1. Mahdi Abid Hamza* and Abdul Rahman Aboud Radian (2019). [Effect of irrigation periods, spraying with salicylic acid and phosphate fertilizer application on yield components and grain yield of popcorn]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 1-9. Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University Technical College of Al-Mussaib, Babylon, Iraq *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted during spring season of 2018 at Field Research Area of Al-Mussaib Technical College in northern Babylon province of Iraq to study the effect of three levels of phosphate fertilizer (100, 200 and 300 kg P2O5/ha), three irrigation periods (5, 10 and 15 days) and two levels of salicylic acid (0 and 100 ppm) on the growth, yield and quality of popcorn cv. Al-Sorour. The experiment was conducted using split-split-plots within the randomized complete block design (RCBD). The irrigation treatment of 10 days period produced significantly higher average number of grains in cob (502.13 grains), weight of 500 grains (101.41 g), per plant yield (132.89 g) and total yield (7.09 t/ha) compared to other treatments of irrigation. The application of phosphorus @ 300 kg P2O5/ha produced significantly higher average number of grains in cob, the weight of 500 grains, plant yield and total yield to the tune of 653.32 grains, 101.41 g, 132.89 g and 7.087 t/ha, respectively, compared to other treatments of phosphorus. The spraying treatment of salicylic acid @ 100 ppm produced significantly higher number of grains in cob, the weight of 500 grains, plant yield and total yield to the tune of 653.32 grains, 101.50 g, 132.89 g and 7.09 t/ha, respectively, compared to control where no salicylic acid was sprayed. The interactions between two treatments i. e. irrigation every 10 days period x spraying with 100 ppm salicylic acid, irrigation every 10 days period x phosphorus @ 300 kg P2O5/ha and spraying of 100 ppm salicylic acid x phosphorus @ 300 kg P2O5/ha were found significantly superior over other interactions between two treatment combinations. The interaction between three treatments i. e. irrigation every 10 days period x spraying with 100 ppm salicylic acid x 300 kg P2O5/ha was significantly superior compared to other interactions between three treatment combinations.
2. R. A. Balikai* (2019). [Bio-efficacy of Bifenthrin 8 SC against shoot and fruit borer and red spider mite of okra and its phytotoxicity on plants]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 10-18. Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The field experiments were carried out during kharif and rabi seasons of 2012-13 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad, India with eight treatments replicated thrice in a randomised block design. The treatments consisted of (1) Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 60 g a. i./ha, (2) Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 80 g a. i./ha (3) Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 100 g a. i./ha, (4) Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 120 g a. i./ha, (5) Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 140 g a. i./ha, (6) Cypermethrin 10 EC @ 70 g a. i./ha, (7) Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 500 g a. i./ha and (8) Untreated check. The spacing followed was 60 x 30 cm with Arka Anamika variety in a plot size of 6.0 x 5.1 m during both the seasons. Two sprays of Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 140, 120 and 100 g a. i./ha afforded cent per cent protection against mites during both the kharif and rabi seasons, while 92.40, 88.59 and 86.69% protection, respectively against shoot and fruit borer during kharif, and 89.86, 86.96 and 84.93% protection during rabi season. All the insecticides recorded significantly higher marketable fruit yield than untreated check. Two sprays of Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 140, 120 and 100 g a. i./ha produced significantly higher marketable fruit yield of 86.40, 85.10 and 83.50 t/ha during kharif, and 84.45, 83.57 and 81.84 t/ha durin rabi season, which were on par with each other and were significantly superior over rest of the treatments. None of the insecticidal treatments showed any type of phytotoxic symptoms on okra plants at one, three, seven and ten days after spray of Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 100 and 200 g a. i./ha during both kharif and rabi seasons. Hence, Bifenthrin 8 SC @ 100 g a. i./ha could be recommended for the better management of mites, and shoot and fruit borer to get higher marketable fruit yield.
3. R. K. Maiti and V. P. Singh* (2019). [A review on mechanisms of resistance in sorghum to drought, high and low temperature and salinity]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 19-37. Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre (Regd.) Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The article makes a review of advances of research conducted during recent years on various aspects of sorghum particularly drought resistance, temperature and salinity resistance and mechanisms of resistance.
