Volume 31, Number 1 (January, 2006)

  1. B. K. YADAV AND A. CHRISTOPHER LOURDURAJ [Effect of organic manures and Panchagavya spray on yield attributes, yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 1-5 (2006). Department of Environmental Sciences Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

    ABSTRACT

    Studies were carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January-May of 2004 to evaluate the effect of organic manures (farm yard manure, composted poultry manure, composted coir pith and green leaf manure) and Panchagavya spray on the yield attributes and economics of organically raised rice crop. The findings revealed that application of organic manures and foliar spray of 3% Panchagavya significantly increased the yield attributes, grain yield and economics. Application of recommended NPK through fertilizers recorded higher grain yield (5759 kg ha-1), followed by 50% N through composted poultry manure+50% N through green leaf maure (5717 kg ha-1) which did not differ significantly. However, application of 50% N through composted poultry manure+50% N through green leaf manure alongwith Panchagavya spray recorded significantly higher net returns (Rs. 17822 ha-1), followed by recommended NPK through Panchagavya spray (Rs. 15586 ha-1).

     

  2. B. K. YADAV AND A. CHRISTOPHER LOURDURAJ [Effect of organic manures and Panchagavya spray on rice (Oryza sativa L.) quality]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 6-10 (2006). Department of Environmental Sciences Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Studies were carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January to May of 2004 to assess the effects of organic manures (farm yard manure, composted poultry manure, composted coir pith and green leaf manure) application and Panchagavya spray on rice quality parameters. Physical parameters measured were paddy grain size, 1000-grain weight and milling quality as well as cooking qualities i. e. cooking time, volume expansion ratio and water absorption ratio. Sensory evaluation was done using nine point hedonic scale. The result of the study showed that foliar spray of Panchagavya and organic manures recorded significantly higher quality rice as compared to recommended NPK through fertilizers application. Application of 50% N through composted poultry manure+50% N through green leaf manure alongwith Panchagavya spray recorded significantly higher physical characteristics and cooking qualities of rice as well as higher sensory score as compared to recommended NPK through fertilizers.

  3. R. D. S. YADAV AND J. P. SRIVASTAVA [Studies on synchronization of flowering in hybrid rice]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 11-13 (2006). Seed Technology Research Centre N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.) India.


    ABSTRACT

    Investigation was undertaken to study the flowering behaviour and leaf growth rate of a CMS line IR 58025A, its maintainer IR 58025B and restorer (NDR 3026-3-1) of a promising rice hybrid NDRH2 to design a technological measure for obtaining a perfect synchronization of flowering between these parental lines. Based on these measures, the synchronization of flowering between IR 58025A and IR 58025B could be obtained, if line B is seeded on 4th and 7th days after the seeding of line A, whereas three staggered seedings of line R at 9, 12 and 15 days earlier to seeding of line A were appropriate for obtaining perfect synchronization between A and R breeding system. Besides, these measures could also be employed for other hybrid combinations.

  4. B. S. KUMPAWAT [Effect of phosphorus levels and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and its residual effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum) under limited water supply]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 14-16 (2006). M. P. U. A. & T. Dryland Farming Research Station, Arjia, Bhilwara-311 001 (Rajasthan), India.


    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was carried out during 1999-2000 to 2001-02 to study the effect of phosphorus levels with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on crop productivity of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] and its residual effect on succeeding wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.]. The highest clusterbean seed yield (8.76 q/ha) was obtained with 20 kg P2O5/ha+PSB seed inoculation. Grain yield of succeeding wheat crop increased by 2.16, 1.81 and 0.42 q/ha with the residue of 20 kg P2O5/ha+PSB seed inoculation over the residue of control, 20 kg P2O5/ha and 40 kg P2O5/ha, respectively. Application of 20 kg P2O5/ha with PSB seed inoculation to the preceding crop of clusterbean increased wheat-grain equivalent yield by 12.5% over control. The highest benefit : cost ratio (2.64) and net returns (Rs. 23076/ha) were also obtained with the application of 20 kg P2O5/ha+PSB seed inoculation. Wheat responded to nitrogen application significantly upto 120 kg N/ha.

  5. GURKIRPAL SINGH, K. JATINDER SINGH, SARBJIT SINGH SOOCH AND SOHAN SINGH WALIA1 [Role of biofertilizers in enhancing the efficacy of inorganic fertilizers in relation to growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 17-21 (2006). Department of Civil Engineering Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India


    ABSTRACT

    The effect of seed inoculation by biofertilizers viz., Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria for judicious use of inorganic fertilizers viz., nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in wheat was studied for two crop seasons at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Results revealed that application of 100% N+100% P, which is the recommended practice, yielded 48.5 q/ha wheat grains which increased to maximum value of 50.6 q/ha under application of 100% N+100% P+slurry+Azospirillum +Phosphobacteria. However, the treatment 50% N+50% P+slurry+Azospirillum +Phosphobacteria, with a saving of 50% of nitrogen and 50% of phosphorus as compared to recommended doses of inorganic fertilizer, produced 47.9 q/ha, which was statistically at par with the grain yield of 48.5 q/ha recorded under recommended practice. Similarly, during second year of study, the treatment 50% N+50% P+slurry+Azospirillum +Phosphobacteria produced 45.4 q/ha of wheat grain, which was at par with grain yield of 46.1 q/ha recorded under the recommended practice thereby saving 50% of nitrogen and 50% of phosphorus over the recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers. This saving of inorganic fertilizers could have been possible due to enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus supply as a result of biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by nitrogen fixing bacteria “Azospirillum” in the presence of biogas slurry and improved phosphorus supply through P solubilizing “Phosphobacteria”.

