Volume 23, Number 3 (May, 2002)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org


1. M. I. LAWAL AND A. B. LAWAL [Influence of nitrogen rate and placement method on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at Kadawa, Nigeria] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 403-411 : (2002). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (*email : iar.abu @ rcl.kaduna.nig)

ABSTRACT

Three field experiments were carried out during the rainy season of 1996, 1997 and 1998 at the Kadawa Research Sub-station (11º39’N, 8º02’E and 486 m above sea level) of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria to evaluate the growth and yield responses of lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) to varying rates of nitrogen and two placement methods. Treatment consisted of four rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) and two fertilizer placement methods (deep and surface placement) laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Analysis of data revealed that application of fertilizer upto 80 kg N ha-1 significantly increased crop growth rate, number of ear bearing tillers/m2, per cent filled grain : grain straw ratio, and grain yield. While plant height, test (1000-grain weight) and grain weight per panicle responded to fertilizer upto 120 kg N ha-1. Deep placement of N fertilizer significantly increased most of the parameters (plant height, crop growth rate, number of ear bearing tillers, per cent filled grain, test weight, grain weight per panicle and grain yield) evaluated over the surface placement. Fertilizer placement method had no significant influence on relative growth rate and grain : straw ratio. All the characters evaluated except relative growth rate (RGR) were positively and significantly correlated to yield.


2. J. A. RAJI [Evaluation of optimum planting pattern in soybean/sorghum intercrop system] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 412-418 (2002). Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Obafemi Awolowo University, P. M. B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Intercropping soybean and sorghum on flat was evaluated from optimum planting arrangement. The intracrop (within row) arrangement of soybean and sorghum on flat resulted in optimum intercrop yields and revenue. The land equivalent ratio values for all treatments indicated advantage in intercropping. Soybean plant height on flat was significantly greater than on ridge. The number of soybean pods/plant, pod length, number of seeds/pod and pod weight/plant were not significantly different as a result of intercropping. In sorghum, the tillers/plant and dry matter weight/plant were greater on flat than on ridge. Optimum revenue was derived from the intracrop arrangement of soybean and sorghum on flat and was 13.5-230% greater than the sole or intercrop revenues.

3. K. PONNUSWAMY, P. SUBBIAN AND N. SANKARAN [Contingency management of kharif sorghum under aberrant weather conditions] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 419-422 : (2002). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments conducted during 1998 and 1999 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore revealed that among the genotypes, CSH 14 recorded higher yield (1311 kg/ha) compared to CSH 9 (1252 kg/ha). Normal sowing also recorded higher fodder yield (10-11 t/ha) as compared to delayed sowing (7-9 t/ha). Among the genotypes, CSH 9 recorded higher fodder yield (9.34 t/ha) than CSH (7.95 t/ha). During second year, significantly higher grain yield was recorded by CSH 14 (3590 kg/ha) than CSV 15 (3410 kg/ha). Under late planting, irrespective of increased plant population grain yield decreased substantially (15.1%), while fodder yield increased substantially (10.1%). Late planting followed by other moisture conservation practices and additional application of 25% of RDF could substantially compensate the grain yield losses due to late planting. These treatments could yield 93.3 to 97.3% of the normally planted crop. The other three treatments viz., reduction in plant stand, thick soil mulch and additional N application under the assumption of long dry spell could not improve the yield in comparison to that of normal planting because the rainfall situation was normal and there was no dry spell.

4. A. P. SARAD, S. T. DANGORE, I. A. KHAN AND S. U. KAKADE [Evaluation of land treatments for in situ moisture conservation in maize crop on medium deep soil] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 423-427 : (2002). Department of Agro-ecological and Environment Centre Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (Maharashtra), India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was conducted during kharif season of 1999-2000, on model watershed (Agro-ecological and Environment Centre), Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola with an object to study the effect of land treatments on in situ soil moisture conservation and on growth and yield of maize crop. An experiment was laid out in randomised block design (RBD) with four treatments viz., sowing along the slope (T1), contour sowing along graded bund at 1 m vertical interval (VI) (T2), contour sowing along vetiver hedge at 1 m VI (T3) and sowing across the slope (T4). The observations on growth and yield attributes were recorded periodically. The moisture content was assessed indirectly with the help of Neutron Probe moisture meter. The treatment T3 was more effective in in situ soil moisture conservation followed by T2 treatment. The growth characters, yield attributes and crop yield of maize crop were found to be more in contour sowing along the vetiver hedge treatment followed by contour sowing across the slope and sowing along the slope.

