Volume 41, Number 1, 2 & 3 (Januay, March & May) 2011

By | July 14, 2014


Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their ABSTRACTs.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :md@cropresearch.org


1. Harish H. Deshpande and P. Devasenapathy [Effect of different organic sources of nutrients and green manure on growth and yield parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under lowland condition]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-5 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at Agriculture College & Research Institute, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, to study the effect of different organic sources of nutrients with and without green manure in rice on growth and yield parameters. Treatments consisted of green manure incorporation (GMI) and without GMI were assigned to main plot. Treatments in the sub-plot consisted of farm yard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and vermicompost, alongwith control (no manure) were replicated three times in a split plot design. The study revealed that in situ incorporation of green manure recorded higher values of growth parameters viz., plant height, LAI, dry matter production, number of tillers/m2, root length, root volume and root weight compared to without GMI. Among the manures application, similar trend was observed with poultry manure application compared to vermicompost, FYM and control. Green manure+poultry manure recorded the highest grain and straw yield with high yield attributing characters viz., panicle length, total number of grains/panicle, number of filled grains/panicle and lesser sterility percentage compared to other combinations.

2. T. K. NAGARATHNA*, A. G. SHANKAR, Y. G. SHADAKSHARI, V. R. RAMAKRISHNA PARAMA and M. T. SANJAY [Zinc utilization efficiency (ZUE) in different genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 6-9 (2011). Department of Soil Science Agriculture College (UAS), V. C. Farm, Mandya-571 405 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : nagarathnavijay@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Zinc utilization efficiency (ZUE) and effect of total leaf zinc (Zn) on productivity were examined in 22 germplasm lines of rice. The results revealed that there was a significant genetic variability within high and low leaf Zn types with regards to ZUE and the genotypes with low leaf Zn showed relatively high ZUE. A positive significant relationship was seen between total leaf Zn and grain yield and also with total dry matter (TDM). Increasing Zn acquisition may have a positive effect on growth, development and productivity in rice genotypes.

3. S. K. S. CHANDEL, R. P. SINGH, P. K. YADAV, S. N. SINGH AND D. K. SINGH [Effect of Ni on S uptake and dry matter yield of wheat]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 10-12 (2011). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi-221 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of Ni on the dry matter yield, nutrient concentration and uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HUW 234) in the presence and absence of applied sulphur. A factorial combination of 16 treatments was replicated four times. Treatments comprised four levels of each of S (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha) and Ni (0, 1, 2 and 4 kg/ha). Applied Ni at 1 kg/ha level increased the dry matter yield significantly but at 4 kg/ha level this set in the declining trend. S and Ni interaction was significant. Dry matter yield was enhanced by Ni 1 and 2 kg/ha soil level at all levels of S but reduced at 4 kg/ha level of Ni. S concentration in plant, straw and grain increased with increasing levels of applied S in absence of Ni. Highest content was recorded at 60 kg/ha applied S in absence of Ni. When S was applied at 20 kg/ha, Ni promoted the S concentration and uptake as compared to absence of Ni. Applied Ni at 1 and 2 kg/ha levels had synergistic effect on S content and uptake at 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha levels. Whereas applied Ni at all levels had an antagonistic effect on S content when S was applied at 60 kg/ha. ­Highest uptake was registered when S was applied at 40 kg/ha in combination of Ni at 1 kg/ha.

4. N. Sunitha, P. Maheswara Reddy and D. Srinivasulu Reddy [Influence of planting pattern and weed control practices on weed growth, nutrient uptake and productivity of sweet corn (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 13-20 (2011). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati-517 502 (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive seasons of rabi 2004-05 and 2005-06 at S. V. Agricultural College Farm, Tirupati in the southern agro-climatic zone of Andhra Pradesh to study the effect of different planting patterns (75 x 16 cm, 60 x 20 cm, 75 x 20 cm and 60 x 25 cm) and weed control practices [weedy check, hand weeding (HW) twice at 15 and 30 days after sowing (DAS), pre-emergence application of atrazine @1 kg/ha+HW at 30 DAS, pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 1 kg/ha+post-emergence application of paraquat @ 0.5 kg/ha at 30 DAS] on the weed growth and performance of sweet corn. Results revealed that planting pattern of 60 x 20 cm recorded the lowest density, dry weight and nutrient uptake of weeds with the highest leaf area index, dry matter production and nutrient uptake of sweet corn. It was, however, on par with 75 x 16 cm. Though the yield attributes viz., cob length, green cob weight (with husk) and number of kernels/cob were significantly higher with 60 x 25 cm, the narrow row spacing and higher number of 83,333 plants/ha with 60 x 20 cm resulted in the highest yield of green cob (13.9 and 13.1 t/ha) and green fodder (17.6 and 16.7 t/ha) with enhanced monetary returns (benefit : cost ratio of 3.43 and 3.23) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. All the three weed control practices were more or less equally effective in suppressing the weed growth and were superior to weedy check. Integrated weed management practice of pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 1 kg/ha+HW at 30 DAS recorded distinctly lower weed count, dry weight and nutrient uptake of weeds, improved the crop growth stature, yield attributes, in turn resulted in the highest green cob (14.2 and 13.4 t/ha) and fodder yield (18.0 and 17.1 t/ha) of sweet corn, which were found to be at par with pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 1 kg/ha+post-emergence application of paraquat @ 0.5 kg/ha and HW twice at 15 and 30 DAS. Weeds in the best treatment as pre-emergence of atrazine+HW at 30 DAS recorded 42.3, 54.0 and 46.2% lesser uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively, over weedy check during 2004-05, whereas it was lesser to the extent of 47.4, 65.4 and 44.2% during 2005-06.

5. R. S. RANA [Comparative studies on different mechanical weeding methods in kharif maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 21-23 (2011). CSK HPKV Hill Agricultural Research & Extension Centre Dhaulakuan, Sirmour-173 001 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted for two years at Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan during kharif seasons of 2007 and 2008 to determine the most suitable and economical combination of mechanical weeding sequence in maize crop. The single weeding operations such as CIAE wheel hoe, manual hand weeding with khurpa, halod and earthing up were found to be significantly better than no weeding. In case of double weeding operations, CIAE wheel hoe + halod (41.36 q/ ha) and manual hand weeding + halod (41.24 q/ha) gave significantly higher maize grain yields as compared to manual hand weeding+manual hand weeding (30.58 q/ha), manual hand weeding+earthing up (32.20 q/ ha) and halod+earthing up (30.80 q/ha). However, the weeding sequences of CIAE wheel hoe+halod+earthing up and manual hand weeding+halod+earthing up gave highest maize grain yield of 44.32 and 44.24 q/ha respectively. Since earthing up after halod contributed only 3.00 q/ha, to the yield, the additional cost of weeding operation was very high as compared to the additional yield. The weeding sequences of CIAE wheel hoe followed by halod and manual hand weeding followed by halod gave almost similar maize grain yields. However, the operational cost in case of weeding sequence of manual hand weeding followed by halod (Rs. 6400/ha) was significantly higher than the weeding sequence of CIAE wheel hoe followed by halod (Rs. 3400/ha). Also the net returns (Rs. 21500/ha) over the control for the weeding sequence of CIAE wheel hoe followed by halod were highest as compared to all other treatments. Therefore, primary weeding done through CIAE wheel hoe 15-20 days after sowing and secondary weeding done through halod 30-35 days after sowing was the most economic and efficient combination of weeding operation in kharif maize crop.

