Volume 25, Number 1 (January, 2003)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org


1. MOH’D KHAIR J. EL-SHATNAWI*, TAOUFIK KSIKSI, I. M. MAKHADMEH AND N. I. HADDAD [physiological impacts of increasing global carbon dioxide on terrestrial egetation-A review] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 1-11 (2003). Natural Resources and the Environment Department Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan. (*e-mail : mkhair@just.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

High CO2 concentration changes plant water use efficiency, net photosynthesis, biomass production and yield. Biomass allocation to roots increased with increasing CO2 leading to significant low leaf mass and area. Under elevated CO2, whole plant nutrient uptake and nutrient utilization efficiency increased, while nutrient tissue concentration and nutrient uptake efficiency declined. Plant grown at high CO2 levels showed a gradual decline in photosynthetic rates, because plant growth was limited by nutrient supply. Increasing CO2 may cause shifting in plant flowering phenology, and delaying in seed setting and maturity. Plants responded directly to CO2 and, therefore, the rice in the concentration of global CO2 would affect productivity of the individual plants and the community in the ecosystem. Increasing CO2 may shift ecological habitats and cause wide-spread extinction of forms of life unable to adjust to the change and it effect. As a result, resorting of the species constituting natural communities and the creation of new plant animal association may cause stressful interactions among species. The management challenge could be how to recognize states that may augment effects of carbon dioxide enrichment and develop management strategies to enhance or to offset the enrichment effects. The transition-state model could be manipulated to manage wildland system under high atmospheric carbon dioxide conditions.


2. MOH’D KHAIR J. EL-SHATNAWI AND HANI Z. GHOSHEH [interference of wild oat and wall barley on growth of dual-purpose barley under semi-arid editerranean climate]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 12-20 (2003). Natural Resources and the Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan (*e-mail : mkhair@just.edu.jo).

ABSTRACT

Dual-purpose barley (Hordeum spontaneum), wall barley (Hordeum murinum L.) and wild oat (Avena sterilis) have dominated many native grassland communities at semi-arid regions of northern Jordan. Understanding the interactions of population dynamics is critical for proper vegetation management. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of wall barley (H. murinum) and wild oat (Avena sterilis) competition on dual-purpose barley (H. spontaneum) growth and production. A natural stand of dual-purpose barley was utilized to conduct the experiments that were arranged in a randomized complete block design during two growing seasons. The moist and warm condition during the period from March to April caused a fast plant growth and therefore a competition for the resources was obvious. Wild oat and wall barley competition influenced plant height, stems and leaves oven dry weight; however, wall barley was responsible for the highest reduction. The oven dry weights of barley stems during April were 103, 81 and 68 g m-2 and during May were 109, 93 and 76 g m-2 when grown with wall barley, wild oat and pure, respectively. Leaves weight was similar during January and February, whereas competition created a significant (P<0.05) reduction during the period from March to May. Total tillers (80 m-2) and per cent of reproductive tillers (92.3%) were the highest when barley was grown in pure stand (P<0.05).
3. MOH’D KHAIR J. EL-SHATNAWI, LOUY Z. AL-QURRAN, KHALIL I. EREIFEJ AND NWAF F. FREHAT [Seasonal growth and development of wall barley (Hordeum murinum) under sub-humid Mediterranean climate]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 21-27 (2003). Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan (*e-mail : mkhair@just.edu.jo).

ABSTRACT

Wall barley is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It is a native species that grows and exists in many parts of Jordan and has potential as a forage source for livestock. The objective was to monitor the growth and development of wall barley plant under field conditions. A field trial was conducted during 2000-01 and 2001-02 growing seasons at Samta (32º23’N, 35º50’E) in the Ajloun Mountains, Jordan at an elevation of 1043 m above sea level. Data were collected on 28 February, 15 March, 30 March, 15 April, 15 May and 30 May. The increases in dry matter of leaves were gradual and peaked at 30 March, whereas the maximum stem weight was reached at maturity. The stem did not elongate before 30 March and 15 April. Wall barley stem appeared during 30 March and peaked on 15 April and 15 May. The increase in plant height became significant and fast after 30 March. The plant height of wall barley showed gradual increases during the period from 28 February to 15 April.
4. MOH’D KHAIR J. EL-SHATNAWI, LOUY Z. AL-QURRAN AND KHALIL I. EREIFEJ [Seasonal growth and chemical composition of dual-purpose barley]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 28-36 (2003). Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan (*email : mkhair@just.edu.jo).

