Volume 38, Number 1,2 & 3 (July, September & November 2009)

By | July 23, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
 md@cropresearch.org

1. MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*, P. PARCHAMI, SH. LACK AND P. BEHDARVAND [Competition between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L.) for nitrogen]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 1-4 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com).

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have led to the hypotheses that reversals in competitive hierarchy between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oat (Avena spp.) could occur only in situations in which (i) there is a nitrogen effect in the relative heights of the competitors during the year and (ii) there is strong competition for light and water. Reversals in competitive hierarchy should not, therefore, occur where the wheat is either taller or shorter than oat throughout the growth. We grew wheat for height in monoculture and in replacement mixtures with oat (A. ludoviciana L.) in a year. In the drier plots and with oat cultivar, height of wheat had influence over its competitive superiority by nitrogen, which was maintained throughout the season. In a somewhat nitrogen plots and with oat cultivar, wheat was less competitive than corresponding taller and nitrogen absorbance was higher. Partial reversals in competitive hierarchy were seen in a late sowing, but these did not correspond with patterns in the relative height growth of the species.

2. B. A. MONPARA AND A. P. PATEL [Cultivar differences for date of maturity and their effects on physiological growth parameters and grain yield in durum wheat].Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 5-10 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India.

ABSTRACT

Twenty-one selected durum wheat genotypes, by classifying them into three maturity groups i. e. early, midlate and late, were studied to know the effects of differences in maturity time on physiological growth parameters and grain yield. The mean values showed significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters. The Kiwi’s’ of early group had the shortest vegetative and the longest grain filling periods, whereas midlate group variety HI 8498 was superior in grain yield per plant. The mean expression of maturity groups indicated the reduction in days to ear emergence, days to maturity, vegetative period, grain filling period and grain yield per plant with the increase in earliness (late group through early group). Reverse was true for 100-grain weight and grain filling index. Differences in maturity time also affected the correlation. Many unfavourable changes in magnitude and direction of correlations were observed in the early group genotypes when compared with the correlation coefficients of late group genotypes. Changes in mean performances and correlations may be due to mating system used for generating variability and tendency of plant breeders to select for more and more early types. Altering of undesirable changes should be possible by utilizing the genetic variations like Kiwi’s in appropriate breeding programmes.

3. G. SRIDEVI, C. A. SRINIVASAMURTHY, S. BHASKAR AND S. VISWANATH [Studies on the effect of anthropogenic liquid waste (human urine) on soil properties, growth and yield of maize]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 11-14 (2009). Department of Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore (Karnataka), India..

ABSTRACT

More than 2.6 billion people on this planet still do not have access to safe hygienic facilities due to lack of improved sanitation. Most of the urban centers all over the world are facing the problems to dispose of the domestic wastes as they are rich in plant nutrients especially nitrogen and phosphorus as they lead to eutrophication and also ground water pollution. The recent approach is to go for productive sanitation technology to achieve food security. Ecosan systems that produce a safe human derived liquid fertilizer can potentially contribute to improvement in quality of life and life expectancy by enabling sustainable food production as well as proper waste water management. In this context, field experiments were conducted in farmers’ fields at Nagasandra village, Doddaballapura Tq, Bangalore district for one year to study the response of maize (Zea mays L.) crop to anthropogenic liquid waste (human urine) when applied to meet the nitrogen requirement of these crops. The treatments were absolute control, recommended dose of fertilizers, recommended dose of nitrogen through human urine with and without gypsum and fertilizer applied to soil and different combinations of human urine and fertilizers. The results of the field experiment revealed that recommended dose of nitrogen through anthropogenic liquid waste (human urine) in 6 split doses with irrigation water+gypsum) increased the grain (8.10 t/ha) and stover (33.88 t/ha) yield of maize. The available nutrients content of soil viz., N, P and K in both the experiments showed a progressive decline with the advancement of crop growth period. Significant increase in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of plant samples was observed in both the crops. Also the highest C : B ratio of both the crops was obtained in the treatment which received the recommended dose of nitrogen through human urine. The outcome of the present investigation revealed that ecosan system helped to provide better sanitation, helped farmers to save the cost on fertilizers without affecting the crop yields and thus helped to achieve food security.

 

4. K. RAMAH*, P. SANTHI AND K. PONNUSWAMY [Irrigation scheduling and water use efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.) based cropping system under drip fertigation].Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 15-20 (2009). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
*(e-mail : kramah@rediffmail.com). 
.

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, from July 2006 to August 2007 to study the effect of varying irrigation regimes and fertilizer levels in maize based cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The experiment consisted of three irrigation regimes in main plots viz., I1–Drip irrigation at 75% WRc (computed water requirement of crop), I2–Drip irrigation at 100% WRc, I3–Drip irrigation at 125% WRc and four fertilizer levels in sub-plots viz., F1–75% RDF, F2–100% RDF, F3–125% RDF and F4–Drip irrigation+100% RDF by soil application. Considering the cropping system as a whole, drip irrigation given at 100 and 75% WRc with 125% RDF through drip increased the yield to the tune of 60.5 and 59.7% when compared to farmer’s method of surface irrigation. Due to drip irrigation at 100% WRc the water saving was observed to be 30%, utilizing this water saved from drip irrigation, we can be able to cultivate 43% additional area when compared to surface irrigation method. Similarly, from drip irrigation at 75% WRc, we can save 45% water and be able to cultivate an additional area of 82% compared to surface irrigation method.

 

5. B. PRATHAP, G. KRISHNA REDDY AND V. SRIDHAR [Effect of genotypes and planting pattern on growth and yield of sweet sorghum]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 21-23 (2009). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati-517 502 (Andhra Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the performance of different sweet sorghum genotypes and planting pattern in sandy loam soils during kharif in Southern Agro-climatic Zone of Andhra Pradesh. The results revealed that genotype ICSV 700 recorded highest values of number of nodes, length of internodes, plant height, juice yield and total sugar index including net returns. There is no significant difference among the planting patterns tried with respect to yield and economics of sweet sorghum. However, the highest values of growth parameters, juice yield and total sugar index were recorded with closer planting pattern of 30 x 30 cm.

 

 

6. ANAND CHAURASIA, S. B. SINGH AND K. N. NAMDEO [Integrated nutrient management in relation to yield and yield attributes and oil yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 24-28 (2009). Department of Botany Government Model Science College, Rewa-486 001 (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on clay-loam soils of the private Agricultural-cum-Research Farm, Beenda-Semariya Road, Rewa (M. P.) during rabi seasons of 2006-07 and 2007-08. Application of FYM @ 10 t/ha proved the most beneficial with respect to enhance all the yield-attributing characters, seed yield, seed oil content, oil yield and net income per hectare. FYM resulted in maximum seed yield (12.59 q/ha), seed oil (41.17%), oil yield (518.7 kg/ha), net income (Rs. 35865/ha) with benefit : cost ratio upto 3.15. Poultry manure (4 t/ha) was the second best organic source of nutrients after FYM and then vermicompost (2 t/ha). Application of 100% RDF (N80P40K20ZN5S20) proved the most appropriate fertilizer dose for Ethiopian mustard with respect to yield-attributing characters, seed yield, seed oil content, oil yield as well as net income per hectare. The highest yield was 13.63 q/ha, seed oil 40.90%, oil yield 558.7 kg/ha and net income upto Rs.37601/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.97. The treatment interactions were found to be non-significant in all the parameters studied.

 

7. MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*, N. ZANDVAKILI, SH. LACK AND P. BEHDARVAND [Effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) with competition by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 29-32 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Crop fertilization is an important component of integrated weed management systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of N sources on wild mustard growth and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. Timing-tillage treatments consisted of applying the various N sources in either the previous fall or in spring each under zero-till or tilled conditions. Nitrogen sources consisted of urea fertilizer applied either surface broadcast or subsurface banded 12 cm deep between every second wheat row. An unfertilized control also was included. Treatments were applied to determine annual and side effects. Subsurface- fresh manure compared with N fertilizer often reduced N uptake by wild mustard and decreased wheat biomass. The ranking of the weed seed bank at the conclusion was fresh manure > urea fertilizer. Information gained in this study will be utilized to develop more efficient fertilization strategies as components of integrated weed management programmes in wheat production systems.

