Volume 42, Number 1, 2 & 3 (July, September & November) 2011

By | July 14, 2014


Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their ABSTRACTs.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :md@cropresearch.org


1. CH. SOWMYA, M. VENKATA RAMANA AND MAHENDER KUMAR [Effect of systems of rice cultivation, cultivars and nutrient management options on growth, yield attributes and yield of rice*]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-5 (2011). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Rice Research Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2006. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design replicated thrice with two methods of cultivation (SRI and NTP), two cultivars (PSD-1 and BPT-5204 ) and six nutrient management options (5 t FYM/ha, 10 t FYM/ha, 50% RDF, 100% RDF, 5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF and 10 t FYM/ha+50% RDF). The results indicated that between the methods of cultivation, NTP method recorded highest plant height, tiller number and total dry matter production at different stages, yield components viz., panicles/m2, test weight and straw yield. However, SRI recorded an additional grain yield of 276 kg/ha over NTP method due to more number of filled grains/panicle and better partitioning (H. I.). The hybrid PSD-1 performed better in terms of growth and development of the crop, yield components resulting in significantly higher grain and straw yields over BPT-5204. Among the different nutrient management options, application of FYM @ 10 t/ha alongwith 50% RDF recorded significantly higher growth parameters and yield attributes consequently resulting in highest grain and straw yields. This was followed by 5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF and 100% RDF alone treatments.

2. CH. SOWMYA, M. VENKATA RAMANA AND MAHENDER KUMAR [Effect of systems of rice cultivation, cultivars and nutrient management options on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice*]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 6-9 (2011). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Rice Research Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the kharif 2006. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design replicated thrice with two methods of cultivation (SRI and NTP), two cultivars (PSD-1 and BPT-5204 ) and six nutrient management options (5 t FYM/ha, 10 t FYM/ha, 50% RDF, 100% RDF, 5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF and 10 t FYM/ha+50% RDF). The results revealed that the grain yield and the total nutrient uptake by the crop did not differ between methods of cultivation. However, the straw yield was significantly higher under NTP method compared to SRI.The hybrid PSD-1 performed better resulting in significantly higher grain and straw yields as well as nutrient uptake over BPT-5204 Among the different nutrient management options, integrated use of 10 t FYM/ha alongwith 50% RDF gave significantly higher grain (5595 kg/ha) and straw yield (6700 kg/ha) as well as nutrient uptake (121.41, 31.76 and 110.56 N, P and K kg/ha, respectively) followed by 5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF and 100% RDF alone treatments. In terms of economics, the cultivar BPT-5204 under SRI with integrated treatments (10 t/5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF) gave, respectively, higher gross (Rs. 49,254 and 46,500/ha) and net returns (Rs. 34,581 and 33,627/ha) but the benefit : cost ratio (2.61) was higher with 5 t FYM/ha+50% RDF treatment because of higher cost incurred on FYM with 10 t FYM/ha+50% RDF treatment (B : C ratio of 2.35).

3. J. S. MANCHANDA*, D. S. BENIPALl AND D. S. BHATTI [Yield and sulphur nutrition of paddy-wheat cropping system as influenced by sources and levels of sulphur fertilization]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 10-14 (2011). Department of Soil Science Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : jaggisons@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted with a Typic Haplustept, sandy loam sulphur deficient soil to study the effect of S fertilization on yield and S nutrition of paddy-wheat cropping system. Sulphur was applied @ 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S/ha through each gypsum and bentonite S-pastilles (S-90) to the first crop only i. e. paddy. Direct application of different levels of S through gypsum as well as S-90 did not produce a significant effect on grain and straw yield of paddy. However, its residual effect produced a significant response of 2.9 and 3.6 q/ha in grain yield of wheat when 40 and 60 kg S/ha were applied through gypsum and S-90, respectively. The non-significant effects of S application on grain and straw yield of paddy may be due to the contribution of S through irrigation water (3 mg/l). Total S removal by paddy increased significantly over control when 40 and 60 kg S/ha was applied as gypsum. But total S uptake by paddy was not affected significantly when S-90 was the source of sulphur. Total S uptake by wheat increased significantly over control at each level of applied S irrespective of the source of S. An incubation study was conducted with the same soil as used in field experiment to study the release of S from gypsum, single superphosphate and bentonite S-pastilles (S-90) applied @ 60 kg S/ha from each source. A highest mean increase in available S in soil was observed when SSP was the source. A significant negative linear coefficient of correlation (r= -0.752**) between soil pH and S extracted in soil was also observed.

4. V. THIRUMALA RAO, D. BHADRU, Y. CHANDRA MOHAN AND D. BHARATHI [Identification of yield components as selection criteria under aerobic condition in rice]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 15-17 (2011). ANGRAU Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jagtial, Karimnagar (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to estimate genetic variability parameters, correlation coefficients, direct and indirect effects for grain yield and its components in rice under aerobic condition. Productive tillers per plant, grain yield and number of grains per panicle recorded higher PCV, GCV and high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean, indicating the role of additive gene in expressing these traits. Panicle length, plant height and productive tillers per plant had the positive effect and significant positive association with grain yield per plant. Grain yield in rice under aerobic condition may be improved by selection of tall genotypes having long panicles with more number of productive tillers per plant.

5. P. K. MAITI AND B. BHATTACHARYA [Effect of seeding rate and number of seedlings/hill on the growth and yield of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) grown in dry (boro) season*]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 18-22 (2011). Rice Research Station, Chinsurah (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in split-split plot design with three replications during the dry (bo ro) season of 2000-01 and 2001-02 on silty-clay soil at Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, West Bengal to test the performance of rice hybrids and to find out the optimum seeding rate for sowing in the nursery and optimum number of seedlings/hill for transplanting in the main field in order to obtain the higher productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice hybrids, namely, Pro Agro 6201 (PA-6201) and DRRH-1 and one inbred high yielding variety (HYV), Kshitish were assigned at random to the main plots. Three different seeding rates viz., 10, 20 and 30 g/m2 in the nursery were assigned to the sub-plots and two levels of number of seedlings/hill viz., 1. seedling and 2. seedlings/hill were allocated randomly to the sub-sub plots. Both the rice hybrids exhibited significantly higher number of tillers/m2 and plant height than the inbred HYV, Kshitish. Elaboration of yield-attributing characters was significantly more in case of hybrid varieties as compared to the inbred HYV, Kshitish. Both the rice hybrids produced significantly higher grain yield, being 25.9-33.33% higher than the inbred HYV, Kshitish. Lower seeding rates of 10 and 20 g/m2 resulted in significant development in number of tillers/m2 and all yield attributing parameters except the 1000-grain weight and ultimately brought about 12-33% increase in grain yield of hybrid rice over the seeding rate of 30 g/m2. Different growth and yield attributes, grain and straw yield of hybrid rice did not differ significantly due to transplanting of one seedling and two seedlings/hill.

6. D. D. YADAV, C. K. VERMA, B. P. SINGH AND SHIV SHANKAR [Role of biofertilizers in relation to nitrogen levels on growth and yield of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 23-26 (2011). Department of Agronomy C. S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07 to find out the efficacy of biofertilizer in relation to nitrogen levels on growth, yield attributes, grain yield and economics of wheat. Treatments were consisted of four levels of biofertilizers (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum in alone and both as combination) and four levels of nitrogen (125, 100, 75 and 50% N of recommended dose). The 16 treatments were tested in R. B. D. with three replications. Among the biofertilizers, combined use of Azotobacter+Azospirillum gave superior growth, yield attributes, grain yield, net income and B : C ratio followed by Azotobacter and Azospirillum as alone, but the lowest was in control. While in case of nitrogen levels, better growth, yield attributes, grain yield, net income and B : C ratio were obtained in75% N of R. D., followed by 100 and 125% but minimum was in 50%. It was also noted that combined application of biofertilizer with 75% N of R. D. proved to be better in both the years.

7. P. N. DONGRE* AND AWANISH K. SINGH [Inhibitory allelopathic effects of weed leaf leachates on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 27-34 (2011). Department of Botany K. N. Government Postgraduate College, Gyanpur (SRN-Bhadohi)-221 304, India
*(e-mail : pndongre@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A laboratory germination experiment was conducted to assess the effect of leaf leachates on 14 major weed species of study area, namely, Ageratum conyzoidesem L., Ammania baccifera L., Anagallis arvensis L., Caesulia axillaris Roxb., Chenopodium album L., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus difformis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Desmodium trifolium (L.) D. C., Lathyrus aphaca L., Ludwigia perennis L., Melilotus indica (All.) Fl. Pedem., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Rumex dentatus L. on germination and seedling growth of two varieties of Triticum aestivum L., namely, UP 2338 and HUW 234. The fresh leaves of mature weeds were cut into small pieces and were used to prepare leachates of 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentration. Treatment of wheat seeds with these leachates showed that nearly all the test weeds had inhibitory effect on per cent germination, shoot length and root length of both the test cultivars at different concentrations. The inhibitory response was found to be positively correlated with the leachate concentration. Statistically significant reduction in nearly all the test parameters of both the cultivars by leaf leachates of all the tested weeds was found to correspond to 15% treatment level.

8. S. P. NANDAPURE, B. A. SONUNE, V. V. GABHANE, R. N. KATKAR AND R. T. PATIL [Influence of long term fertilization on micronutrients availability, their uptake and productivity of sorghum-wheat sequence under semi-arid condition on a Vertisol]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 35-39 (2011). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted at Akola during 2007-08 to assess the long term effects of fertilizers and FYM on micronutrient status and crop productivity after 19th cycle of sorghum-wheat cropping sequence on Vertisol. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 12 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted were T1–50% NPK, T2–100% NPK, T3–150% NPK , T4–100% NPK (S free), T5–100% NPK+2.5 kg ZnSO4/ha, T6–100% NP, T7–100% N, T8–100% NPK+FYM @10 t/ha, T9–100% NPK S free+37.5 kg S/ha, T10–FYM @ 10 t/ha, T11–75% NPK and T12–Control. The results revealed that integrated application of chemical fertilizers (100% NPK) alongwith FYM @ 10 t/ha had significantly improved the availability and uptake of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) by sorghum and wheat. The highest sorghum and wheat yields also were recorded with the conjunctive use of 100% NPK alongwith FYM @ 10 t/ha followed by 150% NPK. The total productivity (sorghum+wheat) was found to be positively correlated with micronutrient status of soil.

