropropagated native plants could be effectively used in the reforestation of the species in their natural habitats.
2. V. IMAYAVARAMBAN, K. THANUNATHAN, M. THIRUPPATHI, R. SINGARAVEL, A. DHANDAPANI AND P. SELVAKUMAR [Effect of combining organic and inorganic fertilizers for sustained productivity of traditional rice cv. Kambanchamba]. Res. on Crops. 5 (1) : 11-13 (2004). Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Investigations were carried out during 1998 to 2000 at Annamalai University experimental farm to evaluate the cumulative effect of farm yard manure and green manure in conjunction with inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield performance of traditional scented rice under low land condition. The experiments were laid out in randomised block design with three replications. The integrated nutrient supply system of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t ha-1, green manure (GM) @ 6.25 t ha-1 and 100% recommended N, P2O5 and K2O (kg ha-1) resulted in maximum values of growth, yield parameters and yield. However, integration of FYM+GM alongwith 75% of N, P2O5 and K2O recorded comparable values of these parameters.
3.R. D. S. YADAV AND J. P. SRIVASTAVA [Studies on seed development and maturation in hybrid rice]. Res. on Crops. 5 (1) : 14-17 (2004). Seed Technology Section N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India.
The present investigation was carried out to study the seed development and maturation in hybrid rice NDRH2 (IR-58025 A/NDR-3026-3-1) to quantify the precise stage of harvesting at which its maximum yield alongwith highest viability, vigour and germination potential was achieved. It was obtained that hybrid seed development and maturation were completed within 20 and 30 days from anthesis, respectively. Hybrid seed obtained at either around 25-26% seed moisture content or 25 days after anthesis showed maximum yield alongwith highest viability, vigour and field performance. Therefore, ageing was noticed which led to faster decline in the viability, vigour and yield potential of such precious hybrid seed. These valuable informations are being utilized in quality seed production of hybrid rice.
4.R. S. JAT, V. NEPALIA, A. C. SHIVRAN AND J. P. MEHTA [Growth and yield performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by weed control and methods of sowing]. Res. on crops. 5 (1) : 18-21 (2004). Department of Agronomy Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 1999-2000 and 2000-01 at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur to study the growth and yield performance of wheat in relation to weed control and methods of sowing. The results of experiment revealed that all the weed control treatments were statistically superior in crop dry matter production and yield compared to weedy check. However, tank mix applications of isoproturon with metsulfuron methyl 2, 4-D were superior over single herbicide applications. Amongst methods of sowing, cross sowing (22.5 cm x 22.5 cm) was found statistically superior over normal line sowing (22.5 cm) in dry matter accumulation at all stages and over close line sowing (18 cm) at harvest. The cross sowing produced significantly higher grain yield of wheat compared to other methods.
5. SHIKHA JAIN1, V. K. KHADDAR, S. K. CHOUDHARY, S. PHADNIS AND RACHNA NAGAR [Effect of organics and chemical fertilizer on growth, yield attributes and yield of soybean-wheat cropping sequence]. Res. on. crops 5 (1) : 22-30 (2004). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry J. N. K. V. V. College of Agriculture, Indore-451 200 (M. P.), India.
A field experiment for two consecutive years was conducted to study the effect of biofertilizer, fertilizer and organics alone and in combination on growth, yield attributes, straw and seed yield for soybean and wheat crops. The increasing doses of fertilizers increased the growth and yield of soybean and wheat crops. Among the organics, poultry manure proved its superiority in increasing the yield attributes. A combination of 125% RDF+poultry manure at the rate of 2.5 t/ha application gave maximum yield of both the crops. The application of organics with chemical fertilizer plays the ameliorating roles alongwith supplementing the crop yield.
6.M. K. KATHURIA, HARBIR SINGH, K. P. SINGH AND V. S. KADIAN1 [Effect of integrated nutrient management on nitrogen and phosphorus content and uptake by wheat under cereal fodder-wheat cropping system]. Res. on crops. 5 (1) : 31-35 (2004). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A field experiment conducted at Hisar during 1994-95 and 1995-96 revealed that application of different organic manures (farm yard manure, green manure, press mud and vermicompost) to kharif crop significantly increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration and uptake over no organic manure–control both in grain and straw of wheat under cereal fodder-wheat cropping system. Application of 100% NPK on soil test basis resulted in highest N and P content and uptake by wheat than rest of the fertility levels including no fertilizer–control.