 

8. THAKAR SINGH [Efficacy of different herbicides for weed control in Indian mustard]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 33-34 (2009). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted at Bathinda during 1997-98 and 1998-99 to find out the efficiency of different herbicides for controlling weeds in Indian mustard. Application of isoproturon (post-emergence) at 750 g/ha, trifluralin (pre-emergence) at 1200 g/ha, pendimethalin (post-emergence) at 750 g/ha and pendimethalin (pre-emergence) at 750 g /ha proved most effective in controlling weeds. Minimum dry weight of weeds (9.6 g/m2) was recorded with post-emergence application of isoproturon at 750 g/ha. Pre-emergence application of trifluralin at 1200 g/ha, pendimathalin at 750 g/ha and post-emergence application of pendimethalin at 750 g/ha produced statistically similar dry weight of weeds as compared to two hand weedings. Weed control efficiency ranged between 50.2 to 84.6% with different herbicide treatments. Among different weed control measures, isoproturon (post-emergence) resulted in the highest weed control efficiency (84.6%) followed by trifluralin (pre-emergence), pendimethalin (post-emergence) and pendimethalin (pre-emergence) at 750 g/ha. Maximum seed yield (9.92 q/ha) was obtained with the application of trifluralin (pre-emergence) at 1200 g/ha which was 83.4% higher than weedy check, but was at par with two hand weedings, pendimethalin (pre-emergence) at 750 g/ha and isoproturon (post-emergence) at 750 g/ha.

 

9. MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*, N. MOHAMMADIPOOR AND F. NEJAT [Evaluation of super absorbent polymer effects in soybean (Glycine max L.) under water deficit conditions]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 35-38 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Applying a super absorbent polymer (SAP) to (Glycine max L.) seed could be economically beneficial for dry regions. Field trials at four locations were used to evaluate the effect of SAP and soybean cultivar on crop yield. The SAP was used to estimate the economic value of using water irrigation, two selenium treatments and soybean cultivar. SAP returns differed across locations. Chemical markers activity was lower for selenium and SAP treatments, compared to without the use of a SAP and selenium. The value of a malondi aldehide (MDA) was generally positive for water deficit and negative for selenium and SAP. However, at a location prone to water deficit spells during which seed germination could occur, the SAP generally had significant effect. Despite the SAP having a positive value for soybean yield in cooperation with selenium, its potential use will be limited because selenium with a SAP had good reflect to water deficit tolerance.

 

10. IMKONGTOSHI AND T. GOHAIN [Integrated nutrient management in soybean (Glycine max L.) under terrace cultivation of Nagaland]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 39-42 (2009). Department of Agronomy School of Agricultural Sciences & Rural Development Nagaland University, Medziphema-797 106 (Nagaland), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2004 at the Research Farm of School of Agricultural Sciences & Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema, Nagaland to evaluate integrated nutrient management on soybean under the terrace cultivation of Nagaland. The present trial was arranged in RBD replicated three times with 10 different treatments. The results revealed that plant height was not significantly increased with different combinations of fertilizer applied. Highest plant height (63 cm) was recorded with the application of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF). Application of organic and inorganic source of nitrogen significantly increased the fresh weight of the plant in all stages. Yield attributing characters were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Highest number of seeds per pod (2.13) was recorded with the application of RDF (100%) + lime (100%), followed by application of FYM alone (24.74 q/ha). Incorporation of integrated nutrient management had advantages on overall growth and development and uptake of nutrient and yield of soybean crop under terrace condition.

11. Y. A. ABAYOMI* AND J. MAHAMOOD [Comparative field evaluation of old and newly developed soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes in the southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 43-50 (2009). Department of Agronomy University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
*(e-mail : yabayomi2007@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Twelve soybean genotypes consisting of six old and six recently developed varieties were evaluated in the field over two years at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, Bolorunduro in the southern Guinea savanna ecology zone of Nigeria. The objective was to determine the genetic gains in soybean grain yield improvement in Nigeria following many years of breeding and selection. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial laid out in split-plots arrangement was used with two types (old and new genotypes) in the main plots and six genotypes each in the sub-plots. All factorial combinations were replicated four times. Growth and yield data were collected and the two years’ data were pooled and analyzed as split-split-plots to evaluate the effect of season. Results showed a little but significant genetic gains, with the newly developed genotypes having an overall yield advantage of 15.8% over the old cultivars. Nevertheless, a new genotype, TGX 1448-2E showed a better individual performance with a yield advantage of 29.9% over the best old cultivar, TGX 923-2E. Results also showed that all physiological growth indices measured were not significantly different between the old and the new genotypes and were not appreciably correlated with grain yield. It was thereby concluded that genetic gain in grain yield improvement in soybean was low possibly due to lack of/or inadequate emphasis on physiological parameters responsible for grain yield formation. It is, therefore, suggested that the breeding and selection programmes in soybean should emphasise more physiological growth parameters for better yield, and that there is the need to place similar emphasis on the development of drought tolerant genotypes.

 


12. S. ARUNA GEETHA, P. S. SENTHIL KUMAR, R. JAGADEESWARAN AND M. GOVINDASWAMY [Effect of farm yard manure, S oxidizing bacteria and elemental sulphur on the macro and secondary nutrient content and uptake of soybean in an Alfisol]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 51-56 (2009). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Annamalai University, Chidambaram (Tamil Nadu), India.

ABSTRACT

The field experiment involving different S levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha), FYM and Thiobacillus bacteria were studied to monitor the impact on the macronutrient and sulphur content and uptake of the soybean crop in an Alfisol. In the study, higher N, P, K and S concentration and uptake have been observed for FYM+Thiobacillus among the amendments and at 20 kg S/ha level. Combination of the above treatments produced further enhancement in nutrient accumulation. There was preferential accumulation of N in seed followed by shell and haulm. The increase in the total uptake of N, P, K and S was in the order of 16.7, 32.4, 21.1 and 16.1%, respectively, for FYM+Thiobacillus, while the ideal level of sulphur at 20 kg/ha enhanced it by 29.0, 34.8, 32.1 and 36.9%, respectively. The complementary effect of FYM+Thiobacillus on sulphur has been clearly exhibited with increase in the uptake to the tune of 41.0, 127, 40.0 and 53.7% for N, P, K and S, respectively. The translocation of S to the seeds was around 45%. A positive relationship existed with plant S content at flowering (r=0.86**), N uptake (r=0.98**), P uptake (r=0.95**) and K uptake (r=0.95**).

 

 

13.  P. VENKATA SUBBAIAH, K.VENKAIAH, M. V. S. NAIDU AND N. RAMAVATHARAM [Effect of integrated phosphorus management on dry matter production, pod yield, quality and N, P and K uptake of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in alfisols of Tirupati]. Crop Res. 38(1, 2 & 3) : 57-60 (2009). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati-517 502 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in rabi season of 2006 to study the effect of integrated use of inorganic fertilizers coupled with organic manures and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on dry matter production, pod yield, quality and nutrient uptake of French bean in alfisols (Typic Haplustalf) of Tirupati. The results revealed that application of combined use of organic manures viz., poultry manure (0.4 t/ha) alongwith the inorganic fertilizers i. e. 80% RDF (RDF : 20-50-50 kg/ha N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively) coupled with phosphate solubilizing bacteria @ 2.5 kg/ha recorded the highest dry matter production, pod yield, quality attributes and uptake of nutrients. Integrated use of organic manures, phosphate solubilizing bacteria alongwith chemical fertilizers not only produced highest and sustainable crop yield but also enhanced the uptake of nutrients.