  6. A. S. SIDHU AND R. P. NARWAL [Uptake of lead by maize (Zea mays) as affected by lead levels and different organic materials]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 22-25 (2006). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

    ABSTRACT

    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different organic materials and Pb on the yield and uptake of Pb by maize plants. The beneficial effect of Pb at its lower (25 mg kg-1) level of application, on the growth of maize was observed, however, further increase in Pb supply significantly reduced the dry matter of the crop. Application of organic materials improved the yield of maize in Pb contaminated soil. The concentration of Pb in plants increased significantly with increasing levels of Pb in soil. However, application of organic carbon reduced the Pb concentration of maize tissue. The uptake of Pb by maize plants increased with increasing application of lead and organic carbon to soil.

  7. S. BOROOMAND NASAB, M. BEHZAD AND A. AZARI [T-Tape irrigation scheduling for corn]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 26-29 (2006). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran.


    ABSTRACT

    Scarcity of water resources indicates a critical need for optimum use of water in agriculture. One way is the application of modern irrigation methods such as T-Tape irrigation system. This paper describes assessment of performance of T-Tape irrigation system and crop yield for the spring corn, hybrid SC 704. The treatments applied were 80, 100 and 120% water demands for corn growth, respectively. The length of each tape was 40 m and the distance between each two rows was 75 cm. The water demands of the plant were determined by using pan evaporation approach and crop coefficient. Evaluation indexes include water productivity, moisture distribution patterns and the depth and width of corn root zone. The results showed that the best production performance was 9457 kg corn seed per hectare related to 100% treatment. Results for the other two treatments were 9147 and 8515 kg for 120 and 80% water demand, respectively. Also the water productivity obtained for 80, 100 and 120% treatment was 1.6, 1.4 and 1.3 kg corn per cubic metre water consumption, respectively. By comparing different production performances and taking into account total weights of corn in SAS software, all three treatments were classified into one group showing negligible discrepancies. However, the results of Duncan test showed that 120% treatment had dominance over other treatments and after that were 100 and 80% treatments, respectively. Also the depth of root zone obtained for 80, 100 and 120% treatments was 42.3, 43 and 51 cm, respectively.

  8. HARBIR SINGH, R. S. HOODA, RAKESH KUMAR, V. P. SINGH AND VINOD KUMAR [Grain yield and nitrogen uptake by rainfed pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrids under varying nitrogen application]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 30-32 (2006). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted at Hisar to study the effect of N levels on grain, stover yield, N concentration and its uptake in grain and stover of some pearl millet hybrids during kharif 2003. Among various hybrids, MH 1066, being at par with MH 1099, recorded significantly highest grain yield. Highest and lowest N content and uptake in grain was recorded with MH 1075 and MH 1001, respectively. N content and uptake in stover did not differ significantly among various pearl millet hybrids. Increasing levels of N application brought about significant improvement in the grain and stover yield, N content and its uptake by rainfed pearl millet.

  9. GHODRATOLLAH FATHI [Integrated weed management in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 33- 36 (2006). Department of Agronomy Agricultural and Natural Resources Khoozestan University, Ahwaz, Iran.


    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources of Khoozestan University, Ahwaz, Mollasani, in south of Iran during 2002-03 and 2003-04 to find out most effective control measure for weeds in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). One cultivation, two cultivations, two time dalapon (2 l/ha), dalapon, dalapon+one cultivation, dalapon+two cultivations, two time dalapon+one cultivation, two time dalapon+two cultivations were compared with weed-free and weedy check treatments. Treatments were replicated four times and were compared in a complete randomized block design. Echinochloa crusgalli, Cressa cretica and Convolvulus arvensis were the predominant weeds. Combining two times dalapon and two cultivations effectively controlled weeds (92.5 g/m). Dalapon application in two times with one cultivation (T7) also provided desired control of weeds (99.4 g/m). With treatments dry weight and number of weeds were sharply reduced particularly Convolvulus arvensis and Cressa cretica. Application of two and one time herbicide (T3, T4 and T5) markedly improved weed control efficiency. The highest grain yield (2225.1 kg/ha) and superior yield attributes were recorded under two time dalapon+two cultivations. It can be concluded that cultivations completed the effects of herbicide.

  10. T. RAMESH, P. DEVASENAPATHY AND R. SABARINATHAN [Root growth and nodulation characteristics of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] as influenced by in situ soil moisture conservation and nutrient management practices under rainfed Alfisols ecosystem]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 37-42 (2006). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.


    ABSTRACT

    Field study was carried out for two consecutive years during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2002 and 2003 at the demonstration fields of M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Ariyamuthupatti, Pudukottai district of Tamil Nadu to evaluate the effect of different in situ soil moisture conservation and nutrient management practices on root growth and nodulation characteristics of cowpea under rainfed condition. Treatments were four different in situ soil moisture conservation practices (ridges and furrows, compartmental bunding alone and alongwith mulching) and three different nutrient management practices (recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers, raw compost and enriched compost), compared to farmers’ practice of moisture conservation (disc ploughed once during pre-monsoon showers and subsequently country plough tillage was given once during sowing) and no nutrient application. During 2003, there was a change in the treatment structure where tied ridges replaced the compartmental bunding and raw compost application was replaced by application of 50% inorganic fertilizers and 50% enriched compost. Results revealed that on root growth (length, volume and dry weight) nodulation characteristics (numbers and dry weight) and grain yield of cowpea were increased significantly due to in situ soil moisture conservation practice ridges and furrows with mulching and tied ridges with mulching during 2002 and 2003, respectively. Enriched compost application during 2002 and integration of 50% inorganic fertilizers and 50% enriched compost during 2003 registered significantly higher root growth, nodulation and grain yield than farmers’ practice of no nutrient application.