7. H. S. PATIL, J. K. PURKAR, S. M. DHADGE, S. H. SHINDE1 AND R. B. DESHMUKH2 [Frontline demonstrations of niger in Maharashtra state : An overview]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 36-40 (2004). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Niger Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri-422 403 (Maharashtra), India.
Field demonstrations of niger on 166 farmers’ fields were conducted in Maharashtra state during 1989-90 to 2000-01 kharif seasons under rainfed conditions. These demonstrations were conducted under the adhoc project on “Front Line Demonstrations in Oilseed Crops” sponsored by Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Government of India, as a part of AICRP Network of niger. Adoption of whole package of practices gave the highest seed yield of 308.58 kg/ha over the local farmers’ practices 207.41 kg/ha; indicating 48.77% increase in yield over farmers’ practices. Improved practices gave additional net return of Rs. 1876/ha in comparison to farmers’ practice of Rs. 1114/ha. Thus, the State Department of Agriculture, other extension agencies and Non-Government Organizations have to take lead in promoting these technologies in order to exploit the available yield reservoir in niger production. Thus, the niger crop will share its maximum in the oilseed scenario of the state as well as the country.
8.H. S. PATIL, J. K. PURKAR, S. M. DHADGE, S. H. SHINDE1 AND R. B. DESHMUKH2 [Constraint analysis and impact of improved package of practices on yield of niger in Maharashtra]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 41-43 (2004). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Niger Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri-422 403 (M. S.), India.
The experiment was conducted during kharif 1997-98 to kharif 2000-01 to find out the factors which are responsible for low yield of niger. Accordingly, it was observed that fertilizer (22.17% reduction in yield), improved variety (28.65% reduction in yield), weed control (33.80% reduction in yield), line sowing+weed control (45.02% reduction in yield) and fertilizer+improved variety (48.76% reduction in yield) were observed to be the major constraints in the production of niger. Lastly, it is concluded that whole package of practices as per improved technology are to be utilized for getting higher seed yield and more monetary benefit.
9. V. IMAYAVARAMBAN, JINO JEYASINGH, K. THANUNATHAN, R. SINGARAVEL AND R. ISAAC MANUEL [Studies on the effect of foliar application of NPK and chelated micronutrients on the productivity and economic returns of sesame]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 44-46 (2004). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of foliar application of NPK and chelated micronutrients alongwith seed inoculation of Azospirillum on the productivity and economic returns of sesame cv. VRI 1 during the summer and kharif seasons of 2001. The results of the experiment revealed that the inoculation of sesame seeds with Azospirillum and foliar application of microsol on 30 and 40 DAS was significantly superior in enhancing the productivity, net income and benefit : cost ratio.
10. N. K. SATHYAMOORTHY, ARUNA RAJAGOPAL1 AND S. MAHENDRAN2 [Surge irrigation–Viable water saving method for sunflower]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 47-50 (2004). T. N. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Kovilpatti-628 501 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Sunflower is an important oil seed crop with quality oil, which responds to irrigation efficiently. Surge irrigation is the application of water to relatively long furrows, in an ON/OFF fashion. The treatments comprising surge and continuous flow irrigation were tried alongwith two amendments viz., raw coconut fibre waste and farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t/ha. Irrigation was carried out at IW/CPE ratio of 0.75 with an ON/OFF time 10 min. The flow rate was 1 litre per second. The results showed that water saving was the highest for surge irrigation with FYM ranging from 43.3%. Due to roughness created by the coconut fibre waste, water requirement was higher in the coconut fibre waste applied treatments and recorded saving of 36.12 to 38.03%. Even though higher water saving was recorded under surge flow with FYM treatments, the higher yield and water use efficiency were recorded under surge flow with coconut fibre waste applied treatments.
11. RACHNA NAGAR, NAMITA JOSHI, SHREE DWIVEDI AND V. K. KHADDAR1 [A physico-chemical and mycofloral profile of vermicompost in Tarai region of Himalaya in winter season] Res. on crops 5 (1) : 51-54 (2004). Department of Environmental Sciences Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya, Jwalapur, Haridwar-249 407, India.