 

 

14. P. RAGHU RAMI REDDY*, B. DILEEP KUMAR, M. GOPINATH AND L. JALAPATHI RAO [Nitrogen levels and scheduling studies in Bt cotton hybrids]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 61-63 (2009). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal-506 007 (Andhra Pradesh), India
*(e-mail : pakanati_raghu@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

The changed vegetative and reproductive growth patterns in Bt cotton hybrids emphasized the need for agronomical studies. A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Warangal to study the nitrogen levels and schedules in early and late maturing Bt cotton hybrids. In the first season, Pro Agro-368 Bt significantly recorded higher boll weight and seed cotton yield over RCH-2 Bt, whereas in second year they were at par. Nitrogen response was observed upto 120 kg N/ha only. Scheduling of nitrogen fertilizers significantly influenced boll number and seed cotton yields. In both the years, application of N at 20, 40, 60 and 80 days significantly recorded higher boll number and seed cotton yield over recommended practice of application at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days.

 

15. S. SHAFIAN*, M. R. MOBASHERI, M. J. VALADANZOUJ AND Y. REZAIE [Assessment of crop yield estimation methods]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 64-71 (2009). Remote Sensing Engineering Department K. N. Toosi University of Technology, No. 322, Mirdamad Blv. Tehran, Iran
*(e-mail : sanaz_sh_rs@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Because of the population increment in the world, there is a growing need for micro-level planning and particularly the demand for crop insurance which increases the need for field level yield statistics. Therefore, from economic point of view, accurate and fast crop yield estimation is very important in national and regional scale. There are two methods for crop yield estimation viz., (1) Conventional methods and (2) Methods based on remote sensing data. Conventional methods are often complicated, costly, time consuming and they cannot be run in large scales. Therefore, it is necessary to use cheaper/faster methods for crop yield estimation. Remote sensing data have the potential and the capacity to provide spatial information at global scale; of features and phenomena on earth on an almost real-time basis. They have the potential not only in identifying crop classes but also of estimating crop yield. In this paper first, conventional methods and their disadvantages are reviewed. Then crop yield estimation methods based on remote sensing data were compared to each other and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed.

 

 

16. MOHAMMAD ALBAJI AND SAEED BOROOMAND NASAB* [Study of soil properties for irrigation methods in Sadat Hossini plain, Iran1]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 72-79 (2009). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this research is to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 1170 ha in the Sadat Hossini region located in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. Soil properties of the study area including texture, depth, electrical conductivity, drainage, calcium carbonate content and slope were derived from a semi-detailed soil study regarding Sadat Hossini plain in a scale of 1/20000. After analyzing and evaluating soil properties, suitability maps were generated for surface, sprinkle and drip irrigation methods by means of Remote Sensing (RS) Technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that there was not high suitable land for all of the irrigation systems in this zone. Only 256.8 ha (22%) of the studied area was moderately suitable for drip, sprinkle and surface irrigation methods, whereas 893.2 ha (76.3%) was unsuitable for surface irrigation. Also 732.4 ha (62.6%) was unsuitable for sprinkle and drip irrigation methods. The results demonstrated that by applying sprinkle and drip irrigation methods instead of surface irrigation method, land suitability classes of 160.8 ha (13.7%) for Sadat Hossini plain will improve. The comparison of the different types of irrigation techniques revealed that the sprinkle and drip irrigation methods were more effective and efficient as the surface irrigation method improved the suitability to the irrigation purposes. Additionally, the main limiting factors in using surface and sprinkle irrigation methods in this area were soil texture, slope and drainage and the main limiting factors in using drip irrigation method in this area were soil calcium carbonate, slope and drainage.

 

17. S. BOROOMAND NASAB*, M. ALBAJI, P. PAPAN, G. R. KHAJEH SAHOTI AND S. SHARIFI [Investigation of soil quality for principal crops in the Baghe region, Iran]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 80-87 (2009). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Shahid Chamran University, Postal Code-61357-43311, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Today’s excessive use of croplands and the resulting damages alongwith the ever-increasing demand for further crop productions have necessitated the best land management practices more than ever. Due to the current lack of any proper land management practices for Baghe region in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran, a land suitability evaluation study for key productions of the region, including wheat, alfalfa, maize and barley, covering an area of 7000 ha was carried out in the region. Using the findings of the semi-detailed soil studies for this area, three soil families and eight soil series in two physiographic units were identified. Physiologic requirements of each crop were also determined and rated based upon the proposed method of Sys et al. (1991). The tables were provided by the Iranian Soil and Water Research Institute. Qualitative evaluation was carried out by means of simple limitation and parametric methods (Storie and Root Square Method) and comparing land and climate characteristics with crop needs. The index obtained for barley was higher in comparison to that developed for wheat, alfalfa and maize. After that the land indexes for wheat and alfalfa were higher in comparison to maize. The limiting factors in different crop yield in the region alongwith climatic variables included soil salinity and alkalinity, drainage and carbonate contents. From the two methods used i. e. simple limitation and parametric methods (Storie and Square Root Methods), the latter (Square Root Method) produced more realistic results in respect to the existing conditions of the region.

 

18. AJIT BHATTACHARYYA, DEBASISH BORAH AND M. SAIKIA [Effect of potassium on growth, total tuber yield and residual status of nutrients on true potato seed transplants]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 88-91 (2009). FR, IFFCO, Jalpaiguri-735 101 (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

A field investigation was carried out during rabi seasons of 1997-98 and 1998-99 on sandy loam soils of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat to find out the effect of four levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg K2O/ha) of potassium on growth, tuber yield and nutrient status of soil on potato crop variety TPS-C3 raised from TPS transplants. Application of 180 kg K2O/ha recorded higher values of growth attributes like number of leaves per plant, number of stems per plant, ground coverage (%), number of stolons per plant and total tuber yield. Plant establishment and length of stolon were not affected by levels of potassium application. Potassium availability in soil at harvest was also found to be increased with increased level of potassium application. No changes in availability of nitrogen and potassium in soil at harvest were recorded due to difference in rate of potassium application. Therefore, application of 180 kg K2O/ha seems to be the best treatment for potato crop raised from TPS transplants.

 

19. R. B. JOLLI*, B. S. VYAKARANAHAL, D. LAKSHMANA, R. GURUMURTY AND S. S. KARABANTNAL [Effect of crossed fruit retention on seed yield and quality of tomato hybrid seed production]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 92-96 (2009). U. A. S. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur (Karnataka), India
*(e-mail : jollirb@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To know the effect of crossed fruit retention in tomato hybrid, seed production was undertaken at Agricultural Research Station, Hanumanamatti of Haveri district in Karnataka state during 2003 and 2004. In this study, all crossed fruits, five crossed fruits, 10 crossed fruits, 15 crossed fruits and 20 crossed fruits were retained per plant. The results revealed that there was a significant difference due to number of crossed fruits retained per plant. The treatment retention of 15 crossed fruits per plant was found significantly superior with respect to fruit set, fruit yield, seed recovery and seed yield followed by 10 and 20 crossed fruits per plant, whereas five crossed fruits retention showed superiority in seed quality parameters. To get the optimum seed yield and good quality seeds, 10 to 15 fruits retention per plant was found to be optimum for DTH-1.

