Volume 24, Number 1 (July, 2002)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org


1. S. K. UPPAL, SUNITA SHARMA, K. S. THIND, G. S. SIDHU AND R. S. GILL [Evaluation of some early maturing sugarcane genotypes] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 1-6 (2002). P. A. U. Sugarcane Research Station, Jalandhar-144 001, India

ABSTRACT

Nine genotypes of sugarcane of early maturity duration were evaluated for yield and other agronomic characters, and quality traits against three check varieties during 1997-98 crop season in Indian Punjab. On the basis of best combination of three selection criteria, i. e. yield, quality and resistance to red rot and wilt diseases, genotypes CoJ 94192 and CoJ 96191 were found promising and have been released for commercial cultivation in the Punjab under the name of CoJ 85 and CoJ 86, respectively. Release of these two early maturing varieties has enabled the farmers to follow varietal diversification in sugarcane cultivation to mitigate the risk of build up or red rot incidence due to monoculturing of CoJ 64 cultivar.


2. . S. P. DIXIT [Effect of different managements on barley in a dry temperate high hill zone of H. P.] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 7-10 (2002). Department of Soil Science CSKKV, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted for two years, to study the effect of farmyard manure and sand application on barley (Hordeum vulgare) in a dry temperate high hill zone of H. P. All the treatments increased all the growth and yield attributing characters, grain and straw yield of barley when compared with control. Among all the treatments, sand application @ 50 t/ha and sand @ 25 t/ha+FYM @ 10 t/ha was superior in increasing the grain and straw yield of barley during both the years. The corresponding increase in these treatments over control in grain and straw yield was 34.38 and 29.82% during 1993 and 40.91 and 40.96% during 1994.

3.P. D. THAKARE, B. M. PATIL, S. U. KAKADE AND S. T. DANGORE [Studies on chemical weed control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 11-14 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 1995-96 for the studies of chemical weed control in soybean with investigating the treatments of five pre-emergence herbicides viz., metolachlor, metribuzin, oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon were evaluated each at two levels and pendimethalin at one level, compared with hoeing plus hand weeding once at 20 DAS, hoeing plus hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS. Dry matter accumulation by weeds was significantly reduced due to all the treatments except unweeded check. Highest dry matter accumulation per plant of soybean was in cultural treatment (2 H+2 HW) followed by oxyfluorfen 0.1 kg ha-1. Oxyfluorfen 0.2 kg ha-1 and metolachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 were most effective against broadleaf and narrow leaf weed, respectively. Lower depletion of nutrients (N and P) by weed was found among all the treatments except unweeded check.

4. B. PRASAD AND BHARAT PRASAD [Response of different sources of sulphur on linseed [Linum usitatissimum Linn.) on Typic Haplaquent] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 15-18 (2002). Department of Soil Science Rajendra Agricultural University, Patna-800 020 (Bihar), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000 to study the effect of different sources of sulphur on growth characters and seed yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) cv. shubhra on sulphur deficient soil. Sulphur applications increased the yield attributing characters. The highest seed yield, 9.01 and 8.02 q/ha in 1998 and 1999, respectively, was obtained with sulphur application @ 30 kg/ha with gypsum which was significantly superior to other sources in both the years.

5 . ADALBERTO BENAVIDES-MENDOZA, FRANCISCA RAMIREZ-GODINA, VALENTINE ROBLEDO-TORRES, HOMERO RAMÍREZ-RODRIGUEZ AND R. K. MAITI [Chilli seed treatment with salicylic and sulfosalicylic acid modifies seedling epidermal anatomy and cold stress tolerance] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 19-25 (2002). Departamento de Horticultura Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Buenavista, Saltillo 25315, México

ABSTRACT

It is known that salicylic acid (SA) is a stress signalling compound in plants. With the objective of verifying if the exogenous application of SA and a sulfur derivative induces resistance to cold stress, we carried out a six hours treatment of pepper seeds with a water solution of SA and sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) at concentrations of 0, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M in a controlled temperature chamber. After germination the seeds were transferred to containers with peat moss with Douglas nutritive solution, 22 days after transplanting the seedlings were exposed twice to cold stress in 24 h period in a refrigerator at 4°C without light. There were four days between the first and second cold events. Seed application of SA 10-4 M and SSA 10-4 M was effective in inducing seedling resistance to cold stress, manifested as highest leaf number, a tallest seedling and more plant fresh and dry weight. On the other hand, SA and SSA 10-3 M and 10-5 M showed a negative effect on seedling final fresh and dry weight. Stomatal index and stomatal density were negatively affected by SA and SSA 10-3 M. On the other hand, SA and SSA 10-4 and 10-5 M increased the stomatal index and stomatal density in abaxial side, showing the opposite response in the adaxial side. Stomatal density in abaxial side showed a low but significant correlation with plant weight, leaf number and plant height.