ABSTRACT


Dual-purpose barley (Hordeum spontaneum) is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It has potential as a forage source in Jordan. The objective was to study the seasonal dry matter, morphological and chemical compositon of dual-purpose barley grown under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions. A field trial was conducted during 2000-01 growing seasons at Samta (32º23’N, 35º50’E) and Ruhaba (32º25’N, 35º48’E) in the Ajloun Mountains, Jordan at an elevation of 1043 m above sea level. Data were collected on 28 February, 15 March, 30 March, 15 April, 15 May and 30 May. The increase in plant height became significant and fast after 30 March. The increases in dry matter of leaves were gradual and peaked at 30 March, whereas the maximum stem weight was reached at maturity. The lowest fiber content of leaves was at 28 February and 15 March with range of 20.1 to 26.3%. Fiber content of leaves (51-53%) and stems (34.0-54.2%) peaked when the plant was mature. In contrast to fiber, protein content decreased gradually with age. The calcium and phosphorus contents of the leaves were higher than the stems and sufficient to meet ewes’ maintenance requirements. Age and environmental conditions may affect nutritive value of the plant.

5. D. MUSAMBASI, O. A. CHIVINGE AND I. K. MARIGA [Effect of ridging treatments and two early maturing maize cultivars on witchweed [Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze] density and maize grain yield under dry land maize-based cropping systems in Zimbabwe]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 37-45 (2003). Crop Science Department University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe (*e-mail : musa@agric.uz.ac.zw).

ABSTRACT

A factorial experiment was carried out in Chinyika Resettlement Area to determine the effects of ridging treatments and two maize cultivars (R 215 and SC 501) on Striga asiatica density and maize grain yield during the 1994-95 and 1995-96 rainy seasons. Ridging plots planted to R 215 supported fewer (1 plant m-2) emerged S. asiatica plants, while it resulted in the highest number (3 plants m-2) in plots with SC 501 at Chinyudze during the 1994-95 season at eight weeks after crop emergence (WACE). However, at Chibanda fewer emerged S. asiatica plants were observed in plots where the two maize cultivars were planted on the flat during the 1994-95 season and Govakova during the 1995-96 season. At Govakova there was no interaction between ridging treatments and maize cultivars but planting on the flat resulted in fewer emerged S. asiatica plants at 8 and 10 WACE during the 1994-95 season. During the 1995-96 season, ridging at 5 WACE resulted in the least number of emerged S. asiatica plants at Chinyudze and Chibanda. Planting SC 501 on the flat resulted in the least grain yield (123 kg ha-1) during the 1994-95 season, while planting it on ridges gave the highest grain yield (5197 kg ha-1) during the 1995-96 season.