 

20. V. SUNDARAM [Parental selection for heterosis breeding in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under salinity]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 97-103 (2009). Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute Karaikal-609 603 (Puducherry), India

ABSTRACT

Fifty-six hybrid combinations of bitter gourd resulting from full diallel mating among eight genetically diverse parents of bitter gourd were analysed for their combining ability. None of the parents was found to show significant mean performance and gca together for all the 15 characters studied. The estimates of gca effects of parents revealed that the genotype Vadipatti Local was found to have favourable gca effect for nine of the 15 characters studied. But the parent Bikaneer 1 could only be adjudged as the best as it had recorded significant gca effect in favourable direction for seven characters including yield of fruits per vine and leaf sodium : potassium ratio. High sca effects were observed for MDU 1 x Bikaneer 1, MDU 1 x Vadipatti Local and Bikaneer 1 x CO 1 for most of the traits. However, significant sca effects for yield of fruits per vine and leaf sodium : potassium ratio together could be recorded in the cross combinations MDU 1 x CO 1, MDU 1 x Bikaneer 1, MDU 1 x Paravai Local, IC 85643 x Bikaneer 1, IC 85643 x BGS 1, Bikaneer 3 x Vadipatti Local, Bikaneer 3 x Paravai Local, Vadipatti Local x Paravai Local and CO 1 x MDU 1, indicating the possibilities of exploiting them for simultaneous improvement of yield and saline tolerance. The importance of choice of male and female parents in the hybridisation programme was evident from the existence of reciprocal effects among crosses. High gca of the parents and non-significant sca recorded for some of the hybrid combinations revealed that these combinations could be better utilized for recombination breeding and it would be possible to obtain desirable recombinants for the traits concerned.

 

21. SHAKHA SHARMA AND B. SHARMA [Mango hoppers species composition and their relative abundance in different environmental conditions of Jammu region]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 104-108 (2009). Department of Zoology University of Jammu, Jammu, J & K, India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on mango leaf hoppers at five different environmental conditions of Jammu region viz., Jammu, Kathua, Udhampur, Nagbani and Kharot during the year 2001-02. Species composition and relative abundance were taken into account. Two species i. e. Amritodus atkinsoni and Idioscopus clypealis were noticed in all the five study areas. I. clypealis was found abundant in Kathua, Jammu and Kharot as it prefers slightly warm climate and rests on leaves, A. atkinsoni was found abundant in Udhampur as it prefers moderately cool climate and it generally rests on tree stems and branches, whereas in Nagbani both the species were found equally abundant. It was observed that I. clypealis showed only one peak in the month of April-May, whereas A. atkinsoni showed two peaks in all the study areas during the months of May-June and July-August.

 

22. AMBIKA, D. S. BYADGI, A. S. MALLIKARJUN, Y. KENGANAL, A. N. MOKASHI AND R. HEGDE [Efficiency of meristem culture in management of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in vitro*]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 109-112 (2009). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India.

ABSTRACT

Meristem culture is one of the novel tools of biotechnology in managing most of the plant viruses in vitro. But the spread of Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) through tissue culture seedlings in field speculated a doubt about the technique. The present study was aimed at checking the feasibility of the technology in managing the BBTV through meristem culture. BBTV infected suckers of Grand nine cultivar used for meristem culture alongwith healthy and MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators for different stages. The regeneration of BBTV infested meristem was found abnormal and took more time than healthy. The regenerated seedlings subjected to ELISA for confirmation showed the inability of meristem culture technique in eliminating the virus from the host. The episomal nature of the virus and its genomic integration into the host genome could be the possible reason for the failure of the technology. Proper indexing by ELISA or PCR and regular observation of the explant for certain period of time were found most ideal before selecting the explants for tissue culture. Strict quarantine with international exchange of germplasm was most ideal procedure to avoid sub-continental movement of the virus through exchange material.

 

23. HAR SIMRAT [Production and post-harvest technology of guava in India – An overview]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 113-134 (2009). PAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Samrala, Ludhiana (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

The paper gives a brief description of production and post-harvest technology of guava such as varieties, cultivation, propagation, irrigation, manures and fertilizers, pests and diseases, transportation and marketing, quality characteristics, machinery and equipments required for pilot plants and information about manufacturers. The information provided in this paper may be useful for students, farmers, teachers and scientists who are engaged in the teaching, research and extension activities on guava crop.

 

24. A. GOPALA KRISHNA REDDY AND O. P. CHATURVEDI [Effect of zinc, calcium and boron on growth and flowering in gladiolus cv. Red Majesty]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 135-137 (2009). Department of Horticulture C. S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out to study the effect of zinc (ZnSO4) at 0.5%, calcium (CaSO4) at 0.5% and boron (borax) at 0.25% on growth and flowering in gladiolus cv. Red Majesty in FRBD with four replications at C. S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during 2005-06. Foliar application of ZnSO4 at 0.5% found to be significant on different parameters like plant height (73.11 cm), leaf length (52.81 cm), days to flowering (66.11 days), length of spike (54.01 cm), length of rachis (46.26 cm), number of florets per spike (14.00) and floret length (9.08 cm). While borax and CaSO4 have shown non significant results for most of the characters except days to flowering (66.13 days) and number of florets (13.93) per spike with boron at 0.25%. However, the interaction between boron (0.25%), ZnSO4 (0.5%) and CaSO4 (0.5%), ZnSO4 (0.5%) revealed significant results for plant height 73.27 and 73.33 cm, respectively. While the interaction between boron and ZnSO4 was significantly affected by days to flowering (66.13 days) and rest of the interactions were non-significant.

 

25. S. HARI RAMAKRISHNAN, C. R. ANANDA KUMAR, N. MALINI AND S. SARAVANAN [Interpretation of hybrid vigour and inbreeding depression of certain crosses in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 138-140 (2009). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, India.

ABSTRACT

Ten F1 hybrids of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were synthesized using 14 parents and studied the extent of heterosis for plant height, panicles per plant, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle exertion, flag leaf area, spikelet fertility, kernel L/B ratio and grain yield per plant. Most of the hybrids expressed hybrid vigour for yield contributing traits. The best performing F1 hybrid ASD 18 x ADT 36 showed maximum heterosis and heterobeltiosis for yield. The hybrids ASD 16 x ADT 30, ASD 18 x ADT 36 and ADT 39 x ASD 18 showed more than 20% of heterobeltiosis for grain yield. The entry ASD 16 x ADT 30 showed high inbreeding depression for most of the yield traits.

 

26. M. R. KRISHNAPPA, H. M. CHANDRAPPA AND H. G. SHADAKSHARI [Stability analysis of medium duration hill zone rice genotypes of Karnataka]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 141-143 (2009). U. A. S. College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate 40 medium duration hill zone rice genotypes in their six farming situations of hill zone in Karnataka. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Pooled analysis of variance indicated presence of genetic variability. Linear and non-linear components also revealed that characters were subjected to environmental changes. The genotypes viz., Andrewsal,IET-5784, IET-7191, IET-13870, IET-14211, IMRYT/91/1708, IET-30864, IVT/91 (SHW)/10607 and IVT (SHW) 93/10608 were stable for high mean yield with non-significant bi and S2di values.

 

27. B. SATISH CHANDRA, T. DAYAKAR REDDY AND S. SUDHEER KUMAR [Variability parameters for yield, its components and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 144-146 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance were studied in 49 rice genotypes for yield and quality characters. High PCV and GCV values were obtained for number of productive tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant. High heritability alongwith high genetic advance was observed for plant height, number of grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight. Emphasis should be given on these characters, while selection is made to improve grain yield in rice.

 

28. D. P. GOHIL AND G. C. JADEJA [Phenotypic stability in durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) for grain yield and component characters under conserved soil moisture].Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 147-155 (2009). Agricultural Research Station Anand Agricultural University, Arnej-382 230 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

Stability analysis was performed for grain yield and some other traits in a diallel cross of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) under conserved soil moisture. The genotype x environment interactions were significant for all characters viz., effective tillers/plant, main spike length, number of spikelets/main spike, number of grains/main spike, 100-grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant. Both linear and non-linear components of G x E interactions were significant for 100-grain weight and grain yield per plant. For remaining five traits, only non-linear component was significant. The stability analysis revealed that none of the genotypes was stable for all the evaluated traits. Based on classification criteria of stability, the parents Bijaga Yellow and A-9-30-1 emerged as stable genotypes across the environments, while GW-1172 was highly responsive to favourable environment, coupled with high stability for grain yield per plant and a few component traits. The five hybrids involving popular variety GW-1 (P10) were unstable parent depicted stable performance for yield/plant. Hence, on overall basis, these four genotypes offered the possibilities of exploitation for varietal improvement programme in durum wheat. Eight hybrids viz., Bijaga Yellow x MACS-1967 (P1 × P7), Bijaga Yellow x GW-1 (P1 × P10), Bijaga Yellow x A-9-30-1 (P1 × P11), GW-1172 × V-83-274-2-3-1-2 (P2 × P9), Mrb-11//Snipe/Megh x MACS-1967 (P3 × P7), Mrb-11//Snipe/Megh x V-83-274-2-3-1-2 (P3 × P9), Mrb-11//Snipe/Megh x A-9-30-1(P3 × P11) and HI-8284 x GW-1 (P4 × P10) fell under group-I and were found to be stable and widely adapted genotypes to across the environments. While seven hybrids belonged to group-II exhibited stable performance across the environments for grain yield. From these hybrids, segregants combining high mean and stability of performance could be expected in the advance generations following conventional breeding methods and it would lead to the development of desirable lines for conserved soil moisture conditions.