6. A. BENAVIDES MENDOZA*, H. RAMIREZ RODRIGUEZ, V. ROBLEDO TORRES, E. CORNEJO OVIEDO AND R. K. MAITI [Productivity, CO2 assimilation and mineral tissue concentrations in onion plants under coloured plastic films] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 26-39 (2002). Departamento de Horticultura Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Buenavista, Saltillo Coah. 25315, México (*email : abenmen@uaaan.mx)

ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important environmental factors for the growth of plants. The characteristics of light can be manipulated with plastic films in order to increase the productivity and quality of crop. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of different light environments, obtained by filtering the sunlight through polyethylene (PE) films and single/double layers of polypropylene shade cloths (PSC), modifies the CO2 assimilation and the accumulation of mineral nutrients in leaves and bulb of onion plants. Such filtering screens were effective to modify the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) incident over the plants. The average and maximum values of PPFD were in the range of 199.76 and 312.90 µMol m-2 s-1, respectively, for blue PE as well as 604.65 and 1440.00 µMol m-2 s-1 for single layer PSC. The temperature and relative humidity did not show relationship with PPFD but temperature was dependent over the kind of film material. Average CO2 assimilation values were in the range of 8.67 to 14.55 µMol CO2 m-2 s-1 with maximum at noon of 20.18 to 27.45 µMol CO2 m-2 s-1 for blue PE and single layer PSC treatments, respectively. Such CO2 assimilation activity showed high correlation (R=0.93, P<0.01) with the harvest index but not with plant weight. On the other hand, total plant weight (R=0.85, P<0.02), bulb weight (R=0.93, P<0.01) and bulb diameter (R=0.86, P<0.02) were correlated with PPFD. In view of CO2 assimilation, plant weight and harvest index obtained, the better treatments for PE films were the PE red and PE white. Among the variables determined, fresh extracts of leaves and bulb, total dissolved solids (refractometric index) were the better predictor of plant weight and mineral elements concentration. Phosphorus, copper, iron and zinc were correlated negatively with PPFD and plant weight, while calcium showed a positive relationship. Apparently this result depended on a dilution effect caused for the accumulation of carbohydrates in bulb and leaves.

7. V. CHIKKASUBBANNA AND N. YOGITHA [Extension of vase life of cut roses cultivars Cream Prophyta and Sacha] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 40-44 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Cut roses [Rosa hybrida (L.) cvs. Cream Prophyta and Sacha] grown under green house condition were treated with mineral salts CaSO4, Ca(NO3)2, Al2(SO4)3, STS and AgNO3. Among the different chemicals tried, aluminium sulphate was found best for cvs. Cream Prophyta at 600 ppm and Sacha at 400 ppm.

8. K. A. SUDHAKARA, J. V. NARAYANA GOWDA AND T. V. RAMACHANDRA PRASAD [Screening of herbicides in rose for efficacy and selectivity] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 45-48 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK , Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore to know the bio-efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds in rose. Herbicides tested were : pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha, oxyflourfen @ 0.1 kg/ha, atrazine @ 1.0 kg/ha all pre-emergent herbicides applied three days after pruning (DAP) and glyphosate @ 1.0 kg/ha, a post-emergent herbicide applied at 20 DAP in relation to hand weeding and unweeded control. Among four herbicides, glyphosate at 1.0 kg/ha gave excellent control of weeds and in turn influenced greatly flower yield and it was on par with oxyflourfen @ 0.1 kg/ha. While atrazine and pendimethalin gave moderate weed control and gave flower yields significantly higher than unweeded control. However, hand weeding was found superior to herbicides both in controlling the weeds and influenced the flower yield in rose. Unweeded control lowered the flower yield by 60%.


9. V. CHIKKASUBBANNA AND N. YOGITHA [Effect of chemical preservatives on post-harvest longevity of cut roses cvs. Cream Prophyta and Sacha] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 49-52 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Cut roses [Rosa hybrida (L.) cvs. Cream Prophyta and Sacha] grown under greenhouse condition (M/s Trans India Floritech Ltd., Bangalore) were treated with aluminium sulphate in combination with sucrose and germicides such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS). Cultivar Cream Prophyta recorded a maximum vase life of 16.8 days in 600 ppm Al2(SO4)3+2% sucrose+150 ppm 8-HQS, followed by 600 ppm Al2(SO4)3+2% sucrose+200 ppm 8-HQS with flower longevity of 16.6 days, compared to control (13.6 days). In cv. Sacha, the maximum vase life (15.6 days) was noticed in 400 ppm Al2(SO4)3+1% sucrose+150 ppm 8-HQS as against 12.80 days of vase life in control.