6. MANOJ KUMAR AND M. SINGH [Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on yield and nutrient uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) under rainfed condition of Nagaland]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 46-49 (2003). Department of Agronomy, Nagaland University, SASRD Campus, Medziphema-797 106 (Nagaland), India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season (kharif) of 2000 at SASRD, Medziphema, under rainfed condition of Nagaland, to study the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Vijay. The treatments comprised four nitrogen levels (N0, N50, N100 and N150) and three phosphorus levels (P0, P40 and P80). The stover and grain yield increased significantly with the increasing level of nitrogen and phosphorus. The highest stover and grain yields were recorded 64.92 and 30.0 q/ha, respectively, with the highest level of nitrogen and phosphorus (N150 and P80) combination. Interaction among different doses of nitrogen and phosphorus did not show any significant effect on stover and grain yields. The nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by grain and straw increased significantly upto 150 and 80 kg/ha, respectively. The highest N uptake was found 52.89 and 33.76 kg/ha in grain and straw, respectively. The highest phosphorus uptake by grain was found 12.68 kg/ha and straw 20.77 kg/ha with N150 and P80 combination. The highest K uptake by straw and grain was recorded 9.89 and 80.94 kg/ha, respectively, and it increased with increasing levels of nitrogen and phosphorus.
7. J. O. OGUNWOLE, S. O. ALABI AND I. ONU [Evaluation of three long staple lines of cotton to levels of fertilizer under moisture stressed and unstressed conditions] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 50-57 (2003). Department of Soil Science Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (*e-mail : Ogunwolejo@hotmail.com).

ABSTRACT

Three long staple cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) lines, namely, Pima S2, Bar 14/25(79)24 and Giza 45 were grown at five levels of fertility under moisture stress and unstress conditions at the Kadawa Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, in the Sudan Savanna agroecology. Results revealed average seed cotton yield of 4 t ha-1 under the unstressed condition. While 1.5 t ha-1 of seed cotton was obtained under moisture stressed condition. An indication that moisture was the most critical biophysical constraint to cotton production in the agroecology. There was no significant difference in varietal response to levels of fertility. However, under adequate moisture condition, NPK rate of 90 : 39 : 39 significantly produced the highest seed cotton yield comparable to the yield at 60 : 26 : 26. Soil nutrition can only be a constraint, when the most critical constraint (i. e. water) has been removed in cotton production of dry land savanna.
8. Y. S. SHARAWAT, A. K. KAPOOR, S. K. SHARMA AND RAJPAUL [Simulation of salinity profile of a highly saline soil on irrigation with different modes of irrigation]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 58-65 (2003). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.

ABSTRACT


An experiment was conducted in micro plots to observe and simulate the salinity profiles of a highly saline soil with different qualities/modes of irrigation. The EC 1 : 2 of the soil profile decreased with successive irrigations. There was a decrease in EC 1 : 2 in the upper soil layers and accumulation of salt in the lower layer both after the harvest of pearl millet and at sowing of berseem crop. The model of Pal et al. (1990) was used to simulate the depth distribution of EC 1 : 2. The observed and the simulated EC 1 : 2 profiles were compared. The results showed reasonably good agreement between the two values for all the treatments both after the harvest of pearl millet and at the time of sowing of berseem crop, except in the second layer (10-20 cm), where it under predicted the EC 1 : 2 values.

9. 9. R. SARASWATHY, G. ARUNACHALAM AND P. V. JEGADEES-WARI [Potassium content and its flux in rhizosphere region]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 66-68 (2003). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.

ABSTRACT

A pot culture experiment was conducted to study chemical properties of soils as influenced by root system of rice varieties in acid and alkali soils under two population levels and also nutrient uptake by rice varieties. Even though there was a decline in NH4OAc-K content due to submergence, it went up in root-zone soil. Its content was more in alkali condition, but this trend was not reflected in potassium uptake of plant. The available potassium content was high in maximum tillering stage and was followed by post-harvest stage and flowering stage.
10. A. K. DOLUI AND A. MAZUMDER [Relation between forms of aluminium and pedogenic processes in some alfisols of Bihar and West Bengal]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 69-77 (2003). Division of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, University College of Agriculture Calcutta University, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700 019, India.