9. K. SANKARANARAYANAN*, N. SATHEESHKUMAR, A. SOLAIMALAI AND N. SANKARAN [Effect of intercropping and nitrogen levels on growth of multicut fodder sorghum varieties]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 40-43 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India *(e-mail : sankaragro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during rabi 2004 and summer 2005 to study the growth of multicut fodder sorghum varieties as influenced by intercropping and different nitrogen regimes. Variety Harasona recorded higher plant height and leaf area index in three ratooning, while variety CO 27 gave taller plants only in sown crop and registered higher leaf : stem ratio. Maximum stem diameter was produced by the variety MFSH-3. Intercropping of sorghum+cowpea resulted in increased growth parameters than sole cropping of sorghum. Leaf : stem ratio was not influenced significantly by the system of cropping. Application of 60 kg N/ha after each cutting recorded increased growth parameters except leaf : stem ratio.

10. K. SANKARANARAYANAN*, N. SATHEESHKUMAR, A. SOLAIMALAI AND N. SANKARAN [Ratoon ratio and ratoon index of multicut fodder sorghum varieties as influenced by intercropping and nitrogen levels]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 44-46 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India *(e-mail : sankaragro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during rabi 2004 and summer 2005 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to assess the influence of intercropping and nitrogen levels on ratoon ratio and ratoon index of multicut fodder sorghum varieties. Harasona variety registered higher ratoon ratio and index. Sole sorghum gave maximum ratoon ratio and ratoon index. Application of 60 kg N/ha after cutting resulted in higher ratoon ratio and index but it was comparable with that of application of 45 kg N/ha.

11. K. SANKARANARAYANAN*, N. SATHEESHKUMAR, A. SOLAIMALAI AND N. SANKARAN [Nutrient uptake in multicut fodder sorghum under sole and intercropping situations with different nitrogen levels]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 47-50 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India *(e-mail : sankaragro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore during rabi 2004 and summer 2005 to study the influence of intercropping of cowpea and nitrogen levels on nutrient uptake of multicut fodder sorghum. Harasona extracted higher amount of nutrients than other varieties of fodder sorghum. Intercropping of fodder cowpea in sorghum did not affect the nutrient uptake of ratoon crops significantly than application of 30 kg N/ha after each cutting but it was comparable with application of 45 kg N/ha after each cutting.

12. S. Y. WALI, S. B. DEVARANAVADGI, S. B. PATIL, M. B. JAMBAGI AND D. N. KAMBREKAR [Effect of hedge row species and rabi sorghum genotypes on light transmission ratio, yield and nutrients status of soil in different alley cropping systems]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 51-57 (2011). Regional Agricultural Research Station University of Agricultural Sciences Campus, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field study was conducted to know the effect of different hedge row trees/shrubs species and rabi sorghum genotypes on light transmission ratio, yield and nutrient status of soil in alley cropping system. Seven hedge row species with two rabi sorghum genotypes were tried. The investigation clearly indicated that among the hedge row species Gliricidia sepium was found higher light transmission ratio and nutrient availability in soil as compared to other hedge row species, but control (rubble check) recorded significantly higher grain and stover yield of rabi sorghum (1084 and 1450 kg/ha, respectively). The light transmission ratio and available nutrients in soil were not affected by rabi sorghum genotypes but significantly influenced grain and stover yield of rabi sorghum. However, the interaction between hedge row species and rabi sorghum genotypes was found significant.

13. V. H. ASHVATHAMA, S. G. GOLLAGI AND B. D. BIRADAR [Physiological basis of growth and yield variation in sorghum genotypes under shallow and medium soils]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 58-63 (2011). All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on shallow and medium deep soils at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka). In general, all the genotypes gave higher grain yield when they were grown in medium deep black soil compared to that grown under shallow soil. The production and translocation of photosynthates from source to sink was efficient in case of high yielder when compared to medium and low yielder. Days to 50% flowering and maturity, leaf dry weight, LAI, relative water content (RWC), panicle dry weight, harvest index and other parameters have favoured high yielders. Less number of parameters in moderate and only few in case of low yielders have favoured the yield.

14. V. H. ASHVATHAMA, S. G. GOLLAGI AND B. D. BIRADAR [Morpho-physiological characters associated with grain yield of rabi sorghum genotypes under shallow soils]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 64-68 (2011). All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on shallow soils at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka) during rabi season. Among the genotypes, RSLG-1119, RSLG-871, RSV-423 and Maulee gave higher yields compared to other genotypes. The factors that favoured the higher yields were leaf area index, chlorophyll content, relative water content and panicle dry weight. The production of dry matter alone did not help in realizing the higher yield. In case of high yielder, there was an efficient dry matter production as well as translocation from source to sink. Less member of factors in moderate and only few factors had favoured the low yielders. It was observed that the differential performance of genotypes was due to difference in the dry matter partitioning efficiency.

15. S. ANITTA FANISH, P. MUTHUKRISHNAN AND S. PREM SEKAR [Effect of drip fertigation in intensive maize (Zea mays) based intercropping system]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 69-76 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2008 and 2009 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of drip fertigation on growth, yield and economics in intensive maize based intercropping system. During kharif 2008, drip fertigated maize at 150% RDF recorded significantly higher grain yield of 7338 kg/ha. Whereas during kharif 2009, higher grain yield of 7464 kg/ha was recorded under drip fertigation of 100% RDF with 50% P and K as water soluble fertilizer (WSF). Among the different intercropping systems, radish intercropped with maize registered a higher maize grain equivalent yield (MEY) of 11153 kg/ha. Drip irrigation helped to save the water upto 43% compared to surface irrigation besides enhancing the water use efficiency. A higher net return (Rs. 56858) and B : C ratio (3.24) were obtained under drip fertigation of 150% RDF+radish as intercrop combination.

16. V. K. JAIN and B. B. PARMAR [Field water balance and water use efficiency of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] as influenced by phosphate fertilization in vertisols]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 77-81 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Khargone (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of phosphorus supplied through single super phosphate (SSP) and Jhabua rock phosphate (JRP) in combinations with and without farm yard manure, phosphorus solubilizing material (PSM) on the productivity, nutrient uptake, water use and water use efficiency of soybean crop grown on black clay soils. Highest seed yield of 1253 kg/ha and water use efficiency of 3.21 kg/ha/mm of soybean were recorded due to the treatment of Jhabua rock phosphate equivalent to 90 kg/ha P2O5 applied in conjunction with 5 t/ha of FYM+3 kg/ha PSM and seed treatment with PSM (T12). Next in order were the treatments SSP-P60 (T2), JRP-P60+5 t/ha FYM+10 g PSM/kg seed treatment+3 kg PSM blended with 50 kg FYM/ha (T11), JRP-P90+5 t/ha FYM+10 g PSM/kg seed treatment (T10) and JRP-P60+5 t/ha FYM+10 g PSM/kg seed treatment (T9), respectively, which resulted in seed yield of 1185, 1175, 1166 and 1136 kg/ha, respectively, and the differences were statistically non-significant in between them. N, P, K and S content in soybean seeds varied from 5.64 to 6.11, 0.116 to 0.394, 1.40 to 2.22 and 0.311 to 0.457%, respectively. The treatments where both, PSM and FYM, were applied with JRP either @ 60 kg P/ha or @ 90 kg P/ha, good responses were observed with respect to crop yield, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency suggesting beneficial effects of PSM and FYM application. Highest water use efficiency of 3.21 kg/ha/mm by soybean was found due to the treatment T12 (90 kg P/ha through JRP+seed inoculation by PSM+blended PSM+FYM). The results of this study lead to conclude that treatments involving PSM and FYM tended to increase the water use and water use efficiency and seed yield too.

17. V. ARAVINTH*, G. KUPPUSWAMY AND M. GANAPATHY [Yield and nutrient uptake by baby corn as influenced by varied population, vermicompost and intercropping with pulses]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 82-86 (2011). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : aravinthagronomy@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at the Annamalai University Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram to study the effect of varied population, vermicompost and intercropping on the yield and nutrient uptake of baby corn during kharif and summer 2007. The experiments were laid out in split-split plot design with three main treatments, two sub-treatments and three sub-sub treatments replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that spacing and fertilizer treatments influenced significantly the nutrient uptake of baby corn. Intercropping systems did not influence the nutrient uptake. Baby corn spaced at 60 x 15 cm recorded higher uptake of N (161.4 and 160.6 kg/ha), P (22.5 and 22.2 kg/ha) and K (184.6 and 184.4 kg/ha), respectively, during kharif and summer 2007 seasons than 45 x 25 cm spacing. Among the three fertilizer treatments, S2 (recommended NPK + vermicompost @ 5 t/ha) recorded significantly higher N, P and K uptake than S1 and S3. Almost similar results were obtained in cob yield of baby corn. The combined effect of baby corn+cowpea intercropping system with spacing of 60 x 15 cm and recommended NPK+vermicompost @ 5 t/ha (C2M1S2) recorded the highest baby corn equivalent yield.

18. B. SANDHYA RANI, G. KARUNA SAGAR AND G. PRABHAKARA REDDY [Effect of integrated weed management practices on growth, yield and economics of sweet corn]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 87-89 (2011). Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2008 on sandy loam soils of S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati to study the effect of integrated weed management with low volume herbicides on growth and yield of sweet corn. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments. Growth parameters, yield attributes and green cob and green fodder yield were highest with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS (T9), which were on par with sulfosulfuron+imazethapyr as pre-emergence with hand weeding at 40 DAS (T6). Net returns and benefit : cost ratio were highest with sulfosulfuron @ 15 g a. i./ha+imazethapyr @ 25 g a. i./ha as pre-emergence with hand weeding at 40 DAS (T6), which were, however, on par with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS (T9).

