Volume 49, Number 1, 2 & 3 (January, March & May 2015)

By | June 22, 2015

1. Ehsan babapoor*, Jaber soltani, Maryam Varavipour and Reza asadi [Effect of irrigation and nitrogen management on rice root and yield]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-7 (2015). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Faculty of Irrigation, Abouraihan College, University of Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : ebabapoor@ut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nitrogen and time irrigation on the roots and yield.A test was conducted in a split plot randomized complete block design, Main plots consisted of four irrigations (waterlogging, irrigation 60, 70 and 100% evaporation) and sub-plots four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 80 and 120 kg/ha).The results showed high and close to the roots activity at 70 and 100% water evaporation and nitrogen at 120 and 80 kg/ha.The highest yield of rice was at irrigation 70% and nitrogen 80 kg/ha. The yield was not significant with flood irrigation and nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha.

2. O. Moatshe, P. Mashiqa, L. Lekgari and S. Ngwako* [Effect of planting date on yield of maize varieties grown in the north-east region of Botswana]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 8-11 (2015). Department of Agricultural Research Private Bag 0033, Gaborone, Botswana *(e-mail : sngwako@bca.bw)

ABSTRACT

The effect of planting density on the yield of maize varieties was shown in an experiment in Francistown, north-east region of Botswana. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with a split-plot comprising three planting dates and eight varieties of maize. The planting dates were considered the main plots and the varieties as the sub-plots. There were significant differences between the planting dates for cob length, plant height and grain yield. The highest cob length, number of cobs per plant, plant height and grain yield of 32.37 cm, 2.12 cobs per plant, 220.44 cm and 3776.2 kg/ha, respectively, were observed at the second planting date of 15 October. SC 633 produced the highest cob length of 28.59 cm; SC 411, SC 633 and SC 701 produced the highest number of cobs of 2.11; SC 701 showed the highest plant height of 206.74 cm and the highest grain yield of 3540 kg/ha was observed for SC 701.

3. Amir Sina Ghatari and Arash Roozbahani* [Influence of integrated weed management on yield and yield components of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 12-17 (2015). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran *(e-mail : aroozbahani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the integrated weed management of red bean, an experiment was performed in a split plot based on randomized complete block design format with three replications in Damavand region in Iran in 2013. In this experiment, mechanical control treatment consisted of two levels : No cultivation (C1) and once cultivation (C2) as the main plot and chemical control treatment consisted of six levels : Lack of herbicide application pursuit (T1), pursuit herbicide application form before growing at a dose of 1 ml/ha (T2), pursuit herbicide application form before the eruption dose at 0.5 l/ha (T3), herbicide application pursuit+solution after growth of 2 per 1000 citogate at a dose of 0.3 l/ha (T4), application of herbicides pursuit 2+solution in the form of 1000 citogate after growing at a dose of 0.5 l/ha (T5) and application of herbicides pursuit 2+solution in the form of 1000 citogate after growing at a dose of 1 l/ha (T6), as sub-plot. The results showed that with the application cultivator number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-grain weight of bean increased significantly. But the effect of the applied treatments on 1000-grain weight was not significant. The application of herbicides on number of pods and yield of bean was significantly increased, but the effect of the applied treatments on seeds per pod and 1000-grain weight was not significant. According to that, this experiment increased yield with use of cultivator that application of cultivator with full dose of herbicide was most effective.

4. M. S. SANDHU, J. S. DEOL* AND A. S. BRAR [Effect of growth regulation on growth and yield attributes of summer moongbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 18-22 (2015). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : deoljs@pau.edu)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2013 in the Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab to study the effect of growth regulation on growth and yield attributes of summer moongbean. The field experiment comprising eight treatments viz., control and seven growth regulation treatments (detopping, MC (mepiquat chloride) @ 200, 250 and 300 ppm applied once at 35 days after sowing (DAS) and twice at 35 and 45 DAS was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The grain yield obtained with foliar application of MC @ 250 ppm at 35 and 45 DAS (10.05 q/ha) was significantly higher than control (6.70 q/ha). Various growth parameters and yield attributes (dry matter accumulation and number of pods per plant) were also significantly higher with MC @ 250 ppm (35 and 45 DAS) as compared to control. Detopping resulted in highest leaf area index (LAI), whereas all other growth regulation treatments were significantly better than control. Detopping resulted in significant reduction in plant height than control but was statistically at par with two applications of MC @ 250 and 300 ppm and single application of MC @ 300 ppm (35 DAS). Flower drop per plant was significantly reduced by two applications of MC @ 300 ppm. Quality parameters such as nitrogen and protein content in grains remained unaffected by growth regulation treatments. Nodule count and weight per plant were also unaffected by growth regulation treatments. Similarly, no effect on crop phenology was observed by any of the applied treatments.