  11. P. C. SRIVASTAVA, UBAID KHAN AND L. M. PANT [Effect of N and Zn interaction on nodulation, yields and nutrient concentrations of French bean inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (Strain-9R)]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 43-51 (2006). Department of Soil Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effect of N (20, 40 and 60 mg N kg-1 soil) and Zn (0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg Zn kg-1 soil) and their interaction in French bean (cv. Contender-3) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (Strain-9R) on nodulation at 40 days after sowing (DAS) and shoot and root dry weights, seed and straw yields at maturity, nutrient concentration and uptake at both 40 DAS and maturity. Zinc application, especially at lower and medium N levels, increased the number of medium (» 2.5 mm dia) and bigger (» 3.5 mm dia) size nodules and also average dry weight of nodule. Lower rate of N or no application of Zn resulted only in higher number of small size (£ 1.5 mm dia) nodules. At increasing N levels, an increase in Zn dose was found to be effective in increasing total nodule dry weight per pot. At 40 DAS, application of N or Zn and their interaction effect significantly increased both root and shoot dry weights. Application of N increased the total dry matter, seed and straw yields at maturity, while Zn application increased only total dry matter-, seed-yields and average seed weight. Seed yield was significantly affected by N x Zn interaction and highest seed yield was recorded with 40 mg N+5 mg Zn kg-1 soil treatment combination. Zinc application increased the concentration and uptake of N in shoots at 40 DAS and also in seed and straw at maturity. Nitrogen application, especially at medium and higher rates decreased Zn concentration and uptake in shoots at 40 DAS and also Zn concentration in seed at maturity.

  12. DINESH SAH, J. S. BOHRA AND D. N. SHUKLA [Effect of N, P and S on growth attributes of and nutrients uptake by Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss]*]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 52-55 (2006). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.


    ABSTRACT

    An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 1997-98 at Varanasi on Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss] to study its growth and nutrient uptake pattern at various levels of N, P and S. Plant height and primary branches plant-1 increased significantly upto 80 kg N ha-1 and secondary branches, dry matter plant-1 and leaf chlorophyll content upto 120 kg N ha-1. Application of phosphorus upto 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly enhanced dry matter plant-1. Whereas plant height, branches plant-1 and leaf chlorophyll content increased significantly only upto 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. All growth attributes increased significantly only upto 40 kg S ha-1. The results showed that the uptake of NPK and S by both seed and stover increased significantly with successive increase in nitrogen levels upto 120 kg N ha-1 and sulphur levels upto 60 kg S ha-1, whereas increased with increasing levels of P.

  13. P. DASHORA AND R. P. SHARMA [Effect of sowing date, irrigation and sulphur nutrition on yield attributes, yield and oil content of safflower]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 56-57 (2006). M. P. U. A. & T. Agricultural Research Station, Banswara (Rajasthan), India.


    ABSTRACT

    In a field experiment conducted at Banswara, the seed yield of safflower noticed in 20 September sowing (20.31 q/ha) was 11.4% higher than 10 October sowing. The significantly highest seed yield and net returns were recorded under two irrigations applied at flowering (70 DAS) and grain formation (105 DAS) stages. The per cent increase in seed yield over no irrigation was 44.9, 51.3 and 108.7 under one irrigation at grain formation stage, one irrigation at flowering stage and two irrigations at flowering and grain formation stages, respectively. Seed and oil yields of safflower significantly increased upto 60 kg S/ha. Application of 60 kg S/ha significantly increased the seed yield by 14.2 and 6.5% over 0 and 30 kg S/ha, respectively.

  14. S. PRATHAP, S. SESHADRI REDDY AND G. NARAYANA SWAMY [Effect of water stress on germination and seedling growth of groundnut genotypes]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 58-60 (2006). Agricultural Research Station, Anantapur-515 001 (Andhra Pradesh), India.

    ABSTRACT

    An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of PEG induced water stress on different cultivars. Water stress was imposed by treating the seeds of those cultivars at different water potentials. Across the cultivars, there was significant reduction in germination, seedling growth and seedling vigour index with the decreasing water potential from -0.3 to -1.0 MPa. Among the cultivars, ICGV-86031 showed higher resistance to water stress. It had shown germination and seedling growth even at higher water stress situation (-1.0 MPa) where all other cultivars completely failed. Next to ICGV-86031, TMV-2 and TCGS-41 were found better in terms of drought resistance.

  15. D. A. TANK, T. G. MEISHERI AND V. P. USADADIA [Integrated nutrient management in summer groundnut]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 61-62 (2006). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted for three years (2000 to 2002) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in summer season at Agronomy Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand. The results revealed that profitable production of summer groundnut could be harvested by using low cost input of only bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium spp. Strain, RGA-1+PSB Bacillus coagulants, strain PBA-16) as seed treatment having rich available phosphorus and low nitrogen status of sandy-loam soil.

  16. VINOD KUMAR SINGH, T. SINGH AND J. S. BOHRA [Comparative performance of sulphur, seed rate and date of sowing on yield, quality and nutrient uptake by linseed under rainfed conditions of Varanasi region]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 63-65 (2006). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi on rainfed linseed during 2000-01 and 2001-02 comprising three dates of sowing (18 October, 30 October and 11 November), three seed rates (20, 30 and 40 kg ha-1) and three sulphur levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1) in a split plot design. Seed yield, oil content and total nutrient uptake were observed to be highest at 30 October sown crop, 30 kg ha-1 seed rate and 20 kg S ha-1.

  17. D. MANDAL, S. TUDU AND G. C. DE [Studies on the effect of arrowing on cane quality] Crop Res. 31 (1) : 66-68 (2006). Palli Siksha Bhavana Institute of Agriculture Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 236 (West Bengal), India.