6. B. GAYATHRI, L. SUSEELA DEVI, T. BHAGYA LAKSHMI, G. SRIDEVI AND H. R. SAVITHA [Effect of poultry manure compost on yield and nutrient uptake by fodder maize]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 24-27 (2011). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Recycling of organic resources has become an important component in integrated nutrient management. Many organic resources are available in India of which poultry waste is an important nutrient resource. In present investigation, two types of poultry manures were used like poultry manure cage litter and deep litter. Study was formulated to standardize protocol for the synthesis of poultry manure based composts using organic additives like coir pith, sericulture waste, green manure (sunhemp), cow dung and to conserve the nitrogen in poultry waste. Application of this compost at the rate of 10 t/ha alongwith 50% recommended NPK fertilizers for fodder maize recorded higher biomass yield and nutrient uptake over control, which received recommended package of practices. This high value compost could be an important component of INM with 50% savings of fertilizers. Moreover, the loss of important nutrient like N from poultry waste could be minimized by composting.

7. H. R. Khafi, Asha C. Mehta, B. D. Bunsa, C. J. Dangaria and B. K. Davda [Response of summer pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to irrigation scheduling]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 28-30 (2011). Main Millet Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar-361 006 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted on a medium black soil of Main Pearl millet Research Station, JAU, Jamnagar during three consecutive summer seasons (2004-06). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with two depths of irrigation water i. e. 40 and 60 mm as main plot treatment and four different irrigation intervals i. e. irrigation at 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 IW : CPE ratios and irrigation at critical growth stages as sub-plot treatments replicated thrice. Grain and fodder yields of pearl millet were significantly affected due to different depths of irrigation and different irrigation intervals. Application of irrigation at 40 mm depth gave higher grain and fodder yield over 60 mm by 25 and 21%, respectively, than 60 mm depth. Similarly, highest net return (Rs. 19776/ha) and B : C ratio (2.33) were obtained with irrigating pearl millet at 40 mm depth. An increase in IW : CPE ratio from 0.50 to 1.00 favourably influenced almost all the growth attributes. Scheduling irrigation at 1.00 IW : CPE ratio outyielded the rest of the treatments by recording significantly higher grain (3904 kg/ha) and fodder yield (6325 kg/ha) and fodder yield was at par with irrigating the crop at 0.75 IW : CPE ratio (5845 kg/ha). Net return of different treatments clearly indicated that IW : CPE ratio of 0.75 with 11 irrigations at 7-8 days interval gave the highest profit (Rs. 15153/ha) as compared to other ratios and also higher benefit : cost ratio of 1.32.

8. D. J. Kacha, H. R. Khafi, Asha C. Mehta, M. A. Shekh and R. P. Jadhav [Effect of potassium and zinc on growth and yield of rabi pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 31-34 (2011). Main Millet Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar-361 006 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on the medium black calcareous soil of Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to study the effect of potassium and zinc on growth and yield of rabi pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Emend Stuntz) var. GHB 538 during rabi season of 2007-08. The 12 treatment combinations consisting of four levels of potassium and three levels of zinc were tried in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that potential production and profit from rabi pearl millet cultivar GHB-538 could be secured by fertilizing the crop with 120 kg K2O alongwith 30 kg ZnSO4/ha in the medium black calcareous soil of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic region.

9. N. Satheeshkumar, P. Thukkaiyannan, K. Ponnuswamy and P. Santhi [Studies on the influence of methods of sowing, weed management and intercrops on growth, yield and yield assessment under sorghum intercropping system]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 35-40 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

*(e-mail : nsatheesh2000@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of different treatments on sorghum based intercropping system under rainfed and irrigated eco-system. Among the different treatments, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production and earhead weight were increased by paired row sowing than normal row sowing. Sowing and weed management methods had no influence on the growth attributes during rabi 2003 under rainfed condition. Normal row and paired row sowing registered significantly higher grain and stover yield during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005, respectively. The earhead weight, number of grains per earhead and grain and stover yield were significantly higher at two hoeings and pendimethalin+one hoeing on 40 DAS during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005, respectively. Sole sorghum recorded significantly higher growth, yield attributes, grain and stover yield than intercropping system. The sorghum grain equivalent yield and LER were higher under sorghum intercropped with cowpea than other intercropping system.

10. K. N. Pawar [Physiological variation in grain yield of rabi sorghum genotypes under shallow soils]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 41-45 (2011). All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Project Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in shallow soils at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka) during rabi season of 2006-07. Among the genotypes RSLG 1119, RSLG 871, RSV 423 and Maulee have given higher yields compared to other genotypes. The factors that favoured the higher yields were leaf area index, chlorophyll content, relative water content and panicle dry weight. The production of dry matter alone did not help in realizing the higher yield. In case of higher yielder, there was an efficient dry matter production as well as translocation from source to sink. Less number of factors in moderate and only few factors have favoured the low yielders. It was observed that the differential performance of genotypes was due to difference in dry matter partitioning efficiency.

11. N. Satheeshkumar, P. Thukkaiyannan, K. Ponnuswamy and P. Santhi [Effect of sowing and weed management methods and intercrops on weed control and grain yield of sorghum under intercropping situation]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 46-51 (2011). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : nsatheesh2000@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005 to study the effect of different treatments on weed growth and yield of sorghum in sorghum-based intercropping system under rainfed and irrigated eco-system. Weed density and weed dry weight were lesser under paired row sowing than normal row sowing. The weed control efficiency was higher under paired row sowing at 20 and 40 DAS during both the seasons. Minimum weed dry weight and higher weed control efficiency were recorded under pendimethalin + one hoeing on 40 DAS and two hoeings at 20 and 40 DAS, respectively. Among the intercrops, sorghum + cowpea reduced the weed density, weed dry weight and increased the weed control efficiency and weed smothering efficiency during both the seasons. Normal row and paired row sowing registered significantly higher grain yield during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005, respectively. Two hoeings and pendimethalin + one hoeing produced more grain yield during rabi 2003 and kharif 2005, respectively. Sole sorghum recorded significantly higher grain yield than intercropping system.

12. P. R. DADGALE, A. B. CHOREY AND M. R. THAKUR [Evaluation of sources of compost and FYM for nitrogen management in greengram under rainfed condition]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 52-55 (2011). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The field experiment to evaluate the response of greengram to sources of compost and FYM was conducted at the farm of Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during kharif season of 2007-08. The results of experiment indicated that application of recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost significantly improved yield attributes, yield and protein content of greengram; however, remained at par with RDF. Significantly highest uptake of NPK recorded with RDF, which was closely followed by recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost. Application of recommended dose of nitrogen through FYM and vermicompost resulted in maximum soil moisture use, however, highest moisture use efficiency achieved with RDF, which was followed by recommended dose of nitrogen through soybean straw compost.

13. P. S. SOLUNKE, J. G. THOKALE AND U. S. BARVE [Effect of intercropped kharif legumes with Bt cotton on seed cotton yield, economics and soil fertility]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 56-58 (2011). Cotton Improvement Project Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2007-08 on medium deep black soil at Cotton Improvement Project, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri to find out the best profitable Bt cotton based intercropping system under rainfed condition. Experimental results revealed that treatment Bt cotton+soybean (1 : 1) recorded significantly more seed cotton yield (17.83 q/ha) closely followed by Bt cotton+greengram (1 : 1) (16.93 q/ha) as compared to sole Bt cotton (15.27 q/ha). All the intercropping treatments were at par with each other in respect of seed cotton yield. The highest seed cotton equivalent yield (21.37 q/ha), net returns (Rs. 23150/ha) and B : C ratio (1 : 1.89) over sole Bt cotton (15.25 q/ha, Rs. 10075/ha and 1 : 1.40, respectively) were also acrrued with the treatment Bt cotton+greengram (1 : 1). Nitrogen status in soil increased with all legume intercropping treatments compared to sole Bt cotton.