ABSTRACT

The elements of various forms of Al in three red soil profiles from different parts of Jamui district of Bihar and Midnapore district of West Bengal were determined by selective extraction procedure. The mean contents of aluminium were extracted by various extracting reagents and were found to be in descending order as followed : Aldith>Aloxa>Alpyr> AlHOAc>AlNH4OAc>AlKCI. On the basis of the mean values of aluminium extracted by different extractants except ammonium acetate, the soil series could be arranged in order as Patna>Kakrisol>Balia. Moreover, analysis of pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite extractable Al showed that with increasing soil age, the crystalline aluminium oxides increased at the expense of the poorly crystalline form. This trend was reflected in the ratio of Aloxa/Aldith (Al ratio). The Aldith values were higher than the Aloxa values in the soils, indicating that a considerable fraction was present in crystalline form. The mean contents of crystalline aluminium and the Aloxa/Aldith ratio values estimated the degree of soil development and were found to be in descending order : Patna>Kakrisol> Balia. Correlations between different forms of aluminium and selected soil properties were examined.
11. A. A. VETAL, MANJUL DUTT AND P. C. SONWANE [Relative performance of Lilium (Lilium speciosum) in various substrates under polyhouse conditions] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 78-82 (2003). Department of Horticulture College of Agriculture, Pune-411 005 (M. S.), India.

ABSTRACT

A polyhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of Lilium in various substrates and their mixtures like agropeat, soilrite, agropeat+soilrite, agropeat+vermicompost, soilrite+vermicompost, brick powder+vermicompost, soil+vermicompost and soil during 1999-2000 at College of Agriculture, Pune. The results revealed that the performance of Lilium in respect of growth, earliness, quality and quantity of flowers and root development was better in organic mixtures than soil based ones with agropeat+vermicompost and soilrite+vermicompost producing the best results.
12. A. B. SHARANGI, A. PARIARI, S. DATTA AND R. CHATTERJEE [Effect of boron and zinc on growth and yield of garlic in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 83-85 (2003). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during 1999-2000 and 2000-01 at New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal to study the response of garlic to the application of 0.015, 0.020, 0.025 and 0.030% of boron and zinc. The results revealed that spraying of 0.025% Zn produced the best results in respect of the characters like number of leaves (11.33), individual bulb weight (15.07 g), bulb diameter (2.94 cm), individual clove weight (0.66 g) and yield (7.95 t/ha) followed by 0.025% B application. The study indicated that application of Zn @ 0.025% twice may be successfully employed for increased yield in garlic.
13. S. KIZIL AND TAHSIN SÖGÜT [Investigation of antibacterial effects of some spices]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 86-90 (2003). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial activities of essential oils of some spices were investigated. The essential oils of these plants were determined by steam distillation method. The disks were prepared by absorbing 10 µg of the essential oil solution, and antimicrobial activities were examined on some gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus brevis ATCC 9999, Bacillus subtilis 168, Bacillus coagulans MB 2 and Bacillus polymyxa MB 3) and gram negative (Escherichia coli pUC 9, Escherichia coli K 12, Escherichia coli pBR 322 and Escherichia coli pMK 3) bacteria. The findings showed that gram (-) bacteria were more sensitive to the spices than gram (+) bacteria. As a result, we found that Thymbra spicata L. var. spicata, Coriandrum sativum and Cuminum cyminum revealed antimicro-bial effects against some gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria used in the study.
14. P. DEEPA SANKAR AND C. R. ANANDA KUMAR [Genetic analysis of yield and related components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 91-95 (2003). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India.