19. RATNA SAHAY, RAMESH CHANDRA, SANJAY KUMAR AND R. K. UPADHYAY [Influence of Rhizobacteria on the performance of urdbean (Vigna mungo)-Rhizobium symbiosis]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 90-93 (2011). Department of Soil Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttaranchal), India
*(e-mail : ratna_microbio@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the influence of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the competitive ability and performance of inoculated Rhizobium sp. on symbiosis in urdbean. Field study was conducted during kharif 2004-05 in mollisol at Pantnagar Research Farm. The soil was sandy loam of pH 7.3 having 0.61% of organic C and 160.0, 16.0 and 296.0 kg/ha available N, P and K, respectively. Treatments consisting of four PGPR (PUK-171, PUK-46B6, PUK-315 and KB-133), alone and with Rhizobium sp. and control, were tested in RBD. The test crop variety was PU-35. All PGPR stimulated Rhizobium growth in in vitro conditions. Rhizobium sp. alone inoculation significantly increased the nodulation, plant dry matter, grain yield and N, P accumulation in urdbean and residual N and P in soil after crop harvesting. Different PGPR alone inoculation also improved the root nodulation, grain yield by 24.2 to 54.2%, straw yield by 18.0 to 45.5%, N and P uptake and residual N and P over control. The different PGPR also gave increase of 4.5 to 29.6% in grain yield and 13.5 to 30.3% in straw yield over Rhizobium sp. alone inoculation. Dual inoculation of different PGPR with Rizobium sp. further improved the various growth parameters and yield; however, significant increase in grain and straw yield over Rhizobium sp. was recorded only with Rhizobium sp.+PUK-46B6 and Rhizobium sp.+KB-133. Both these treatments also gave significantly more number and dry weight of nodule at 30 and 45 DAS, N and P uptake by grain and straw and residual P in soil.

20. P. R. DADGALE, A. B. CHOREY AND M. R. THAKUR [Evaluation of sources of compost and FYM for nitrogen management in greengram under rainfed condition]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 94-97 (2011). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The field experiment to evaluate the response of greengram to sources of compost and FYM was conducted at the farm of Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during kharif season of 2007-08. The results of experiment indicated that application of recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost significantly improved yield attributes, yield and protein content of greengram; however, remained at par with RDF. Significantly highest uptake of NPK was recorded with RDF, which was closely followed by recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost. Application of recommended dose of nitrogen through FYM and vermicompost resulted in maximum soil moisture use, however, highest moisture use efficiency was achieved with RDF, which was followed by recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost.

21. P. N. GAJBHIYE, A. V. BULBULE, R. B. PAWAR1 and M. T. Ingavale [Integrated nutrient management in soybean (Glycine max L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping sequence in lithic Ustorthents of western Maharashtra]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 98-103 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Shenda Park, Kolhapur-416 012 (Maharashtra), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was laid out at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Kolhapur with an objective to develop integrated nutrient management (INM) strategy for soybean-wheat cropping system on lithic Ustorthents of western Maharashtra. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design comprising eight treatments replicated thrice. The results revealed that highest grain yields of soybean (27.7 q/ha) and wheat (31.3 q/ha) were observed by RDF+FYM @ 5 t/ha. Among the different STCR-based treatments, the targeted (soybean T=25 q/ha, wheat T=30 q/ha) grain yield of soybean (24.3 q/ha) and wheat (29.3 q/ha) could be achieved when fertilized with inorganic sources. The treatment 25% N through organic+75% N through inorganic also achieved the target yields of soybean (23.8 q/ha) and wheat (27.6 q/ha) with 10% variation. Organic supplements exceeding 25% resulted in lower yields of both the crops; however, this treatment improved the soil available nutrients status of N, P and K after period of three years. Lowest grain yields of soybean (18.9 q/ha) and wheat (19.8 q/ha) were observed by 100% organic. Similar trend was followed by straw yields. Sustainable yield index (SYI) varied from 0.28 to 0.79 in soybean and 0.26 to 0.84 in wheat crop.

22. SANTOSH PATEL, A. K. SHARMA, B. B. PARMAR AND M. P. JAIN [Influence of integrated nutrient management practices on productivity and profitability of soybean/maize intercropping system under rainfed conditions]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 104-109 (2011). College of Agriculture Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Campus Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of the year 2009 to assess the impact of different integrated nutrient management practices on the productivity and profitability of soybean plus maize intercropping system grown on black clay soils under rainfed conditions. The results of the study revealed that the intercropping of soybean plus maize in 4. 2 row ratio was best as compared to their sole cropping regardless of different nutrient management practices. Reduced levels of fertilizer N, P and K in conjunction with farm yard manure and seed inoculation with rhizobium, azotobacter, and PSB culture helped in increased availability of nutrients, crop productivity, net monetary returns and profitability from the system. The treatment T6 (Soybean+maize intercropping in 4 : 2 rows with 50% RDF+seed inoculation with Rhizobium @ 10 g/kg seed in soybean and 1/3 RDF+seed inoculation with Azotobacter @ 10 g/kg seed in maize crop with 5 t FYM/ha+PSB @ 10 g/kg seed to both the crops+50% of RD of N for maize in two splits to maize crop only) ranked first as it resulted in the highest SEY (2280 kg/ha ), LER (1.49), net monetary returns (Rs. 25943/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (2.50). Next in order of merit was the treatment T5 (Soybean+maize intercropping in 4 : 2 rows with 50% RDF+seed inoculation with Rhizobium @ 10 g/kg seed in soybean and 1/3 RDF+seed inoculation with Azotobacter @ 10 g/kg seed in maize crop with 5 t FYM/ha+PSB @ 10 g/kg seed to both the crops) in this respect by giving SEY (2148 kg/ha), LER (1.40), net monetary returns (Rs. 23933/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (2.40 ). There were no considerable changes in soil pH and electrical conductivity of soil due to different treatments. These results emphasize that intercropping coupled with biofertilizers treatment helped in reducing depletion of soil available P. In general, intercropping of soybean plus maize has been found relatively more productive and profitable as compared to sole cropping of individual component crops.

23. K. S. SAINI AND S. K. CHONGTHAM [Effect of different residue management practices and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and economics of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 110-113 (2011). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : sainikulvir@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at Ludhiana during kharif season of 2009 to evaluate the effect of residue management practices and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and economics of soybean using rotavator. No residue level showed superiority in terms of growth, development and yield and yield attributing characters. N50+N50 FYM gave comparably better results in relation to growth, development and ultimately higher yield and yield attributing characters. From economic point of view, RF under crop residue management practices and N100 in case of nitrogen levels gave highest profit with B : C ratio of 1.73 and 1.66, respectively.

24. K. S. SHUBHASHREE, S. C. ALAGUNDAGI, S. M. HIREMATH, B. M. CHITTAPUR AND N. S. HEBSUR [Influence of graded dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on yield and nutrient uptake of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris) during rabi*]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 114-116 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad on black clay soil to study the response of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during rabi in the Northern Transition Zone with three levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha), three levels of phosphorus (25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5/ha) and two levels of potassium (30 and 60 kg K2O/ha) with an absolute control (0 : 0 : 0 kg N : P : K/ha). The results of the investigations revealed that significantly higher grain yield was recorded with 120 : 75 : 60 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha fertilization (1375 kg/ha) which was on par with 80 : 75 : 60 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha (1352 kg/ha) and 80 : 75 : 30 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha (1337 kg/ha). Nutrient uptake also significantly increased with the increasing rates of fertilization..

25. C. K. VERMA, D. D. YADAV AND K. P. KUSHWAHA [Effect of fertilizers and moisture conservation practices in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under rainfed condition]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 117-119 (2011). Department of Agronomy Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during rabi seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Student’s Instructional Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur to find out the effect of fertilizers (40N+15S, 80N+30S and 120N+45S kg/ha) and moisture conservation practices (dust mulch and organic mulch @ 5 t/ha paddy straw at 25 DAS) in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Results revealed that fertilizers 120 kg N+45 kg S/ha gave significantly higher plant height, number of primary branches/plant, number of secondary branches/plant, dry matter accumulation/plant, siliquae length, number of siliquae/plant, number of seeds/siliqua, 1000-seed weight, grain yield, stover yield, harvest index and protein content (%) than other levels of fertilizers (control, 40N+15S and 80N+30S kg/ha) during both the years. However, the application of moisture conservation practices (control, dust mulch creating by weeding at 25 and 35 DAS and organic mulch @ 5 t/ha paddy straw at 25 DAS) increased growth, yield attributing characters and seed yield as well as nutrient content and uptake by mustard over control. On the basis of economics 120 kg N+45 kg S/ha and organic mulch @ 5 t/ha at 25 DAS were found most profitable

26. K. V. S. SUDHEER, S. B. S. NARSIMHA RAO AND V. RADHAKRISHNA MURTHY [Behaviour of growth of groundnut under different environments and row spacing]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 120-124 (2011). Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment to study the effect of sowing time and row spacing on behaviour of growth of groundnut crop in Southern Telangana Zone was conducted during kharif 2006 at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The results revealed that LAI, CGR and dry matter production were significantly more in early sown crop at 30, 60 DAS and at harvest. The crop sown at inter-row spacing of 30 cm recorded significantly more LAI, CGR and dry matter accumulation at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest. Correlation studies between dry matter partitioning at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing and at harvest and pod and haulm yield revealed that dry matter partitioned into stem at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest had significant positive correlation with final pod and haulm yields, the dry matter partitioned into leaves showed significant positive correlation with both pod and haulm yield at 60 DAS and later with haulm yield only at 90 DAS and at harvest. The dry matter partitioned into pods at 90 DAS and at harvest had significant and positive correlation to final pod and haulm yields. The total dry matter produced during sampling dates at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest showed significant positive correlation with final pod and haulm yields. However, the dry matter production and partitioning at 30 DAS did not show significant relation with pod and haulm yields. The results highlighted that groundnut should be sown latest by end of July and spacing of 30 cm be adopted for better crop growth.

27. DEEPA SINGH KUSHWAHA* AND SHAGUFTA KHAN [In vitro regeneration of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)–An important medicinal oil crop]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 125-130 (2011). Department of Botany Saifia Science College, Bhopal (M. P.), India *(e-mail : deepa_destination@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cv. RT-54, the higher oil, protein content and very favourable additional food element is regenerated from hypocotyl explants through indirect organogenesis with callus phase. Hypocotyl segments of cultivar RT-54 of sesame were obtained from 10 days old in vitro raised seedlings through in vitro seed germination. In hypocotyl callus, maximum callus induction was achieved in Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2, 4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. Higher frequency shoot regeneration (85%) was achieved in 6.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine with 2.0 mg/l napthalene acetic acid. Best shoot regeneration (85%) was achieved from 40 days old hypocotyl callus. Maximum number of shoots and shoot length can be achieved in 6.0 mg/l BAP with 20% coconut water and 6.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine with 0.5 mg/l napthalene acetic acid. Highest concentration of 6-benzyl amino purine (8.0 mg/l) also showed maximum shoot length. During multiplication, callusing was also observed. Best rooting response (85-90%) and number of roots (8-10) were observed on 2.0 mg/l indolyl-3-butyric acid. Whole plants recovered effectively and established successfully in soil to register 80-85% survival in the field.