14. S. M. Nawlakhe and D. D. Mankar [Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 59-63 (2011). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The field experiments on cotton+greengram intercropping were conducted during the kharif seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02 under rainfed condition in randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on nitrogen content of seed, straw and nitrogen uptake of seed, straw and total uptake of cotton and greengram individually as well as in cotton+greengram intercropping system. The results revealed that nitrogen content in seed was improved by application of inorganic, organic and INM. There was, however, no significant difference between inorganic and integrated nutrient management. Nitrogen content in straw was improved by integrated nutrient management treatments. Effect of FYM was greater than Leucaena. Total uptake of nitrogen was increased by integrated nutrient management using FYM over inorganic fertilizer alone. Integrated nutrient management recorded 3.2 and 3.8 kg/ha increased nitrogen uptake during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively.

15. Futi Xie, S. K. St. Martin, Huijun Zhang and Haiying Wang [Improvement of soybean yield and lodging in relation to morphological traits]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 64-74 (2011). College of Agriculture Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, People’s Republic of China *(e-mail : xft299@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Future yield gains may depend on an understanding of the past changes made to soybean by breeding. The objectives of this study were : (1) to use experiments in Ohio and Liaoning province to compare a set of older cultivars from Liaoning province with modern counterparts from breeding programmes in Liaoning and Ohio, and (2) to use elite Ohio lines to assess the potential for improvement in yield and lodging resistance through related morphological traits. Modern Ohio cultivars, modern Liaoning cultivars, and old Liaoning cultivars were differentially adapted to environments. Both Chinese and USA breeders have selected successfully for improved yield, shorter plants, shorter internode length, greater lodging resistance, and higher harvest index. However, there was no significant variation among elite Ohio lines for harvest index. Lodging resistance of late elite lines would be improved by selection for fewer nodes; that of early lines by selection for short internode length.

16. y. p. dubey and n. datt [Strain competitiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum phaseoli in French bean under different hydro-thermal regimes]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 75-80 (2011). Department of Soil Science CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Rhizobium leguminosarum phaseoli specific rhizobia nodulate the French bean crop. This crop is known for poor nodulation. Application of heavy doses of agricultural chemicals are imperative to get remunerative prices. Competitiveness is essential characteristic of inoculants to cause nodulation in their host. Four marker strains of R. leguminosarum phaseoli were used to determine their strain competitiveness under different soil temperatures and moisture conditions. There is no consistent trend for performance of individual strains. Different marker strains of R. leguminosarum phaseoli performed better individually under different soil temperature and moisture conditions. Soil temperature and moisture conditions corresponded to the area from where their wild type parents were isolated was observed to be suitable for their marker strains. Pesticide resistant marker strains of indigenous strains of R. leguminosarum phaseoli performed better in their corresponding edaphic conditions.

17. A. MALLISWARA REDDY, B. SAHADEVA REDDY* AND B. RAVINDRANATHA REDDY [Effect of boundary plantation of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) trees on growth and yield of groundnut]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 81-84 (2011). Agricultural Research Station DCMS Buildings, Kamala Nagar, Anantapur-515 001 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : bsrk_ctr@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out to know the adverse effect of bund plantation of tamarind trees on productivity of groundnut for two years during kharif season from 2009 to 2010 at Agricultural Research Station, Anantapur in rainfed Alfisols. During 2009, higher pod and haulm yield was recorded at the distance of 9-10 m, however, it was comparable with distance of 8-9 m of tamarind trees, whereas, lower pod and haulm yield was recorded at 0-1 m distance but at par with 7-8 m distance from tamarind trees. The pod yield of groundnut was reduced to 98.9, 98.3, 96.6, 93.1, 88.6, 77.1, 54.3, 52.6 and 13.7% at 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8 and 8-9 m, respectively, compared to 9-10 m away from tamarind trees. During 2010, higher pod yield was recorded at 9-10 m away from tamarind trees and it was significantly superior to rest of the treatments and lower pod yield was at 0-1 m away from tamarind trees. The pod yield of groundnut was reduced to 91.8, 83.7, 78.4, 64.9, 60.4, 42.9, 41.4, 35.2 and 24.6% at 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8 and 8-9 m, respectively, compared to 9-10 m away from tamarind trees. It can be concluded that in both years pod yield reduction in groundnut was high (more than 35%) upto 8 m distance from tamarind trees planted on the bunds.

18. S. M. NAWLAKHE AND D. D. MANKAR [Response of grain amaranth (Amranthus gangeticus L.) to spacing and fertilizer levels under irrigated condition]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 85-87 (2011). Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A three-year field experiment was conducted to study the response of grain amaranth to spacing and fertilizer at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sindewahi District. Chandrapur (Maharashtra, India) during rabi seasons of 1993-94,1994-95 and 1995-96. The experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design with four spacings (30 × 10, 45 × 10, 30 × 20 and 45 × 20 cm) and four levels of fertilizer (control, 25 : 12.5 : 0 kg, 50 : 25 : 0 kg and 75 : 37.5 : 0 kg NPK/ha) in three replications on sandy clay loam soil under irrigated condition. Spacings 30 × 10 cm (plant population 3.33 lakh/ha), 30 × 20 cm (plant population 1.66 lakh/ha) and 45 × 20 cm (plant population 1.11 lakh/ha) were found to be the optimum spacings. From seed rate and possible intercultural point of view 45 x 20 cm spacing (plant population 1.11 lakh/ha) was the best. Fertilizer dose 75 : 37.5 : 0 kg NPK/ha recorded significantly higher yield over control and all other fertilizer treatments. There was 29.9, 63.1 and 104% increase in yield over control by fertilizer doses viz., 25 : 12.5 : 0 kg, 50 : 25 : 0 kg and 75 : 37.5 : 0 kg NPK/ha, respectively.

19. PRITPAL SINGH AND SAT PAL SAINI [Effect of rice straw mulching and irrigation intervals on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) yield and water productivity in sub-tropics of Punjab]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 88-93 (2011). PAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ropar-140 001 (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

Six on-farm trials at different farmer’s field locations characterized by sub-tropical climate were conducted to investigate the effect of rice straw mulching dressed @ 4.0 t/ha in sugarcane, by scheduling irrigation at weekly and fortnightly interval on cane yield and water productivity. Average sugarcane yield increased significantly (P=0.05) by 7.7% with rice straw mulching in weekly irrigated plots. In consonance, sugarcane yield increase from fortnightly irrigated mulched plots was also significant (P=0.05) (7.9%) over un-mulched plots. On an average, sugarcane crop received 26 irrigations in weekly irrigated plots that accounts for about 87.7% higher irrigation water than from plots irrigated at fortnightly interval receiving only 14 irrigations. Crop water productivity in rice straw mulched plots irrigated at weekly interval, varied from 132.3 to 153.1 kg cane/ha/cm of water applied. In comparison, water productivity in un-mulched plots receiving irrigation at same interval varied from 124.9 to 142.7 kg cane/ha/cm of water applied. However, water productivity in mulched sugarcane plots irrigated at fortnightly interval varied from 233.3 to 299.5 kg cane/ha/cm and from 205.7 to 285.1 kg cane/ha/cm of applied water in mulched and un-mulched plots, respectively. Statistical non-significant (P=0.05) yield difference from un-mulched plots irrigated at weekly interval and rice straw mulched plots irrigated at fortnightly interval revealed substantial water saving with mulching without any significant variation in crop yield. Thus, it can be concluded that rice straw mulching in sugarcane results in significantly (P=0.05) higher sugarcane yield and enhanced water productivity besides saving of irrigation water.