 

29. R. P. SAHARAN AND M. SINGH [Coefficient of association of alleles and its implications in genetic analysis of some quantitative characters in durum wheat]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 156-161 (2009). Department of Genetics CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

ABSTRACT

From a set of advanced generation, pure lines derived from the cross, Durum 24 x WH 821, four pairs each having extreme phenotypic expression for one of the plant characters i. e. plant height, days to heading, ear length and 500-grain weight were selected for the present study. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) were developed in each of the association and dispersion pairs. For the loci contributing to variation in plant height and days to heading, the alleles of like effect were predominantly associated in one cross and dispersed in the other. For ear length and 500-grain weight, the alleles of like effect were partially associated/dispersed. Weighted least square analysis of the data was performed by using four different models. The failure of digenic interaction model was attributed mainly to linkage disequilibrium of interacting genes for the characters studied. The additive effect [d]2 estimated from the association crosses was higher than that of additive effect [d]1 estimated from dispersion crosses invariably for all the characters. Thus, the study indicated that additive and additive x additive gene effects were underestimated if the genes are dispersed among the parents. A comparison of within family variances for segregating generations in matched pair of crosses indicated that genes controlling days to heading, ear length and 500-grain weight showed linkage equilibrium of interacting genes, whereas genes controlling plant height showed linkage disequilibrium of interacting genes. It is concluded that association cross should be utilized for genetic analysis of different characters in order to decide an effective crop breeding programme.

 

30. BABITA CHAUDHARY AND V. P. MANI [Combining ability for disease resistance to turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) in semi-temperate maize]. Crop Res.38 (1, 2 & 3) : 162-166 (2009). Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora-263 601 (Uttarakhand), India

ABSTRACT

Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) is the most common as well as chronic problem of maize causing considerable losses in productivity. Breeding research has been carried out to improve the productivity, but turcicum leaf blight with respect to resistance breeding has been lagging behind. Genetic study based on combining ability for resistance to turcicum leaf blight was undertaken, using two resistant inbred V 13 and V 335 and four susceptible inbred lines CM 128, V 327, V 128 and V 17. Study revealed that resistance to turcicum leaf blight was found to be predominant under the influence of additive gene action alongwith significant contributions from additive x additive epistasis. The gca and sca variances were highly significant for turcicum leaf blight, which suggested that both additive and non-additive gene actions were operating in governing the inheritance of resistance. However, the magnitude of the estimates indicated preponderance of additive gene action. The inbred V 13 was the best general combiner followed by V 335.

 

31. R. R. GUPTA AND S. KUMAR [Hybrid vigour for yield and component traits in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 167-169 (2009).Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The performance of six F1 hybrids, involving five ragi (Eleusine coracana) varieties of diverse origin was studied to determine the heterosis over better and economic parents for grain yield and eight yield contributing characters. Two crosses such as S-81-10 x Co 8 and Co 8 x IE 28 gave significantly higher heterosis for grain yield per main spike than their respective better parents. Also, these two cross combinations showed high hybrid vigour for number of seeds per main spike, length of main spike and number of panicles per spike. It is, therefore, assessed that there is a good possibility of increasing grain yield by exploiting some of the yield components particularly number of seeds per main spike, length of main spike and number of panicles per spike. It is significant to point out that these crosses marked very high significant heterosis over the economic parent as well, T 36B, a recommended variety for this state.

 

32. JYOTI KUMARI*, R. N. GADAG AND R. D. SINGH [Quantitative inheritance of yield and related attributes in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 170-175 (2009). Division of Genetics Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India
*(e-mail : jj_gene@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Generation mean analysis was undertaken to estimate the different allelic and non-allelic gene interactions operating in the inheritance of field emergence, grain yield and its component traits in sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Six generations viz., both parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations (BC1 and BC2) from two field x sweet corn crosses were used as the material for this study. The additive and dominance model is not adequate to explain the differences among the generation means for almost all the traits. In most cases a digenic epistatic model was sufficient to explain variation in generation means. The epistasis was of duplicate type for the traits field emergence, maturity parameters, plant height and kernel rows, number of kernels per row and grain yield for both crosses. The ear length was governed by duplicate epistasis in first cross, while in cross DMB323 x SCI310, it was under complementary epistatic control. However, the characters like ear height and ear girth were observed to be under the control of complementary type of epistasis. The adequacies of certain modes of inheritance as well as the importance and significance of gene effects and genetic components of variance for analyzed traits were dependent upon the particular cross-combination.

 

33. DHANANJAY, RAMA KANT, B. N. SINGH AND G. SINGH [Studies on genetic variability, correlations and path coefficients analysis in mungbean]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 176-178 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Fifty genotypes of mungbean were evaluated for 10 biometrical traits to assess genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlations and path analysis. High GCV and PCV were observed for pods per cluster, seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering and pods per plant indicating considerable variation in these traits. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for seeds per pod and pods per plant indicating preponderance of additive gene action and greater scope for improvement in these traits through selection. Plant height and seed yield showed high heritability and low genetic advance could be due to non-additive gene action (dominant/epistatic) and/or less genetic variability for these traits. Association between seed yield and pods per plant, clusters per pod and seeds per pod was positive and highly significant. Traits like pods per plant and seeds per pod exhibited high order direct effects on seed yield. These characters identified above should be considered while formulating breeding strategies in mungbean.

 

34. SONALI GULERIA, NIRMALA CHONGTHAM AND SAROJ DUA [Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis studies in pea (Pisum sativum L.)]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 179-183 (2009). Department of Botany Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India

ABSTRACT

Ten indigenous and exotic genotypes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied for variability components and correlation of 10 different agromorphological characters among themselves. The studies indicated highly significant varietal differences for all the characters. Seeds per plant, shoot height, internodal length, grain yield and pod number had a high degree of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV). High heritability estimates were observed for almost all the characters except for seeds per pod, which had moderate value. Heritability estimates alongwith the knowledge of genetic gain are more useful than the heritability alone in predicting the value of selection. High genetic advance as percentage of mean was predicted in seeds per plant, shoot height and internodal length, which indicated that fix ability of heritable characters was high. Correlation studies indicate that characters like flower number, pod number and seeds per pod not only contributed positively to the grain yield but also had strong correlation coefficient with yield. Thus, the results of character association studies showed that genotypes with higher number of flowers, pods and seeds per pod should be selected to increase the grain yield.

 

35. RASHMI YADAV, R. K. SRIVASTAVA, RAMA KANT AND RANJEET SINGH [Studies on genetic variability, heritability and character association in fieldpea]. Crop Res. 38(1, 2 & 3) : 184-188 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India.

ABSTRACT

Studies on genetic variability, heritability and character association were conducted on 62 indigenous and exotic fieldpea genotypes. A wide range of variations among all the traits was observed. Seed yield per plant ranged from 5.32 to 20.75 g. High PCV and GCV, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance were observed for plant height, biological yield per plant, seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight, number of seeds per pod and harvest index, indicating heritability due to additive gene control and simple selection may be effective. Seed yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with biological yield and harvest index. Days to maturity exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant height. Biological yield per plant also highly significant and positively correlated with plant height and number of seeds per plant. Biological yield followed by harvest index exerted highest direct effect on seed yield. High order positive indirect effects on seed yield via harvest index were exerted by the plant height, number of seeds per pod, days to maturity, number of pods per plant and 100-seed weight.