5. SARA KARIMI* AND ERSHAD MAJMA [Effects of zeolite application on yield components and yield of sunflower grown under water deficit stress]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 23-29 (2015). Department of Agronomy Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : Sara_karimi2088@Yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to study the effects of zeolite application on growth, yield and yield components of sunflower grown under conditions of waterdeficit stress, an experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block with a split plot arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main plots included three different levels of irrigation (complete irrigation, irrigation withholding at stem elongation and irrigation withholding at seed filling stages) and sub-factors included zeolite application (0, 6 and 12 t/ha). The results showed that water stress significantly decreased plant growth and production. Conversely, zeolite application led to increase in growth and improved yield and yield components. Zeolite application fairly increased stem diagonal and cap diagonal under water deficit stress. These results indicated that zeolite application (6 t/ha) increased seed yield when plants were irrigated completely. It is interesting to remark that zeolite application was more effective under stress conditions than complete irrigation condition. Biological yield increased on zeolite application. In addition, the highest oil yield was achieved when sunflower plants were treated with 6 t/ha zeolite under normal irrigation conditions. Zeolite application could improve sunflower growth and seed production even under drought stress conditions.

6. M. Motamedi*, Z. Khodarahmpour, A. Banisaiedi and H. Naseri-Rad [Evaluation of drought resistance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes under field conditions]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 30-34 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Shoushtar Branch Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : motamedi55@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate drought resistance indices in eight safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes were evaluated in a split plot design with three replications in two levels of irrigation, one with stress and the other without stress at the Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar, Iran, research farm in the year 2014. To evaluate drought tolerance genotypes on the basis of yield performance in stressed (ys) and non-stressed (yp) environments, quantitative measures of drought tolerance i. e. mean productivity (MP), stress tolerance (TOL), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance index (STI) were computed. The analysis of variance showed that the genotypes had significant differences in all the traits. Drought had highly significant difference on all of the studied traits except number of seeds per capsule. The highest and lowest means of grain yield were 356s6 (787 kg/ha) and 376 (362.2 kg/ha), respectively. The highest values of SSI were observed in 357s6 and 27-N and the lowest values of SSI were observed in Pi-258 and KW 13. These genotypes could be proposed as tolerant genotypes to drought stress. Pi-258 and KW 13 with a smaller value of TOL were identified as the most tolerant genotypes, while 44 and 376 with the highest TOL value were the most sensitive genotypes.The results indicated that MP, STI and GMP had a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation with yield under non-stress and stressed conditions indicating that these indices are suitable criteria for screeningdrought tolerant genotypes.

7. A. BALIAN, A. M. REZAI*, M. GOLABADI AND M. M. MAJIDI [Evaluation of physiological traits for improving water deficit tolerance in spring safflower]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 35-41 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran. *(e-mail : a.rezai@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Drought stress is one of the major limitations to plant productivity across the world. Identifying appropriate selection tools can facilitate the breeding of plants for drought tolerance. In the present study, relative water content (RWC), excised leaf water retention (ELWR), leaf water content (LWC), relative water lose (RWL), moisture retention capacity (MRC), leaf chlorophyll content and leaf proline content were used as physiological parameters for the study of 20 spring safflower genotypes under drought-stressed and normal conditions in the research field of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, in 2012. The experiment was a split-plot on the basis of a randomized complete block design with three replications. It was found that drought stress significantly decreased relative water content and leaf water content. These traits were accompanied with a great loss of yield in sensitive genotypes. The highest amounts of chlorophyll content, proline accumulation, ELWR and RWC were observed in Afghanistan and Kuwait, Shiraz, Afghanistan, Paraguay andMarand genotypes, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest amount of proline accumulation, ELWR and RWC were obtained in genotypes Paraguay, Saffire and Afghanistan, respectively. It seems that Afghanistan genotype was more capable of being cultivated in regions experiencing water deficiency. Overall, proline accumulation (along with the accumulation of glucose and potassium), higher chlorophyll content and relative water content can be used as selection criteria in drought stress conditions.