5 . S. S. CHAUHAN, J. M. DIGHE AND R. A. SHARMA [Economics of sorghum production under different levels of fertility in Malwa region] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 428-430 : (2002). College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field studies were carried out to assess the economics of sorghum production as influenced by different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus applied to different genotypes of sorghum grown on clay loam soils of Experimental Research Station, College of Agriculture, Indore, M. P. Results indicated that maximum net return of Rs. 12053.47/ha and cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 3.05 were observed due to sorghum SPV-1231 at 80+40 kg/ha N+P2O5 fertility level, while minimum net return of Rs. 2809.55/ha and cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 1.52 were observed due to MLSH-14 at 20+10 kg/ha N and P2O5 fertility level.

6. G. MANICKAM, G. KATHIRESAN, S. LOGANATHAN AND P. SRIDHAR [Studies on the evaluation of promising sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) genotypes under saline soil conditions in north-eastern region of Tamil Nadu] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 431-432 (2002). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

Field investigations were conducted during 1996-97 and 1997-98 cropping season to evaluate the performance of different sugarcane genotypes alongwith conventional standards under saline soil conditions at farmers holdings in north-eastern region of Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that the standard CoSi 86071 had significantly recorded the maximum millable cane population, cane yield and sugar yield compared to new sugarcane genotypes in both the locations.

7. ISHWAR SINGH1 AND S. K. AGARWAL [Plant water relation studies with respect to nutrient and weed management in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss)under dryland conditions] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 433-436 : (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment comprising 32 treatments (four weed control x eight fertility levels) was conducted at research farm of Dryland Agriculture Research Project, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the treatments’ effect on plant water relations. Maximum RWC and minimum canopy temperature were recorded in two hand hoeings and reverse in weedy check. However, all the mechanical as well as chemical weed control methods improved the plant water balance as a result transpirational cooling over weedy check in both the crop seasons. Application of 40 kg N+20 kg P2O5 ha-1 had significant effect on plant water balance by increasing RWC and lowering canopy temperature.

8. P. SRIDHAR, G. MANICKAM, K. CHINNASAMY AND B. RAJAMANICKAM [Studies on the productivity potential and economics of different sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) based intercropping systems] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 437-439 : (2002). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vridhachalam (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Field investigations were conducted during kharif seasons of 1998 and 1999 to evaluate the most accommodative and remunerative intercrop for sesamum. Among the different sesame based intercropping systems evaluated, raising one row of blackgram as intercrop for every four rows of sesame had resulted in the maximum mean sesame equivalent yield (872 kg ha-1), land equivalent ratio (1.18), net income (Rs. 9068 ha-1) and benefit : cost ratio (2.20).


9. A. V. BULBULE, J. K. PURKAR AND N. D. JOGDANDE [Management of nitrogen for rainfed transplanted rice] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 440-445 : (2002). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri-422 403 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Experiments were conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (Western Ghat Zone) on transplanted rice crop during kharif 1996 to kharif 1998 under conditions of heavy rainfall. Clear distinct superiority of briquettes was noticed over conventional fertilizer (prilled urea) under the prevailing conditions. Rice yields consistently increased when the crop was fertilized through briquettes (56 kg N/ha) when compared to application of nitrogen through conventional fertilizer (Recommended dose of N-100 kg). Research findings revealed that placement of briquettes (in modified spacing 15-25 x 15-25) at lower rates at an extra labour cost was affordable to farmers since the additional cost of briquette placement was offset through substantial increase in grain yields (25-30%) at lower fertilizer levels. These research findings indicated superior agronomic efficiency of briquettes over the conventional fertilizer and hence has been recommended to the lowland rice farmers of Maharashtra.