28. P. V. NEVASE, A. M. BAFNA AND K. A. SHINDE [Effect of N, P, K and FYM on growth and TSS of stevia]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 131-135 (2011). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Navsari Agricultural University, Gujarat to study the effect of fertilizer and organic manure on yield of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bentoni). Application of 275 : 112.5 : 172.5 and FYM @ 20 t/ha produced higher number of leaves, branches, height and thereby yield of stevia.

29. R. S. KALIRAMANA* AND B. S. PANNU [Effect of potassium concentrations with chloride, carbonate, sulphate and nitrate on potassium fixation in Haryana soils]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 136-143 (2011). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : raghubir29@rediff.com)

ABSTRACT

The amount of K fixation varied from 49.89 to 18.15% in respect of potassium chloride, 77.21 to 24.16% in potassium carbonate, 75.29 to 23.56% in potassium sulphate and 58.80 to 18.40% in potassium nitrate when K was applied @ of 20 to 1000 µg/ml. The relative fixation was highest when potassium was applied @ 20 µg/ml and least was observed when applied @ 1000 µg/ml indicating more availability of K in the soil. The Chautala soil showed the lowest degree of fixation irrespective of potassium forms. The mechanism of potassium fixation in soil through clays is believed to be the result of precipitation of potassium in the interior of the lattices or due to the concentration of the sheet of clay in consequence entry of K ions. The fixation of potassium at 20 µg/ml level was the lowest in potassium chloride and highest in potassium carbonate. The different levels of the KCl showed the lowest degree of fixation in the soil suggesting more availability of added K. It was observed that the fixation of potassium in different soil profiles with different anions of potassium was positively and significantly correlated with clay, silt, organic carbon and CEC. The fixation of K was negatively correlated with sand and positively with different level of applied potassium.

30. M. O. ADULOJU AND M. TETENGI [Physico-chemical properties of soils in a toposequence in Mokwa, Niger State, Nigeria]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3): 144-147 (2011). Department of Agronomy University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
*(e-mail : omolola_ad@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Soils of a toposequence in Mokwa, Niger State, Nigeria in the Southern Guinea Savannah zone were studied in the field and classified using USDA soil taxonomy and classification system. Samples from three pedons (up, middle and lower slopes) were subjected to physical and chemical analyses as described by Jackson (1968). The soils had high gravel content in the sub-surface horizons. Bulk densities ranged between 1.01 to 1.63 g/cm3 and were generally higher in the coarser-textured soils. The soils were generally sandy with the sub-surface horizon of pedon 1 (up-slope) being dominated by sandy soils. The silt/clay weathering index showed moderate weathering. The soils were slightly acidic. The exchangeable cations present in order of magnitude were calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Cation exchange capacity of the soil was low. The soils were classified as Plinthic Dystrustalf (Pedon 1), Typic Plithustalf (Pedon 2) and Psammentic Alaquept (Pedon 3). The fertility status of the soils of the area was found to be dependent on the level of the soil organic matter.

31. HARSIMRAT K. BONS, S. S. DHAWAN AND B. V. C. MAHAJAN [Effect of chemical preservatives and heating on preservation of guava pulp at low temperature]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 148-150 (2011). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

Guava pulp was extracted from ripe fruits of cv. Sardar (L-49) by cold extraction method and treated with potassium sorbate and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1% alone and in combination with heating at 85°C for 5 min. The pulp was packed in food grade plastic jars and stored at low temperature (2-5°C) for three months. Addition of KMS in guava pulp showed better results than potassium sorbate in terms of less browning (NEB), retention of more ascorbic acid and good keeping quality.

32. S. R. SINGH, P. NARAYANASWAMY, B. C. BANIK, S. SHYAMALAMMA AND L. SIMON [Development of RAPD-based SCAR marker related to fruit cracking in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 151-156 (2011). Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A survey was conducted in the orchards of Department of Horticulture of UAS, GKVK, Bangalore and State Forest Department Farm, Tamaka at Kolar district, Karnataka, India. Study employed morphological and molecular markers for differentiating cracking and non-cracking types. The RAPD analysis identified OPC-07 as the polymorphic primer showing band size of 810 bp as the polymorphic marker. The sequence data of fruit cracking character were analysed for its identity using BLASTX search for its homology with the sequence of a gene already recorded in the database of the NCBI, Bethesda, USA. The nucleotide sequence data reported here have been deposited in Gene Bank (NCBI).

33. S. R. SINGH, P. NARAYANASWAMY, B. C. BANIK, S. SHYAMALAMMA AND L. SIMON [Evaluation of cracking and non-cracking genotypes of jackfruit [Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.]] Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 157-162 (2011). Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of 20 genotypes of jackfruit was conducted in the orchards of Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore and State Forest Department Farm, Tamaka at Kolar district, Karnataka, India. Study employed evaluation for differentiating cracking and non-cracking types. Based on overall performance with respect to vegetative growth, yield and quality parameters, jackfruit cracking and non-cracking genotypes were confirmed to be closely similar with each other and these cracking trait jackfruits were suggested more likely to be varietal characters. The investigation also revealed that cracking genotypes contained less pectin when compared with the non-cracking genotypes that may cause cracking due to inelastic nature of the rind.

34. WAMAN AJIT ARUN*, K. UMESHA, B. N. SATHYANARAYANA, A. M. RAJESH
AND R. G. GURUPRAKASH [Cost effective in vitro seed germination in Withania somnifera L. cv. ‘Poshita’ as affected by different chemicals]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 163-165 (2011). Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : ajit.hort595@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Effort was made to improve seed germination thereby obtaining more number of explants, which is a pre-requisite for most of the in vitro studies. For standardizing in vitro multiplication protocol using shoot tips for an improved cultivar ‘Poshita’, seeds were treated with chemicals viz., gibberellic acid (GA3), potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate and were inoculated on half strength MS media. Amongst chemicals used, GA3 was found to be superior to improve the germination at all three concentrations studied. Both the nitrates, on the other hand, exhibited poor response and could cause germination in 21.5 and 24.8% seeds, respectively. Use of half strength of MS salts and market grade sugar as a carbon source resulted in reduction of cost of germination in vitro. Thus, the protocol is useful for easier establishment of contamination free cultures within short period of time and also to obtain more number of explants for further studies.

35. D. DUTTA, B. C. PATRA, D. MAITI AND P. BANDYOPADHYAY [Effect of organic and inorganic sources of N on growth, yield and disease incidence of betelvine (Piper betle L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 166-168 (2011). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments of 2006 and 2007 at Namkhana (South 24-Parganas) of West Bengal revealed that the integrated use of organic manure (mustard oil cake/neem cake) and inorganic N fertilizer (urea/calcium ammonium nitrate) had a significant effect on yield of betelvine (Piper betle L.) cv. ‘Meetha’. Recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) @ 200 kg/ha applied as neem cake and CAN in equal proportion (1:1) gave the highest vine elongation, leaf area and yield (39.75 lakh/ha/year). Length of internodes and fresh mass of 100 leaves were maximum when RDN applied as neem cake and urea (1:1 proportion). Both the treatments were statistically at par. N, P and K contents of leaves were highest in RDN applied through urea, neem cake and neem cake and CAN (1:1 proportion), respectively. Incidence of diseases like foot rot, leaf spot, anthracnose and bacterial leaf spot was more in urea and less in neem cake treated plots

36. I. S. EGYIR, S. Y. C. ESSAH* and G. T. M. KWADZO [Financial costs and benefits of investing in the production of Allanblackia spp. as a tree crop]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 169-178 (2011). Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana *(e-mail : sessah@lamar.colostate.edu)

ABSTRACT

Allanblackia spp. (AB) has been identified as an alternative source of income for cocoa farmers in Ghana. The integration of this tree crop into cocoa farming systems has, therefore, been initiated. Currently, farmers collect the nuts from wild trees scattered in and around cocoa farms. The domestication of AB is being championed by foreign investors [Unilever Research & Development (R&D), Netherlands) in collaboration with the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana. Feasibility studies suggest that the integration of AB into cocoa farming systems is viable for farmers if the financial support from foreign investors is implemented. It is important to assess the viability of domesticating this tree crop without foreign support, so that local entrepreneurs who want to go into the production of AB would understand the real cost and return issues. This paper presents the results of a financial cost-benefit appraisal of AB in the forest region of Ghana, using alternate viability measures [Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR)]. Results of this study indicate that the benefits to be derived from investing in AB domestication are quite high. The NPVs were positive, BCRs were greater than one and the IRRs ranged from 26 to 40%. The findings of the study suggest that AB production is a financially viable investment. The challenge is how to create competition for its demand so as to maintain a higher market price for the crop.

37. P. BALASUBRAMANIAN, V. SIVAKUMAR AND E. VADIVEL [Plant morphological changes of tomato cultivars in relation to fertigation]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 179-183 (2011). Department of Vegetable Crops Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

In fertigation, application of fertilizers through drip irrigation has gained popularity in developed countries and it could help in long way for efficient and uniform application of both water and fertilizers with minimum labour input. Drip irrigation and fertigation resulted in great success by increasing the growth characters of horticultural crops. With this in view, the present investigation was designed to study the effect of fertigation on plant morphological changes of tomato cultivars. The experiment was designed with three methods of irrigation and fertilization treatments (F1–Conventional systems of irrigation and fertilization, F2–Drip irrigation with conventional system of fertilization and F3–Drip fertigation) with three popular cultivars of tomato (V1–PKM-1 (Determinate), V2–COTH-2 (Semi-determinate) and V3–US-618 (Indeterminate) in spilt plot design. The results revealed that cultivar and systems of irrigation and fertilization significantly influenced the growth characters of tomato. The growth of tomato as influenced by various methods of irrigation and fertilization has been elucidated through plant height, number of laterals, root length, stem girth, specific leaf weight, leaf dry weight and dry matter production.