    ABSTRACT

    In field experiments conducted during 2002-03 and 2003-04 on spring planted sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. BO 91 grown at the Agricultural Farm, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, it was noted that weight of individual cane increased upto March and declined thereafter. Brix values and sucrose content increased significantly upto March i. e. upto the second month after flowering. The fibre contents of the cane increased significantly upto April and it crossed the economical level of fibre content in March indicating that the crop attained physiological maturity in December (having brix value above 18.0%), reproductive maturity in January and physical maturity in March. As the cane quality is considered the best when it contains 12 to 13% fibre with good milling quality and juice having high sucrose and purity with minimum amount of non-sugar (both organic and inorganic) it is imperative to harvest the crop in between physiological and reproductive maturities (arrowing) coinciding during December to January for commercial purpose and generative yields (seed cane) of higher quantity with superior quality. Allowing canes beyond January induces arrowing and consequently there is poor quality and quantity of produce from flowered canes.

  18. GIRISH CHANDER, T. S. VERMA, SHEETAL SHARMA, SUDHIR KUMAR AND SANDEEP SHARMA [Changes in available phosphorus in soil as influenced by boron and farm yard manure]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 69-71 (2006). Department of Soil Science
    CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    In laboratory-incubation studies on two different soils of Bajaura (loam) and Junga (sandy loam), the application of B as well as FYM increased available-P content in soils consistently and significantly at all the stages of incubation i. e. 24, 48, 72 and 96 days after the start of the experiment. The availability of P, however, decreased with the advancement of incubation period in both the experimental soils. Similar to laboratory-incubation, in greenhouse studies as well, the FYM incorporation revealed a significant and consistent increase in available-P throughout the growth period of cauliflower. The application of B recorded a significant and consistent increase in available-P in soil only upto 48 days after transplanting and at harvest stage, the available-P content decreased significantly with B application.

  19. L. NALINA, N. KUMAR AND K. SOORIANATHASUNDRAM [Effect of different nutrient levels on growth and development of plant and ratoon crop of field-grown tissue cultured banana cv. Robusta (AAA)]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 72-74 (2006). Department of Fruit Crops Horticultural College & Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted during 2000-02 in the College Orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to assess the effect of different fertilizer treatments on tissue cultured banana cv. Robusta both plant and ratoon crop. The experiment laid out in RBD had six treatments each replicated four times. The experiments consisted of application of 100, 150 and 200% of recommended NPK (110 : 35 : 330 g plant-1) in three and four splits, respectively, in each level. There was a positive response in plant growth in terms of height, girth and number of leaves to nutrient application. Application of NPK @ 165 : 52.5 : 495 g plant-1 in four splits (T4) recorded better growth of the tissue cultured plants followed by T3 (165 : 52.5 : 495 g NPK plant-1) in three splits. Higher bunch weight was recorded with the application of N @ 165 g, P @ 52.5 g and K @ 495 g plant-1 given at four split doses both in plant and ratoon crop.

  20. V. SRINIVASA [Studies on the performance of some varieties of anthurium]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 75-77 (2006). College of Forestry, Ponnampet-571 216, Kodagu (Karnataka), India.


    ABSTRACT

    A study was conducted on evaluate the performance of anthurium varieties for cut flower production. Five varieties viz., Hondura, Senator, Pasricha, Tinora and Tropical were evaluated for their vegetative, physiological and flower characters. Different varieties significantly influenced vegetative and flower characters. Var. Hondura recorded maximum plant height (29.91 cm), number of leaves (7.31), canopy height (22.19 cm), stalk length (35.44 cm), and spadix length (4.56 cm). Cv. Senator produced maximum leaf length (16.45 cm), leaf width (8.91 cm), canopy width (30.5 cm), numher of suckers (2.25), number of flowers (2.94), spathe length (7.81) and spathe width (6.75) as compared to other varieties. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins and wax content were significantly influenced by varieties.

  21. V. SRINIVASA [Effect of fertilizers on leaf nutrient content in anthurium cv. Chaco]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 78-80 (2006). College of Forestry, Ponnampet-571 216, Kodagu (Karnataka), India.


    ABSTRACT

    A study was conducted on Anthurium andreanum cv. Chaco for testing five levels of fertilizers viz., 10 : 10 : 20 g NPK/m2/year (one time application), 10 : 10 : 20 g NPK/m2/year (split application), 20 : 15 : 30 g NPK/m2/year (split application), 30 : 20 : 40 g NPK/m2/year (split application) and 40 : 25 : 50 g NPK/m2/year (split application). For all split applications, fertilizers were applied at three split doses (3, 6 and 9 months after planting), whereas one time application, entire quantity was applied as a basal dose three months after planting. Leaf tissue nutrient content was determined 20 months after planting. Results revealed that fertilizer levels significantly influenced the major nutrients (NPK, Ca and Mg). Split application of NPK at 30 : 20 : 40 g/m2/year retained maximum leaf N (1.9%), K (3.04%) and Ca (1.32%) compared to other treatments. The maximum P (0.51%) and Mg (0.61%) content was recorded in split application of NPK at 20 : 15 : 30 g/m2/year. Minor nutrients (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) did not differ significantly among fertilizer levels.

  22. V. SRINIVASA [GA3 induces lateral branching in anthurium cv. Pasricha]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 81-82 (2006). College of Forestry, Ponnampet-571 216, Kodagu (Karnataka), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) was applied as a foliar spray to induce lateral branching in anthurium cv. Pasricha. Five concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) were applied at an interval of every three months for thrice starting from 3rd month after planting. Results showed significant differences among different concentrations of GA3. Maximum number of lateral shoots was recorded in plants sprayed with 750 ppm GA3 (4.88), followed by 1000 ppm GA3 (4.44), 500 ppm GA3 (4.38), 250 ppm GA3 (3.31) and minimum number of lateral branches was recorded in untreated plants (2.81).