ABSTRACT

A 8 x 4 line x tester analysis was carried out to study combining ability, heterosis, correlation and path coefficient analysis for important economic traits, namely, days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, capsule length, number of capsules per plant, 1000-seed weight, oil per cent and single plant yield in sesame. Non-additive gene action played a predominant role for all the characters except plant height. DCH 47-2-60 was the best general combiner for all the traits. DCH 25-1 x TMV 6, TNAU 120 x CO 1, YLM 40 x SVPR 1 and TNAU 120 x SVPR 1 had high sca effects for most of the characters. DCH 25-1 x TMV 6, DCH 25-1 x SVPR 1, TNAU 120 x CO 1 and TNAU 118 x CO 1 are suitable for heterosis breeding. Correlation studies revealed that selection based on plant height, number of primary branches per plant, capsule length, number of capsules per plant and 1000-seed weight on the positive side would help in improving the seed yield. Path analysis revealed that number of capsules per plant played a major role in determining single plant yield.
15. T. RATNA KUMARI, D. SUBRAMANYAM AND N. SREEDHAR [Stability analysis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 96-102 (2003). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Agricultural College, Bapatla-522 101, India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during 1995 with 13 genotypes of castor to assess their stable performance by studying 10 different characters in three environments provided by three different dates of sowing at monthly intervals i. e. 18 July, 18 August and 18 September in Eberhart and Russell’s (1966) model. Environment and genotype x environment interaction components indicated significance for most of the characters, indicating wide differences between environments and differential behaviour of genotypes in different environments. Among the three different environments, early sowing (18 July) was the most suitable environment for this crop as the majority of the genotypes recorded high seed as well as oil yield.
16. J. K. SHARMA AND S. LATA [Stability for grain yield in buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.)] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 103-105 (2003). Seed Production Unit Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Ten genotypes of buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) raised during three summers of 1997-99 in the trans-Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh were evaluated for stability parameters. Genetic variability existed for grain yield, maturity, plant height and 1000-seed weight. Genotype x environment interaction was present only for grain yield, which was linear in nature. Genotype KBB 3 was found to be high yielder followed by Sangla 1 with average regression coefficient and least deviation from regression coefficient, thereby indicating these to be stable in performance. The association among mean value and stability parameters for grain yield was found to be absent.
17. K. M. HALASWAMY, K. M. CHANNAKRISHNAIAH AND R. S. KULKARNI [Expression of heterosis in three-way cross hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)*] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 106-110 (2003). Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Sixty three-way cross (TWC) hybrids were produced using three male sterile lines, five maintainer lines and four fertility restorer lines to study the magnitude and direction of heterosis over the standard check, at Hebbal campus, UAS, Bangalore. The study revealed that different hybrids exhibited varied magnitude and direction of heterosis for different characters. The TWC hybrid (CMS-207 A x 852 B) x RHA-C-1 recorded maximum heterosis and highest seed yield per plant. The hybrid also recorded significant positive heterosis for head diameter and 100-seed weight. Among the TWC hybrids studied, (CMS-207 A x M-1 B) x RHA-6D-1 recorded the highest percentage of oil content and the TWC hybrid (CMS-234 A x 851 B) x RHA-M-17R exhibited maximum negative heterosis for days to 50% flowering. Further, critical evaluation of heterotic TWC hybrids for seed yield, oil content and earliness is suggested.
18. YUDHVIR SINGH AND PANKAJ MITTAL [Correlation and path-coefficient analysis in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 111-115 (2003). Department of Vegetable Science C. S. K. H. P. Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients and genotypic path coefficient analysis were carried out using 34 genotypes of fennel. Seed yield/plant was positively and significantly associated with plant height, number of primary branches/plant, number of secondary branches/plant, number of umbels/plant, umbel diameter, 100-seed weight and seeds/umbel suggesting thereby that the phenotypic selection could be made on the basis of the said characters. Path coefficient study revealed that 100-seed weight had maximum direct contribution towards yield followed by number of umbels/plant and seeds/umbel.
19. C. BHATTACHARYA AND N. BHATTACHARYA [Wide variation in mitotic chromosome number in one local type of Pisum arvense L.] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 116-118 (2003). Department of Plant Breeding B. C. K. V. Regional Research Station, Jhargram-721 507 (W. B.), India.