20. M. PRASANTHRAJAN, P. DORAISAMY AND J. KANNAN [Mineralization immobilization turnover rate of carbon and nitrogen in compost applied soil]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 94-97 (2011). Department of Environmental Science Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to examine the mineralization immobilization turn over rate of carbon and nitrogen in soil applied with poultry based compost. Compost was applied @ 2, 4 and 6% level. The cumulative amount of CO2 and NH3 release were measured. The cumulative CO2 release was high (64 mg of CO2/kg) in soil applied with 6% level of compost followed by 4% level (56 mg of CO2/kg) and 2% level (28 mg of CO2/kg). In general, NH4-N content declined in all the treatments, whereas the NO3-N content of the soil was increased. The compost applied @ 2, 4 and 6% level of soil showed 16, 24.11 and 31.09% net mineralization of nitrogen.

21. VIJAYKUMAR T. KORE* AND J. KABIR [Influence of waxing and polyethylene packaging on shelf life of guava]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 98-102 (2011). Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : korevijay56@gmail.com; **j_kabir@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fully mature green guava fruits were subjected to post harvest carnauba wax emulsion coating at different concentrations viz., T1–0.1%, T2–0.2%, T3–0.4%, T4–0.8% and T5– Control (without wax emulsion) and then each treatment was packed in polyethylene of thickness 140 gauge (G1) and 200 gauge (G2) and stored at ambient condition (Max. temp. 19.4 to 32.6oC and min. temp. 9.4 to 21.4oC and relative humidity 30 to 70%). The results indicated that wax emulsion treatment from 0.2 to 0.8% in combination with 200 gauge of polyethylene i. e. T2G2, T3G2 and T4G2 was effective in reducing the physiological weight loss and retaining the fruit firmness for longer period (9th day of storage) compared to control i. e. T5G1 and T5G2. Among these treatment combinations T2G2 was slightly superior to T3G2 and T4G2 with respect to weight loss and firmness. However, waxing + polyethylene packaging had little effects on the total soluble solids and titratable acidity of fruits. Nevertheless treatment combination of T2G1, T2G2, T3G1, T3G2 and T4G2 contained higher values of TSS and acidity at later period of storage (9th day) compared to control i. e. T5G1 and T5G2 indicating slower rate of biochemical changes in these fruits. Organoleptic evaluation also supported these results and T2G2 and T3G2 were found to be superior to other treatment combinations because of higher organoleptic score for colour, taste and texture.

22. K. D. VASANTHI, M. VASUNDHARA, M. CHANDRE GOWDA AND C. N. BYANNA [Effect of spacings and fertilizer levels on leaf yield, quality and nutrient uptake of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 103-106 (2011). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore during June 2006 to January 2007. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three spacings (30 x 22.5 cm, 45 x 22.5 cm and 60 x 22.5 cm) and four fertilizer levels (40 : 20 : 30 kg NPK+FYM @ 10 t/ha, 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM 10 t/ha, 100 : 45 : 60 kg NPK+FYM @ 10 t/h and double the recommended dose of FYM i. e. 20 t/ha. Among spacings, 45 x 22.5 cm recorded the maximum fresh leaf yield and highest nitrogen and potash uptake. Total stevioside content in the leaves was maximum in 30 x 22.5 cm spacing. Application of 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM @ 10 t/ha registered maximum fresh leaf yield, maximum stevioside content and highest nutrient uptake. The spacing 45 x 22.5 cm and fertilizer level 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM @ 10 t/ha combination recorded maximum fresh leaf yield, stevioside content and highest nutrient uptake and hence the combination of spacing 45 x 22.5 cm and fertilizer level 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM @ 10 t/ha could be recommended for cultivation of stevia under Bangalore condition.

23. K. D. VASANTHI, M. VASUNDHARA, M. CHANDRE GOWDA AND C. N. BYANNA [Effect of spacings and fertilizer levels on growth and productivity of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 107-112 (2011). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore during June 2006 to January 2007 involving three spacings (30 x 22.5 cm, 45 x 22.5 cm and 60 x 22.5 cm) and four fertilizer levels (40 : 20 : 30 kg NPK+FYM 10/t ha, 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM 10 t/ha, 100 : 45 : 60 kg NPK+FYM 10 t/ha and double the recommended dose of FYM i. e. 20 t/ha). The design of experiment was factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that the spacing 45 x 22.5 cm recorded significantly highest plant height on 45, 60, 165 and 180 days after planting, and significantly highest number of branches on 15, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after planting. The fertilizer level 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM 10 t/ha recorded maximum plant height (cm), highest number of branches per plant, plant spread (cm2), highest fresh leaf yield and dry leaf yield per ha. The spacing 45 x 22.5 cm and fertilizer level 70 : 35 : 45 kg NPK+FYM 10 t/ha combination recorded significantly maximum plant height, maximum plant spread, maximum number of branches, highest fresh leaf yield correspondingly highest dry yield per ha.

24. P. Karuppaiah and P. Senthil Kumar [Correlation and path analysis for yield, yield attributes and xanthophyll content in African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 113-116 (2011). Department of Horticulture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out with 34 genotypes of African marigold to assess association of yield components with yield, their relationship and the direct and indirect effect of yield components on flower yield. Results of correlation analysis indicated that the flower yield was found to be significantly and positively correlated with number of branches per plant, flower head size, flower head weight, number of flowers per plant and xanthophyll content. Days to first flowering showed a negative association with flower yield per plant. Path analysis has conclusively shown that traits like number of branches per plant and days to first flowering showed maximum positive direct effect on flower yield per plant in addition to their positive indirect effect through other characters.

25. P. Karuppaiah and P. Senthil Kumar [Variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield, yield attributes and xanthophyll content in African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 117-119 (2011). Department of Horticulture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out with 34 genotypes of African marigold to assess the variability, heritability and genetic advance to identify superior genotypes for further crop breeding programmes. High GCV was observed for number of flower heads per plant followed by xanthophyll content, number of branches per plant, flower yield per plant, flower head size and flower head weight. High heritability estimates of more than 95% were observed for plant height, stem girth, number of branches per plant, days to first flowering, flower head diameter, flower head size, number of flowers per plant, flower yield per plant and xanthophyll content. When heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean were considered together, the characters like number of flowers per plant and flower head weight recorded the highest values.

26. B. S. Beniwal*, Mahesh Choudhary, Anop Kumari and Zehra Salma [Effect of floral preservatives on vase life of gladiolus spikes cv. Punjab Dawn]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 120-122 (2011). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : beniwalbs@hau.ernet.in)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of floral preservatives on vase life of gladiolus spikes cv. Punjab Dawn. Among all the pulsing treatments i. e.T1–Control (with distilled water), T2–Sucrose 5%, T3–Sucrose 5%+AgNO3 (100 mg/l), T4–Sucrose 5%+AgNO3 (200 mg/l), T5–Sucrose 5%+Al2 (SO4)3.16H2O (100 mg/l), T6–Sucrose 5%+Al2 (SO4)3.16H2O (200 mg/l), T7–Sucrose 5%+Citric acid (100 mg/l) and T8–Sucrose 5%+Citric acid (200 mg/l), treating of cut spikes with sucrose 5%+Al2 (SO4)3.16H2O (200 mg/l) was found to be the most effective in extending vase life upto 9.50 days, maximum number of florets opening at a time (7.67), solution absorption by cut spikes (64.98 ml) and minimum number of days taken for basal floret opening (2.08 days) as compared to other treatments.