The present study was conducted in the Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Mahavidyalaya at Jwalapur, Haridwar during winter season of 2001. The vermicompost was prepared at Shantikunj Haridwar and the earthworm species used was Eisenio foetida. The pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, available nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon were analysed in vermicompost. The mycofloral observations were also recorded. Nitrogen was low in readymade compost, the phosphorus was medium and it was assumed that the vermicompost application may improve soil fertility. A high level organic matter corresponds to high level of organic matter present in vermicompost. The vermicompost prepared in winter season can be used in fields for increasing the productivity of crop.
12. N. K. SATHYAMOORTHY, ARUNA RAJAGOPAL1, K. APPAVU2 AND S. MAHENDRAN3 [Effect of surge irrigation and organic amendments on physico-chemical properties of soil]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 55-59 (2004). T. N. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Kovilpatti-628 501 (Tamil Nadu), India.
The field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during summer and kharif seasons of 1996 to study the effect of surge irrigation and amendments on physico-chemical properties of soil. Surge irrigation is the application of water to relatively long furrows in an ON/OFF fashion. The treatments comprising surge and continuous flow irrigation were tried alongwith two amendments viz., raw coconut fibre waste and farm yard manure (FYM) @ 12.5 t/ha. The irrigations were scheduled at IW/CPE ratio of 0.75 with ON/OFF timings of 10 min. The flow rate was fixed as one litre per second. In order to overcome the temporary immobilization effect of raw coconut fibre waste 25% extra N, P and K were added. The results showed that surge irrigation significantly increased bulk density than continuous irrigation at all stages of observation except in 0-7 days after sowing. Organic carbon content and available nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were not influenced by irrigation methods. Coconut fibre waste addition significantly reduced the bulk density and increased the organic carbon content as compared to FYM at all stages of observation (0, 45 and 90 days after sowing). With respect to soil available nutrient status, the FYM application recorded significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus. Availability of potassium was not influenced by application of amendments.
13. KULDEEP TYAGI1, BATHSHWAR KUMAR, B. RAMESH AND AJAY TOMER [Genetic variability and correlations for some seedlings and mature plant traits in 70 genotypes of rice]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 60-65 (2004). Department of Agricultural Botany Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut (U. P.), India.
Seventy rice genotypes were evaluated for genetic variability and character association among some seedlings and mature plant characters during kharif 2000. Significant genotypic variation was observed for most of the characters studied. The yield attributing characters had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The characters seedling length, number of leaves/seedling, productive tillers per plant, panicle length, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and 100-seed weight showed positive and significant association with grain yield. Therefore, selection for these characters may be useful for developing crop varieties.
14. M. S. KAMBLE, B. L. DHONUKSHE, N. V. KASHID AND V. N. GAVHANE [Variability studies for weight of callus in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 66-72 (2004). Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, District Nashik (M. S.), India.
In order to achieve the higher yield potentials in ragi in recent years’ economic exploitation of callus culture technique is becoming important. When the callus is induced in the genotype, the regenerated plants from callus show heritable variations for both quantitative and qualitative traits, known as somaclonal variations. Hence, by obtaining maximum callus weight, proportional regenerated plants can be obtained which will help for screening for desirable somaclonal variants. Considering this object, the laboratory experiment was conducted at Plant Biotechnology Unit, Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra. From the present investigation, a wide range of variability was observed for response of genotypes to weight of callus according to the type of explant used for inoculation in the medium and concentration of 2, 4-D in the medium. The more weight of callus cna be obtained from germinated seed as well as from coleoptile explants in the finger millet on MS and B5 media containing different 2, 4-D concentrations and supplementing the media with casein hydrolysate.
15.B. ARUNKUMAR AND B. D. BIRADAR [Fertility restoration on milo and maldandi sources of male sterile cytoplasm in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench*]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 73-76 (2004). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India.