10. C. BEENA AND P. V. BALACHANDRAN [Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield in a rice-rice cropping system in the oxisols of Kerala] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 446-449 : (2002). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry
K. A. U. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Mele Pattambi-679 306 (Kerala), India

ABSTRACT

The integrated nutrient management studies conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pattambi during the period of 1998-2000 on sandy loam soil showed that the grain and straw yield of rice which received 100% NPK (90 : 45 : 45 kg ha-1)+FYM @ 5 t ha-1 to kharif rice only was significantly higher to other treatments which received NPK fertilizers. 100% NPK alongwith in situ green manuring using Sesbania aculeata before kharif crop also could give sustainable high yield of rice. Lowest yield was obtained for the no fertilizer control. A combined application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers, therefore, is suggested as means of sustaining the productivity of rice crop. This study also indicated that the use of higher doses of inorganic fertilizers did not give a proportionate increase in the yield of rice.

11. S. SESHADRI REDDY, Y. H. YADAHALLI, V. K. KIRAN KUMAR, O. KUMARA AND A. H. KUMAR NAIK [Effect of fertilizer, gypsum and boron application on yield and economics of sunflower hybrids] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 450-453 : (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065, India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 1999-2000 on red sandy loam soil of Agricultural Field Unit, UAS, Bangalore to evaluate a pre-released sunflower hybrid KBSH-44 and to study the effect of different levels of fertilizer, gypsum and boron. Among the hybrids, KBSH-44 recorded significantly higher mean seed yield (1997 kg ha-1) and oil yield (824 kg ha-1) compared to KBSH-1 due to higher head diameter, number of filled seeds head-1 and seed yield plant-1. Of all the fertilizer treatments, 125% RFD alone gave significantly higher seed yield (2101 kg ha-1) and oil yield (872 kg ha-1) and was on par with 125% RFD+500 kg gypsum ha-1 and 100% RFD+500 kg gypsum ha-1+0.2% borax. Gypsum did not contribute to seed and oil yield but application of 0.2% borax alongwith 100% RFD+500 kg gypsum ha-1 recorded 13.5 and 12.3% increase in seed yield and oil yield, respectively, over 100% RFD+500 kg gypsum ha-1. KBSH-44 recorded significantly higher net returns (Rs. 16111 ha-1) and cost : benefit ratio (1 : 2.05) over KBSH-1 as a result of higher seed yield and oil yield. The treatment 125% RFD alone was found economical in terms of higher net returns (Rs. 16444 ha-1) and cost : benefit ratio (1 : 1.94), however, 100% RFD+500 kg gypsum ha-1+0.2% borax gave the highest net returns (Rs. 17277 ha-1) and cost : benefit ratio (1 : 2.06) as a result of increased yield due to boron application.

12. KAMALAM JOSEPH AND K. I. JOSE [Irrigation water use efficiency of component crops in coconut-banana cropping systems] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 454-456 : (2002). Centre for Water Resources Development and Management Kunnamangalam, P. O. Kozhikode-673 571 (Kerala), India

ABSTRACT

Coconut and banana are two crops which are highly popular in humid tropics and respond well to irrigation. There is no information available on the irrigation requirement of these crops when grown as component crops in a cropping system. A field trial was conducted in a systematically maintained coconut garden of the District Agricultural Farm, Kozhikode District, Kerala (11º36′ N and 75º46′ E) to study the water use efficiency under different levels of irrigation in coconut-banana intercropped system. The experimental site was an established coconut garden where 20-year old coconut trees of variety West Coast Tall were grown at a spacing of 7.5 m x 7.5 m and maintained systematically and suckers of banana of variety Njalipoovan, were planted in the interspaces at a spacing of 2.1 m x 2.1 m. Known quantity of water was applied to the basins of main crop i. e. coconut (1.8 m radius) and intercrop i. e. banana (50 cm radius) as per treatments. The treatments included three levels of irrigation to coconut (C1-900 l/palm once in five days, C2-600 l/palm once in five days and C3-300 l/palm once in five days) and three levels of irrigation to banana (B1-40 l/plant once in three days, B2-25 l/plant once in three days and B3-5 l/plant once in three days). The results revealed that the highest water use efficiency was in the treatment where cocount was irrigated at the rate of 300 l/palm once in five days and the intercrop banana was irrigated at the rate of 5 l/plant once in three days. Considering the comparatively high yield and a reasonably low water use (40200 l), it is advisable to irrigate coconut palms at the rate of 600 l/tree at five days interval and banana plants at the rate of 25 l/plant once in three days.