 

36. A. I. PATEL, S. C. MALI, B. G. CHHIMPI AND U. G. PATEL [General and specific combining ability in GMS based intra and interspecific diploid cottons*]. Crop Res. 38(1, 2 & 3) : 189-195 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

The material consisted of 62 (48 intra and interspecific crosses+14 parents) genotypes of Asiatic cottons grown at three locations viz., Surat, Bharuch and Hansot of Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) using Line x Tester analysis to obtain gca and sca. The observations were recorded on characters to plant morphology and yield of seed cotton and its component characters. The pooled analysis of variance indicated significant differences due to females x males and females and males, suggesting both dominance as well as additive variance were involved in the traits. Among the parents, 4011 was found to be best combiner for seed cotton yield per plant and its contributing traits. 35N, 824 and G. Cot. 17 were also good general combiner for yield and its contributing traits. Four hybrids viz., 4011 x GShv 1012/90 (intra herbaceum), 378 BK x 824, 35N x G. Cot. 17 and 8401 x G. Cot. 17 (interspecific) recorded higher per se performance alongwith higher sca effects.

 

37. ASHWANI KUMAR, I. S. YADAV AND K. P. SINGH [Stability for seed and fibre yield of sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea Linn.) genotypes under dryland conditions]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 196-198 (2009). Dryland Agricultural Research Project CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was undertaken to study the stability parameters for seed as well as fibre yield of sunhemp genotypes under dryland conditions, which are prone to yield fluctuations due to dependence on rains. Genotype-environment interaction of sunhemp was investigated over three years (2000, 2001 and 2003) for its fibre and seed yield in respect of 19 genotypes at Dryland Research Area, CCSHAU, Hisar. Significant variation was observed for genotypes, environment and genotypes x environment interactions for both seed as well as fibre yields. For fibre yield, genotypes DSH 4, DSH 5, DSH 9 and CG 1, whereas for seed yield genotypes DSH 3, DSH 4, DSH 5 and CG 3 were found most stable. The recently registered genotype DSH-5 was stable for both the traits studied.

 

38. E. SUMATHI, R. VISHNUPRIYA, S. BANUMATHY, R. MANIMARAN, V. JAYABAL AND B. RAMYA [Screening of rice entries for resistance to major pests]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 199-204 (2009). Rice Research Station, Tirur, Thiruvallur (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Rice leaffolder, black bug, stem borer and gall midge are the major pests of rice in Thiruvallur district. Different rice accessions, cultivars, pre-released and advanced cultures in the pipe line were evaluated to find out the field resistance. In this study, rice cultures viz., RIC 050611 and RIC 050613 were found to be resistant to leaffolder damage. The entries viz., RIC 050801, RIC 050802, RIC 050803, RIC 050804 and RIC 050807 showed moderately resistant reaction against gall midge. MLT-Hybrid early cultures viz., RIC 06701-RIC 06706 were found to possess moderate level of resistance to black bug damage. MLT-QR cultures viz., RIC 06501, RIC 06502, RIC 06504 and RIC 06505 and MLT-cultures viz., RIC 101, RIC 103, RIC 104, RIC 105, RIC 106 and AVT-VE cultures viz., RIC 103, RIC 111 and RIC 112 and AVT-2 early cultures viz., IET 18722, IET 18726, IET 18732, IET 18736, IET 18754, IET 18757, IET 18758, IET 18814, IET 18812, IET 18816 and PSD 1 (Hybrid) were found to be resistant to black bug damage. IET 19806 (IVT-SG) and IET 18055 (AVT-1 SG) were also found to be resistant to black bug damage. The entries viz., TM 05063, TM 05010, TM 05015 and TM 05020 were found to be resistant to stem borer.

 

39. S. M. THAKARE, BHARTI DHOBLE AND A. S. THAKARE [Effect of different chemicals applied by seed or stem smearing technique on natural enemies of Bt cotton].Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 205-207 (2009). Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was conducted at Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during 2007-08 to evaluate the effect of stem smearing and seed treatments against natural enemies on Bt cotton.The seed treatments of thiamethoxam @ 4 g/kg and imidacloprid @ 10 g/kg were proved safer to Lady bird beetle, Chrysopa, Syrphid fly, Spiders than their stem smearing, whereas stem application of monocrotophos @ 1 : 4 dilution at 15 and 30 DAE and at 15, 30 and 45 DAE and imidacloprid @ 1 : 20, at 15 and 30 DAE and 15, 30 and 45 DAE proved most economical recording maximum yield and net profit, while seed treatments of thiamethoxam @ 4 g/kg (ST) and a stem smearing of monocrotophos @ 1 : 4 dilution at 15 and 30 DAE recorded higher ICBR.

 

40. KU. S. S. MAHAKALKAR, KU. V. T. NIKHADE AND S. L. BORKAR [Efficacy of spinosad and different biopesticides on larval reduction of H. armigera on pigeonpea]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 208-211 (2009). Department of Entomology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The field study was planned and conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spinosad and different biopesticides against H. armigera on pigeonpea. An application of spinosad 45 SC @ 50 g a. i./ha registered significantly maximum larval reduction of H. armigera. The next effective treatment was HaNPV @ 250 LE/ha+ spinosad 45 SC @ 25 g a. i./ha, followed by Bt (PDKV) @ 1 l/ha+spinosad 45 SC @ 25 g a. i./ha and azadirachtin 300 ppm @ 5 ml/l+spinosad 45 SC @ 25 g a. i./ha which were at par with each other. Significantly maximum yield was produced by treatment with spinosad 45 SC @ 50 g a. i./ha, followed by HaNPV, Bt and azadirachtin in combination with half dose of spinosad 45 SC.

 

41. B. MAHESHA*, P. V. PATIL AND B. NANDINI [Morphological characters of Rhizoctonia aerial blight and Myrothecium leaf spot pathogens in soybean]. Crop Res. 38(1, 2 & 3) : 212-214 (2009). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
(*e-mail : maheshkantha100@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], an important oil seed crop of the world, belongs to the family Leguminaceae. Like any other crop soybean is also susceptible to many diseases. Among the diseases Rhizoctonia aerial blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) and Myrothecium leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fries.) are also important because of their severity that leads to the yield losses of about 35% in case of Rhizoctonia aerial blight (Sinclair and Backman, 1989). To manage these diseases, proper diagnosis is must; because based on that, suitable management practices can be chosen. For proper diagnosis, one should know the key identification characters of the pathogen in addition to its symptomatology on the host. Hence, an attempt was made to find out the preliminary identification characters based on physical appearance and to confirm the morphological characters of Rhizoctonia aerial blight (R. solani Kuhn) and Myrothecium leaf spot (M. roridum Tode ex Fries.). In this context, pathogen was isolated individually by using standard protocal and it was subjected to microscopic studies and results revealed that R. solani produced the right angle branched hyphae with basal constriction; M. roridum produced the club shaped conidia which is hyaline in colour, cylindrical in shape, present both in singly and groups.

 

42. MINA D. KOCHE, R. B. KOTHIKAR, D. G. ANVIKAR AND SHILPA UDAMALE [Effect of seed dressing fungicides and bioagent on survival of seed-borne fungi and shelf life of soybean]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 215-218 (2009). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Soybean seed showed association of 10 fungi belonging to nine genera viz., Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Penicillum, Phoma, Rhizoctonia and Rhizopus. Among the fungicides and bioagent tested for their efficacy against seed-borne mycoflora to improve seed germination and plant health showed that fungal association with soybean, seed germination percentage, shoot, root length and seedling vigour index decreased as the storage period increased. Seed treatment thiram+carbendazim (1 :1) 3 g/kg of seed was found superior in controlling the seed-borne mycoflora (0.50 to 0.0%), increasing the seed germination (85.00 to 79.00%), shoot (10.06 to 6.50 cm), root length (6.42 to 6.35 cm) and seedling vigour index (1400 to 936).