ABSTRACT

Mitosis was studied from the root tips of a large number of local and established cultivars of both the species of Pisum i. e. arvense and sativum. All the cultivars were observed with the normal chromosome number i. e. 2n=14 excepting one local type which showed wide variation in chromosome number during the mitosis study. The cells were obtained with the chromosome number of 4 to 30. The maximum number of cells obtained was with the chromosome number 10 to 16. The mean chromosome number of the cells studied was 14.31 which was very close to 2n=14. No micronuclie was observed which indicated the probability of non-functioning of spindle mechanism regularly. This type of mixoploidy recorded in a comparatively wild type and collected from farmer’s field of Midnapore district of West Bengal, India, imparted any advantage for adaptation in particular ecological condition.
20. SWARNALI BHATTACHARYA AND ANIRUDDHA PRAMANIK [In vitro sensitivity and bio-efficacy of Bacillus subtilis as entomopathogen against lepidopteran larvae, Diacrisia oblique] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 119-126 (2003). Department of Agricultural Entomology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was made to evaluate the entomopathogenic effect of a soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis against 2nd instar larvae of Diacrisia obliqua under laboratory conditions. In vitro sensitivity test of this bacteria with different insecticides and a fungicide showed incompatible reactions to mancozeb 75% WP (0.6%) at highest inhibition zone of 2.267 mm and at 0.3% gave 1.933 mm followed by endosulfan 35% EC (0.114%) and imidacloprid 17.8% SL (0.1%), whereas compatible reactions were observed with dichlorvos (0.114, 0.057 and 0.028%), acetamiprid (0.004, 0.002 and 0.001%) and monocrotophos (0.08, 0.04 and 0.02%). In the pathogenecity test with B. subtilis (2.93±0.96 x 108 CFU/ml) on D. obliqua recorded 60% larval mortality at 48 and 96 h after treatment, respectively. Comparative efficacy of B. subtilis with full and half doses of various insecticides revealed 73.33% larval mortality by B. subtilis alone, which was at par with sub-lethal doses of monocrotophos (0.02%), carbaryl (0.05%) and cartap hydrochloride (0.025%). Joint efficacy of B. subtilis with sub-lethal doses of various insecticides, microbials and botanicals revealed 100% mortality of larvae of D. obliqua when B. subtilis applied with endosulfan (0.026%), dichlorvos (0.028%), acetamiprid (0.001%) and avermectin (0.0009%) in combination. Results from the investigations indicate that B. subtilis is a potential entomopathogen and has enormous scope in pest management in future which needs further systematic research on this aspect.
21. R. K. PANDEY, A. S. VATS AND G. R. SINGH [Effect of alternate pest management practices on rice pests in eastern Uttar Pradesh] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 127-131 (2003). Directorate of Research Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India.

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted on farmers’ fields during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 in eastern Uttar Pradesh on rice crop, cultivar Sarjoo-52, using alternate pest management practices viz., summer ploughing, seed treatment with systemic fungicide, timely planting (1st July), clipping of seedling tips, skip row planting, balanced fertilizer application (120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O/ha), water management, release of Trichogramma spp. against eggs of moths and need-based pesticide application, and compared with farmers’ own pest management practices. Alternate pest management practices gave higher grain yield (51.4 q/ha), in comparison to prevalent crop management and pest management practices-Normal planting, random planting, higher doses of fertilizer (200 kg N : 60 kg P2O5) and indiscriminate use of pesticides that yielded only 42.04 q/ha. The pest populations were recorded (Insect-pests : grasshopper, stemborer, cutworms, green leaf hopper, brown plant hopper, armyworm and gundhibug; diseases : Bacterial leaf blight, false smut, tungaroo and khaira; weeds : Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crusgalli and Oryza sativa) and found less in I. P. M. Technology as compared with farmers’ practice.
22. S. R. DOD AND V. V. DESHMUKH [Management of foliar disease of greengram by chemicals] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 132-135 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