13. C. P. SURESH AND M. A. HASAN [Soil nutrient status of a banana (Musa AAA, sub-group Cavendish, cv. Giant Governor) plantation in relation to nitrogen and potassium nutrition] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 457-462 : (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out at the Horticultural Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India, during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98 to assess the soil nutrient status of a banana (Musa AAA, sub-group Cavendish, cv. Giant Governor) plantation following application of nitrogenous and potassic fertilizers. Application of nitrogen at higher levels in combination with potassium substantially increased the soil nitrogen status. The soil nitrogen build up in the upper layer (0-15 cm) was considerably higher than at 15-30 cm soil depth. A reduction in soil nitrogen status was recorded during shooting and harvest. Incorporation of potassium at or above 300 g K2O/plant in combination with nitrogen improved the available soil phosphorus (P2O5) content. Available phosphorus content in soil was considerably reduced during shooting and harvest. A noticeable change in available soil potassium content was observed due to the application of different levels of nitrogen and potassium and the available soil potassium content was recorded highest (181 ppm) with N300K500 at vegetative stage and thereafter decreased gradually during shooting and harvest irrespective of soil depth.

14. C. P. SURESH, BIDHAN ROY AND M. A. HASAN [Studies on correlation between growth and bunch characters and yield of Dwarf Cavendish banana (Musa AAA)] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 463-466 (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out in the Horticultural Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal, India during the years 1996-97 and 1997-98 to find out the relationship between growth and bunch characters and yield of Dwarf Cavendish banana (Musa AAA) cv. Giant Governor. Yield of banana exhibited highly positive and significant correlation with pseudostem height (r=0.412) and number of hands/bunch (r=0.607). The total number of green leaves at shooting also showed positive but insignificant correlation with finger length and diameter, number of hands/bunch and finger weight. The multiple regression analysis revealed that among the growth and bunch characters, pseudostem girth, the number of fingers/hand, finger weight and finger length and diameter mostly influenced the yield of banana.

15. L. ALIYU [Growth and yield of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus application and plant density] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 467-475 : (2002). Department of Agronomy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (*email : alilam @ abu.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

Field trials were carried out between 1991 and 1993 at Samaru to study the effect of nitrogen (0, 80, 160, 240 and 360 kg N/ha), phosphorus (0, 22 and 44 kg P/ha) and the plant density (20,000, 40,000 and 60,000 plants/ha) on the growth and dry fruit yield of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Using the classical approach growth analysis indices were derived at fortnightly intervals. LAI and RGR as well as aerial phytomass showed a positive significant response to N fertilization, whilst NAR was significant only at 10 WAT. The effects of phosphorus and plant density on dry weights and growth analysis indices were less marked. Significant increases in the yield both per plant and per hectare were obtained upto 240 kg N/ha. The lower rate of P application (22 kg P/ha) was adequate for dry fruit yield. Although yield/plant decreased with increasing density, the yield/ha increased upto 60,000 plants/ha.

16. R. K. MAITI*, JERONIMO GARCIA GUZMAN, EUGENIO SÁNCHEZ ARREOLA, RENATA FERRARI LEGORRETA, LILIA PAMELA OLGUIN TÉLLEZ AND ADALBERTO BENAVIDES MENDOZA1 [Salinity tolerance of different vegetable crop species at the germination and initial seedling stage] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 476-480 : (2002). Departamento de Quimica y Biologia Universidad de las Americas/Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluates the effect of salinity on germination and initial seedling development of eight vegetable species cultivated in semi-arid regions of north-east of Mexico. Species showed a large variation in their tolerance to salinity. Highly significant differences (P<0.01) were found between species and salinity treatments. Lettuce showed higher level of tolerance at the germination stage, although it was not so at the seedling stage. Cauliflower and tomato were susceptible to salinity stress.