 

43. R. AKROMAH, S. Y. C. ESSAH AND A. K. OBOUR[Reaction of local and improved cassava germplasm to the African cassava mosaic virus disease]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 219-223 (2009). Department of Crop Science Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

ABSTRACT

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in Sub-Saharan Africa is plagued by the African Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease (ACMVD) which causes about 30.0% yield loss annually. The objective of this study was to screen local cassava accessions for resistance to the ACMVD, and to determine whether the pattern of reaction of the varieties to the disease could be used as an index to avoid disease infection. The effects of temperature and rainfall distribution on the reactions of the cassava accessions to ACMVD were evaluated. Twenty six cassava accessions and four improved varieties [3 Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) lines and 1 mutant] were evaluated for their reaction to the ACMVD in the humid tropical rain forest region of Ghana (Kumasi, longitude 01o 30¢ W, latitude 06o 33¢ N) during wet and dry seasons of the year. Four rows of each cassava accession and improved variety (10 plants per row) were planted on rainfed plots and replicated three times. Plants were scored for their reaction to ACMVD at the vegetative and flowering stages, and rated as resistant, moderately resistant or susceptible, based on the mosaic symptoms on the top five leaves. Disease severity was high during early plant growth, and disease was more pronounced during periods of high rainfall. However, incidence and severity of the disease were low when temperatures were high. Five cassava accessions, DMA 002, WCH 037, NKZ 009, NKZ 015 and ASF 029 showed apparent field resistance throughout the study period. The improved varieties were highly susceptible in the early stages of growth but recovered from the disease as the plants matured. The study showed that some cassava varieties had the potential to withstand ACMVD incidence under the humid conditions of Sub-Saharan Africa. ACMVD reaction in those varieties is similar to that reported in the TMS lines and appears to be under a single locus, monogenic control. The cassava varieties that showed resistance to the ACMVD in this study were evaluated for yield and other morpho-agronomic attributes in multi-location trials before being distributed to growers.

 

44. A. NAGARAJA AND B. ANJANEYA REDDY [Foot rot of finger millet–an increasing disease problem in Karnataka]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 224-225 (2009). Project Co-ordinating Unit, AICSMIP, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Finger millet is a staple food crop of southern Karnataka and Sclerotium rolfsii is becoming a problem. It infects all stages of the crop. White cottony mycelial growth occurred in the affected portion and very soon roundish white velvety grain like structures started appearing in the fungal matrix. The pathogen was isolated repeatedly from the affected portion on PDA and based on mycelial and sclerotial body characters was identified as S. rolfsii.

 

45. C. B. PANDYA* AND V. R. BHATT [Effect of fertilizer levels and FYM on yield, nutrient content, soil nutrient status and quality of fodder cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 226-229 (2009). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat), India
*(e-mail : chetan@aau.in)

ABSTRACT

A pot experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Department, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand during kharif season to study the effect of fertilizer levels and FYM on yield, nutrient content, soil nutrient status and quality of fodder cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.] variety ‘EC-4216’ as a test crop. It was observed that the highest green and dry matter yield of fodder cowpea was recorded under 150% NPK+FYM (T7) which was at par with 100% NPK+FYM (T6) treatment. The increase in green and dry matter yield under T7 treatment was to the tune of 64 and 56%, respectively, over control. Application of 150% NPK+FYM (T7) proved to be the best for getting the highest nitrogen and potassium content as well as uptake. Similar results were also observed for crude protein content and yield in fodder cowpea. The highest phosphorus content of fodder cowpea was observed under 150% PK (T4) treatment. The NDF content of fodder cowpea was found to be maximum under control treatment. Rest of the treatments recorded low content of it. The soil status depicted that organic carbon content and available potassium status was the highest with 100% NPK+FYM. In case of soil available phosphorus, higher value was observed in treatment T4 followed by T6 and T7 treatments. The status of available sulphur and DTPA-extractable Zn was found to be the highest under 100% NPK+Zn+S+FYM (T10) and 100% NPK+Zn (T8) treatments, respectively.

 

46. O. A. ADERINOLA*, D. O. OKUNLOLA AND T. OYADEYI [Effect of supplement on the performance of West African dwarf sheep grazing in a regrowth field of Panicum maximum]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 230-235 (2009). Department of Animal Production and Health Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
*(e-mail : ade4aderinola@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The effect of supplements on the performance of West African dwarf sheep grazing in a regrowth field of Panicum maximum was investigated. Twelve rams were allowed to graze in the regrowth field (4200 x 1740 m) for 6 h daily before supplement was provided as follows : Treatment 1–Control (No supplement), Treatment 2–Brewers dried grain based diet, Treatment 3–Gliricidia sepium based diet and Treatment 4–Canavalia ensiformis based diet. The mean weekly weight gains were not significantly different (P>0.05) from one another. The animals on BDG based diet had the highest mean supplement intake (3.02±0.48 kg/week) and the animals on G. sepium based diet had the highest feed efficiency value (0.35±0.21) followed by animals on C. ensiformis (0.25±0.22). It was observed that animals on G. sepium and C. ensiformis based diets performed better than animals on BDG based diet and should be exploited.

 

47. D. M. PATEL, B. S. PATEL, P. P. PATEL, B. B. PATEL AND G. N. PATEL [Yield attributes and yield of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as influenced by various sources and levels of nitrogen]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 236-240 (2009). Department of Agronomy S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

*(e-mail mr.pacific001@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soils during rabi seasons of 2004-05 and 2005-06 to study yield attributes and yield of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as influenced by nitrogen management. Among different sources of nitrogen, application of N through urea significantly improved green and dry forage yields (91.45 and 12.17 q/ha, respectively) in first cut only. Linear response of basal application of nitrogen was observed with respect to green forage yield in first cut and total yield of all the five cuts. Application of 30 kg N/ha after harvest of each cut recorded maximum green and dry forage yields at third, fourth and fifth cut as well as total of all the five cuts over lower levels. Application of nitrogen through urea significantly increased plant height at first and second cut, number of leaves per plant at first cut and leaf area per plant at second cut. The mean plant height, leaf area and number of leaves per plant were drastically improved with 60 kg N/ha as basal application. Among different levels of nitrogen applied as top dress after harvest of each cut, 30 kg N/ha increased plant height in second cut and in mean of all five cuts. It also increased leaf length, leaf area and number of leaves per plant in second, third, fourth, fifth cut and mean of all the five cuts. Maximum net return of Rs. 65,559/ha was recorded when N was applied through urea + castor cake in equal proportion; Rs. 68,285/ha with 60 kg N/ha as basal application and Rs. 80,158/ha with 30 kg N/ha after harvest of each cut in forage chicory.

 

48. ALI REZA SHOKOUHFAR, MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*, SH. LACK AND GHOLAM HOSSEIN HAJI SHARAFI [Comparison of sugarcane yield in response to salt stress in Ahwaz climatical condition in Iran]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 241-244 (2009). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the effects of salt stress on recoverable sugar (RS) in sugarcane, a research was conducted in center of Amir Kabir Research Farm in Ahwaz, using a treatment method of split-plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications. This research was based on two factors such as sugarcane cultivars (CP 71-3002 and CP-4333) and different EC rates (2, 2-4 and 6 dS/m).The results showed that in terms of EC increasing, there were significant differences between cultivars and different EC rates on RS (0.613 in first harvesting and 0.231 in second harvesting). In normal condition, CP 71-3002 had higher RS than CP-4333, but CP-4333 had higher tolerance to salt stress than CP 71-3002.