8. Akula Srihari, V. ChellamutHu, P. Saravanane* and P. Sridevi [Split application of nitrogen and potassium along with azophos on yield of cotton in the coastal region of Karaikal, Puducherry UT]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 42-44 (2015). Department of Agronomy Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, Puducherry-609 603, India *(e-mail : psaravanane@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during summer season of 2012 at Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal to study the effect of N and K application in splits along with or without Azophos on the yield parameters and yield of cotton var. SVPR 4. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that application of 25% N and K as basal and 25% N and K as top dress on 40 DAS and 50% N and K on 60 DAS along with 4 kg of azophos biofertilizer registered improved yield attributes and higher seed cotton yield of 1565 kg/ha.

9. PRANJAL PRATIM NEOG AND DEVAJIT BORAH [Seasonal population fluctuation of important plant parasitic nematodes in the rhizosphere of banana]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 45-47 (2015). Department of Nematology Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali-784 176 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

Seasonal fluctuation of plant parasitic nematodes associated with rhizosphere of banana was studied. The months of February-March and September-October appeared to be the most favourable for increasing the nematode population in the soil around the root zone of banana. Populations of all the recorded plant parasitic nematodes were found to be maximum during the months of February-March when maximum atmospheric temperature ranged between 28.7-30.30C, minimum atmospheric temperature between 12-17.40C, soil temperature between 21.7-24.10C and rainfall ranged between 6.4-51.1 mm. During winter months, nematode population was found to decline. Least nematode population was recorded during December-January when maximum atmospheric temperature ranged between 24.4-24.60C, minimum atmospheric temperature between 8.2-10.70C and soil temperature ranged between 18.1-19.90C.

10. M. GOLABADI*, P. GOLKAR AND R. RAJABI [Effects of nano-silver particles on flower expression in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 48-54 (2015). 1Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : golabadim@gmail.com, mgolabadi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to investigate the effects of silver ion, leaf stage and number of sprayings on sex expression and some traits related to fruit in greenhouse cucumber. Different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and nano particle of silver (50, 150 and 200 ppm) were applied at 5, 10 and 15-leaf stages with single and double sprays. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed silver application caused significant difference on all of the studied traits, except for the fruit length, fruit weight and fruit number per pickling. The number of sprayings and leaf stage showed significant difference on the number of male flower, node number of male flower, diameter of male flower, number of female node, number of male node, number of male and female node, period of male flowering and fruit weight per pickling. The highest values for the number of male flower, male node, period of male flowering and the number of male and female flower were obtained at 15-leaf stage. The highest mean for male flower number, male flower diameter, normal fruit, days to male flower initiation, the number of male node and the number of fruit per pickling were achieved at 300 ppm of AgNO3. This study showed that male flower induction was influenced more by AgNO3 than nano-silver particles. The highest number of male node achieved at 200 ppm of nano-silver. The interaction effect of dose of 200 ppm of nano-silver at 15-leaf stage produced the highest number of male flower. So, use of nano-silver may be preferred to AgNO3 in organic agriculture.