17. S. MUTHURAMALINGAM, S. SENDUR KUMARAN, I. MUTHUVEL AND V. A. SATHIYAMURTHY [Influence of plant densities and applied nutrients on uptake of NPK in seed propagated aggregatum onìon (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) Gnanamedu local type] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 481-485 : (2002). Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to assess the influence of plant densities and applied nutrients on uptake of NPK in seed propagated aggregatum onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) Gnanamedu local type. The experiment was laid out with 30 treatments and three replications in a split plot design. The main and sub-plot treatments consisted of three spacings viz., 45 x 15, 45 x 10 and 45 x 15 cm and 10 combinations involving three levels of N (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1), three levels of P (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) and constant level of K (30 kg ha-1) alongwith FYM 25 t ha-1, Azospirillum at 2 kg ha-1 and phosphobacterium at 2 kg ha-1. An organics alone and absolute control without nutrients was also adopted. The results revealed that the closer spacing of 45 x 5 cm registered the maximum uptake of N, P and K. The plot treatment with closer spacing of 45 x 5 cm and higher dose of manurial treatment 60 : 60 : 30 kg ha-1 alongwith FYM at 25 t ha-1, Azospirillum at 2 kg ha-1 and phosphobacterium at 2 kg ha-1 recorded highest uptake of N, P and K nutrients and resulted in maximum bulb yield.

18. M. K. KALARANI, M. THANGARAJ, R. SIVAKUMAR AND V. MALLIKA [Effects of salicylic acid on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) productivity] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 486-492 : (2002). Department of Crop Physiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Investigations were carried out with CO 13 tomato variety to study the influence of foliar application of different concentrations of salicylic acid viz., 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm on physiological and biochemical parameters and also yield and quality of tomato. Salicylic acid spray showed its distinct role in increasing chlorophyll content and nitrate reductase activity. Dramatic effect of salicylic acid was observed in induction of flowers, fruitset and yield in terms of fruit weight. Spectacular increase was obtained by the foliar spray salicylic acid in quality characters viz., ascorbic acid, lycopene and carotene in fruits. With above parameters, it was concluded that among the different concentrations of salicylic acid, 100 ppm salicylic acid was optimum for enhancing the tomato productivity and quality of fruits.

19. H. A. AKINTOYE*, A. O. ADEYEMI1 AND A. R. ADEDIPE1 [Influence of nitrogen and plant populations on yield and yield components of cucumber grown in south-western Nigeria] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 493-500 : (2002). National Horticultural Research Institute NIHORT, Ibadan, Nigeria (*email : aakintoye @ iita.exch.cgiar.org)

ABSTRACT

Relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate the responses of cucumber (Cucumis sativa) to nitrogen and density of planting in south-western Nigeria. This study was, therefore, conducted in Ago-Iwoye, in south-western Nigeria, to determine the effects of four different rates of nitrogen application and six plant population densities on yield and yield components of cucumber. The experiment was factorial combinations of N rates (0, 45, 90 and 135 kg N ha-1) and six densities of planting (10,000; 26,666; 40,000; 66,666; 74,040 and 88,888 plants ha-1). Nitrogen significantly increased fruit yield and its components at both the years of study. Responses were obtained upto the highest N rate, but 79 kg N ha-1 and 40,000 plants ha-1 appeared to be the optimum for cucumber production in south-western Nigeria. Increased densities resulted in significant increase in fruit yield. The study showed that cucumber production could be enhanced at 79 kg N ha-1 and density of planting at 40,000 plants-1.

20. R. VENUPRASAD, J. LATHA, H. E. SHASHIDHAR AND S. HITTALMANI [Evaluation of genetic diversity among rice cultivars adapted to rainfed low lands of southern Karnataka. I. Yield and related traits] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 501-506 : (2002). MAS Lab, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Seventeen rice varieties from drought prone rainfed lowlands were collected from different parts of southern Karnataka. As the material collected was heterogeneous, they were genetically purified. They were grown in farmers’ fields, representing typical rainfed lowland and at the research station to assess actual production and potential productivity. Wide variability for height, tiller number, yield, panicle number, test weight, biomass, flowering, and maturity was observed, inspite of their narrow geographical origin. The magnitude of variability for yield and related traits narrowed at farmers’ fields compared to that in research station. The three genotypes HB101B, HH103 and MM113A outyielded the Jaya, the released variety at research station. Susceptibility index indicated that four lines HB101A, HH103, TT121B and UN92 were less sensitive to stress and consistent in yield. Two lines MM125A and TK107A performed better in farmers’ fields compared to research station. Several lines identified in this study could be directly used as varieties or as parents in hybridization programme.