27. Mahesh Choudhary, S. K. Moond, Anop Kumari and B. S. Beniwal [Evaluation of gladiolus (Gladiolus x hybridus Hort.) varieties for cut flower production under sub-humid conditions of Rajasthan]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 123-126 (2011). Department of Floriculture and Landscaping College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : balodamahesh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field study was conducted at the Instructional Farm of Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), during winter season of 2008-09 to evaluate 12 germplasms of gladiolus for cut-flower and corm production. The various characters studied showed significant differences amongst the cultivars with the minimum number of days required to slipping (59.20 DAP) in ‘Chandani’, the maximum spike length (96.47 cm) in ‘Sabnam’ and the highest number of florets per spike (18.47), cormels per plant (120.80), weight of cormels (21.29 g) par plant and vase life (9.88 days) in ‘Sancerre’. The maximum number of spikes (2.73) and corms (3.20) per plant was recorded in ‘Punjab Dawn’. The maximum diameter of corm (4.74 cm), weight of corm (77.67 g) and size index of corm (19.84 cm2) were observed in ‘TS-14’, while the highest number of florets remaining open at a time (5.33) was observed in ‘Priscilla’. On the basis of spike and corm yield and returns performance ‘Chandani’ was found to be the best under sub-humid conditions of Rajasthan.

28. Mahesh Choudhary, S. K. Moond, Anop Kumari and B. S. Beniwal [Performance of some gladiolus varieties under sub-humid conditions of Rajasthan]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 127-130 (2011). Department of Floriculture and Landscaping College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : balodamahesh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out during winter season of 2008-09 at the Instructional Farm of Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar (Rajasthan) to evaluate the performance of 12 gladiolus cultivars for cut flower and corm production. The vegetative and flowering characters as well as corm and cormel characters showed significant differences amongst the studied cultivars. The minimum number of days required for corm sprouting (7.47 days) and days to slipping (59. 20) were recorded in ‘Chandani’. The highest plant height (154.33 cm), spike length (96.47 cm) and flowering duration (14.93 days) were recorded in ‘Sabnam’. The cultivar ‘Dhanvantari’ produced longest length of leaf (54.89 cm), while the maximum leaf width (3.75 cm), spike diameter (1.039 cm), floret-neck diameter (2.436 cm) and floret diameter (8.24 cm) were noted in ‘TS-14’. The maximum leaf area (155.94 cm2), rachis length (66.87 cm), florets per spike (18.47) and number of florets remaining open at time (8.67) were recorded in ‘Sancerre’. The maximum number of spikes (2.73) and corms (3.20) per plant were produced in ‘Punjab Dawn’. Performance of ‘Chandani’ was found to be the best under sub-humid conditions of Rajasthan on the basis of yield and economic parameters.

29. Suresh Kumar, B. S. Beniwal, J. K. Sandooja and Anop Kumari [Effect of packaging materials and storage conditions on flowers characters and post-harvest quality of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. Shanti]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 131-134 (2011). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : beniwalbs@hau.ernet.in)

ABSTRACT

The dry storage of flowers of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. Shanti was carried out at Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2007-08. The four packaging materials viz., Cling film, polyethylene, cellophane paper and corrugated card boxes were used to store the flowers for one, two and three days at different storage environments such as ambient temperature, zero energy cool chamber and cold storage at 10º C. The experiment was planned according to the CRD design with three replications. It was observed that the flowers packed in polyethylene and stored in cold store at 10oC expressed maximum flower diameter (5.94 cm), fresh weight of flowers (16.24 g), minimum physiological loss in weight (0.69%) and minimum abscised petals/flower (2.17).The moisture content played the critical role.

30. Suresh Kumar, B. S. Beniwal, J. K. Sandooja and Mahesh Choudhary [Effect of dry storage on biochemical changes of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) flowers cv. Shanti]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 135-138 (2011). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : beniwalbs@hau.ernet.in)

ABSTRACTt

The effect of packaging material and storage environments on vase life of flowers of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cv. Shanti was carried out during the year 2007-08 at the Farm of the Department of Horticulture, CCSHAU, Hisar (Haryana). The flowers were packed in four packaging materials, namely, cling film, polyethylene, cellophane paper and corrugated card boxes and stored under three different storage environments i. e. ambient temperature, zero energy cool chamber and cold storage at 10oC for a period of one, two and three days. The various biochemical changes having major impact on vase life such as total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar showed least reduction in polyethylene packs and cold storage environment at 10oC.

31. P. Kavitha, K. Jeevan Rao and G. Bhupal Raj [Comparative studies of sewage sludge, urban compost and FYM on yield parameters, uptake of heavy metals and economics in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 139-147 (2011). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at college farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad in kharif season of 2003 for comparative studies of sewage sludge, urban compost and FYM @ 0, 20 and 40 t/ha on yield parameters (fresh fruit yield, plant and fruit dry matter), uptake of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd ) and economics in tomato. Increasing levels of fertilizers from no fertilizer application to 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) as well as manure (0 to 40 t/ha) addition significantly increased the yield and uptake of heavy metals in tomato. Comparing the sources, the sewage sludge significantly increased the yield parameters and uptake of heavy metals in plant and fruit. Combined application of manures and fertilizers significantly increased the mean yield parameters and uptake of heavy metals than when applied alone. Among all the combinations, sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha alongwith 100% RDF recorded the significantly highest yield parameters and heavy metals uptake, which was on par with 75 and 50% RDF at the same level of sludge application. However, the highest B : C ratio was obtained in sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha with 50% RDF (2.77). Hence, the application of sewage sludge @ 40 t/ha alongwith 50% RDF for tomato may be recommended.

32. T. Prabhakar Reddy, G. Padmaja and P. Chandrasekhar Rao [Integrated effect of vermicompost and nitrogen fertilizers on soil nutrient status and yield of onion-radish cropping system]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 148-155 (2011). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil during kharif (onion) and rabi (radish) seasons of 2007-08 with a view to study the effect of integrated use of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 t/ha) and nitrogen fertilizers (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg N/ha) on soil nutrient status and yield of onion-radish cropping system. Among the different combinations, application of 10 t vermicompost/ha+120 kg N/ha (V2N3) recorded significantly highest fresh bulb yields (24.45 t/ha) at harvest. However, the bulb yield at V2N3 was on par with the yield obtained at V2N2 (23.43 t/ha). The radish crop grown during rabi responded favourably to the residual and cumulative treatments and the highest root yield of 23.43 t/ha was recorded in cumulative treatments at V2N3 level. The addition of vermicompost @ 10 t/ha alongwith nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha has recorded the highest available N (228.9 kg/ha), P2O5 (48.39 kg/ha) and K2O (322.9 kg/ha) in soil after harvest of onion. The available N (243.7 kg/ha), P2O5 (52.80 kg/ha) and K2O (288.7 kg/ha) contents in soil at the end of onion-radish cropping system showed significantly highest values at V2N3 level under cumulative treatments. Application of 10 t vermicompost/ha alongwith 120 kg N/ha (V2N3) to preceeding onion crop and 75% recommended dose of NPK fertilizers to succeeding radish crop showed highest total nitrogen content in soil at the end of onion-radish cropping sequence. However, application of different levels of nitrogen and vermicompost did not show any significant effect on total P and K contents in soil.