11. JAHANGIR SHAMS*, PAYAM NAJAFI AND NEMAT ALLAH ETEMADI [Effect of water deficiency on growth indices of Petunia hybrida cultivars and Petunia violacea grown in Isfahan region of Iran]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 55-61 (2015). 1Young Researchers Club Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : Shams.Jahangir@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Bedding plants are considered to be a very important element of the landscape for their variety of colours. Petunia is one of the most important bedding plants in urban landscape. According to recent droughts, determining the amount of irrigation and the selection of resistant varieties are necessary. In this study, the effect of drought stress was tested on some characteristics of three petunias. The two cultivars and one of the species of Petunia were Petunia hybrida “Explorer”, Petunia hybrida “Carnival” and Petunia violacea, respectively. Irrigation treatments based on ET-HS model water requirement included S1 (100% irrigation), S2 (75% irrigation) and S3 (50% irrigation). The results showed that drought stress affected the morphological and physiological properties of Petunia plants. With increase in stress, the number of primary branches, flower diameter and canopy were reduced. Fifty per cent level significantly reduced the apparent factors in comparison to 75 and 100%. In severe stress, canopy of the Explorer was more affected in comparison with the two others, and showed the greatest sensitivity to drought stress. The flower’s diameter of Violacea in S3 had the largest decrease compared to the other two varieties. The results showed that the root length increased with increase in stress levels for the availability of moisture. The highest root increase was observed in the level of S3. The drought stress affected total chlorophyll and proline content. Water stress reduced plant chlorophyll. The total chlorophyll in the three irrigation levels was significant for the Explorer and Violacea. The amount of amino acid proline increased with low irrigation levels. Only in Carnival, 50% had significant difference with two other treatments. So, the treatment of 75% ET-HS was recommended for saving in the use of water to keep up growth factors.

12. PRIYASREE SARMA TAMULI* AND MADHUMITA CHOUDHURY TALUKDAR [Morphological characterization of different anthurium cultivars under shade net house in soil-less condition]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 62-71 (2015). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail: priya99agri@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to characterize anthurium cultivars under shade-net house in soil-less culture under Jorhat condition involving 12 cultivars viz., Tropical, Fire Calorie, Acropolis, Moments, Agnihotri, Cherry Red, Evita Red, Daniel, Evita Pink, Magic Pink and Sweet Heart. Results indicated that morphological traits contributing largely to the variability were those related to leaf colour, shape of sinus between posterior lobes of the leaves, overlapping of the posterior lobes of the spathe, shape of spathe and spadix and colour of spathe, spadix and flower stalk. The cultivars can be characterized into two distinct colour groups with respect to leaf colour. With respect to colour of the leaf stalk, all the cultivars exhibited similar colour. Three distinct groups were observed with respect to sinus between posterior lobes of leaves. The cultivars can be characterized into two groups based on shape of the spathe as well as type of its posterior lobe. The colour of the spathe was found to be different in different stages of flower growth viz., at the time of unfurling of spathe, at the time of complete unfurling of spathe and at the time of maturity in all the cultivars. Based on these stages, four, six and eight distinct colour groups were obtained, respectively. Similarly, the shape of spadix was also found to be different in different stages of flower growth viz., at the time of unfurling of spathe and at the time of maturity and based on these, for both the stages, two distinct shapes of spadix were observed and cultivars were characterized, respectively. With respect to colour of flower stalk, four distinct groups were obtained.

13. S. k. Sameera, T. Srinivas*, D. Bharathi and N. Chamundeswari [Estimation of genetic variability and associations for yield and quality traits in promising rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 72-78 (2015). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Agricultural College, Mahanandi-518 502 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : srinivat68@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five rice varieties were evaluated for their variability with regard to grain yield per plant, yield components and quality characters. Estimates of heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean were also obtained for the above traits. In addition, studies on character associations and path coefficients were also undertaken. The results revealed high variability, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for productive tillers per plant, indicating the effectiveness of simple selection for improvement of the trait. Further, productive tillers per plant and number of filled grains per panicle exhibited high positive direct effects, in addition to strong positive associations with grain yield per plant, indicating the importance of these traits as selection criteria in rice yield improvement programmes. Further, grain yield per plant had recorded positive and significant association with head rice recovery and amylose content, indicating a scope for simultaneous improvement for grain yield and these quality traits. The study also revealed negative association of productive tillers per plant with number of filled grains per panicle; and number of filled grains per panicle with 1000-grain weight indicating the need for balanced selection in crop yield improvement programmes.