Field experiments were conducted at Main Research Station, Dharwad and Regional Research Station, Bijapur during rabi 2000-01. Two male sterile lines representing milo (104A) and maldandi (M31-2A) were crossed with 20 diverse genotypes to study the restoration pattern across two dates of sowing. The study revealed that proportion of restorers on milo was more than that of maldandi cytoplasm.
16. S. SARAVANAN AND K. KOODALINGAM [Colchicine induced tetraploidy in Gossypium arboreum var. DLSA 16]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 77-80 (2004). Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Colchinization in Gossypium arboreum was achieved in its variety DLSA 16. Successful induction of polyploidy was obtained through cotton swab method with 0.3 and 0.5% aqueous solution of colchicine. The colchiploids showed distinct increase in size of different vegetative and floral parts. The presence of trivalents and quadrivalents in all the colchiploids confirmed their origin through autotetraploidy.
17. S. J. SUTHAMATHI, K. HARIPRIYA1 AND S. KAMALAKANNAN [Micropropagation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. CO. 5] Res. on crops 5 (1) : 81-84 (2004). Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, India.
Micropropagation studies were conducted to standardize the type of explant and level of plant growth regulators in papaya. Different explants like shoot tip, leaf bit and nodal segment were used to induce callus in MS media supplemented with BA and IAA at different concentrations. Shoot tip recorded the highest callusability per cent with 25 days in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg 1-1 IAA and 4.5 mg 1-1 BA. Development of shoots was observed from shoot tip callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with BA 4.5 mg 1-1 when compared to kinetin. Among the auxins tried, IAA 1.0 mg 1-1 was the best for rhizogenesis.
18. P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. ARUNA GEETHA, P. SAVITHRI AND P. P. MAHENDRAN [Influence of different micronutrient treatments on nutrient status of the soil, yield, growth and quality parameters in Muscat grapes (Vitis vinefera var. L.)] Res. on crops 5 (1) : 85-95 (2004). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India.
A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of various micronutrient treatments on the soil nutrients, yield and quality parameters of the crop. Fourteen treatments involving Zn and B were applied to Typic Hapustalf over two growing seasons (1999 and 1999-2001). A perceptible increase for different Zn and B treatments was seen for alkaline KMnO4-N, Olsen-P and NNH4OAc-K. The DTPA-Zn content of the soil indicated positive effect of addition of Zn solubilizing bacteria (ZnSO4 10 g vine-1+ZSB) to the soil and was comparable with Zn enriched organics as well as Zn application at 20 g vine-1. Boron also depicted positive effect on Zn availability. The extent of yield increase was significantly highest for the micronutrient spray that received Fe and Mn alongwith Zn and B (37.8% in first crop and 60.2% in second crop) followed by Zn and B foliar spray treatment (34.8% in first crop and 54.4% in the second crop) than all other treatments and control. The juice percentage was higher in all the foliar application treatments that received Zn and B alone or in combination. The treatment that received Zn and B foliar spray recorded significantly highest number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area per veraision, number of bunches vine-1, volume of cluster, weight of cluster, weight and volume of 25 berries. The quality parameters of grapes like TSS, TSS : acid ratio, brix, brix : acid ratio, brix yield per bunch and sugars were significantly improved for Zn and B application. The treatment that received per se B spray reduced the acidity of juice to the extent of 72% than the control besides recording highest values for TSS : acid ratio, brix, reducing sugars and total sugars.
19. P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. ARUNA GEETHA, P. SAVITHRI AND P. P. MAHENDRAN [Influence of integrated micronutrient management practices on the nutrient content and its uptake in Muscat grapes (Vitis vinefera var. L.)] Res. on crops 5 (1) : 96-107 (2004). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India.
