Volume 3, No. 1 (June, 2018)

By | August 4, 2018

1. Xiaohong Yin, Min Huang* and Yingbin Zou [Higher ability to absorb indigenous soil nitrogen is related to larger fine-root system in a hybrid compared with an inbred rice cultivar]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 1-5 (2018). Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops (CICGO) Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : jxhuangmin@163.com)

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen (N) uptake and root systems were compared between a hybrid (Y-liangyou 087) and an inbred rice cultivar (Yuxiangyouzhan) in a 15N-tracer pot experiment. Although there was no significant difference in the N uptake from inorganic fertilizer between the two cultivars, the N uptake from soil and total N uptake were, respectively, 31 and 27% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Yuxiangyouzhan. The differences in root biomass and in length and surface area of coarse roots were not significant between the two cultivars. However, the length and surface area of the fine roots in Y-liangyou 087 were 33-38% greater than those in Yuxiangyouzhan. These results indicate that (1) the hybrid cultivar Y-liangyou 087 has higher ability to absorb indigenous soil N than the inbred cultivar Yuxiangyouzhan, and (2) larger fine-root system is responsible for the higher ability to absorb indigenous soil N in the hybrid cultivar Y-liangyou 087. This finding could be subject to the constraints of pot cultivation, but differences are substantial and probably apply to field conditions. These results should encourage more research into root system morphology and physiology.

2. Xiaohong Yin, Min Huang*, Huabin Zheng and Yingbin Zou [Inter-annual temperature variations in double rice-growing seasons in Hunan Province of China during a period of relative stability in global temperature]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 6-12 (2018). Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops (CICGO) Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : jxhuangmin@163.com)

ABSTRACT

The impact of global warming on rice production has aroused considerable concern. In China, rice cropping systems are diverse due to the existence of various agro-climatic zones. Hunan Province ranks first in rice production among the provinces in China, and double-rice cropping with early rice grown from late March (sowing) to late July (harvesting) and late rice grown from mid-June to end-October is the main rice cropping system in this province. We analyzed temperature data at six representative locations (Yueyang, Changde, Changsha, Hengyang, Yongzhou and Chenzhou) in Hunan Province to examine inter-annual temperature variations in early and late rice-growing seasons in the province during a period of relative stability in global temperature (1998–2008). Results showed that there was no significant time trend in annual mean temperature at most of the investigated locations, which is consistent with the global temperature change. However, significant warming trend was observed in early rice-growing season at all of the six locations. By contrast, temperature increase in late rice-growing season was not as common and obvious as in early rice-growing season. Our results suggest that the temperature change pattern in early rice-growing season in Hunan Province is different from the global temperature change, and it is necessity to alter the agronomic practices to cope with the temperature increase in early rice-growing season.

3. S. ANITTA FANISH* AND T. RAGAVAN [Evaluation of growth and yield performance of aerobic rice under different irrigation intervals in furrow irrigated raised bed (FIRB) system of cultivation]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 13-18 (2018). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College & Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : fanishsolomon@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted for two years to optimize the suitable raised bed size and irrigation interval for the aerobic rice production system. The treatments consisted of three bed widths and three irrigation intervals daily, once in two days and once in three days). The results showed that aerobic rice in furrow irrigated raised bed (FIRB) of 1.0 m width and 30 cm furrow and schedule the irrigation once in two days gave higher grain and straw yield. Water use efficiency was also higher with this system. So, we can save water along with enhanced yield. Due to the higher yields obtained under raising of aerobic rice under FIRB which accommodated four rows of rice in 1.0 m width of raised bed and irrigating the furrow once in two days gave higher net income and B : C ratio. Hence, for getting better yield and economics of aerobic rice, FIRB with a bed width of 1.0 m and irrigating the furrow once in two days was optimum under irrigated condition.

4. Jarpan Bhujel*, Subarna Sharma, Jiban Shrestha and Ankit Bhattarai [Correlation and path coefficient analysis in normal irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 19-22 (2018). 1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences Tribhuvan University, Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, Nepal *(e-mail : Jarpan.bhujel211@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Correlation and path coefficients analyses among seven morphological characters were studied in 24 rice genotypes at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during rainy season in 2017 and 2018. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was negatively and significantly correlated with 50% flowering days, whereas only positively correlated with 1000-grain weight, fertility rate and panicle length. Path coefficient analysis revealed highest positive direct effect of 1000-grain weight on grain yield followed by panicle length and fertility per cent. Thus, 1000-grain weight could be used in genotype selection for crop improvement.