10. M. A. SHANKAR, NAGARAJU, B. T. RANGASWAMY, ANITHA PETER AND JOSEPH WIEBEL [Response of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) to mulberry varieties, spacing and potassium sources under rainfed condition] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 53-57 (2002). Department of Sericulture, M. R. S. Unit University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment on feeding of four mulberry varieties (MR2, S34, RFS175 and M5) raised under two spacings (120 x 60 cm and 90 x 90 cm) and using two sources of potassium fertilizer (sulphate of potash and muriate of potash) was carried out in two seasons. Among four varieties, feeding RFS175 raised by the application of potassium sulphate recorded significantly higher post-cocoon parameters including silk quality compared to control.

11. E. SANCHEZ ARREOLA* AND R. K. MAITI [Therapeutic properties, botany and chemistry of Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuloides)] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 58-62 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología, Escuela de Ciencia Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Santa Catarina Mártir, Puebla, CP 72820, México (*email : sanchez@mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic properties of Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuloides) are known in the traditional medicine of Mexico. There were investigations that described anti-inflammatory, tyrosinase inhibitory, antifungical and antimicrobial activities. The chemical composition of H. inuloides was studied exhaustively. This report described that the principal components of arnica were : flavonoids, terpens, fatty acids and sterols.

12. . S. JULIET HEPZIBA AND M. SUBRAMANIAN [Induced macromutants in M3 and M4 generations of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 63-66 (2002). Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Dry seeds of Vamban 1 and ADT 3 blackgram varieties irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (20 to 90 krad) and EMS (20 to 70 mM) were utilized for screening macromutants in M3 generation. The breeding behaviour and economic potentialities of the macro-mutants were also studied in M4 generation. The M3 generation had thrown five different plant type mutants and three types of pod mutants in both blackgram varieties. Four deviants, namely, more, hairy pods (80 krad-? rays), erect stature (70 krad-??rays), glabrous pods (20 mM-EMS) and trailing habit (30 mM-EMS) in Vamban 1 and five mutants with climbing type (20 krad-??rays), trailing type (50 krad-??rays), constricted pods (30 krad-??rays), tall and bushy type (40 mM-EMS) and bushy semi-sterile type (20 mM-EMS) in ADT 3 were selected as macromutants from M3 generation for the study in M4 generation. All the plant type mutants registered lower yield compared to their parents either due to less pod number/cluster and/or due to partial sterility. The occurrence of semi-sterile mutants was attributed to desynapsis, chromosome translocation and inversions. Among the pod mutants studied, pods with more hairs as well as glabrous nature have been identified at 80 krad of gamma rays and 20 mM of EMS, respectively, in Vamban 1, which recorded about 8.92 and 12.16% higher yield, respectively, than the parent due to increased pod number in both the mutants (22.8 in hairy and 22.55 in glabrous pod mutants). Another type of pod mutant i. e. constricted pods identified at 30 krad of gamma rays in ADT 3 had recorded less yield compared to the control. These mutants bred true for the respective traits and it might be due to the control of single mendalian genes located at different loci. These macro mutants could be used as a source of genetic variability for improvement of breeding lines.

13. SUDESH, R. K. YADAVA AND O. P. S. RANA [Association and path analysis in homogeneous generations for ‘gigas’ spike of wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) em. Thell] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 67-71 (2002). Department of Genetics CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

The character association and path analysis involving 40 F1s obtained from mating of four ‘gigas’ spike genotypes as testers with 10 diverse lines was conducted with a view to identify the character which could help in breaking the plateau of yield in wheat. The results indicated strong positive association of grain yield with spike length, number of spikelets per spike, 100-grain weight and seed density. Whereas path analysis revealed the maximum direct effect of grain : spike biomass ratio towards grain yield followed by spike length and spikelets per spike. However, the indirect effect of grain : spike biomass ratio through spike length and number of spikelets per spike being negative towards grain yield resulted in lowering the correlation coefficients. The appropriate methods for improving yield and component characters by exploring Rm-Ts gene complex have been discussed.