Little is known about the effect of micronutrient fertilization on the nutrient content and uptake of Muscat grapes (Vitis vinefera var. L.). The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the different micronutrient treatments on the nutrient content and its uptake in the crop. The N, P, K, Ca and Mg content of petiole and leaves and the uptake in grape berries (pulp, peel and seed) was conspicuously higher for Zn and B treatments. The foliar spray treatments of Zn alone as well as with B and multi-micronutrient spray caused a significant positive effect for the accumulation of S in pulp rather than peel ans seed. The treatment that received B and Zn alone or in combination with each other either as soil application or foliar spray and multi-micronutrient spray increased the B content of leaf petiole, leaf blade and berries and also the uptake of the fruit berries. Based on the new norms established using the DRIS (215 mg kg-1), berry development and harvest stages indicated sufficiency in B content in the petiole and the effect of foliar spray was naturally very phenomenal. The Zn content and uptake in pulp, peel and seed was appreciably increased for the application of Zn to soil besides the foliar sprays. The treatment, which received Fe and Mn in addition to Zn and B, excelled all the other treatments by recording highest value of total Zn uptake and yield. The copper content in the petiole and leaf blade revealed no specific trend with the treatments, whereas in pulp, peel and seed the treatments involving Zn, B, Fe and Mn either alone or in combination reduced the Cu content and uptake of peel and seed, whereas the uptake in the pulp increased. The inclusion of Fe in the foliar spray increased the Fe content of petiole, leaf blade and content and uptake of peel, pulp and full berries and also synergistic effect of the soil and foliar application of Zn and B was observed both for content and uptake of Fe. The Mn content in the leaf blade and pulp, peel and seed and also the uptake of berries increased with B, Zn, Fe and Mn treatments. Thus, it is evident from the experimentation that the application of micronutrients like Zn+B enhanced the nutrient content and uptake and favoured for higher yield potential in the crop.
20. SITANGSHU SARKAR1 AND S. S. MONDAL [Nutrient management of potato and its after effect on the soil fertility build-up in the lower Gangetic plains of West Bangal]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 108-112 (2004). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (W. B.), India.
Field experiment, conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 at the farmer’s field, Kalyani (23.5°N, 89°E), West Bengal having sandy clay loam neutral (pH 7.2) soil, showed that the highest tuber yield (28.1 t/ha) of potato was obtained with 240 kg N, 180 kg each of P2O5 and K2O/ha, which was at par with the tuber yield (27.9 t/ha) recorded with 120 kg N, 90 kg each of P2O5 and K2O alongwith 10 t FYM/ha. Deletion of K alone from the treatment combination reduced the tuber yield by 14.75% and recorded the highest percentage disease index (42%). The maximum change in total N (+0.013%) and available K2O (+69.6 kg/ha) status was recorded in treatments receiving 240 kg N, 180 kg each of P2O5 and K2O/ha. In case of P2O5, the highest change in status (+21.7 kg/ha) was observed where 120 kg N, 90 kg each of P2O5 and K2O alongwith 10 t FYM/ha were applied. It may be concluded that application of 120 kg N, 90 kg each of P2O5 and K2O alongwith 10 t FYM/ha were found suitable for potato (cv. Kufri Badshah) in the lower Gangetic plains of West Bengal.
21. V. N. INGLE, V. V. DESHMUKH, D. J. JIOTODE, N. S. CHORE AND C. S. DHAWAD [Screening of safflower varieties against root rot (Rhizoctonia bataticola)]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 113-114 (2004). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Screening of genotypic for resistance to root rot in field is time consuming and not satisfactory. AKS-152 and AKS-68 showed resistant reaction. Vail test method was tried as rapid screening test on basis of method suggested by Hawere and Nene (1994). In the present study, none of the varieties was found immune to root rot disease under artificial inoculation.
22. S. SARAVANAN1 AND N. NADARAJAN [Reaction of sesame genotypes to powdery mildew disease]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 115-117 (2004). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104, India.
Eight parents and 28 F1 hybrids were screened for powdery mildew disease. One parent entry, namely, CO 1 and two F1 entries, CO 1 x SI 3216 and CO 1 x YLM 123 recorded the lowest incidence of less than 25% and were categorized as moderately resistant. The present investigation had revealed that any one of the above resistant sources could be utilized as a donor parent in the resistant breeding programme in sesame.
23. P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, S. ARUNA GEETHA, A. RAJARAJAN, P. SAVITHRI AND S. ANTHONI RAJ [Evaluation of Zn use efficiency of Zn enriched organic manures and zinc solubilizing bacteria in turmeric crop and distribution of applied Zn among various Zn fractions of the soil using 65Zn radiotracer technique]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 118-125 (2004). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Agricultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, India.