33. ANJALI SABALE AND ANJALI MANE [Cytotoxic effects of maleic hydrazide during meiosis in Allium cepa (L.) varieties]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 156-159 (2011). Department of Botany Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : anjalibs@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic effects of maleic hydrazide (MH) on meiotic chromosomes were analysed in two Allium cepa (L.) varieties viz., N-53 and N-2-4-1. Plants raised from the seeds were treated with 100, 500 and 1000 ppm MH for 1, 3, 5 and 12 h. Various meiotic abnormalities and formation of abnormal sporads during meiosis indicated that the effect of MH was persistent and was able to induce pollen sterility in both the varieties. The variety N-2-4-1 was found more sensitive to MH treatment than N-53. A higher concentration and longer exposure to MH resulted in inducing significant cytological abnormalities during meiosis in A. cepa. A remarkable percentage of sterile pollens, clumping, laggards, bridge and ring formation was noticed in pollen mother cells of treated plants.

34. c. n. hanchinamani, m. g. patil, p. r. dharmatti and a. n. mokashi [Studies on heritability and genetic advance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 160-163 (2011). Horticulture Farm, College of Agriculture (UAS) Bheemarayanagudi, Shahapur, Gulbarga (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

High GCV and PCV were obtained for characters like number of nodes per vine, dry weight of fruits, marketable fruit yield per vine and total fruit yield per vine. High heritability was observed for most of the characters studied, except days to first female flower and number of unmarketable fruits per vine. Among the various characters studied high heritability coupled with high GAM was noticed for days to first male flower, number of nodes at which first female flower appears, days to first fruit harvest, vine length and dry weight of fruit. It indicates that a simple selection scheme for these traits would be sufficient to bring genetic improvement in the desired direction.

35. c. n. hanchinamani and m. g. patil [Breeding potential of cucumber genotypes using D2 analysis*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 164-167 (2011). Horticulture Farm, College of Agriculture (UAS) Bheemarayanagudi, Shahapur, Gulbarga (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Using Mahalanobis D2 statistics method, 45 genotypes were grouped into eight divergent clusters. It is desirable to select accession from clusters having high inter-cluster distance and with high fruit yield as parents in the recombination breeding programmes. Intra-cluster distance was highest in the cluster VIII and lowest in cluster IV. The cluster means were calculated for each character and ranks were given based on score obtained for all the characters of the clusters. Cluster VII with five genotypes ranked first for most of the characters and appeared to be containing the most potential genotypes. Similarly, other clusters (III, VIII and V) were next in ranking order.

36. P. Senthil Kumar and P. Bharathi [Studies on line x tester analysis in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 168-170 (2011). Department of Agricultural Botany Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A line x tester analysis was carried out with five lines and three testers at the Department of Agricultural Botany, Annamalai University. The resultant 15 hybrids were evaluated for nine characters viz., plant height, days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, cob length, cob girth, number of grain rows per cob, number of grains per row, 100-grain weight and grain yield per plant. The results revealed that the hybrids ML-47/Attur local and SW-99-L-3001-21/Chidambaram local were the best for exploitation of heterosis.

37. p. shanthi, e. satyanarayana, g. suresh babu and r. sai kumar [Studies on exploitation of heterosis for grain yield and quality parameters in quality protein maize (QPM) genotypes (Zea mays L.)*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 171-175 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Allahabad Agriculture Institute–Deemed University, Allahabad-211 007 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Heterosis studies in 45 QPM single cross hybrids developed using 10 x 10 diallel set (excluding reciprocals) were carried out at two locations (Hyderabad and Allahabad) and in two seasons (kharif 2003 and 2004) for grain yield and three quality parameters viz., protein content, oil content and tryptophan content. From this study, it was inferred that out of 45 hybrids studied, the four hybrids P2 x P6, P3 x P5, P4 x P7 and P5 x P10 were found to be the best, since they showed highly significant positive standard heterosis over the two standard checks (DHM 105–Normal maize hybrid and better yielding check) and Shaktiman 2 (QPM hybrid) for grain yield, protein content, oil content and tryptophan content. Hence, it was suggested that these two hybrids should be included in multi-location and multi-season experiments for further evaluation and confirmation before their commercial release.

38. p. shanthi, e. satyanarayana, g. suresh babu and r. sai kumar [Stability and G x E interaction studies for grain yield and quality parameters in quality protein maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) inbred line crosses*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 176-181 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Allahabad Agriculture Institute–Deemed University, Allahabad-211 007 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Studies on stability and G x E interaction were carried out at two locations (Hyderabad and Allahabad) and in two seasons (kharif 2003 and 2004) for grain yield and three quality parameters viz., protein content, oil content and tryptophan content in 45 single cross hybrids developed using 10 x 10 diallel set (excluding reciprocals). From this study, it was inferred that the three hybrids P4 x P7, P2 x P6 and P5 x P10 were considered as most stable for grain yield and quality parameters (protein, oil and tryptophan content) alongwith higher per se values for the four characters studied. Hence, it was suggested that these hybrids could be exploited as better QPM hybrids for commercialization across the wide environments through heterosis breeding and also for the derivation of QPM inbred lines in segregating generations.

39. p. shanthi, e. satyanarayana, g. suresh babu and r. sai kumar [Combining ability studies for grain yield and quality parameters in quality protein maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) inbred line crosses*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 182-187 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Allahabad Agriculture Institute–Deemed University, Allahabad-211 007 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Combining ability studies using 10 x 10 diallel set (excluding reciprocals) were carried out at two locations (Hyderabad and Allahabad) and in two seasons (kharif 2003 and 2004) for grain yield and three quality parameters viz. protein content, oil content and tryptophan content. From this study, it was inferred that out of 45 hybrids studied, the cross combinations viz, P4 x P7, P5 x P10, P2 x P6, P3 x P5, P3 x P9 and P1 x P5 were found as good specific combiners for grain yield alongwith protein, oil and tryptophan content. Among the 10 parents, the parents P3 and P1 were found to be the best parents for grain yield, while the parents P4, P7 and P2 for protein, oil and tryptophan content.

40. p. shanthi, e. satyanarayana, g. suresh babu and r. sai kumar [Studies on genetic variability for phenological, yield and quality parameters in quality protein maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.)*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 188-191 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Allahabad Agriculture Institute–Deemed University, Allahabad-211 007 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Studies on genetic variability parameters were carried out in QPM genotypes at two locations (Hyderabad and Allahabad) and in two seasons (kharif 2003 and 2004) for various economic traits like grain yield, different growth, maturity and quality parameters in QPM genotypes. The experimental material consisting of 10 parents, 45 single cross hybrids and two standard checks viz., DHM-105 and Shaktiman-2 was raised in complete randomized block design in three replications. In this study,out of 26 characters studied, grain yield and its component characters viz., total anthers dehescence period, total period of silk appearance, active pollination period, number of seeds per cob, cob weight, protein yield and oil yield had expressed high estimates of GCV and PCV and high heritability (more than 85%) coupled with high genetic advance, indicating the genetic variances for these traits probably owing to their high additive gene effects and hence, it was inferred that there was a better scope for improvement of these traits through direct selection.