  23. R. S. RANA AND T. R. NANDAL [Response of irrigation on cauliflower yield under low hills sub-tropical conditions of Himachal Pradesh]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 83-84 (2006). CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research & Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan, District Sirmour-173 001 (H. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted for two years at CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research & Extension Cente, Dhaulakuan during winter seasons of 2001-02 and 2002-03 to study the response of number of irrigations and amount of applied water on cauliflower crop. Highest cauliflower yield of 265.03 q/ha was obtained with eight irrigations, each irrigation of 5 cm depth (2 inches) at an interval of 15 days, thus resulting in highest field water use efficiency of 6.625 q/ha-cm.

  24. RAJENDER SHARMA AND S. K. SHARMA [Impact of growing season on some quality characters of cabbage under mid hill conditions of H. P.]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 85-88 (2006). Department of Vegetable Crops Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H. P.), India.


    ABSTRACT

    TSS, carotene content and ascorbic acid are some of the important quality characters in produce of cabbage. Though these are supposed to be free from the impact of environment but in the studies carried out at Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan revealed that the growing season had a profound effect on all the quality characters under study showing a downward trend in the values recorded during summer, which may be attributed to a shorter growing season.

  25. RAJENDER SHARMA AND S. K. SHARMA [Response of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on some quality traits of cabbage hybrid Bajrang]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 89-92 (2006). Department of Vegetable Crops Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H. P.), India.


    ABSTRACT

    Cabbage hybrid Bajrang received four levels of nitrogen (60, 120, 180 and 240 kg ha-1), three levels of phosphorus (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and two levels of potassium (30 and 60 kg ha-1) in RBD during 1998-99 and 1999-2000. Combined application of the nutrients improved nutritive value of the produce in terms of vitamin A, ascorbic acid and TSS as compared to sole application of any of the nutrients under study.

  26. R. S. RANA AND T. R. NANDAL [Response of irrigation on summer tomato crop under low hills sub-tropical conditions of Himachal Pradesh]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 93-94 (2006). CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research & Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan, District Sirmour-173 001 (H. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment was conducted for two years at CSKHPKV Hill Agricultural Research & Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan during summer seasons of 2002 and 2003 to study the response of number of irrigations and amount of applied water on tomato crop. Highest tomato yield of 398.84 q/ha was recorded with 12 irrigations, each irrigation of 5 cm depth at an irrigation interval of 10 days. The field water use efficiency increased with the decrease in number of irrigations and thereby with the decreased amount of applied water.

  27. G. GAUTAM AND SANT PARKASH [Evaluation of bacterial wilt resistant genotypes of tomato under different growing seasons and transplanting dates in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh]. Crop Res. 31 (1) : 95-98 (2006). Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Bajaura, Kullu (H. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A study was undertaken to evaluate five bacterial wilt resistant genotypes of tomato viz., BT 18, BL 333-1, BL 342-1, EC 191536 and Hawaii 7998 for fruit yield and incidence of bacterial wilt under different growing seasons and transplanting dates. The growing seasons, transplanting dates, genotypes and their interactions exhibited significant effects on both the characters studied. The early transplanting of Hawaii 7998 in summer season recorded highest fruit yield (296.19 q/ha). The genotype BT 18 recorded a fruit yield of 210.93 q/ha in early transplanting of rainy season. In general, significantly higher marketable yield per hectare was recorded in rainy season as compared to summer season. Early transplanting resulted in increased marketable yield per hectare and incidence of bacterial wilt disease as compared to late transplanting. No incidence of bacterial wilt was recorded in the genotypes Hawaii 7998 and EC 191536 in any transplanting during both the seasons.

  28. G. R. KUMARESAN, S. MAKESH AND N. RAMASWAMY [Studies on heterosis in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 99-102 (2006). Agricultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai- 625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.


    ABSTRACT

    A study was carried out to assess the nature and extent of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for eight quantitative traits in a 6 x 6 diallel cross in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.). The hybrids PKM 1 x Mahyco short and PKM 1 x Pannipudal were judged as the best ones among the hybrids evaluated. Since it showed significant heterosis for important traits viz., fruits per vine, fruit length, yield per vine, etc. While the hybrid Co-2 x Pannipudal exhibited negative heterosis for the trait days to first female flower opening indicating the earliness in the crop growth.

  29. G. R. KUMARESAN, S. MAKESH AND N. RAMASWAMY [Combining ability studies for yield and its components in snake gourd]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 103-106 (2006). Agricultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.


    ABSTRACT

    Combining ability analysis was carried out in a 6 x 6 diallel cross for yield and its contributing characters in cotton to study the nature of general and specific combining ability of parents and their hybrids, respectively. All the eight characters viz., days to first male flower opening, days to first female flower opening, main vine length (cm), number of fruits per vine, fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), fruit weight (g) and yield per vine (g) were found to be controlled by both additive and non-additive gene action with predominance of additive gene action. The parents P3, P4 and P6 and the hybrid combinations P3 x P4, P3 x P6 and P6 x P4 exhibited superior general and specific combining abilities for most of the important yield contributing characters.

  30. C. TAMILMANI [Plastid protein changes during the ripening of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) fruit]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 107-109 (2006). Department of Botany Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Plastid proteins of both photosystems 1 and 2 (CC 1, LHC 1, CC 1 and LHC 2) and their changes were studied during three stages of pre-climacteric, climacteric and post-climacteric of fruit ripening. The electrophoretic protein profile of the epicarp revealed the presence of proteins of the relative molecular masses 55, 32, 29, 27, 24, 22.5, 18, 14 and 9 kDa in all the three stages of ripening. The 44 kDa protein was present only in the post-climacteric stage. Contents of the proteins of molecular masses of 55, 32, 29, 27, 24, 22.5 and 14 kDa showed a significant decrease in the post-climacteric stage of ripening but the amounts of proteins of 18 and 19 kDa remained unchanged.