5. Jiban Shrestha*, Dil Bahadur Gurung and Krishna Prasad Dhital [Agronomic performance of maize genotypes under high temperature condition]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 23-29 (2018). 1National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal *(e-mail : jibshrestha@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

High temperature is an important constraint of yield reduction in maize. To identify high grain yielding maize genotypes under high temperature condition, field experiments were conducted at Parwanipur (Bara), Nepalgunj (Banke) and Rampur (Chitwan) during summer seasons of 2010 and 2011. The 44 genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications. The pooled analysis over locations showed that TLBRSO7F16 produced the highest grain yield with shorter anthesis silking interval (ASI) and bigger cob length (2809 kg/ha, 3.3 days, 14.43 cm) followed by RPOP-4 (2417 kg/ha, 1.8 days, 13.66 cm), TLBRSO7F14 (2316 kg/ha, 3 days, 14.25 cm), BLSBSO7F10 (2159 kg/ha, 2.2 days, 14.42 cm), Manakamana-3 (2108 kg/ha, 2 days, 14.75 cm) and Upahar (2108 kg/ha, 3.5 days, 14.33 cm). Therefore, it was concluded that TLBRSO7F16, RPOP-4, TLBRSO7F14, BLSBSO7F10, Manakamana-3 and Upahar were best genotypes under high temperature conditions at terai region of Nepal.

6. Jiban Shrestha*, Dil Bahadur Gurung and Tirtha Raj Rijal [Standard heterosis for grain yield in maize hybrids]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 30-36 (2018). 1National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal *(e-mail : jibshrestha@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Determination of heterosis in maize hybrids is necessary for their commercial exploitation. Data derived from several experiments, namely, Coordinated Varietal Trial-Hybrid (CVTH), Diallel Crosses, Observation Nurseries (OBN), Top Crosses and Test Crosses conducted at Rampur (Chitwan) and Parwanipur (Bara), Nepal were complied to determine heterosis and identify high yielding hybrids. The maize hybrids, namely, RML-4/RML-7, RML-5/NML-1, NML-2/RML-6, RML- 6/RML-7, RML-5/RL-47, RML-8/RL-47, RML-5/RML-8, NML-1/RML-17, RML-7/RML-18, RML-6/RML-18 and RML-5/NML-1 produced high heterosis (greater than 40%) indicating these hybrids superior for commercial cultivation.

7. Bhim Nath Adhikari*, Bhanu Bhakta PokhreL and Jiban Shrestha [Evaluation and development of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) genotypes for cultivation in high hills of Nepal]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 37-46 (2018). 1Hill Crops Research Program (HCRP), Dolakha, Nepal *(e-mail : bhimadhikari.mail@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is an important crop used for food, forage and industrial products. It is dominantly grown under maize/millet relay system at mid-hills of Nepal. The present study includes a series of experiments, namely, National Observation Nursery (NON), Initial Evaluation Trial (IET), Coordinated Varietal Trial (CVT) and Farmers’ Field Trials (FFT) that were conducted at Hill Crops Research Program (HCRP), Dolakha in 2012 and 2013. The research objective of the study was to identify high yielding genotypes of finger millet for high hills of Nepal. Mean data over years showed that in observation nursery genotypes, namely, Acc-6407, Acc-2339, KLE-2339, KLE-216 and KLE-559 were superior for their grain yield. Similarly, genotypes found promising in IET were Acc-2370, GE-0012, KLE-178, Acc-0124 which were promoted to and tested in CVT. Likewise genotypes, namely, KLE-236, GE-0116 and Acc-6022 were found high yielding genotypes in CVT and they were promoted to and in FFT. Similarly, genotypes, namely, Acc-2311, NE-1703-34, KLE-159 and Acc-433-1 produced high yield, thus these genotypes derived from FFT would be pipeline genotypes for release to high hills areas of Nepal.

8. R. K. MATHUKIA*, M. A. SHEKH, M. C. CHOPADA AND B. K. SAGARKA [Appraisal of optimal sowing time based on heat indices and row spacing for summer guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 47-51 (2018). Department of Agronomy Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : rkmathukia@jau.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 to 2015 on clayey soil of Junagadh (Gujarat) to ascertain proper time of sowing (4th week of January, 2nd week of February and 4th week of February) and spacing (30 x 15 cm, 45 x 15 cm and 60 x 15 cm) in relation to growth and yield of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]. The results revealed that sowing in 2nd week of February enhanced growth and yield attributes viz., plant height, pods per plant and test weight and ultimately gave higher seed yield (1387 kg/ha) and stalk yield (2846 kg/ha) with higher growing degree days (GDD), helio thermal units (HTU), photo thermal units (PTU) and heat use efficiency (HUE) as well as higher net returns (Rs. 42,051/ha) and B : C ratio (2.29) over early (4th week of January) and late (4th week of February) sowing. The results further indicated that 45 x 15 cm spacing promoted growth and yield attributes viz., plant height, branches per plant, pods per plant and test weight compared to 30 x 15 cm and 60 x 15 cm, which reflected in higher seed yield (1272 kg/ha) and stalk yield (2680 kg/ha) along with higher net returns (Rs. 37,154/ha) and B : C ratio (2.03) over 30 x 15 cm and 60 x 15 cm spacing. Therefore, sowing in 2nd week of February (when soil temperature >22.3ºC at 5 cm and >23.9ºC at 10 cm depth) and spacing of 45 x 15 cm could be appropriate for maximizing yield and monetary returns from summer guar under south Saurashtra agro-climatic conditions of Gujarat.