41. CHANNAYYA P. HIREMATH, H. L. NADAF, B. G. PRAKASH AND SANTHOSH KUMAR B. PUJER [Character association studies in different fatty acid composition of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 192-196 (2011). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Experiments were performed on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to determine the correlation between the concentration of oleic acid and that of the other fatty acids by investigation of 90 peanut mutants lines of GPBD-4. In this experiment, oleic acid content was comprehensively evaluated in relation to other fatty acids. The highest correlations were noted for oleic and linoleic acids (r=-00.95) and for oleic and palmitic acids (r=-00.85). A positive relationship occurred between oleic acid and eicosenoic acid and inverse relationships occurred between oleic and behenic, arachidic, stearic, and lignoceric acids. Oleic acid positively correlated to the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (r=0.83), whereas O/L ratio had significantly positive correlation with oleic acid and significantly negative correlation with linoleic acid.

42. G. P. S. Dhaliwal and V. P. Mittal [Semi-graphical analysis of yield and components in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 197-200 (2011). Department of Plant Breeding M. P. University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

Estimation of nature and degree of divergence for different traits is useful for planning crossing programme and to recover desirable recombinants. Genetic divergence may be assessed either by D2 statistics or by metroglyph analysis. The present investigation was carried out with 35 diverse genotypes of groundnut to classify them in distinct classes using metroglyph analysis. In graphical representation two most important characters, pods per plant and dry pod yield per plant were represented on X axis and Y axis, respectively. Genotypes UG 21, UG 22, UG 24 and UG 29 were identified as desirable for pods per plant, while genotype UG-11 for dry pod yield per plant. Desirable genotypes for other six traits were identified by length of rays occupying specific positions on the glyphs. For 100-kernel weight five genotypes and for oil content six genotypes were identified. The identified genotypes may be suitably used in hybridisation programmes to combine economic characters resulting in a high yielding groundnut cultivar with improved quality.

43. S. Sreedhar, K. Hussain Sahib and A.Vishnuvardhan Reddy [Correlation and path analysis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 201-205 (2011). College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : siddu.35@ gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Correlation studies in sunflower revealed that seed yield was positively associated with yield components. Among yield components, correlation of number of filled seeds per head was maximum followed by head diameter, total number of seeds per head, plant height and 100-seed weight. Path coefficient analysis showed that the direct effect on seed yield was maximum for 100 seed weight followed by number of filled seeds per head. The maximum indirect effects for characters were through number of filled seeds per head and 100-seed weight, those themselves were also major direct contribution of seed yield in sunflower.

44. P. K. Nayak, L. D. Mishra, B. Pradhan and T. K. Mishra [Genetic variability and heritability for seed yield and its components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 206-209 (2011). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar (Orissa), India

ABSTRACT

The analysis of genetic parameters for 30 genotypes of sesamum revealed high GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean for number of capsules per plant, number of capsules in main stem, number of primary branches per plant, height upto first capsule and seed yield per plant indicating that selection could be effective for improving seed yield and yield attributes.

45. K. VIJAYA LAKSHMI, J. SATYANARAYANA AND Y. MADHAVI [Comparative biology of spike or fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner on different medicinal plants]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 210-211 (2011). Department of Entomology Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

The biology of spike or fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hubner on different medicinal plants, Coleus [Coleus forskohli (Wild) Briq.], Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal], Kalmegh [Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees] and Musk mallow (Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.) under laboratory conditions revealed that the spherical, ribbed eggs were laid singly on leaves, flowers and spikes and on or near the fruiting bodies. The fecundity of female moth was, on an average, 1234±0.60 eggs on Coleus, 1109±0.90 eggs on Ashwagandha, 1212.4±0.85 eggs on Kalmegh and 1480±0.90 eggs on Musk mallow. The duration of oviposition period was 2.32±0.41, 2.9±0.44, 1.75±0.27 and 6.45±0.39 days on Coleus, Ashwagandha, Kalmegh and Musk mallow, respectively. Egg period recorded as 3.69±0.57 days on Coleus, 3.85±0.38 days on Ashwagandha, 2.85±0.47 days on Kalmegh and 3.85±0.34 days on Musk mallow. The freshly hatched larvae were white in colour. The colour of larvae varied from green, brown, red to black and had distinct longitudinal stripes running down the body. The duration of larval stage was recorded as 17.6±0.28 days on Coleus, 13.81±0.53 days on Ashwagandha, 16.18±0.16 days on Kalmegh and 24.07±0.55 days on Musk mallow. The colour of the pupa was dark brown. The duration of pupal stage lasted for 8.57±0.27, 9.15±0.70, 13.15±0.50 and 9.97±0.34 days on Coleus, Ashwagandha, Kalmegh and Musk mallow, respectively. The total developmental period lasted for 30.06±0.31, 26.81±0.70, 28.05±0.69 and 38.89±0.46 days on Coleus, Ashwagandha, Kalmegh and Musk mallow, respectively. The longevity of adult female and male was 8.98±0.29, 6.71±0.40 days on Coleus, 9.28±0.45, 5.50±0.56 days on Ashwagandha, 6.89±0.70, 4.35±0.43 days on Kalmegh and 6.45±0.39 and 8.02±0.21 days on Musk mallow, respectively.

46. A. SAJEENA, R. MOHANBABU AND T. MARIMUTHU [Antiviral activity of Ganoderma sp. on groundnut bud necrosis virus (gbnv) infection on cowpea]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 212-217 (2011). Centre for Plant Protection Studies Department of Plant Pathology Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore- 641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Eighteen basidiomycetes collected from Yercaud, Salem district and at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu were screened against plant pathogens for their antifungal effect. Among the mushrooms, the maximum growth inhibition was exhibited by Ganoderma sp. followed by Schizophyllum sp. Six solvents (ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, hexane, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether) were tested for their efficacy in extracting the antifungal metabolites and diethyl ether was found to be the efficient solvent in extracting the antifungal metabolites from the culture filtrate of Ganoderma sp. The diethyl ether extract of Ganoderma sp. was used to develop a formulation (emulsifiable concentrate). The formulation (Ganosol) which showed antifungal activity was also tested for its antiviral activity against groundnut bud necrosis virus infection in cowpea plants. Spraying of cowpea plants with the formulation reduced the number of lesions to a significant level when compared to the inoculated control. Simultaneous spray of the formulation and the virus inoculation was found to be the best treatment, which produced 88.39% reduction of the number of lesions followed by pre-inoculation spray (63.67%) compared to the control under glass house conditions.

47. GAGAN JOSHI, K. K. MRIG, RAM SINGH AND S. SINGH [Studies on seasonal abundance of adult mushroom flies]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 218-220 (2011). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

Seasonal abundance of adult mushroom flies during January-March (2008 and 2009) revealed that the maximum population of sciarid flies was observed when the temperature was in the range of 9-20°C, whereas maximum population of phorid flies was observed in the temperature range of 18.5-23°C. Phorid flies showed significant positive correlation with the temperature, whereas the sciarid flies had positive but non-significant correlation with temperature during the cropping periods of January- March (2008 and 2009).