38. P. BALASUBRAMANIAN, V. SIVAKUMAR AND G. BALAKRISHNAMOORTHY [Influence of blanching on quality and sensory parameters of dehydrated product of bhendi]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 184-187 (2011). Department of Vegetable Crops Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Laboratory experiments were undertaken at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in order to assess the quality and sensory parameters of dehydrated oriental vegetable “bhendi” var. Arka Anamika. The treatments were comprised of four different blanching treatments alone (T1–Blanching for 1 min, T2–Blanching for 3 min, T3–Blanching for 5 min and T4–Blanching for 17 min) and the remaining four treatments with the combinations of blanching with sulfuring (T5–Blanching for 1 min+3 g/kg of product at 10 min, T6–Blanching for 3 min+3 g/kg of product at 20 min, T7–Blanching for 5 min+3 g/kg of product at 30 min and T8–Blanching for 7 min+3 g/kg of product at 40 min) and the last treatment was absolute control with blanching and sulfuring (T9–Control). The results showed that the steam blanching for 3 min in conjunction with sulfuring further improved the reducing sugars of dehydrated bhendi fruits by 1% (9.0) in the system of dehydration. Similar trends were also observed for total sugars (15.6) as against control (15.9). Sensory scores like colour, texture, flavour and overall acceptability of the dehydrated produce of bhendi were significantly higher in the treatment blanching for 3 min in conjunction with sulfuring [colour (7.34), texture (7.00), flavour (6.0) and overall acceptability (7.45)] which were twice or thrice higher than control.

39. A. M. ABU-RAYYAN* AND N. A. AL-HADIDI [Influence of nitrogen doses and plant population on yield and quality of green bunch onion]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 188-206 (2011). Department of Horticulture and Crop Science University of Jordan, Amman-11942, Jordan *(e-mail : aburayan@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the response of the green onion to nitrogen fertilizer and plant population effects. Six nitrogen doses (65, 80, 95, 110, 125 and 140 kg N /ha) were applied to three onion cultivars that belong to Texas Grano variety and planted at two plant populations of 66.7 and 83.3 plants/m2. Yield showed significant increment with increasing nitrogen doses. Results of environmental impact revealed that the compensation point, at which high yield meets good nitrogen recovery % and distinguished saving in quantity of nitrogen loss, is at 83 plants/m2, 125 kg N/ha, regardless of used cultivar. The rate of 125 kg N/ha showed greater nitrogen recovery % and lower nitrogen loss than 140 kg N/ha. Additionally, the absorbing capacity at that dose (125 kg N/ha) was not statistically differing from what realized by the higher dose (140 kg N/ha) in the second season.

40. U. THAPA* AND P. H. PRASAD [Response of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on the growth and yield of Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa (L.) var. Perkinensis]]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 207-209 (2011). Department of Vegetable Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (W. B.), India
*(e-mail : drumesh.thapa@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Nutrient management is one of the prime considerations for getting higher yield of any crop. Most of the vegetable crops are annual, short duration in nature and many of them are harvested at immature stage. Therefore, adequate quantities of plant nutrients are required to promote proper crop growth with view to achieve success in vegetable production. N, P and K are considered as the major plant nutrients and normally applied to crops through chemical fertilizer. Application of the soil nutrient elements through manures and fertilizer is needed to get economic yield of vegetable. Depletion of the natural resources and increasing population, both human and animals, has been a cause of global concern in the recent times. Chinese cabbage is an exotic vegetable recently gaining popularity in India due to its high nutritive value. A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2007-08 on response of Chinese cabbage to different doses of nitrogen and phosphorus levels at Horticultural Research Station (HRS), Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal. The aim of this research was to assess nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers in different levels to find out the growth and yield of Chinese cabbage in the plains of West Bengal. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the treatments for all the traits. The study revealed that with the increase in the nitrogen levels from 80-140 kg/ha and phosphorus levels from 60-100 kg/ha there was increasing tendency in most of the characters. The maximum number of outer leaves, head length, head width, total head weight, net head weight and head yield were obtained with the application of 120 kg N/ha and 100 kg P/ha and the maximum plant height, plant spread, leaf area and head diameter were recorded with the application of 140 kg N/ha and 120 kg P/ha significantly. From the experiment, it may be concluded that the application of 120 kg nitrogen/ha and 100 kg P/ha is the best for obtaining higher production of Chinese cabbage in the Gangetic plains of West Bengal.

41. G. RAJARAMAN* AND P. PARAMAGURU [Influence of fertilizer levels on yield and economics of leafy types of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 210-214 (2011). Department of Vegetable Crops Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : hortraja@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2006-08. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design using four treatments with three replications. The main plot treatments comprised two varieties viz., Co CR-4 and CS 11 and sub-plot treatments comprised different levels of fertilizer doses viz., 125, 100 and 75% and recommended N, P and K through drip fertigation. In the control plot, the recommended dose of NPK was applied to soil with furrow irrigation. Phosphorus was applied to all the treatments as basal application. The results revealed that yield, gross return and net return were higher under the fertigation treatment with 125% water soluble fertilizer with variety Co CR-4 (T1). However, the highest benefit : cost ratio was recorded under the treatment 125% water soluble fertilizer with variety Co CR-4 (T1).

42. KAMLA KANWAR AND S. S. PALIYAL [Recycling of mycelium waste from Ranbaxy Lab. Limited by vermicomposting and its utilization in vegetable crops]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 215-222 (2011). CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan-173 001, Sirmour (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field trials were conducted on cabbage and bhindi during kharif and rabi seasons of 2007 and 2008, respectively. The treatments consisted of three levels of fertilizer NPK (0, 50 and 100%) with and without organic manures [vermicompost V1 (prepared from cow dung and green leaves and twigs of lantana), vermicompost V2 (prepared from mycelium waste+cow dung (1 : 1)+straw (mash or rice) @ 20 kg per bed of size 3 x 10 x 2.54 cubic feet) and FYM] replicated thrice in a randomized blocked design. Heavy metals and microbiological analysis of Ranbaxy waste material showed that material had heavy metals concentration and different microbial counts below the critical level. Hence, it was found safe to use Ranbaxy wastes for the production of vermicompost. From two years’ experimentation, it was found that vermicompost V2 (prepared from Ranbaxy mycelium waste) was found superior to V1 (prepared from cow dung and green leaves and twigs of lantana) and both were found superior to FYM when applied alone or alongwith 50 or 100% NPK, in increasing crop yield of bhindi and cabbage.V2 was found superior to V1 and both were found superior to FYM in improving fertility status of soil after vegetable crop harvest.

43. J. P. SRIVASTAVA, R. D. S. YADAV, ATUL PANDEY AND G. D. KUSHWAHA [Seed priming : ecofriendly approach for seed enhancement vis-a-vis nursery management]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 223-226 (2011). Seed Technology Research Centre N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Maintenance of seed quality of low volume high value vegetable crops is a big challenge and worth prime owing to their high cost and major role in human dietary. In case of tomato, brinjal and chillies, only healthy looking seedlings are preferred for transplanting as they help in better establishment and disease management. Damping off of seedlings is a serious disease problem caused by various fungal pathogens like Pythium aphimidermatum, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Phomopsis vexans causing considerable damage in the form of yellowing, stunting and consequently the seedling mortality at pre/post-emergence stage. Role of hydropriming, biopriming, polymer film coating, plant growth promoting hormones and plant extracts in seed enhancement was reported in some crops. In the present investigation, hydropriming which is a simple, economical and environment friendly type of priming in which seeds are soaked in water and dried before sowing; biopriming which is a revised version of solid matrix priming alongwith addition of biological control agents known to produce chitinase and B (1-3 glucanase) enzymes which could degrade the cell wall leading to the lysis of hyphae of the pathogen and polymer film coating for superior and efficient binding of applied materials with uniform coverage and reduced leaching of materials, plant growth promoting hormones and plant extracts known for antifungal properties were evaluated for comparative performance against seed enhancement and nursery management. Polykote film coating @ 3 ml/kg of seed followed by dry dressing of carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seed was found significantly superior for seed enhancement with lesser percentage of seedling mortality for all the three crops under study.

44. PRITY DAS, L. PASWAN, H. CHOUDHURY, JYOTSHNA DAS AND PINKI SAIKIA [Effect of inorganic, organic and biofertilizers on yield and yield attributes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberose Linn.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 227-230 (2011). B. N. College of Agriculture (AAU) Biswanath Chariali, Sonitpur-784 176 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during 2008-09 to study the effect of inorganic, organic and biofertilizers on growth, yield and yield attributes of tuberose. The results of the experiment revealed that the vegetative growth of tuberose plants in terms of plant height, shoot number, leaf number and leaf area was significantly influenced by different treatments. The highest plant height (102.50 cm), leaf number (51.00), leaf area (146.55 cm2) and number of shoots (9.90) were recorded in tuberose treated with inorganic fertilizers (NPK @ 40 : 20 : 40 g/m2). While organic fertilizer enriched compost @ 10 t/ha produced maximum spike length (87.60 cm), floret number (42.67), clump weight (305.33 g) and bulb number (39.40) per bulb planted with the highest benefit : cost ratio of 3.38 : 1.

45. D. ADILAKSHMIi* AND M. GIRIJA RANI** [Genetic diversity studies of quality characters of promising rice varieties]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 231-234 (2011). Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station Maruteru-534 122, West Godavari District (A. P.), India *(e-mail : adilakshmi 87@gmail.com ; **girija_aprri@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Forty-two promising rice varieties of southern India evaluated for physico-chemical and cooking characters to study the diversity pattern among the genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Maximum 16 genotypes were grouped in cluster I followed by 12 in cluster III and 10 in cluster II. The clusters IV, V, VI and VII are represented by single genotypes, namely, Erramallelu, Mahsuri, Cottondora Sannalu and Vajram, respectively, indicating high degree of heterogeneity among the genotypes. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster III (D=13.88) followed by cluster II (D=10.97), cluster I (D=8.43). The coefficient of variation was highest in water uptake (20.76) and lowest coefficient of variation was reported in hulling percentage (2.24 ). The cluster means were highest for cluster V for head rice recovery and cluster VI for length-breadth ratio. The cluster VII exhibited high mean value for volume expansion ratio and elongation ratio. The head rice recovery had maximum contribution value (15.80) followed by water uptake (13.71), and lowest value was observed in milling per cent (3.25). Hulling per cent, head rice recovery, alkali spreading value, volume expansion ratio and water uptake together contributed more than 50% towards total divergence. Hence, these characters should be considered during hybridization programme.

46. K. AMUDHA, K. THIYAGARAJAN AND S. ROBIN [Combining ability studies using cytoplasmic genic male sterility system (CGMS) in aerobic rice]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 235-240 (2011). Department of Rice Centre for Plant Breeding & Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Thirty hybrids generated from crossing five lines with six testers were studied alongwith parents for combining ability and gene action involved in expression of characters in aerobic rice. The gca and sca effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive genetic components. But it was found that there was predominance of non-additive genetic components for expression of different traits in the present set of materials. Amongst the parental lines, IR 73718-3-1-3-3, CT-6510-24-1-2, IR 73718-3-1-3-3 and CT-6510-24-1-2 were best general combiners for grain yield alongwith other traits. The most specific combiners for grain yield and other traits were IR 67684A /CT-6510-24-1-2, IR 68885A/IR 73718-3-1-3-3, IR 70372A/PSBRC 80 and IR 70369A/IR 73718-3-1-3-3.