14. G. KRISHNAIAH, K. RAJA REDDY, G. L. K. REDDY AND M. REDDY SEKHAR [Combining ability in sesame] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 72-76 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati-517 502, India

ABSTRACT

The 8 x 8 diallel analysis of F1 generation without reciprocals in sesame revealed that the variances due to gca and sca were highly significant denoting importance of additive and non-additive gene action for all the 13 traits. The estimated components of sca variances were higher in magnitude for all the characters except for plant height and capsule length. Additive gene action was predominant for plant height, whereas additive and non-additive gene action governs capsule length. The parents YLM-17 and Madhavi were good general combiners for majority of the characters, Rajeswari for capsule length and seeds per capsule, Krishna for 100-seed weight and NSI-4 for plant height and harvest index. The specific crosses YLM-11 x T-Brown, Rajeswari x YLM-17, NSI-4 x T-Brown, YLM-11 x Vinayak, Madhavi x T-Brown and Rajeswari x NSI-4 were identified as best specific combiners for yield and its components.

15.T. SHOBHARANI AND R. L. RAVIKUMAR [Evaluation of S1 progenies from populations moderately tolerant to Alternaria blight in sunflower] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 77-80 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

ABSTRACT

Forty-six S1 lines derived from three moderately tolerant populations of sunflower were tested for their reaction to Alternaria leaf blight alongwith popular check Morden and susceptible check L-101. Among 46 lines, 15, 2 and 26 showed significantly less infection than susceptible check L-101 at stages I, II and III, respectively. The genotypes viz., 1229-32, 1229-23, 873-22 and population Acc. No. 180 recorded significantly higher seed yield compared to popular check Morden. Among which the genotypes 1229-32 and 873-22 were superior for both oil content and seed yield and comparatively lower PDI values than Morden. It was proposed to test the superior genotypes in large scale trials.

16. M. VAITHIYALINGAN, S. CHIDAMBARAM, P.VIVEKANANDAN AND C. VANNIARAJAN [Combining ability studies in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 81-85 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

In a combining ability analysis of 30 hybrids developed through line x tester method in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, non-additive gene action was predominant for all the characters studied. Based on the gca effects involving the following parents viz., VBG 23, LBG 20, VBN 2 and ADT 5 in crossing programme would result in improvement of yield besides seed protein content. Among the crosses, VBG 23 x VBN 2 and VNG 52 x ADT 5 were found suitable for heterosis breeding. The hybrid combination LBG 20 x ADT 5 and VBG 23 x ADT 5 could be exploited for recombination breeding.

17. M. VAITHIYALINGAN, S. CHIDAMBARAM, P.VIVEKANANDAN AND C. VANNIARAJAN [Correlation and path analysis in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 86-89 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Correlation and path coefficients were worked out for 12 traits involving 30 hybrids and 11 parents in blackgram. Seed yield exhibited significant positive association with branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod, dry matter production and harvest index. Path analysis revealed maximum direct effect of dry matter production followed by harvest index and pods per plant on seed yield.

18. Y. RAVINDRABABU, A. R. PATHAK AND C. J. TANK [Studies on heterosis over environments in sorghum*] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 90-92 (2002). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

Studies on heterosis over environments indicated that the magnitude of heterosis was high for plant height and grain weight. Heterosis was medium for fodder yield and grain yield, while it was low for seedling vigour, days to flowering, number of nodes per plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and stem thickness. Exploitable heterosis for grain yield was observed in IS 18551 x IS 2312 and GSSV 148 x SR 670, whereas cross IS 18551 x Malwan recorded high heterobeltiosis for dry fodder yield.

19. VINAY MAHAJAN, N. V. P. R. GANGA RAO, VINEET KUMAR AND M. K. SRIVASTAVA [Effect of chemical hybridizing agent on morphological and physiological characters in spring wheat] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 93-95 (2002). Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

Seventy-two diverse genotypes of spring wheat were treated with a chemical hybridizing agent CH 9832 to study its effects on important morphological and physiological characters. Spikelets/spike was significantly and positively correlated with plant height and spike length. Treatment of CH 9832 caused significant change in association between all characters except between plant height and spikelets/spike. In addition, CH 9832 caused significant earliness in genotypes as well as reduction in plant height. Therefore, days to heading and plant height were important characters for better seed setting during hybrid seed production in wheat.