9. S. B. Patil* and Ganesha Halikatti [Management of shoot weevil (Alcidodes affaber A.) in Bt cotton]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 52-55 (2018). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : patilsb_ent@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment on management of shoot weevil in Bt cotton was undertaken during 2013-14 and 2014-15 kharif seasons at Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad Farm. Results revealed that profenophos 50 EC+diclorvos 76 EC (2.0 ml+0.5 ml) was found to be superior over rest of the treatments by recording least number of adults (3.45 and 3.15/plot during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively) and followed by okra as a trap crop (3.50 and 3.33/plot during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively). Similarly, profenophos 50 EC+diclorvos 76 EC (2.0 ml+0.5 ml) recorded lowest grub infestation of 13.18 and 4.21% during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively, followed by okra as a trap crop (15.93 and 4.30% during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively). Profenophos 50 EC + diclorvos 76 EC (2.0 ml+0.5 ml) recorded least number of grubs per plant during the consecutive years (3.75 and 1.95 grubs per plant, respectively) followed by okra as a trap crop (4.11 and 4.00 grubs per plant, respectively). Similarly, profenophos 50 EC+diclorvos 76 EC (2.0 ml+0.5 ml) recorded lowest number of broken branches during both the years (4.00 and 3.05 branches, respectively). Treatment profenophos 50 EC+diclorvos 76 EC (2.0 ml+0.5 ml) was found superior by recording highest seed cotton yield (18.26 and 16.60 q/ha) and B : C (1.90 and 1.60) during the consecutive years.

10. R. A. BALIKAI* AND D. PUSHPALATHA [Bio-ecology and management of spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell through insecticides : A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 56-65 (2018). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : rabalikai@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell is the most devastating pest of many vegetables, fruits and ornamental trees with a characteristic spiraling pattern of oviposition on the underside of leaves. Heavy colonization of whitefly may cause a serious indirect damage to the crop due to honeydew excretion on the leaves or on fruit surfaces which encourages growth of the sooty mould fungus and in turn affects the yield both quantitatively and qualitatively. Whiteflies develop rapidly in warm weather, and populations can build up quickly in situations where natural enemies are destroyed and weather is favourable. Thus, whiteflies are difficult to manage once their populations have reached high levels. Further, repeated applications of insecticides can lead to development of resistance. Thus, for its sustainable management, the spray interventions should be taken at low levels of whitefly population. In this paper, a brief account of its hosts, biology and damage is dealt along with its management through insecticides. Among the different insecticides tested against spiraling whitefly, the least LC50 was recorded by flubendiamide 480 SC (34.55 ppm) and emamectin benzoate 5 SG (39.14 ppm) against eggs, by spinosad 45 SC with 39.78 and 106.62 ppm against nymphs and adults, respectively.

11. Rakesh Kumar* [An introduction to cultivation of Darjeeling tea (Camellia sinensis L.)]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (1) : 66-79 (2018). Department of Agro-Botany Division Darjeeling Tea Research and Development Centre Tea Board of India, A. B. Path, Kurseong-734 203, Darjeeling (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : rk.jayantdtrdc@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Darjeeling tea is very special and famous beverage not only in India but throughout the world. The seasonal yield distribution of Darjeeling tea varies primarily as a result of seasonal changes in temperature and the development of soil moisture stress during the dry season. However, in Darjeeling, 50% of the annual crop is produced in the wet season (June to August). The yearly harvested green leaf production is approximately 2750-3250 kg/ha. The annual average yield of made/processed tea is 600-700 kg/ha and varies with times of pruning and pruning cycle. The basic level of knowledge about cultivation of Darjeeling tea needed by agricultural graduates, farmers and other concerned people has not been fulfilled so far although there have been many forays in this direction. The author hopes that this article succeeds in its mission of illustrating the basic Darjeeling tea cultivation practices and manufacturing processes to agriculture students, teachers, researchers, extension workers, farmers and all those related to tea industry.

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