48. Babli Devi, Anita Singh, Vijay Kumari, R. G. Upadhyay and A. D. Bindra [Physiological and biochemical variability in Giloya [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers]]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 221-226 (2011). Department of Biology & Environmental Sciences CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A study of physiological and biochemical variability of 12 collections of Tinospora cordifolia was carried out during 2008-09. Survey was conducted in different locations in district Kangra during April-May, 2008. Stems pieces of T. cordifolia were collected from 12 different altitudes of district Kangra. Collections consisting of stem pieces of equal length and uniform diameter were taken. The dried stem powder of T. cordifolia was analyzed for their biochemical constituents. The pot trial was also carried out by vegetative propagation in the month of May 2008 for physiological parameters. Significant variations in physiological as well as biochemical parameters were observed. Plant length, plant diameter and leaf area were recorded at 75 days interval. Length of the plant varied from 125.33 (Collection-8) to 190.33 (Collection-11) cm; diameter of the plant varied from 0.783 (Collection-8) to 0.953 (Collection-9) cm and leaf area of the plant varied from 153.68 (Collection-2) to 237.63 (Collection-9) cm2. Fresh stem of T. cordifolia collections showed wide range of moisture content that varied from 70.71 (Collection-6) to 79.12% (Collection-9); fat content ranged from 1.29 (Collection-3) to 2.46% (Collection-9); dry stem of T. cordifolia collections showed wide range of total carbohydrate content ranging from 27.52 (Collection-10) to 40.06% (Collection-1); total starch content ranged from 1.27 (Collection-4) to 2.95% (Collection-7) and total sugar content that varied from 5.39 (Collection-8) to 8.22% (Collection-1). Conclusively, based on the performance between different parameters, Collection-9, Collection-1 and Collection-11 have emerged to be the best collections which can be utilized further.

49. A. K. MANDAL*, S. PATRA, R. B. MALLICK, A. MAHATA AND J. BISWAS [Efficacy of seed treatment in rice (cv. Swarna masuri) for improved germinability and comparative study on field performance by conventional and system of rice intensification (SRI) technology]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 227-232 (2011). Department of Seed Science and Technology Institute of Agricultural Science University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700 019, India

ABSTRACT

The loss of vigour and viability of rice seeds (high medium vigour) could be effectively controlled by pharmaceutical formulation viz., aspirin (ortho-acetyl salicylic acid, originally a chemical compound derived from salix, now commercially synthesized) @ 100 mg/kg of seed, crude plant material viz., neem leaf powder @ 2 g/kg of seed and hydration-dehydration treatment (soaking in double volume of water for 2 h at room temperature and then drying back to its original moisture content). The crop raised from the treated seeds in both SRI and conventional methods showed significant improvement on yield and other yield attributes. Among the treatments, dry treatments have shown better results in improving field-performance, especially in SRI method. The system of rice intensification (SRI) method of cultivation is marked superior to conventional method in increasing yield and yield attributes. The membrane functions as measured by electrical conductance of seed leachate and leakage of sugar were significantly lower in the treated seeds than the untreated control. The dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in the treated seeds than the untreated control. Therefore, pre-storage dry treatments in high-medium vigour rice seeds with aspirin and neem leaf powder employing system of rice intensification technology (SRI) may be suggested to the rice growers for improved storability and field performance and productivity.

50. CH. SATYANARAYANA RAJU, P. VENKATARAMANA, B. NARASIMHA MURTHY AND MRINAL KANT DAS [Effect of light intensity on “spinning ecology” of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and its cocoon reeling parameters]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 233-243 (2011). Research Extension Centre Central Silk Board, Vikarabad-501 101 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A preliminary survey was conducted in K. R. Nagar (irrigated area) and Chamarajanagar (rainfed area) districts, which are traditional sericultural areas, in nature, in Karnataka state, India. The survey analysis revealed the facts that most of all the sericulturists of both the areas kept the mountages (chandrikaes) with spinning larvae in open places, outside (exposing to sun light) the rearing houses and then shifted back into their houses and set them in available places. It also revealed that the most of the rearers did not have suitable and adequate space to provide suitable spinning environment during spinning viz., proper lighting, correct orientation of mountages and required air current, resulting in loss of cocoon crops. This prompted us to conduct an experiment on spinning ecology of silkworm, B. mori as influenced by light intensity with special reference to behaviour of spinning larvae (orientation on the chandrikaes) and cocoon quality during three seasons viz., winter (November), summer (March) and rainy (June). The study consisted of six treatments with six different light intensities provided with different sources of light. For each treatment 200 matured (spinning) larvae were randomly selected and replicated thrice. Data on duration of spinning, survival percentage of spinning larvae on mountages, good cocoon percentage, weights of single cocoon, single shell, single shell ratio, filament length, filament size, renditta and reelability aspects were recorded. Among six treatments, the treatment-6 (T6 : indoor mounting, dim light with 70 lux, 23.5+1oC and 75+5% RH) was found to be highly economic and the best in improving the characters of spinning larvae and cocoons in all three seasons studied. Hence, it is suggested that this technology can be adopted by all the sericulturists of different sericultural states in India in all three seasons for better harvest of cocoon crop suitable for reelability.

51. Murtuza Khan, H. Somashekar, FATIMA SADATULLA and golya naik [Multivoltine seed cocoon production in eastern dry zone : An economic analysis]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 244-248 (2011). Department of Agricultural Economics Sericulture College, Chintamani-563 125 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The study on an economic analysis of multivoltine seed cocoon (pure Mysore) production in eastern dry zone of Karnataka revealed that the variable cost was Rs. 103081.13, accounting 85.70% of the total cost. The gross return was Rs.186845.00 of which a net return was Rs. 66562.87 per acre per year. To get these net returns, a quantity of 20800.00 kg of mulberry leaf was used alongwith human labour 450.89 man days and 1231.33 dfls. Further, the farmers rearing multivoltine seed cocoons in less than one acre of mulberry gardens incurred high cost of Rs. 130259.65 and rearers with more than one acre of mulberry garden incurred Rs. 120567.17 diseconomies of scale to get a net return of Rs. 77763.24 and 44833.29, respectively, indicating the higher net returns in small size farms. Study revealed that four seed cocoon crop rearings per year were uneconomical and five seed cocoon crop rearings were economical. However, if the government brings about the price fixation based on quality of seed cocoons rather than fixing the price based on number of cocoons per kilogram of weight it can increase the return and act as substitute for Chinese silk, while enhancing the quality of silk production having tremendous demand in the domestic market.

52. NIRMALA M. SANDIGODAMATH, L. B. HUGAR AND L. H. MALLIGAWAD [Input use and employment pattern in hybrid sunflower seed production under contract farming–A case study in Haveri district]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 249-252 (2011). Department of Agricultural Economics University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A study was carried out to assess the pattern of input use and employment in hybrid sunflower seed production under contract farming in Haveri district of Karnataka. Seed production activity is considered as one of the options for increasing the employment in rural areas. The results of the study revealed that seed growers used recommended seed rate. However, the application of organic manure (17 t/ha) was more than two times of its recommended level. In case of chemical fertilizers the extent of their use was lower than the recommended dose. The human labour was predominantly used in seed production out of which majority (67%) were hired labours. The poor input use suggests that there is need to educate the farmers by contracting agencies. Therefore, to increase employment to rural people as well as income level to farmers, seed production under contract farming may be encouraged with appropriate legal and institutional set up.

53. M. PRASANTHRAJAN AND J. KANNAN [Assessing the growth of earthworms with respect to environmental factor and feeding materials]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 253-254 (2011). Department of Environmental Science Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to test the growth, survival potential of different worms with respect to different feeding material and an environmental factor. This study proved that the feeding activity of certain earthworm species viz., Periyonyx excavatus, Eisenia foetida and Eudrillus eugeniae depended on the moisture content of the substrate. Also some of the feeding material like cowdung showed fastest and health growth rate of earthworms when compared to poultry manure and pig manure.

54. c. n. hanchinamani and m. g. patil [Components of genetic variance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)*]. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 255-256 (2011). Department of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

GCA : SCA ratio was more than one for the characters days to first female flower, dry weight of fruits, number of marketable fruits per vine, total number of fruits per vine, marketable fruit yield per vine and total fruit yield per vine indicating the predominant role of additive gene action, whereas all the characters recorded the ratio less than one indicating the predominant role of dominant genes.