20. H. A. ESECHIE AND K. AL-ALAWI [Effect of tassel removal on grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under saline conditions] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 96-101 (2002). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

ABSTRACT

In experiments carried out in 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons, the effect of tassel removal with or without leaf removal on grain yield of maize cv. Barka White was investigated. The crop was sown on a flat at a population of 83, 000 plants ha-1. Tassels were removed and either discarded of reinserted in the whorl. There were a total of nine treatments as follows : detasseling without restoration (T1), detasseling with restoration (T2), detasseling without restoration+one leaf removed (T3), detasseling without restoration+two leaves removed (T4), detasseling without restoration+three leaves removed (T5), detasseling with restoration+one leaf removed (T6), detasseling with restoration+two leaves removed (T7), detasseling with restoration+three leaves removed (T8) and control (no tissue removed) (T9). Complete detasseling resulted in a 24.2% increase in grain yield but detasseling with restoration had no effect on grain yield. Removal of one leaf accompanied by detasseling with or without restoration also had no effect on grain yield. However, when 2 or 3 leaves were removed alongwith detasseling, grain yields were reduced by 18.2 and 24.2%, respectively. The corresponding reductions with restored tassels were 21.2 and 30.3%. Leaf area index (LAI) decreased by 0.4 and 0.6 units when 2 and 3 leaves, respectively, were removed alongwith complete detasseling. Based on these results, it was suggested that care should be taken to ensure that leaves are not removed when detasseling for seed production purposes.

21. P. N. DONGRE AND A. K. MISHRA [Weed infestation in fields of urd : A phytosociological analysis] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 102-105 (2002). Department of Botany K. N. Government Post-Graduate College Gyanpur-221 304 (Sant Ravidas, Bhadohi), India

ABSTRACT

Standard phytosociological methods were applied to the vegetation of two fields of urd (Phaseolus mungo) represented by Sites I and II situated in the Sant Ravidas Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India. In both fields heavy infestation of weeds was observed. The total number of weed species was 43 and 27 at Sites I and II, respectively. A total of 17 species were found to occur commonly at both the sites. On the basis of values of frequency and IVI, Parthenium hysterophorus, Eclipta alba, Phyllanthus niruri, Lippia nodiflora, Polygonum plebejum, Anagallis arvensis and Eleusine indica were found to show a very successful establishment at Site I, whereas that for Site II was exhibited by Phyllanthus niruri, Pluchea lanceolata, Eclipta alba, Parthenium hysterophorus, Lippia nodiflora, Polygonum plebejum and Anagallis arvensis. Such a successful establishment of weeds in the study fields could be an outcome of poor cultural practices and different interference mechanisms of weeds including allelopathy which can result in heavy crop losses.

22. C. NARNE, R. P. AHER, D. V. DAHAT AND A. R. AHER [Selection of protein rich genotypes in soybean] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 106-112 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722, Ahmednagar (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The protein content ranged from 27.31 to 41.35% and protein yield ranged from 1.04 g to 11.1 g. Three genotypes TS-98-21, MACS-629 and Bragg (C) had higher protein content and/or protein yield and can be included as parent material in breeding programme. The association of different characters with yield and path analysis revealed that the characters number of clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, harvest index and biological yield per plant were to be considered while selecting genotypes for higher yields in soybean.


23. CARLOS H. VERGARA* [Bees floral visitors in a mixed orchard in central Mexico] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 113-116 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Américas-Puebla 72820, Santa Catarina Mártir, Puebla, Mexico (*email : cvergara @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

A relatively low diversity of bee pollinators was sampled from a fruit orchard in the Central Plateau of Mexico. The effect of agricultural practices that have occurred in the region for the last 2,000 years was discussed and recommendations for future research were given.

24. R. K. MAITI*, JOSÉ ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ-OREJA**, IVETE AGUILAR, LUIS MARTÍNEZ AND ALVARO VÉLEZ-SOTO [cultivars for tolerance to salt stress at the germination stage : A preliminary study] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 117-125 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad de las Américas, Puebla 72820, Puebla, México (email : *rmaiti@mail.udlap.mx, **jgonzorj@mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

A laboratory experiment was performed with the objective of determining the effect of salinity on the germination success of different native “criollo” and hybrid maize cultivars. After analysis (MANCOVA), results confirmed that significant statistical differences in germination success existed among salinity treatments and among varieties as well. The values of germination were always greater under control (distilled water) than under salinity treatments. An increase in salinity (from 0.1 M to 0.2 M) provoked a decrease in germination success. This effect was greater in hybrid varieties (loss of 26.40%) compared to that of wild cultivars (loss of 19.92%). At the same time, including all salinity treatments, hybrid varieties responded worse than “criollo” cultivars, being 19.29% the magnitude of the difference as a whole. Discrepancies among groups of varieties (Hybrid vs. “Criollo”) were observed even under control conditions (4.22%), and the higher the salinity, the greater this difference (0.1 M : 24.77%; 0.2 M : 31.83%). Our experiment confirms that native “criollo” maize cultivars are more tolerant to salinity at the germination stage than hybrid varieties currently employed by farmers. This should be taken into account when implementing new schemes to increase the availability of world food resources, especially considering the problems of cropland salinization derived from irrigation systems actually employed, and the agriculture scenarios under an anthropogenic future climatic change.