47. S. V. BURUNGALE, R. M. CHAUHAN*, R. A. GAMI**, D. M. THAKOR AND P. T. PATEL [Combining ability analysis for yield, its components and quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 241-245 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : rmchauhan2010@gmail.com; **ramangami@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Combining ability analysis was carried out in a 8 x 8 diallel of bread wheat for grain yield and its component traits excluding reciprocals at Main Wheat Research Station, Vijapur, S. D. Agricultural University Sardarkrushinagar during rabi 2008-09. Both additive and non-additive type of gene action played an important role for the inheritance of characters. The ratio of gca to sca genetic variance for all characters indicated that non-additive type of gene action was predominant in the expression of all traits i. e. plant height, number of effective tillers, length of main spike, spikelets per spike, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per plant, protein content, hectoliter weight, harvest index and sedimentation value. The parental lines GW 496, GW 397 and VA 06-15 were good general combiners for grain yield and other yield components. GW 404 was good general combiner for grain yield per plant, 1000-grain weight, grain protein content and sedimentation value. The crosses GW 273 x GW 496, GW 392 x GW 273 and VA 06-15 x GW 322 recorded the highest sca effects and they involved average x good, poor x average and good x poor gca parents. The cross VA-06-15 x GW 404 for grain protein content and cross GW 392 x GW 397 for sedimentation value expressed highest sca effects.

48. S. K. CHAVAN, R. C. MAHAJAN AND SANGITA U. FATAK [Correlation and path analysis studies in sorghum]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 246-250 (2011). Department of Agricultural Botany Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani-431 402 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The correlation and path analysis studies were carried out in 24 genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench at Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M. S.) during kharif 2006-07. Experimental results revealed the improvement in componental characters including panicle length, number of grains per panicle, panicle width, test weight, number of primary branches per panicle and harvest index through simple selection methods in kharif sorghum and these characters had positive and significant association with seed yield of sorghum. The maximum positive significant correlation of panicle length was observed with panicle width, plant height, number of primary branches per panicle, test weight and harvest index, respectively. Results of path analysis showed that the days to 50% flowering, panicle length, plant height and number of grains per panicle were important characters for seed yield of kharif sorghum.

49. SUJATA BHAT, G. T. BASAVARAJA AND P. M. SALIMATH [Studies on genetic variability in segregating generation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 251-254 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif 2006 to analyze the extent of variability in F3 segregating generation of cross JS-93-05 x DSb-1 of soybean. All the segregants in the population were classified based on leaflet shapes viz., oval, ovate and lanceolate leaflet types. It was observed that considerable range of variation was exhibited by all the leaflet types. The high heritability was observed for traits viz., plant height, number of pods per plant, specific leaf weight, harvest index and 100-seed weight in oval leaflet types. In addition to these characters number of branches, days to flowering and days to maturity in lanceolate leaflet types exhibited high heritability.

50. S. K. DHAPKE, S. P. PATIL AND R. S. WANKHADE [Studies on genetic diversity in elite soybean genotypes]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 255-258 (2011). Dr. P. D. K. V. Regional Research Centre, Morshi Road, Amravati (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

High yielding 66 elite soybean genotypes selected from 401 germplasm accessions were subjected to genetic divergence study. These genotypes fell into 10 clusters out of which one was monogenotypic. Indigenous genetic material IC-118429 alongwith genotypes AMS-MB-5-19, AMS-248 and H5P23 has been identified as the most potential parent for hybridization programme. Among the seven characters, number of pods per plant contributed maximum to the genetic divergence, followed by number of branches per plant. This indicated that these characters were mainly responsible for genetic divergence. The highest divergence was observed between clusters I and VIII followed by clusters I and VII, clusters III and VII and clusters III and VIII which may serve as potential parents for hybridization programme. The average cluster means for different characters showed that the genotype AMS-MB-5-19 had maximum mean values for seed yield and number of primary branches. Thus, AMS-MB-5-19 showed promise as a potential parent to obtain desirable progenies and create further variability for these characters. The potential combination based on the D2 statistics was found to be AMS-MB-5-19 x AMS-248, AMS-MB-5-19 x H5P23, AMS-MB-5-28 x H5P23, AMS-MB-5-28 x AMS-248, AMS-MB-5-19 x H6P5, H6P5 x IC-118482 and AMS-MB-5-19 x IC-118429. These combinations may result in maximum hybrid vigour and highest number of useful segregants.

51. Y. CHANDRA MOHAN* [Genetic variability and character association studies in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 259-262 (2011). Regional Agricultural Research Station Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Jagtial, Karimnagar-505 529 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : drycmohan@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability, character association and path analysis between yield and its contributing traits were studied in 28 sesame genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant differences among genotypes for all the characters studied. Seed yield per plot, capsules per plant and primary branches per plant showed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation coupled with high to moderate heritability and high genetic advance indicating the predominance of additive gene effects in controlling these traits. Seed yield per plot showed significantly positive correlations with all the traits studied. Path coefficient analysis indicated that plant height and capsules per plant were important traits to be considered for realizing improvement in seed yield.

52. D. BHADRU [Variability and genetic divergence studies in white seed coated pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 263-268 (2011). ANGRAU Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, District Ranga Reddy (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

One hundred and twenty pigeonpea accessions were evaluated for their variability and genetic divergence. Number of pods, seed yield per plant, primary and secondary branches per plant, raceme length, test weight and plant spread had the higher genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance as % of mean. The D2 values were significant among the 120 genotypes, which were grouped into 12 clusters. Clustering pattern depicted the presence of sufficient genetic diversity, even in the germplasm collected from similar ecological regions. All clusters had at least one white seed coated genotype. The traits number of pods per plant, plant height, seed yield per plant, days to maternity and days to 50% flowering contributed most towards genetic divergence. Therefore, more importance should be given to these characters for the selection of parents for future breeding programme in white seed coated pigeonpea.

53. T. B. UGALE, U. P. BARKHADE, M. P. MOHARILl AND SUCHITA GHULE [Induction of midgut carboxylesterase and cytochrome p-450 in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) by different hosts]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 269-275 (2011). Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Effect of different hosts viz., cotton, pigeonpea and chickpea of H. armigera on the induction of carboxylesterase and cytochrome p-450 enzymes was studied in the present investigation. Pigeonpea was found to be good inducer of CarE. Less induction of CarE activity was observed in larvae reared on cotton. Different isozymes were observed which showed significant difference in expression on PAGE. Pigeonpea strain showed maximum number of bands with dark intensity, followed by chickpea strain than by cotton strain. Microplate assay results showed higher expression of p-450 in pigeonpea strain than chickpea strain. Less activity was shown by the cotton strain. Toxicity of different insecticides was tested against the H. armigera reared on different hosts. The variability in toxicity was observed, strain reared on chickpea showed tolerance against indoxacarb, spinosad and emamectin benzoate, whereas strain reared on pigeonpea showed higher LC50 for lambdacyhalothrin. Cotton fed larvae were found to be comparatively susceptible.

54. T. B. UGALE, U. P. BARKHADE, M. P. MOHARILl AND SUCHITA GHULE [Induction of midgut glutathione S-transferase in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) by different hosts and its influence on insecticide metabolism]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 276-283 (2011). Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Effect of different hosts viz., cotton, pigeonpea and chickpea of Helicoverpa armigera on the induction of gut detoxifying enzymes and its effect on insecticide metabolism were studied in the present investigation. Glutathione S-transferase was found to be induced in higher amount in the gut of H. armigera when reared on chickpea as compared to the other studied hosts. Midgut proteins were also found to be influenced by these hosts. Toxicity levels of different insecticides were studied against the H. armigera reared on different hosts. The variability in toxicity was observed among strains i. e. H. armigera reared on different hosts. Strain reared on chickpea showed tolerance against indoxacarb, spinosad and emamectin benzoate, whereas strain reared on pigeonpea showed higher LC50 for lambdacyhalothrin. Cotton fed larvae were found to be comparatively susceptible. Different hosts were found to induce GST and protein in mid gut, which in turn reflected in terms of tolerance against insecticides.

55. G. K. TAGGAR, H. K. CHEEMA AND B. S. KOONER [Bio-efficacy of certain insecticides against tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) infesting soybean in Punjab]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 284-288 (2011). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

The bio-efficacy of seven insecticides viz., quinalphos 25 EC, carbaryl 50 WP, indoxacarb 14.5 SC, acephate 75 SP, endosulfan 35 EC, chlorpyrifos 20 EC and dichlorvos 76 EC was evaluated against tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) on soybean crop in three field experiments during kharif 2005. In all the three experiments, indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 500 ml/ha proved most effective in controlling the pest at 3 and 7 days after spray (4.84 and 2.14 larvae/m2, respectively), followed by acephate 75 SP @ 2.0 kg/ha (7.36 and 3.69 larvae/m2, respectively). The highest mean grain yield was also recorded in the treatment indoxacarb 14.5 SC (1356 kg/ha), followed by acephate 75 SP (1299 kg/ha). Other insecticidal treatments were almost on par with each other in terms of larval mortality as well as grain yield, but significantly better than untreated control. The avoidable losses due to S. litura on soybean crop ranged from 2.66 to 38.51% in all the insecticidal treatments as compared to control. The avoidable losses in indoxacarb 14.5 SC and acephate 75 SP were 38.51 and 32.69%, respectively, indicating their superiority over other treatments in managing the pest.