In laboratory test against Erysiphe polygony with eight fungicides, Dinocap (0.1%), Tridemorph (0.05%) and thiophonate methyl (0.2%) gave highest per cent of inhibition of spore germination followed by penconaole and carbendazim. In field experiment, two sprays of carbendazim at 15 days interval were found most effective for controlling the diseases viz., powdery mildew, cercospora leaf spot and colletotrichum leaf blight and increasing the yield followed by Dinocap and Tridemorph.
23. FRANCISCO ZAVALA GARCÍA*, JOSÉ HERNÁNDEZ DÁVILA, GILBERTO E. SALINAS GARCÍA, R. K. MAITI, CIRO G. S. VALDÉS LOZANO, ELIZABETH CÁRDENAS CERDA, HILDA GÁMEZ GONZÁLEZ AND FERMÍN MONTES CAVAZOS [Growth analysis of Coriandrum sativum L. in relation to genotype-environment interaction] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 136-152 (2003). Facultad de Agronomía UANL Playa Monaco 2928, Col. Primavera Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico (*E-mail : fzavala@fa.uanl.mx)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in north-east of Mexico with an objective to evaluate growth analysis of four genotypes of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) under three environmental conditions. The variables measured were : leaf area and dry weight. The relation among these variables, growth curve and growth indices was estimated. The results showed that leaf area and dry weight of coriander showed a sigmoidal curve and a linear correlation among them. Also logistic model was well adjusted to describe the growth of the crop. Besides, it was observed that genotype-environment interaction influenced different indices of growth determined. For example, the net assimilation rate (NAR) during period from 17-52 days after sowing, showed greater values in the genotype Slow Bolt at higher temperature and lower values of NAR were obtained in genotype Marroqui under lower photoperiod.
24. R. K. MAITI AND H. PERDOME-VELÁZQUEZ [Comparative anatomy of stems of six species of Astrophytum (Cactaceae) : A preliminary study]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 153-158 (2003). Departamento de Química y Biologia Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México (*e-mail : rmaiti@mail. udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The species of Astrophytum has a great demand for its high commercial and beautiful stems and flowers in the world market and are in the danger of extinction owing to urbanisation, illegal collections, as a result, the number of individuals is decreasing in their natural habitat. The present study describes the anatomical characters of six species of Astrophytum and finds its relation with the mechanism of adaptations in the arid environments. The species show large variations in anatomical characters. It is concluded that the presence of epicuticular wax, sunken stomatas, hypodermal collenchymatous patches and compact layers of palisade parenchyma with abundant chloroplasts are related to their mechanism of adaptation in the arid environments.
25. DIO H. CORNEJO OVIEDO* AND WILLIAM EMMINGHAM [Effects of water stress on seedling growth, water potential and stomatal conductance of four Pinus species]. Crop Res. 25 (1) : 159-190 (2003). Departamento Forestal, División de Agronomía Universidad Autónoma Agraria “Antonio Narro” Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, C. P. 25315, México (*e-mail : ecorovi@ narro.uaaan.mx;cor61@prodigy.net.mx).

ABSTRACT

A greenhouse study investigated the response of growth and water relations of seedlings of Arizona pine (Pinus arizonica Engelm.), Apache pine or pino real (Pinus engelmannii Carr.), Durango pine (Pinus durangensis Mart.) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.). The treatments were well watered and water stress over three replicated drying cycles in the dormant season. The well-watered treatment ranged between 67 and 36% of volumetric water content of the growing media. The water stress treatment ranged between 8.0 and 2.0% of volumetric water content of the growing media. Due to inherent species differences in morphology and physiology, the water stress achieved at the end of the drying cycles was not the same among the species. Statistically, no water stress effect was found on seedling growth except for P. durangensis. But, biologically the effect was marginal. Water potential measured in needle fascicles and stomatal conductances were evaluated at the end of two drying cycles. The water stress caused significant and highly significant treatment and diurnal differences for water potential and stomatal conductance on most of the species in those two cycles. At mid-day, more than 60% of stomatal conductance was reduced significantly in the water stress treatment. For each species, a maximum mid-day stomatal conductance value was defined based on the mean and its standard deviation of the mid-day stomatal conductance in the well-watered treatment over the three drying cycles. The maximum mid-day stomatal conductance value was used as the baseline conductance (100%) from which relative values were estimated for the conductance readings in the well-watered and water-stressed treatments. A predawn water potential range associated with less than 50% of the maximum mid-day stomatal conductance was found for each species.
26. D. D. SINGHA [Management of crop residue in summer rice and its effect on the soil properties and crop yield] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 191-193 (2003). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Diphu-782 460 (Assam), India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of rice and wheat straw and their ash on the soil properties and crop yield in the hill soils of Assam. Both incorporation of rice straw and addition of straw ash supplemented with fertilizer application significantly increased the crop yield and available N and K status of the soil over control. Organic matter content of the soil increased due to incorporation of both rice and wheat straw and was further enhanced when supplemented with fertilizer application. Incorporation of wheat straw had similar effect on the available N and K status of the soil, but proved less beneficial than rice straw.
27. Yudhvir Singh and Pankaj Mittal [Variability studies in ginger (Gingiber officinale R.) under humid sub-temperate conditions] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 194-196 (2003). Department of Vegetable Science C. S. K. H. P. Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India.