4. Lal Bahadur Chhetri* and Bikram Acharya (2019). [Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) : A threat to food security for south Asian country : Control and management options : A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 38-44. Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Nepal *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith,1997) is a sporadic pest with a diverse host range challenging food security over 300 million people by causing severe damage to world’s 1st rank cereal crop maize. FAW is native to tropical and sub-tropical region of America spreading worldwide uncontrollably from last three years to Africa and Asia. FAW is becoming tolerant to many insecticide use strategies and difficulty in finding and surveying field infestation with simple protocols. This review targets on insect biology description, life cycle, behaviour, damage to maize, and potential management strategies. The review concludes that synthetic chemical should be avoided as possible but should be used in severe damage more than 50%. The best way to make plant free of FAW attack, to make plant healthy by increasing resistibility power of plant itself in such case manage soil nutrient along with soil health by increasing humus content and use of wild type or local variety is best way to avoid FAW attack.
5. R. K. Maiti and V. P. Singh* (2019). [A review on research advances in ethnobotany and pharmacognosy of some medicinal plants]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 45-52. Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre (Regd.) Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Since remote times herbal medicines are the primary sources of health cure of the rural people throughout the world. The knowledge on the medicinal plants is inherited from generation to generation in the family of herbal doctors. Although significant advances have been made in modern allopathic medicine, medicinal plants are extensively used even in the cities specially in Mexico and Medicinal plants are largely sold both in the rural and urban markets. One of the reasons is due to the no-availability of good doctors in the rural areas, high confidence of the rural people and high cost of the allopathic medicine. In Mexico although several hundreds of medicinal plants are known to alleviate various types of diseases, still many species are not yet explored from the rural areas. There is a great necessity to formulate a systematic research starting from ethnobotany, botany and pharmacognosy including histochemistry and finally phytochemistry. With these objectives, some advances have been made on some medicinal plant species both in north-east and high land valleys of Mexico obtained mainly through research projects and thesis projects both in the bachelor and post-graduate levels. In the first step in the north-east of Mexico, through several visits in the rural areas and herbal shops and interviews a list of common species has been made, collected and preserved in the herbarium sheets. Then on the basis of a very careful analysis, most important and common medicinal species was selected for the studies on pharmacognosy, histochemistry and pharmacological tests on animals. An analysis of pharmacognosy showed the presence of distinct morphological, anatomical and histochemical characters in each species which can distinguish among species. In the high land valleys in Puebla and Tlaxcala, a more systematic interdisciplinary research has been undertaken including ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and some preliminary phytochemistry of several medicinal plant species. The efficacy of some medicinal plant species used by the herbal specialists has also been confirmed by a specialist of high recognition in the city. The species studied are : Artemisia absinthium, Chamaemelum nobile, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Ocimum sanctum, Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Lavandula angostifolia, Marrubium vulgare, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Semipervivum tectorum, Thymus vulgaris and Turnera vulgaris. The medicinal herbs contained several secondary metabolites, among which alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes, flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glucosides, the presence, absence and intensity of which vary among species. Although sufficient researches have been concentrated mostly on the phytochemistry in Mexico, no systematic research has been undertaken as planned. A catalogue of some medicinal plants has been made and some medicinal plant species are grown in the green house. Finally, a systematic research plant has been suggested on the medicinal plants. An interdisciplinary research including herbal specialists, botanists, agronomists and chemists is in progress.
6. R. K. Maiti and V. P. Singh* (2019). [Advances in research on ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) : A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 4 (1) : 53-78. Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre (Regd.) Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
This review paper presents the results of studies made by different workers on various aspects of ramie (Boehmeria nivea Gaud) crop particulary on genetic resource, breeding, morphology, anatomy, cytology, physiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, biotic stress factors, tolerance to abiotic stress, cultural practices, mineral nutrition, productivity, fibre extraction and quality. The information provided in this paper may be useful for students, teachers and research workers who are engaged in the teaching, research and extension activities on ramie crop.