 

49. RANIA W. AKEEL, IBRAHIM M. RAWASHDEH, NASRI I. HADDAD* AND MALIK HADDADIN [Genetic variation between and among Origanum syriacum L. and Origanum majorana L. populations collected from different locations in Jordan using RAPD markers]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 245-257 (2009). Horticulture and Crop Science Department University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
*(e-mail : nasrih@ nets.com.jo)

ABSTRACT

The genetic variation between and among 14 populations of wild Origanum syriacum L., four accessions of cultivated Origanum syriacum and two accessions of Origanum majorana L. collected from various wild habitats, local nursery and agricultural shops and companies from Jordan were analyzed using 48 RAPD randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Each primer exhibited 1 to 8 patterns for a total of 1359 scorable bands and 136 polymorphic ones. The six primers, namely, OPA 05, OPA 06, OPA 20, OPD 03, OPD 20 and OPT 20 showed highly polymorphic bands were used for construction of a dendrogram and similarity matrix. Similarity values among the studied populations and accessions ranged from 0.85 to 0.000. High similarity values were obtained between O. syriacum populations collected from Irbid. Based on a dendrogarm O. majorana species showed a separated group and the cluster analysis clearly differentiated between O. syriacum and O. majorana. RAPD analysis confirmed the existence genetic variation between two Origanum species. The data obtained in this study were considered as a guide for collection and monitoring of Origanum species and other types in the future. Presence of genetic variation among and within two species of Origanum indicated that Jordan had a wide genetic diversity for those and that there was a promising future for the breeding.

 

50. P VENKATARAMANA, B. NARASIMHA MURTHY, K. THIRUPATHI REDDY1, J. V. KRISHNA RAO2 AND C. K. KAMBLE3 [Influence of organic and conventional farming on black cotton soil chemical and biochemical quality indices and their impact on mulberry (Morus alba L.) yield and leaf quality assessment through bio-assay]. Crop Res.38 (1, 2 & 3) : 258-273 (2009). Research Extension Centre, Central Silk Board, Vikarabad-501 101 (A. P), India

ABSTRACT

Conventional agriculture system can lead to reduced soil organic matter and depletion in soil fertility. For this reason, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations recommends organic matter incorporation to soils to increase their agronomic quality. This work studies the effect of the transition to organic farming on chemical and biochemical quality indices of block cotton soil and mulberry yield and evaluation of leaf quality through silkworm rearing, through a series of 10 crops over three-year period (2005-2008). The study was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with four replications per treatment. Three treatments viz., (i) inorganic fertilization, (ii) vegetal compost and (iii) animal compost were tested. Soil chemical and biological status was evaluated by measuring total organic carbon (TOC), humic acid, biocarbonate-extractable P (Olsen-P), ammonium acetate extractable-potassium (AAE-K), Kjeldhal-N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), enzymatic activities viz., dehydrogenase, protease, glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, soil respiration, MBC/TOC and MBC/MBN ratios. At the end of the study, the organically fertilized soils showed an increase in quantity (TOC) and quality (humic acid) of organic matter compared to inorganically fertilized soils. Nutrient content (Kjeldhal-N, Olsen-P and AAE-K) also increased in organically fertilized soils. In general, animal compost improved chemical and biological properties of more than vegetal compost. Soil respiration was highly influenced by seasonal variability, and the highest values were found in summer. The MBC/TOC values indicated that micro organisms covered C to MBC more efficiently in conventionally fertilized soil. Protease and phosphatase activities differed between treatments after the third crop and the highest values were observed in organically fertilized soil. The TOC and nutrient contents were correlated (P<0.001) with microbial biomass and enzymatic activities. Extra-cellular enzyme activities viz., protease, glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase were found to be significantly and positively correlated with the MBC and MBN. The impact of vegetal and animal composts on mulberry leaf yield, leaf quality indices and its impact on silkworm rearing were studied. The findings revealed that the maximum mulberry yield, leaf moisture content and leaf moisture retention capacity were registered due to the application of animal compost than that of vegetal compost. With regard to silkworm rearing, the minimum larval duration maximum 10 larval weight effective rate of rearing, single cocoon weight, single shell weight and single shell ratio were recorded with the application of animal compost compared to vegetal compost.

 

51. SNEH GOYAL, SUNITA SUNEJA, KAMLESH KUKREJA AND MEENU WALIA [Impact of metals contaminated sewage sludge on microbial biomass and activities in sandy loam soils]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 274-279 (2009). Department of Microbiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

A laboratory incubation experiment was carried out to study the effect of uncontaminated and metal contaminated sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and carbon mineralization. It was found that metal contamination at current permissible EC limits did not affect the microbial biomass C but had a detrimental effect at double the permissible limits. Also, a combination of Cu and Cd caused greater decrease in microbial biomass and microbial activities at lower metal concentration compared to either of the single metals at much higher concentrations after 90 days of incubation. In contrast a combination of Ni and Cd did not have that effect on microbial biomass in this experiment. From these results it appears that Cu and Cd in combinations had more toxic effects on microbial biomass carbon than when these were present individually at smaller metal concentrations. Results of the present study indicated that about 57.6% of added C got mineralized in uncontaminated sewage sludge. However, the addition of metal contaminated sewage sludge resulted in decline in carbon mineralization at both the levels and the effect was more pronounced at double the current permissible limits.

 

52. V. P. S. YADAV*, R. S. DALAL, BEENA YADAV, RAJENDER KUMAR, ANIL KUMAR AND AMARJEET [[Adoption of crop production technologies for sustainable dryland farming]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 280-286 (2009). CCSHAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bhopani, Faridabad (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : vpsyadav@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Dryland farming plays an important role in agricultural production of the country. Dryland farming is way of life for a majority of Indian farmers. It is characterized by the resource poor, small and marginal farmers, a poor infrastructure and low investments in technology and inputs. Rapeseed and mustard, gram and bajra are the major crops of rabi and kharif seasons, respectively, in dry farming zone of South-West Haryana. The average productivity of rapeseed and mustard, gram and bajra is quite low. The study highlighted that the adoption of crop production technologies in cultivation of rapeseed and mustard, gram and bajra crops was low under dryland farming situation. There is a big challenge before the nation to sustain the present yield levels of these crops. The full adoption of crop production technologies is very important in achieving desired level of productivity of dryland crops. The farmers should be educated by the extension personnel of state Department of Agriculture and Extension Specialists of state agricultural university by organizing the training programmes and conducting demonstrations on the above mentioned aspects of dryland farming technologies.

 

53. R. GOLYA NAIK, MURTUZA KHAN AND C. NARAYANASWAMY [Impact of watershed development programme on economic performance, annual income and employment generation of beneficiary farmers]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 287-290 (2009). College of Sericulture, Chintamani (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out in Aghalya-Nagargatta watershed in Karnataka State during 2006-07 to study of the impact of Watershed Development Programme (WDP) on economic performance, annual income and employment generation of the beneficiaries. Two hundred and ten participant farmers from the project area were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. The results revealed a significant increase in the economic performance index, annual income and employment generation in case of marginal, small and big farmers after the implementation of Watershed Development Programme (WDP).

 

54. D. G. KANAWADE, D. B. DHUMALE AND S. S. MANE [AKDW 2997-16–New variety of durum wheat]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 291-293 (2009). Wheat Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 001 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

On the basis of high yield potential, very good acceptability for pasta product and other desirable traits, durum wheat genotype AKDW 2997-16 was identified and recommended by 44th All India Wheat and Barley Research Workers Meet held at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in August 2005 for cultivation under timely sown rainfed condition of Peninsular Zone.

 

55. M. GHASEMI-VARNAMKHASTI*, S. S. MOHTASEBI, H. AHMADI AND S. H. RAZAVI [Electronic mouth : A new technology for agro-food evaluation]. Crop Res. 38 (1, 2 & 3) : 294-296 (2009). Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
*(e-mail : ghasemymahdi@ut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

It is worth mentioning that the process occurring in the mouth during eating is complex. It pointed out the limitations of studying model systems, which gave very different results from real foods. It was thus necessary to take all effects into account simultaneously to study aroma release in artificial mouths. Nevertheless, the results obtained from real foods were generally difficult to explain.