  31. YUDHVIR SINGH AND SUSHEEL SHARMA [Combining ability through line x tester analysis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 110-115 (2006). Department of Vegetable Science & Floriculture CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Combining ability for yield and its components was studied following line x tester approach in cucumber. Fifteen cross combinations (5 x 3) with eight parents were studied for 12 characters. Significant differences in the parents indicated that the majority of the parents had diversity for almost all the characters studied. Variance due to sca was higher than that of gca for all the characters except fruit length, fruit diameter and TSS, indicating the importance of non-additive gene action. The parents AAUC-2 and Sel. 75-1-10 were good general combiners for marketable yield and component traits. The crosses involved in high sca effects for yield and other component traits should be utilized in crossing programme aimed at improving the desired traits. The hybrids Sel. 75-1-10 x K.Paprola and CHC-2 x Sel. 75-2-10 displayed significant sca effects for marketable yield per plant and marketable fruits per plant. The presence of non-additive gene action was predominant for most of the characters studied suggesting the exploitation of hybrid vigour for these characters.

  32. T. C. SHIVASHANKARA MURTHY, V. NAGEGOWDA, BASAVAIAH1 AND N. RAJASHEKAR [Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the vegetative characters of gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 116-119 (2006). Department of Studies in Botany University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006, India.

    ABSTRACT

    Field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years to understand the effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrition on growth characteristics of gherkin. It was found that supply of nitrogen significantly enhanced the growth and the enhancement was proportional to increase in the quantity of application. Application of nitrogen @ 225 kg/ha level showed the maximum values of the growth characteristics except the girth of internode. Phosphorus at both the levels (125 and 175 kg/ha) tested showed no significant effect on any of the vegetative characters. However, in combination with nitrogen (NPK @ 225 : 125 : 0), it significantly increased the girth of internode and fresh weight of plants. Potassium @ 125 kg/ha showed no significant improvement, but in combination with nitrogen and phosphorus it enhanced the growth. The overall improvement of gherkin in terms of vegetative characteristics was found to be the best in the combination of NPK @ 175 : 125 : 125 kg/ha.

  33. Y. SUNEETHA, K. B. KATHIRIA, P. K. KATHIRIA AND T. SRINIVAS [Studies on heterosis for yield, quality and physiological characters in summer brinjal*]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 120-124 (2006). B. A. College of Agriculture Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.

    ABSTRACT

    The manifestation of hybrid vigour in 45 brinjal hybrids for yield, yield components, quality and physiological characters was investigated during summer season. The results revealed hybrids to be high yielding, relatively late and tall with greater plant spread and leaf area per plant, compared to the parents. Existence of significant levels of heterobeltiosis and commercial heterosis for all the traits in the material studied was also noticed from the significant mean squares recorded for parents vs. hybrids and control vs. hybrids components of variation in the ANOVA. Further, the expression of heterosis was maximum over better parent for total soluble sugars; and for leaf area per plant, over the check, GBH 1. Total phenols had also recorded high levels of heterosis (>70%) over both, better parent and the check, GBH-1. Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis more than 20% were also recorded for number of days to first picking, 1000-seed weight and fruit yield per plant. The existence of such high levels of heterosis for fruit yield, yield components, quality and physiological characters in brinjal hybrids during summer indicated the potential of hybrid cultivation during off-season. Among the hybrids studied, PLR 1 x JBPR 1, a relatively early and dwarf hybrid was identified as a potential hybrid combination for fruit yield per plant, while the hybrid, JB 64-1-2 x AB 98-13 was identified as a promising hybrid for both, fruit yield and quality, for cultivation during off-season.

  34. C. VENKATA RAMANA, K. MADHAVI REDDY, A. T. SADASHIVA1 AND M. KRISHNA REDDY [Estimates of reciprocal cross effects for yield and its components in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)*]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 125-127 (2006). Division of Horticulture GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (Karnataka), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Reciprocal cross effects were studied in a 8 x 8 diallel full set comprising 56 hybrid combinations of chilli in the F1 generation. Studies revealed that the reciprocal crosses showed differences for all the traits under study and there was significant effect of the female parent used. Genotypes EG-174, PMR-76 and Punjab Gucchedar gave better performance when used as female for number of fruits per plant and green fruit yield per plant; therefore, it was suggested that in future hybridization programme, the effect of the female parent must be considered and hence exploited for desirable attributes.

  35. K. HARIPRASANNA, F. U. ZAMAN AND A. K. SINGH [Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions for fertility restoration in wild aborted (wa) CMS lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 128-134 (2006). Division of Genetics Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India.

    ABSTRACT

    Three WA-CMS lines viz., Pusa 3A, Pusa 5A and IR 58025A, were crossed with four pollen parents in order to study the nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions for fertility restoration. The pollen and spikelet fertility percentages recorded both the F1 and F2 generations of 12 crosses indicated differential fertility restoration by the restorers. The variation with respect to mean fertility percentage was highest among crosses involving PRR 78 and IR 73885-1-4-1-3-6 in the F1 and F2 generations, respectively. The curves depicting the segregation pattern of spikelet fertility in F2 varied depending on the CMS line as well as restorer, indicating the presence of nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in different parental combinations for fertility restoration. In F2, plants with improved fertility percentage were observed and number of such segregants varied with the cross combination. The results indicate the presence of minor/modifier gene(s) for fertility restoration apart from major restorer gene(s) and nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions. The fertility restoration was not under polygenic control in any of the CMS lines or restorer lines studied.

  36. R. K. MAITI, P. VIDYASAGAR AND P. P. BANERJEE [Salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at germination and seedling stage in respect to variability study, heritability and character association]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 135-141 (2006). Vibha Agrotech Ltd. 501, Subhan Sirisampada, Rajbhavan Road Samajiguda, Hyderabad-500 082 (A. P.), India (e-mail : *rkmaiti @yahoo.com; ** pvsagar@sify.co).