25. ATUL, SHIVESH SHARMA AND PUNAM [Germination potential and establishment studies on important leguminous tree species of north-west Himalayas in different soil media] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 126-130 (2002). Department of Agroforestry and Environment Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of soil-plant interaction is essential for the success of plantation. Germination studies, on the germplasm of Albizia, Acacia, Alnus and Dalbergia species collected from different seed zone areas of north-west Himalyas, were carried out in the nursery to determine the best soil medium and scarification treatment. Irrespective of the pre-treatment, the seeds sown in sand+clay+FYM (1 : 1 : 2) medium showed best germination and establishment results. Sand+clay+FYM (1 : 1 : 1) was found to be the best medium for maximum germination, survival and establishment of seedlings of Albizia lebbeck and Dalbergia sissoo when seeds were treated initially with hot and cold water, respectively. The acid treatment and sand+clay+FYM (1 : 1 : 2) medium treatment provided significantly best germination and establishment results in the seeds of Acacia catechu. The sand medium supported the growth of Alnus nitida seeds after treatment with cold water.

26. S. REYNA-TELLEZ, M. A. ROSALES-MEDINA, M. A. QUIROZ-ALFARO*, M. MORALE MILLAN AND J. WELTI-CHANES [Lead concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crops irrigated with different water sources] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 131-136 (2002). Department of Chemistry and Biology Universidad de las Américas-Puebla, Ex-Hda. de Santa Catarina Mártir, Cholula 72820, Puebla, México (*email : maquiroz@mail. udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

Tecamachalco is an eminently agricultural region of the Mexican state of Puebla, in which alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is grown in about 6,000 ha. These crop fields are irrigated either with water from deep wells or with water from the Manuel Avila Camacho dam, which in turn receives both industrial and domestic discharges. In this work the lead content in alfalfa plants, soil and water was determined and compared under three different environmental conditions. The presence of lead in these subjects was verified by Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and quantified by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Results have shown that lead content in water is low, 0.9 ppm, but sufficient to provoke a 49.3 ppm lead accumulation in crop soils and, consequently, the lead absorption of 5.8 ppm by alfalfa plants. In the case of alfalfa crops nearby to the highway the lead contents in stem and leaves (6.5 ppm) could be due to the combination of two factors : the migration of lead from root (3.1 ppm) and the deposition of atmospheric lead.

27. R. K. MAITI*, JAIME ALIOSCHA CUERVO PARRA, JERÓNIMO GARCIA-GUZMAN AND V. P. SINGH [Morphology and anatomy of some cactus species adapted in high land valley of Puebla, Mexico] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 137-144 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México (*email : rmaiti@mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

There are large differences in morphological characters among the species of Mammillaria and Ferocactus with respect to size of the stem, the form of stem growth (simple or cespitose) and number and form of spines. With respect to anatomical characters, all the species present the same type of stomatas, paracytic, but differ greatly among species with respect to abundance, number and organisation of stomatas. Abundant stomatas are present in Ferocactus latispinus and less abundant in Mammillaria haageana. There are also variations in anatomical characters in a transverse section of the stems among the species studied. These differences among species may be helpful in taxonomic deleimitation of the species.Comparative study of the germination of three species of Cactaceae of Puebla, Mexico


28. R. K. MAITI, ALVARO VELÉZ SOTO, ZAIDA CRISPÍN DEL RÍO, SANTA FLORES PÉREZ, PABLO MUÑOZ JIMÉNEZ AND ANGELICA ORDÑEZ XAHUENTILA [Morphology and anatomy of some cactus species adapted in high land valley of Puebla, Mexico] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 145-148 (2002). Instístuto Tecnológico Agropecuario No. 29, Xocoyucan, Tlaxcala Km. 7.5 carr. Fed. San Martín Texmelucan-Tlaxcala, Apartado Postal 476 C. P. 75120, Tlaxcala, México

ABSTRACT

In this study, a technique was evaluated for inducing germination for three species of Cactaceae in two different substrates and three levels of moisture percentage at a temperature of 24ºC and a photoperiod of 24 h. The results obtained were highly satisfactory for all these three species. This technique was recommended for inducing germination and propagation of other species of Cactaceae with little modification of some species.