ABSTRACT

Studies on the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in 48 diverse exotic and indigenous collections of ginger showed that a large portion of phenotypic variability was genetic and highly heritable in most of the cases. Association of high heritability with high genetic advance for yield per plant (Fresh), plant height, number of leaves/plant, number of tillers/plant, number of primary fingers, number of secondary fingers and internodal length of mother rhizome suggested that these characters were under the control of additive genes which holds a good chance of improvement through selection.
28. MAYUR DIKKAR AND V. V. DESHMUKH [Nutritional requirement of Fusarium wilt of chickpea] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 197-199 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagarh (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rabi pulse crop is prone to attack by several diseases, out of which considerable damage of wilt of chickpea was observed in Gujarat state. The nutritional studies of Fusarium oxysporum sp. ciceri were carried out on 12 different solid and liquid media. Among solid media, the fungus grew well on Richard’s agar followed by Potato dextrose agar and Czapcks agar. Among liquid media, maximum dry mycelial weight was recorded on Richard’s medium. Growth on different carbon and nitrogen sources showed variations in utilization. Maltose, mannitol, D-glucose and sucrose supported maximum dry mycelial weight as well as sporulation. Lactose was poorly utilized. Among the nitrogen sources tested, potassium nitrate was found to be the best followed by sodium nitrate in supporting the mycelial growth and sporulation.
29. H. K. BARMAN AND S. HUSSAIN [Early stage insect-pests of Sali rice and their management] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 200-204 (2003). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Titabar-785 630 (Assam), India.

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Titabar during Sali season of 1998 to find out a suitable management strategy for early stage insect-pests of Sali rice. Four insect species viz., caseworm (Nymphula depunctalis Guen.), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guen.), stem borer (Scirpophaga insertulas Wlk.) and gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood Masson.) were found to infest Sali rice at early crop stage. All the insecticidal treatments had significant effect on early stage insect-pests. Among all the treatments, grain yield was more in root-dip treatment followed by field application of furadan 3G at 10 days after transplanting (DAT) and chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 20 DAT. However, cost : benefit ratio was found higher in nursery application of chlorpyriphos 20 EC followed by root-dip treatment in chlorpyriphos 20 EC.
30. B. KUMAR, S. KUMAR AND S. DOHARE [Management of wilt disease of sugarcane with organic amendments] Crop Res. 25 (1) : 205-208 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Sugarcane Research Institute, Pusa Samastipur-848 125 (Bihar), India.

ABSTRACT

Among the groundnut, mustard, sesamum and castor cakes, goundnut and mustard cakes were the most effective in reducing pathogen (F. moniliforme var. subglutinans) population and disease incidence. However, goundnut cake was found superior to mustard cake as it not only reduced higher disease incidence (60.4%), but also improved the plant growth. In root soil, oil cakes reduced the activity of wilt pathogen. The extent of inhibition was increased after decomposition of cakes over a period of 60 days.

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