    ABSTRACT

    The present study was conducted to study genotypic variability of rice genotypes at the germination and seedling stage at different levels of salinity (0 M, 0.15 M, 0.2 M and 0.25 M NaCl). These experiments showed that increasing salinity decreased germination and seedling growth. The results reveal that there existed significant genotypic variability in germination and seedling stage in response to different levels of NaCl concentrations. Most of the genotypes showed more than 90% germination in control showing good seed vigour. Two genotypes viz., VBR 638 (93%) and VBR 644 (84%) were selected as best tolerant to salinity at 0.2 M NaCl at germination stage. Therefore, these may be used as source materials for genetic improvement for salinity tolerance at the germination stage. Similarly, considerable amount of genotypic variability was found at control and saline conditions at the seedling stage with reference to the variables shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry weight. High heritability and genotypic coefficient of variations observed in some of the seedling traits offered good scope for genetic improvement for salinity tolerance both at germination and at the seedling stage. VBR 616, VBR 628, VBR 645, VBR 640, VBR 611, VBR 620, VBR 612, VBR 618, VBR 644, VBR 629, VBR 625 and VBR 630 were selected as tolerant to salinity at the seedling stage.

  37. R. S. VERMA, R. D. S. YADAV AND S. P. GIRI [Genetics of yield and its important components in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 142-146 (2006). N. D. U. A. & T. Crop Research Station Masodha, Dabhasemar-224 133, Faizabad (U. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Investigation was taken up to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its components in Jhona 349/IET 12944 and Narendra 80/Lalmati crosses based on six-parameter model. The predominant role of dominance and epistasis was obtained for grain yield, tillers/plant, grains/panicle and 1000-grain weight in both the crosses. Additive and dominance effects were important for plant height and panicle length. Among the digenic interactions, additive x additive and dominance x dominance effects contributed more in majority of the characters. Additive x dominance gene effect was also significant for all the traits in both the crosses. In general, duplicate non-allelic interaction was observed for most of the characters. Accordingly, suitable breeding strategies were discussed for the genetic enhancement of these traits in rice improvement programmes.

  38. S. MURUGAN AND J. GANESAN [Pollen and spikelet fertility analysis in rice crosses involving WA cytosteriles]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 147-149 (2006). Department of Agricultural Botany Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Three cytoplasmic male sterile lines viz., IR 58025A (L1), IR 62829A (L2) and V 20A (L3) of wild abortive (WA) source were crossed as ‘lines’ with 14 genotypes as ‘testers’ to get 42 hybrids. The 42 hybrids obtained were subjected to pollen and spikelet fertility analysis. Six testers viz., IR 72, IR 24, Duansan, ARC 11353, IR 54 742-2-22-19-3 and IET 13153 were identified as restorers for the three CMS lines.

  39. SANJEEV SINGH, J. SINGH, R. K. SINGH AND V. P. SINGH [Genetic studies on induced micromutation population of Basmati rice in M2 and M3 generations]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 150-152 (2006). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Studies on genetic parameters of induced micromutation population in M2 and M3 generations of Taraori Basmati and Pusa Basmati 1 revealed the high heritability for days to flowering, days to maturity, kernel length, number of grains per panicle, L/B ratio and 100-seed weight and moderate heritability for other traits for both the varieties in both the generations. The values regarding GCV and PCV were observed higher for number of panicle bearing tillers per plant and grain yield per plant in both the varieties in both the generations, whereas the values of genetic advance as per cent of mean were found to be higher for L/B ratio, number of panicle bearing tillers per plant and grain yield per plant.

  40. MONALISA MANNA, MD. NASIM ALI AND B. G. SASMAL [Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis in some important traits of low land rice]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 153- 156 (2006). Department of Genetics Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient were estimated from 20 low land rice varieties. Highest GCV was recorded in flag leaf, high density grains/panicle and panicle weight. High heritability (in broad sense) accompanied by high genetic advance was observed in flag leaf, spikelets, filled grains and high density grains/panicle. Grain yield/plant was positively and significantly associated with effective tillers/plant, panicle weight, spikelets and high density grains/panicle. High positive direct effects coupled with significantly positive associations of effective tillers/plant and high density grains/panicle with grain yield/plant were recorded.

  41. K. AMUDHA, S. ARUMUGACHAMY AND K. THIIYAGARAJAN [Study of selfed and biparental progenies involving upland rice genotypes]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 157-159 (2006). Department of Rice Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Biparental progenies of three crosses viz., PMK2/Norungan, PMK2/Mattaikar and PMK2/Poongar involving upland rice cultivars were evaluated alongwith their respective F1, F2 and F3 progenies under direct sown aerobic condition to assess the utility of biparental mating. BIPs registered desirable mean values than F3s for yield and yield components particularly productive tillers per plant, dry matter production and harvest index which remain major traits of concern for improvement under aerobic situations. Likewise BIPs exhibited higher mean values than corresponding F1s for the traits spikelet fertility, root volume and harvest index in all the three crosses. The study further revealed that BIPs had an yield advantage of 57.59% over F3s in PMK2/Mattaikar and 29.28% over F1s in PMK2/Norungan. Reduction in plant height and days to flowering in BIPs offered the scope for selecting early segregants with reduced height suited for aerobic conditions.

  42. A. RAHMAN, M. SARMAH, MANOROMA BORTHAKUR, KARAN SINGH, G. GURUSUBRAMANIAN* AND M. HAZARIKA [Prospects in use of neem formulations and biocides in tea pest management in north-east India]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 160- 170 (2006). Department of Entomology, Plant Protection Division Tocklai Experimental Station Tea Research Association, Jorhat-785 008 (Assam), India *(e-mail : gurus64@yahoo.com).