29. R. K. MAITI*, V. HECTOR PERDOMO, J. GARCIA-GUZMAN, T. SYLVIA REYNA AND V. P. SINGH [A novel technique for the germination and propagation of four species of Astrophytum (Cactaceae)] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 149-153 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martír Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México (*email : rmaiti@mail. udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The paper describes a new and simple technique for inducing germination of Astrophytum showing germination ranging from 70 to 100% in different species. Technique involved sowing directly on soil surface in substrates on a tray filled with constant water and covered with thin polyethylene under 24 h photoperiod and temperature ranging from 25 to 30ºC. This technique was recommended for inducing germination and propagation of endangered and other species of Cactaceae..

30. R. K. MAITI*, JAIME ALIOSCHA CUERVO PARRA, P. WESCHE-EBELING, JERÓNIMO GARCIA-GUZMAN AND V. P. SINGH [Floral biology of three species of Mammillaria] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 154-160 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla,C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México (*email : rmaiti@mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The paper reports floral biology. Studies have been made on floral biology of three species of Mammillaria mystax, Mammillaria haageana and Mammillaria karwinskiana starting from stages of floral development to anthesis and fruit maturity. This includes time required for each phase of floral development. The period of flowering in three species of Mammillaria extended for three months varying among species. The time required for initiation upto anthesis and fruit maturity varied among species.


31. R. GERA, SUNITA SUNEJA, KAMLESH KUKREJA, K. S. YADAV AND K. LAKSHMINARAYANA [Isolation of bacteria from textile effluents and their screening for utilization of triphenyl methane group of dyes] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 161-165 (2002). Department of Microbiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

Nineteen different bacterial isolates obtained from five effluent samples of Panipat Textile Dyeing Industries were tested for their ability to grow on dye agar medium with crystal violet (CV) or brilliant green (BG). Most of the isolates showed good growth upto 3.5 mg ml-1 of CV, while in case of BG, growth of all the isolates except PII-1 and PII-4 was observed upto 5 mg ml-1 of dye concentration. The relative rate of decolourization of CV and BG with above isolates was also studied in liquid medium. Crystal violet (10 µg ml-1) was decolourized upto the extent of 70% with isolates PI-1 and PI-4, while BG decolourization was more than 90% with all the isolates except PIV-3.

32. M. V. MALIPATIL, S. S. DASHAD, P. D. SHARMA AND O. P. CHAUDHARY [Studies on the effect of spray volumes on insect-pests and yield of seed cotton in Haryana] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 166-172 (2002). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 India

ABSTRACT

The effect of different spray volumes on insect-pests of cotton (cv. H-777) was studied using knapsack sprayer fitted with triple action nozzle using spray volumes of 250, 375, 500, 625, 750 and 1000 l water/ha. The crop was sprayed six times-twice in the vegetative phase with phosphamidon 85 WSC @ 200 g a.i./ha and oxydemeton-methyl 25 EC @ 250 mg a.i./ha against sucking insect-pests. In reproductive phase, four sprays with monocrotophos 36 SL @ 500 g a.i./ha, fenvalerate 20 EC @ 50 g a.i./ha, quinalphos 20 AF @ 500 g and cypermethrin 10 EC @ 50 g a.i./ha were given against bollworms. The spray volume of 500 l/ha was found to be the best during vegetative crop phase as the lowest leafhopper (0.85 nymphs/leaf) and whitefly populations (0.88 adults/leaf) were recorded, whereas spray volume of 500 and 625 l/ha were found better with lower population of sucking pests during reproductive phase. For bollworm management, spray volume of 500, 625, 750 and 1000 l/ha was equally effective and lower incidence of bollworms in the shed fruiting bodies (18.4, 22.7, 21.8 and 20.8%, respectively) was recorded in these treatments. The bollworm incidence in open bolls (17.1, 14.8, 15.8 and 15.8% on boll basis and 6.8, 5.9, 4.8 and 4.7%, respectively, on loculi basis) was also lowest in these treatments. Higher yield of seed cotton was also realized from these spray volumes (14.9, 15.9, 15.4 and 15.8 q/ha, respectively). Keeping in view the cost of application and time spent, spray volumes of 500 and 625 l/ha are recommended for achieving higher bollworm control and increased yield of seed cotton.