56. B. S. RAVISHANKAR AND M. G. VENKATESHA [Effect of host plants on the virulence of nuclear polyhedrosis virus screened against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 289-295 (2011). Department of Studies in Zoology Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore-560 056 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Spodoptera litura is a very serious polyphagous pest on various economically important crops, which is controlled by nucleo polyhedro virus. Various bioassay methods were employed to test the virulence of SlNPV against S. litura reared on different host plants. In the first experiment, S. litura larvae were reared on different host plants such as Arachis hypogaea L., Brassica oleracea L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Rosa indica L. and Solanum tuberosum L. When they completed second instar, they were transferred to semi-synthetic diet which was treated with different doses of SlNPV. The range of LT50 values at different concentrations on different host plants was as follows : cabbage 4.877-7.382, cotton 5.623-8.606, groundnut 4.579-6.557, potato 5.455-7.806 and rose 5.800-9.032. In the second experiment, S. litura larvae were reared on semi-synthetic diet upto second instar and subsequently they were fed on leaf disc of different host plants, which were treated with SlNPV. The range of LT50 values on different host plants was as follows : cabbage 4.933-7.954, cotton 6.135-9.394, groundnut 4.757-7.156, potato 5.584-9.164 and rose 6.312-9.816. In the third experiment, S. litura larvae were reared on different host plants till they complete second instar and they were screened against SlNPV in the laboratory on respective host plants by using leaf disc method. The range of LT50 values on different host plants was as follows : cabbage 5.442-8.273, cotton 6.465-11.076, groundnut 5.167-7.867, potato 6.055-9.731 and rose 6.776-12.208. Among the different host plants, there was a significant difference in LT50 between groundnut and cabbage. In all the experiments, the LT50 values were highest in lower concentrations and vica versa.

57. T. RUDRAMUNI, K. M. SRINIVAS REDDY AND C. T. ASHOK KUMAR [Evaluation of new systemic and contact insecticides against insect-pest complex of cotton]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 296-302 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS) Babbur Farm, Hiriyur (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Field evaluation of new insecticidal molecules was done against sucking pests and bollworms of cotton. The new molecules tested were methomyl (Lannate ® 40 SP), thiodicarb (Larvin ® 75 WP), triazophos (Hostathion ® 40 EC), lamda cyhalothrin (Karate ® 40 EC), profenofos+cypermethrin (Polytrin-C ® 44 EC), triazophos+deltamethrin (Spark ® 36 EC), indaxocarb (Auvant ® 14.5 SP), chlorpyriphos+cypermethrin (Chop ® 55 EC), endosulfan (Endocel ® 35 EC) and dimethoate (Rogor 30 EC). Methomyl recorded the lowest (2.00) aphid population which was on par with thiodicarb (2.69) followed by other insecticdes. Thiodicarb recorded the lowest (4.17) thrips population followed by indoxacarb and other treatments. The insecticidal treatment chlorpyriphos+cypermethrin recorded minimum (1.2 per plant) number of larvae and significantly superior over triazophos+ deltamethrin (4.2 larvae per plant) but on par with rest of the treatments on three days after first spray during first season. Methomyl recorded the lowest (0.87) bollworm population and significantly superior over profenofos+cypermethrin (3.47), endosulfan (4.00) and control (13.20), but was on par with rest of the treatments during three days after fourth spray. The cost : benefit ratio was maximum in methomyl (1 : 2.68) followed by chlorpyriphos+cypermethrin, profenofos+cypermethrin and indoxacarb.

58. T. RUDRAMUNI, K. M. SRINIVAS REDDY AND V. T. SANNAVEERAPPANAVAR [Evaluation of neem products against insect-pests of cotton]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 303-306 (2011). Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS) Babbur Farm, Hiriyur (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Field evaluation of commercial neem products with different levels of azadirachtin was done against sucking pests (aphids, leaf hoppers and thrips) and bollworms. The neem-based formulation used in the study included Neemazal, Nimbicidine, Vijayneem, Neemplus, Neemgold, Nimbo bas, Multineem, Nimbex and Neem seed kernel extract. All the treatments were superior to the untreated control and the neem products, irrespective of the azadirachtin content, did not differ from each other in controlling the aphids. Five days after the spray, neemazal (1% aza) and NSKE (5%) were more effective in suppressing leaf hoppers followed by nimbex, neemgold and monocrotophos. All the neem products including NSKE (5%) significantly reduced the damage by bollworms.

59. SUCHITA R. GHULE, U.P. BARKHADE, M. P. MOHARIL AND T.B. UGALE [Role of detoxifying enzymes in host plant resistance to cotton mealy bugs (Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 307-312 (2011). Insect Biotech Laboratory Department of Agricultural Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A laboratory investigation was conducted to find out the role of detoxifying enzymes in defense mechanism of cotton cultivars against mealy bugs in Insect Biotechnology Laboratory of Department of Agricultural Entomology, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola during 2008-09. Quantitative and qualitative studies were undertaken for estimation of detoxifying enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and esterases. GST activity was found higher in resistant variety PKV Hy-2 followed by AKH-3614-10 (Hirsutum pigmented). The highest esterase activity was found to be present in Bunny-Bt (187.14 nM/mg protein/min) than other cotton cultivars. PKV Hy-2 showed very lowest esterase activity (76.97 nM/mg protein/min). Glutathione-S-transferase and esterase bands were not detected in the susceptible CAHH-231 (Pigmented hybrid) variety. Three GST isozymes were observed in AKA-8, whereas CAHH-231 (Pigmented hybrid) did not show any isozyme. The study will be helpful in understanding the biochemical basis of mealy bug resistance in cotton. The outcome of the present investigation will act as stepping stone to develop mealy bug resistant cotton variety.

60. SUCHITA R. GHULE, U.P. BARKHADE, M. P. MOHARIL AND T.B. UGALE [Influence of oxidyzing enzymes in host plant resistance to cotton mealy bugs (Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 313-319 (2011). Insect Biotech Laboratory Department of Agricultural Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A laboratory investigation was conducted to find out the role of oxidizing enzymes in defense mechanism of cotton cultivars against mealy bugs in Insect Biotechnology Laboratory of Department of Agricultural Entomology, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola during 2008-09. Quantitative and qualitative studies were undertaken for estimation of oxidizing enzymes like superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, polyphenol peroxidase and catalase from different cotton cultivars. CAHH-231 (Pigmented hybrid) recorded higher activity of polyphenol oxidase (0.95 unit/mg protein/min) and polyphenol peroxidase (0.87 unit/mg protein/min). Catalase activity was found higher in susceptible cultivars. PKV-Rajat showed highest SOD activity (2.84 unit/mg) followed by Bunny-Bt. Polyphenol oxidase, polyphenol peroxidase and catalase activities were found higher in Bunny-Bt and CAHH-231 (Pigmented hybrid) which were susceptible to the sucking pests. The study will be helpful in understanding the biochemical basis of mealy bug resistance in cotton. The outcome of the present investigation will act as stepping stone to develop mealy bug resistant cotton variety.

61. SUCHITA R. GHULE, U.P. BARKHADE, M. P. MOHARIL AND T.B. UGALE [Biochemical basis of resistance to cotton cultivars against mealy bugs (Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 320-323 (2011). Insect Biotech Laboratory Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The current work aims at studying the defense mechanism of cotton plant against mealybug (Phenococcus solenopsis). Changes in phenol, tannin and lipid activity were observed in both resistant and susceptible cotton cultivars in response to mealy bug infestation. Highly susceptible cultivar had higher protein quantity than resistant and tolerant cultivars, whereas phenol tannin and lipid content were higher in resistant cultivars. Total soluble sugar content for resistant and tolerant cultivars remained at similar levels. Gel stained for protein identified differences in the protein bands of resistant, tolerant and susceptible cultivars.

62. A. B. PATIL, T. B. UGALE AND D. B. UNDIRWADE [Influence of artificial diets on the biology of Mallada boninensis (Okamoto)]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3): 324-330 (2011). Entomology Section College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out at Entomology Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur during the year 2004-05, with a view to standardize mass rearing techniques of Mallada boninensis. Attempts were made to evaluate the 10 artificial diets tested alongwith standard laboratory host (factitious host) i. e. eggs of Corcyra cephalonica. The least larval duration (8.90 days), highest larval weight (8.50 mg) at the end of last instar, maximum pupation (94%) with least pupation duration (7.98 days) and highest pupal weight (6.73 mg) were recorded on Corcyra eggs. Also lowest pre-mating period of 3.53 days and 1.09 h of mating period were recorded on Corcyra eggs. The highest male longevity of 46.30 days, highest fecundity of 295 eggs/female, minimum incubation period of 3.10 days with highest per cent viable eggs of 94% of M. boninensis were recorded on Corcyra eggs. While the minimum pre-oviposition period of 6.80 days was observed on Pushpalatha’s diet and Venkatesan’s diet-3, highest oviposition period of 50.50 days was recorded on Venkatesan’s diet-3, while highest female longevity of 55.89 days was recorded on Venkatesan’s diet-1. Considering all these aspects together standard laboratory host (inactivated eggs of Corcyra cephalonica) performed the best followed by Venkatesan’s diet-2, Proposed diet-3, Venkatesan’s diet-1, Proposed diet-1 and Pushpalatha’s diet. The predator grows faster on eggs of Corcyra than artificial diets.

63. S. S. DHAKA, G. SINGH, N. ALI, V. MITTAL AND D. V. SINGH [Efficacy of novel insecticides against pod borer, Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) in vegetable pea]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 331-335 (2011). Department of Entomology S. V. Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of insecticides i. e. lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC @ 500 ml/ha, carbosulfan 25 EC @ 1000 ml/ha, indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 500 ml/ha, bifenthrin 20 EC @ 500 ml/ha, novaluron 10 EC @ 750 ml/ha, flubendiamide 39.35 EC @ 75 ml/ha, spinosad 45 SC @ 500 ml/ha and endosulfan 35 EC @ 1250 ml/ha biopesticide viz., Bt @ 1.5 kg/ha and botanical viz., Neemarin 1500 ppm @ 2500 ml/ha, were sprayed on vegetable pea variety arkel against pod borer, Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) during rabi 2009-10 and 2010-11. The effect of these applications was also recorded on the yield attributes. All the treatments had the comparable lower number of larvae as well as pod and seed infestation than untreated control. Flubendiamide was best with lowest pod and seed infestation of 11.37 and 12.98%, respectively and 95.84 q/ha yield followed by indoxacarb, spinosad, novaluron, carbosulfan, bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, endosulfan, neemarin and Bt, which gave 93.56, 91.63, 89.74, 83.22, 81.52, 79.42, 75.97, 72.78 and 68.99 q/ha yield, respectively.