    ABSTRACT

    Four different field experiments have been conducted to explore (i) the phytopesticidal impact of different neem formulations, (ii) effect of combination of need products with acaricides, (iii) entomopathogenic potential of Beauveria bassiana and (iv) biocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against major pests of tea as red spider mite (Oligonychus coffeae), green fly (Empoasca flavescens), thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora) and looper caterpillar (Buzura suppressaria) at Borbhetta, Tocklai, Dahingeapar, Sycotta and Gabroopurbat tea estates of north-east India. Neem formulations containing 0.03 and 1.5% azadirachtin showed per cent reduction to the tune of 37.6-68.3%, 31.8-64.7% and 29.4-74.5% in red spider mite, thrips and green fly, respectively, upto four weeks but 20.32-57.86% reduction was recorded in looper caterpillar infestation after one week. A foliar spray application of most commercial neem formulations persists 5-7 days under field conditions. No significant difference was observed in terms of azadirachtin content and its bioactivity against red spider mite, thrips, green fly and looper caterpillar. Neem formulations containing azadirachtin at levels 300 ppm and above giving protection to the tune of 51.0-74.5% against tea pests. Lepidopterans are more susceptible than Acarina, Hemiptera and Homoptera. Our field trials revealed that among sucking pests, green fly was more sensitive to neem formulations followed by red spider mite and thrips. In our trial, 300-1500 ppm azadirachtin containing neem formulations gave per cent reduction of tea pests to the tune of 51.0-74.5% indicating the fact that 300 ppm of azadirachtin containing neem products was sufficient to check the infestation level of different chewing and sucking pests of tea. Data show that although neem was slower to display an initial effect, it ultimately yielded a level of control comparable to that of many synthetic insecticides. No significant difference was noticed between 1 : 800 and 1 : 1000 dilution of ethion and dicofol alone. Ethion and dicofol were mixed at dilutions of 1 : 1000 with neem @ 1 : 1000 registered significant decline in mite population. Synergistic effect was more pronounced in dicofol @ 1 : 800 as well as 1 : 1000 mixed with neem @ 1 : 1000. Screening of entomopathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana against H. theivora revealed 52.52-61.56% reduction in infestation level compared to a neem formulation as standard (58.77-64.46%) and unsprayed treatment (-5.53-4.24%). This fungal pathogen checked the infestation pattern of tea mosquito bug to the extent of 52.0-55.0% during September-October and 58.0-62.0% during March-April showing a negative relationship between temperature and biocidal activity. 80.0-90.0% biocidal activity was exhibited by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki against B. suppressaria, a major caterpillar pest in tea. At higher dilutions of (1 : 10000) B. t. accounted for 78.7% indicating its effectiveness of using in tea ecosystem and proper care should be taken in the registered formulation containing only crystal toxin to avoid its harmful effect to silk industry. The potentials of neem formulations, B. bassiana and B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki to be used as means of integrated management of tea pests in tea plantations were discussed.

  43. M. KANDIBANE, S. RAGURAMAN AND N. GANAPATHY [Taxonomic similarity and relative abundance of predatory Hemiptera in an irrigated rice ecosystem, Madurai, Tamil Nadu]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 171-174 (2006). Department of Agricultural Entomology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A total of five taxa of reduviid bugs and one taxon of mirid bug were recorded in weeded and partially weeded rice ecosystems. Among the five taxa, Rhinocoris fuscipes (Fabricious) was the dominant reduviid bug in both the ecosystems. All the five species of reduviid predators recorded in rice ecosystem showed more abundance in partially weeded rice ecosystem. The mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter preferred and exhibited more abundance only in weeded rice ecosystem. The diversity of reduviids was more during tillering and panicle initiation stages of the crop. The mirid bug exhibited perfect similarity during kharif and rabi 2000 and kharif 2001. The abundance and occurrence of reduviid bugs were absent during rabi 2000. A total of 18 species of weed plants that provided alternate resources and favourable climate for the survival of natural enemies were recorded in partially weeded plots.

  44. J. P. SRIVASTAVA AND R. D. S. YADAV [Transmission and management of major seed-borne diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 175-178 (2006). Seed Technology Research Centre N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    Loose smut caused by Ustilago segatum var. Tritici and Karnal bunt Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mundkar are the major seed-borne diseases of wheat crop. Investigations were carried out to study the nature and magnitude of transmission of loose smut and its management through chemical, biological and integrated approaches following a series of experiments in wheat during rabi 1996 to 2004. The validity of arbitrary nature of seed certification standard and appropriate crop stage for the foliar spray of Tilt (Propiconazole) for combined control of both the major diseases was also tested There was significantly positive correlation between the embryo infection and disease appearance (earhead infection). Among the chemicals, Raxil (Tebuconazole) was found consistently superior in comparison to other traditional fungicides. Among the biological agents, the Glyocladium virens in combination with half dose of carboxin given as seed treatment provides maximum protection to bring down loose smut infection within the limits of certification. The study revealed that single spray of Tilt (Propiconazole) @ 0.1% at flower initiation stage was quite effective in reducing the seed infection of Karnal bunt and provided partial control of loose smut of wheat.

  45. ANJU RANI, M. NARAYANA BHAT AND B. P. SINGH [Efficacy of neem formulations against late blight of potato in sub- tropical plains]. Crop Res. 31(1) : 179-180 (2006). Department of Plant Pathology Central Potato Research Institute Campus (CPRIC), Modipuram, Meerut-250 110 (U. P.), India.

    ABSTRACT

    A field experiment using five neem formulations and one botanical extract on the management of late blight of potato was carried out for two consecutive cropping seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 under field conditions. Neem shield’s-neem oil (0.5%) gave partial protection and increased the yield by 33.5% over unsprayed control.



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