33. M. S. BONS, A. S. SOHI AND K. K. SHUKLA [Biology of Nephotettix virescens (Distant) (Homoptera : Cicadellidae) on rice under Punjab conditions] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 173-179 (2002). Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India

ABSTRACT

The biology of the Formosan green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant) (Homoptera : Cicadellidae), an important vector of tungro virus of rice, was studied on rice cv. PR 106 in the screen houses during the summers of 1999 and 2000 at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The eggs were laid, mostly at 1800-2200 h alongside the margins of the leafsheaths of the rice, in series, each with 4-39 eggs, which hatched in 6.93-9.23 days at 0600-1000 h. There were five instars, which successively lasted for 3.35-4.20, 2.20-2.75, 2.24-3.40, 2.39-2.79 and 4.06-4.79 days; the mean number of days of nymphal stage varied from 14.50 to 17.60 days, and the surviving percentage of nymphs during September-October, 1999 and April-May 2002 was the maximum (95). The mean rate of fecundity-cum-fertility was maximally 146.56 in June-July, 2000. The mean durations of pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition of the leafhoppers were 1.50-2.69, 13.40-20.15 and 1.38-2.08 days, respectively, at the mean temperatures ranging from 29.38 to 32.24°C. Ten generations of the leafhopper were recorded from July, 1999 to July, 2000

34. M. S. BONS, A. S. SOHI AND K. K. SHUKLA [Studies on the host range of Nephotettix virescens (Distant)-green leafhopper of rice] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 180-183 (2002) . Crop Res. 24 (1) : 184-187 (2002). Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India

ABSTRACT

Thirteen plant species were tested for host range studies on rice green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant). Two pairs of adults were confined on each of the test plants under glass chimney. The insects laid eggs on Triticum aestivum Linn., Cyperus rotundus Linn. and Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers., but successful nymphal development was only on Triticum aestivum Linn. The adults died without oviposition on the remaining 10 plant species.

35. HARSIMRAT KALSI, S. S. DHAWAN AND RAJPAL SINGH [Studies on the extraction and concentration of guava juice] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 184-187 (2002). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

Guava juice was extracted from ripe fruits of cultivar Sardar (Lucknow-49). The crushed fruits were treated with pectinase enzyme @ 0.1% for 16 h for liquefaction. The extracted juice was heated to 80°C and kept in a refrigerator for three days for clarification. The decanted juice was concentrated by two methods i. e. open pan boiling and vacuum flash evaporation. The juice was concentrated to two levels i. e. 45°B and 55°B. The extracted juice and its concentrates were evaluated for sugars, ascorbic acid, total acids, tannins and browning. The recovery of guava juice was about 64%. Juice concentrate prepared by vacuum flash evaporation method was better in quality than open pan boiling. The juice can be concentrated upto 55°B but the quality is deteriorated. However, it can successfully be concentrated to 45°B which can be reconstituted to single strength juice by adding water.

36. HARSIMRAT KALSI AND S. S. DHAWAN [Evaluation of varieties for preparation of intermediate moisture guava slices] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 188-199 (2002). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

The suitability of newly developed guava hybrids H 25-25, H 3-22, H 11-7 and commercial cultivars Lucknow-49 and Allahabad Safeda was assessed for preparation of intermediate moisture guava slices. Intermediate moisture (IM) guava slices were prepared by immersion equilibration method in glycerol and sugar solution and in sugar syrup alone using a soak solution containing potassium sorbate, potassium metabisulphite and water and quality was evaluated during storage. Intermediate moisture slices prepared using glycerol and sugar were found to be better because of soft texture and attractive colour of the slices. Among various evaluated cultivars/hybrids, Allahabad Safeda was found superior in quality followed by hybrid H 3-22 and H 11-7 on the basis of organoleptic rating. During storage a significant increase in total sugars, moisture, pectin and decrease in acidity, ascorbic acid, tannins and organoleptic rating was observed.

37. G. S. RANA, D. S. DAHIYA, N. R. GODARA AND S. K. BHATIA [Effect of shade house of different intensities on growth and flowering of gladiolus] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 200-201 (2002). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out in plastic shade houses of 50 and 75% shade intensity and in open condition to study the effect of different shade nets of different shade intensities on growth and flower quality of gladiolus cultivars American Beauty and Happy End. Bulbs of the variety Happy End sprouted late as compared to American Beauty in both the shade nets. Plant height, number of florets per spike and spike length were more under 75% shade house followed by 50% shade house and open condition in both the cultivars. Cultivar American Beauty performed better as compared to Happy End in both the shade houses.

38. A. K. SUD AND V. K. SOOD [Screening of indigenous and exotic collections of kidney bean against bean anthracnose under dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh] Crop Res. 24 (1) : 202-203 (2002) . CSKHPKV Regional Research Sub-station, Sangla-172 106 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Forty-five genotypes of kidney bean comprising land races, exotic lines and recommended varieties were screened against bean anthracnose in the field under dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Land races SRC 74, SRC 89A, SRC 90, SRC 95 and SRC 201 and a line PDR 14 were resistant, whereas land races SRC 85, SRC 88, SRC 98, SRC 99 and SRC 100A were moderately resistant to the disease. All the exotic lines and recommended varieties were susceptible to the disease.

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