64. S. S. DASHAD AND RAHUL CHAUHAN [Studies on the emergence pattern of different white grub species at Bawal, Haryana, India]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 336-339 (2011). CCSHAU Regional Research Station, Bawal, Distt. Rewari (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

The pattern of white grub beetles’ emergence in relation to different abiotic factors on groundnut was studied at Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari) of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar using light trap catches from May to November, 2005. White grub beetles started in May and continued till November. A total of 13 species were trapped and Holotrichia consanguinea Blanchard was the most abundant (1214 adults), followed by H. serrata Fabricus (382 adults), Anomala varicolor (85), A. dorsalis (44) and A. bengalensis (45) and the rest of species were insignificant in numbers (totalling 228). The beetles started emerging during 18th standard week, predominated solely by genus Holotrichia (49 beetles), H. consanguinea being most abundant (44) and this trend continued upto 26th week when highest numbers of H. consanguinea beetles (292 beetles) were trapped. Afterwards, its numbers started declining appreciably and that of other species increased. During June, 336 beetles were trapped and their numbers peaked in July (807) declining from August onwards. During the active white grub season, a total 1998 beetles were trapped, H. consanguinea were the most predominant species (1214) followed by H. serrata (382), A. dorsalis (85), A. bengalensis (44) and A. varicolor (45) and 228 beetles belonging to other species. Sub-family Melolonthinae was most abundant (80.1%) followed by sub-family Rutelinae (8.3%).

65. D. G. M. SAROJA, M. SUBBA RAO AND K. V. M. KRISHNA MURTHY [Occurrence of seed mycoflora on chickpea seed from Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh (Cicer arietinum L.)*]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 340-343 (2011). Department of Plant Pathology Agricultural College, Bapatla-522 101 (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

Ten species of fungi viz., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium sp., Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma sp. were found associated with chickpea seed collected from farmers’ seed lots. Standard blotter paper method was proved to be the best compared to agar plate method in isolating the seed mycoflora of chickpea.

66. P. N. RAKHONDE*, R. M. WADASKAR, MINA D. KOCHE and D. G. ANVIKAR [Influence of weather parameters on powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) in greengram]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 344-347 (2011). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India *(e-mail : prashant_rakhonde@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted in vitro and in vivo to see the effect of weather factors on diseased development and conidial germination of Erysiphe polygoni DC in greengram. Conidial germination was maximum at 250C (32.04%) and minimum (5.14%) at 100C. Per cent conidial germination was maximum at 80 to 90% relative humidity (33.15 and 40.52%), respectively, and 24 h light (16.38%) was found to be favourable as evident by the maximum conidial germination. First initiation of the disease appeared in 31st meteorological week under natural field condition. Among weather factors, maximum temperature (22.6° to 240C), minimum temperature (22.6° to 240C), morning velocity (4.1 to 4.3 km/h), rainfall of 27.6 mm and sunshine hours (4.3 to 5.0) were found favourable for the disease development.

67. S. KHALKO AND A. K. CHOWDHURY [varietal reaction of ginger and turmeric against major fungal diseases]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 348-350 (2011). Department of Plant Pathology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari-736 165, Cooch Behar (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

Five ginger cultivars viz., SG-536, V1S1-8, ACC-64, V3S1-8, Garubathan and nine turmeric cultivars viz., RH-5, Rajendra Sonia, PTS-12, PTS-43, PTS-62, ACC-360, ACC-361, JTS-1 and JTS-2 were evaluated for their resistance to major fungal diseases and yield performance under West Bengal condition during 2001-02. Results indicated that none of the cultivars of ginger and turmeric tested was free from infection though the degree of infection varied. Among five cultivars of ginger, V1S1-8 and V3S1-8 showed lowest incidence of leaf spot and rhizome rot, respectively, while highest yield was obtained from Garubathan. Out of nine cultivars of turmeric, PTS-12, PTS-63 and ACC-360 were found to be resistant to leaf blotch and leaf spot diseases. However, RH-5 and Rajendra Sonia though susceptible to the leaf blotch and leaf spot appreciably recorded higher yield than other cultivars.

68. P. VENKATARAMANA, B. NARASIMHA MURTHY AND CH. SATYANARAYANA RAJU [Efficacy of integration of fly ash with farm yard manure on mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf yield and quality and soil enzyme activities under black cotton soil]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 351-358 (2011). Research Extension Centre, Central Silk Board, Vikarabad-501 101 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted in three years’ old mulberry (Morus alba L.) garden in black cotton soils of Research Extension Centre, Central Silk Board, Vikarabad during 2006-08 to study the efficacy of fly ash and farm yard manure and their interactions on soil enzymes, mulberry leaf yield and quality through bioassay (silkworm rearing). The findings revealed that the maximum mulberry yield (62.90 MT/ha/year), leaf moisture content (72.50%) and leaf moisture retention capacity (71.35%) were registered due to the application of fly ash (10 MT/ha/year) and farm yard manure (15 MT/ha/year), which were on par with the combined effect of fly ash (15 MT/ha/year) and farm yard manure (15 MT/ha/year). With regard to silkworm rearing, the minimum larval duration (25.25 days), maximum 10 larval weight (52.60 g), effective rate of rearing (94.95%), single cocoon weight (2.150 g), single shell weight (0.431 g) and single shell ratio (20.25%) were recorded with the application of fly ash (10 MT/ha/year) and farm yard manure (15 MT/ha/year), of which on par with the associative effect of fly ash (15 MT/ha/year) and farm yard manure @ 15 MT/ha/year. In the case of soil enzymes, the highest urease, dehydrogenase and cellulase activities were recorded due to application of fly ash @ 15 MT/ha/year and farm yard manure @ 15 MT/ha/year at 30 days after treatment (DAT) (4.49 mg of NH4+ released/g soil/h, 5.37 mg of TPF produced/g soil/d and 3.51 mg of glucose released/g soil/d), at 60 DAT (4.81 µg of NH4+ released/g soil/h; 5.47 mg of TPF produced/g soil/d and 2.97 mg of glucose released /g soil/d), at (70 days) harvest (2.54 mg of NH4+ released/g soil/h; 3.09 mg of TPF produced/g soil/d and 2.17 mg of glucose released/g soil/d), respectively, which was on par with combined effect of fly ash @ 10 MT/ha/year) and farm yard manure @ 10 MT/ha/year and significantly higher over control. The acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were not influenced by fly ash doses at all stages viz., 30, 60 DAT and at harvest (70 days). However, it was significantly influenced by farm yard manure application.

69. G. JANARDHAN, C. RAMACHANDRA, M. SHIVANNA AND S. THIMME GOWDA [Quality of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves as influenced by integrated nitrogen management practices]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 359-362 (2011). Department of Agronomy College of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment on the effect of integrated nitrogen management practices on growth, yield and quality of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves was conducted on a sandy loam soil in the farmers’ field of Mayurapura village, Hunsur taluk, Mysore district, Karnataka state. The treatments consisted of organic manures viz., farm yard manure, vermicompost and poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers viz., urea in various combinations to supply 25, 50, 75 and 100% nitrogen and in addition, no nitrogen and recommended dose of farm yard manure and fertilizers were also included for comparison. The leaf quality parameters viz., moisture (76.63%), nitrogen (2.85%) and crude protein (17.82%) were higher in recommended dose of farm yard manure and fertilizers. The phosphorus (0.29%) and potassium (2.85%) contents of leaves were higher in 100% nitrogen through vermicompost, whereas magnesium content of leaves (0.72%) was higher in 50% nitrogen each through poultry manure and urea.

70. L. S. YADAV [Need of optimum size tractors for replanting in tea gardens of North-East India]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 363-367 (2011). Department of Agricultural Engineering North-Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University under MHRD, Govt. of India) P. O. Nirjuli-791 109 (Arunachal Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

A study was carried out to determine measures for effective use of tractors during 2009-11 on tea plantations located in Lakhimpur and Sonitpur districts of Assam in north-east India. Use of all tractors under study was maximum for transportation. Higher size (45 hp) tractors could perform all field practices, while medium size (35 hp) tractors could not perform P.T.O. shaft operated field practices. Monetary benefit from use of higher size tractors for uprooting old bushes and pit digging was 26.79 and 29.09%, respectively, as compared with same cost of these operations, carried out by engaging labourers. Range of uprooted bushes and dug pits by tractor was 440 to 502 and 203 to 211, respectively. Whereas it was 310 to 360 and 127 to 131, when these operations were manually performed. Higher size tractors were utilized maximum for drawbar work (37.69%), followed by that of P. T. O. work (33.62%) and three point linkage (28.69%). All three power outlets of this category of tractors needed attention at time of their manufacture. Medium size (35 hp) tractors could not be utilized for P. T. O. work in absence of matching implements. As compared with use of medium size tractors, higher size tractors were found saving time, which was available for covering more area under replanting. All plantations under study needed contribution of higher size tractor by owing or hiring, for replanting, in view of problems of labour shortage. Enhanced use of tractors was found increasing area under replanting and due to that demand of manure, compost, vermicompost, etc, increased. It provided an opportunity of cattle rearing to colony workers. Increased quantity of biomass through systematic uprooting of bushes and shade trees by tractor, created entrepreneurship in briquette manufacturing. Briquette was found a smokeless, health and environment friendly clean fuel for woman workers. While loose burning of biomass as fire wood was found harmful for health.

71. K. JANARDHAN, V. ALAGESAN and M. SREENIVASULU [Constraints in the adoption and suggestions of Narasimha cotton growers in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 368-370 (2011). Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted with a sample of 100 respondents randomly and equally selected from two purposively selected villages based on the maximum area under Narasimha cotton variety cultivation from two different Mandals of Kurnool district. Research study revealed that the constraints of higher order significance were inadequate research on IPM in cotton (100.00%), lack of suitable pest and disease control measures at low cost (99.00%), low support price (98.00%), lack of irrigation facilities (86.00%), high cost of labour (84.00%) and inadequacy of the skilled labour (77.00%) and high order importance were inadequate research on cotton intercropping systems (54.00%) and inadequate research on INM in cotton (50.00%). The corresponding suggestions of higher order importance as perceived by the Narasimha cotton growers were development of bollworm tolerant variety (72.00%), development of drought tolerant variety (48.00%), supply of plant protection chemicals at subsidized rate (36.00%), providing financial assistance (34.00%) and good extension services (32.00%).

72. S. V. S. GANGADHARA RAO, B. N. V. S. R. RAVI KUMAR AND KRISHNAM RAJU [Evaluation of blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] cultures against yellow mosaic virus under natural conditions]. Crop Res. 42 (1, 2 & 3) : 371-372 (2011). ANGRAU Agricultural Research Station Peddapuram, East Godavari District (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Out of 20 blackgram germplasm lines evaluated against yellow mosaic virus under natural conditions, the lines IC 56051 and IC 59702 were found to be immune to the disease recording highest seed yield of 3.51 g/plant. These lines may be utilized either directly or indirectly in breeding programme for developing varieties resistant to yellow mosaic virus coupled with yield.