14. Barakat E. Abu-Irmaileh*, Maha Syouf and Sawsan Al-Fakhori [2, 4-D tolerant new weed species of Caryophyllaceae plant family]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 79-85 (2015). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan *(e-mail: Barakat@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

The herbicide 2, 4-D was applied post-emergently in a field where the herbicide was applied for the past 40 years. The treatments included spraying 2, 4-D isooctyl ester (62% EC) at 0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 kg/ha. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized Latin Square Design with five replicates. Soil samples were collected from two field sites : site 1 where the herbicide was historically applied annually and site 2,a nearby field where the herbicide was never applied. Soil samples from each site were placed in pots in the greenhouse. The herbicide was applied post-emergently to weeds from both the sites at rates described above. The results indicated that the following weeds tolerated the highest rate of herbicide application : forked mouse-ear chickweed, Cerastium dicotomum L. cone catchfly, Silene conoidea L. and cow cockle, Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. This is the first report on 2, 4-D-tolerant Caryophyllaceae weed species.

15. B. E. Abu-Irmaileh* and M. H. Abu-Zarga [Selective growth inhibitory compounds isolated from shoots of Salvia syriaca L.]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 86-90 (2015). Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan *(e-mail: barakat@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Syrian sage, Salvia syriaca L. (family Labiatae), is a common perennial weed in wheat fields in Jordan. The weed has a pronounced allelopathic activity on many agronomic crops. As part of our research on identifying growth inhibitors in plants, we tested the growth inhibitory effects of the aqueous weed extract on different plant species from different botanical families. Then we evaluated certain isolated compounds from the weed for their growth inhibitory activity on wheat seedlings. Oleanolic and ursolic acids showed remarkable growth inhibition of wheat seedlings as they reduced the lengths of shoots and roots of wheat seedlings when tested at 0.2 mg/l (200 ppm). The compounds : 3 a hydroxy-11 a-methoxy-17, 22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (a), 1 b, 3 b dihydroxy-11 a methoxy-17, 22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (b), and 1b, 3b-11 a-trihydroxy-17, 22-seco-17(28) and 12-ursadien-22-oic (c) did not show growth inhibitory activity on the test plant.

16. Azita Shams*, Hossein Zeynali and Nemat Allah Etemadi [Effects of drought and zinc application on leaves and physiological characteristics of Aloe vera]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 91-98 (2015). 1Young Researchers Club, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : Shamsazita96@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera is one of the best medicine plants in the world. It requires limited irrigation depending on the capacity of the soil to retain humidity. Drought is one of the key reasons for declining production of agriculture. In this study, effect of irrigation levels and zinc sulfate on Aloe plants was studied. The irrigation treatments were : 30, 60 and 90% water depletion. Foliar zinc application includedtreatments of control, 1.5 and 3 g/l during experiment.Results revealed that the irrigation levels and zinc sulfate affected the most morphological and chemical characteristics in A. vera. There were no significant differences between 30 and 60% treatments. Water deficit (90% WD) decreased the plant height, external leaf length, internal leaf length, leaf thickness, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Also amino acid proline and chloride ion increased by severe drought.Application of Zn enhanced the external leaf length, internal leaf length, amount of chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and amino acid proline. Therefore, 60% water depletion was recommended for using water and obtaining the plant suitable growth. Also foliar zinc treatment had the role of plant resistance by increasing proline to drought stress.

17. Jahangir shams, Hassanali Naghdi Badi*, Hossein Zeynali, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi and Payam Najafi [Evaluation of growth indices and pigments amount in Aloe vera as influenced by water deficiency and salinity treatments]. Crop Res. 49 (1, 2 & 3) : 99-108 (2015). 1Department of Horticulture Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : Naghdibadi@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera is a member of the lily family (Liliaceae), CAM plant with commercial value for its medical, nutritional and cosmetic uses. It requires limited irrigation depending on the humidity retention capacity of the soil. Damages of water shortage to plants in the world are wider compared to other tensions. Also salinity stress is a limiting factor of plant growth and yield, and becoming a serious problem in the world. In this trial, various levels of irrigation treatments used were field capacity, 40, 60 and 80% water depletion and salinity treatments included the control, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m, during two years’ studies. Results revealed that the drought and saline stress affected growth and chemical compounds in this plant. Increase of the drought and salinity declined the number of leaves, external leaf thickness, leaf volume, aerial fresh yield, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid amount. Enhancement of the drought and salinity increased the electric conductivity of gel and anthocyanin level in the leaves. There were no differences in the growth indices between 4 and 8 dS/m treatments. The negative effects on the plant were indicated at the 80% water depletion. Then the concentration of the 8 dS/m salinity and 60% water depletion suggestion caused plant resistance.

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