An experiment was carried out in a glasshouse to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) enriched organics and Zn solubilizing bacteria on use efficiency of Zn by turmeric crop and its availability and distribution among various fractions of Zn in the soil using 65Zn isotope. The profound effect of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) on the increase of dry matter yield of turmeric was found to be 14.0, 14.3 and 18.1% for ZnSO4, Zn enriched FYM and Zn enriched coirpith alongwith ZSB, respectively than consecutive treatments without the organism. In the pot experiment involving 65Zn isotope, the specific activity, per cent Zn derived from fertilizer Zn and uptake of Zn from applied fertilizer and zinc use efficiency were increased intensely with the zinc enrichment treatments than the direct Zn soil application. The zinc use efficiency increased with the Zn treatments, where Zn enriched coirpith performed best (3.48% in whole plant) than remaining treatments and ZnSO4 alone (0.99% in whole plant). The organic and exchangeable fractions of Zn revealed the superior nature of Zn fortified with coirpith treatment which surpassed the remaining treatments with its highest specific activity followed by the treatments that received Zn or Fe or Zn+Fe fortified coirpith/FYM than the per se application of ZnSO4 or FeSO4. The per cent distribution of applied Zn fertilizer into the different forms in the soil based on specific activity of Zn to total fraction was in the order of Organic bound-Zn>Exchangeable-Zn>Manganese oxide bound-Zn>Amorphous iron oxide bound-Zn>Crystalline iron oxide bound-Zn. The tune of increase seen for the per se effect of Zn solubilizing bacteria was markedly higher for organic Zn fraction for the addition of Zn fortified FYM as well as coirpith followed by exchangeable-Zn and DTPA-Zn.
24. LAJI S. PEREIRA, M. K. SAMANTA, J. K. HORE, N. CHATTOPADHYAY AND M. C. KABI1 [Influence of biofertilizers with different levels of nitrogen on growth of young arecanut]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 126-134 (2004). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India.
The investigation was carried out at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, BCKV, Nadia on young arecanut (1 year 10 months old) cv. Mangala during 2001-02 to find out the effect of biofertilizers on growth of arecanut when applied with different doses of inorganic fertilizers. Biofertilizers were applied @ 25 g/palm with 5 kg FYM during June and February and nitrogenous fertilizers were applied 15 days after biofertilizer application. Palms were inoculated with Azotobacter, Azospirillum and their combination with four levels of nitrogen as inorganic (25, 50, 75 and 100%). Azotobacter with 75% N recorded maximum increase in plant height (104.67 cm) and basal girth (5.60 cm) but the plants with Azospirillum inoculation at the same nitrogen level recorded maximum increase in leaf number (6.67) as compared to full dose of N (74.00 cm 4.30 cm and 6.00). The experimental results clearly indicate that there is a chance of saving of 25% nitrogenous fertilizer through biofertilizers..
25. V. N. BARAI AND M. G. SHINDE [Development of rainfall intensity-duration-return period equation for Solapur (M. S.)]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 135-137 (2004). Dr. A. S. College of Agricultural Engineering, M. P. K. V., Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (Maharashtra), India.
Rainfall intensity-duration-return period equations and nomographs for various stations are required for design of soil conservation and runoff disposal structure and for planning flood control projects. The rainfall charts of 17 years of Solapur (Maharashtra) were analysed in the form of annual maximum series of various durations viz., 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. The values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ were determined by using graphical method and the values of ‘K’ and ‘d’ by least square method. The values of constants K, a, b and d were found to be 11.08, 0.1892, 1.01 and 1.2066, respectively.
26. Y. KANOJIA AND V. NEPALIA [Influence of herbicidal weed control on wheat (Triticum aestivum) productivity]. Res. on crops 5 (1) : 138-142 (2004). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Raj.), India.
A field experiment was conducted at Udaipur during rabi 1999-2000 to study the effect of herbicides on the extent of weed control and productivity of wheat. The results revealed that application of 2, 4-D 400+isoproturon 750 g/ha at 32 DAS brought about maximum reduction in weed density and dry matter at 40 and 80 DAS. Correspondingly highest crop dry matter, plant height and yield attributes were recorded with 2, 4-D+isoproturon. The treatment resulted in 90.5% increase in wheat yield over control (29.25 q/ha).