21. S. BANUMATHY, K. THIYAGARAJAN AND P. VAIDYANATHAN [Genetic variability for floral traits and their association with outcrossing in rice] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 507-509 (2002). Centre for Plant Breeding & Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

Ten cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were evaluated for the genetic variability for eight floral traits and their association with outcrossing rate. Genetic variability analysis revealed narrow difference between PCV and GCV for all the characters. A wide variation for duration of floret opening and percentage of stigma exsertion was observed among the CMS lines. The genetic parameters viz., PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance were also high for these traits indicating the preponderance of additive gene effects in the inheritance of these traits. The floral traits viz., stigma size and percentage of stigma exsertion had significant and positive correlation with percentage of outcrossing. The CMS line IR 68281A which had maximum outcrossing rate possessed maximum percentage of exserted stigma. Similarly, IR 68885A with large stigmatic area and maximum style length also recorded high seed set percentage on outcrossing.

22. G. THOMAS, J. PANIGRAHI1 AND C. KOLE [A brief account on the genetic studies in country bean] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 510-516 (2002). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Deemed University, Allahabad-211 007, India

ABSTRACT

This review includes some preliminary efforts paid on assessment of genetic variability and its use in country bean, a potential grain legume crop of India and other developing countries. Literature evidences for appreciable endeavours for establishment and evaluation of germplasm comprising improved and indigenous genotypes. A limited work has been undertaken for selection of promising lines. Considerable attention has been paid to study the nature and extent of variation with regard to morphological characters and nutritive value, inheritance of some oligogenic characters and genetic divergence. These informations could be useful in future works particularly in defining the economic characters employing molecular approach and their monitoring genetic improvement in this crop.


23. M. K. SRIVASTAVA1 AND R. P. SINGH [Correlation and path analysis in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 517-521 : (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Correlation study in 26 genotypes of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss] for 10 characters revealed that number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, 1000-seed weight and oil per cent were positively associated with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis explained that all above characters had strong direct effect on seed yield except oil per cent. Results suggested that number of primary branches and 1000-seed weight were vital selection criteria for improvement in productivity of Indian mustard.

24. H. G. NIJAGUN, K. G. PARAMESHWARAPPA AND P. M. SALIMATH1 [Studies on combining ability for exploitation of hybrid vigour in sesame] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 522-525 : (2002). Oilseeds Scheme, Main Research Station University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

ABSTRACT

Six lines were crossed with four testers to produce 24 hybrids. Majorities of lines were from different geographical regions. Number of capsules per plant was found to be more influenced by environment than others. Selection among both female and male parents for earliness might yield lines with shorter duration, which may be utilized for developing hybrids with shorter life cycle. gca variance was found more important than sca variance for number of branches per plant. However, for seed yield both additive and non-additive genetic effects were equally important. The parents DS-1, Vishal and ORM-17 were good general combiners for seed yield. DS-1, Vishal and Madhavi had significant gca effects for number of branches per plant, whereas GTil-2 exhibited significant gca effects for number of capsules per plant.


25. M. K. KALARANI, M. THANGARAJ, A. RAMANATHAN, R. SIVAKUMAR AND V. MALLIKA [Physiological and biochemical aspects of blast resistance in finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn)] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 526-531 : (2002). Department of Crop Physiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to understand the physiological and biochemical basis of blast resistance with ragi genotypes viz., CO 13, GPU 26, GPU 28, K 7 and PR 202. Blast culture was sprayed at 10 days after transplanting. Increased chlorophyll content, total phenolics, peroxidase activity and poly phenol oxidase activity and decreased ascorbic acid content and IAA oxidase activity were observed in resistant genotypes of GPU 26 and GPU 28. Resistant genotypes recorded leaf blast incidence in terms of grade 1(<1% leaf area affected). 14 KD, 29 KD and 43 KD low molecular weight protein fractions were well expressed in resistant genotypes. Among the genotypes GPU 26 enhanced the physiological and biochemical parameters and developed the disease resistance to leaf blast and thus led to higher productivity.

26. A. K. JAIN AND S. K. TRIPATHI [Occurrence of Striga and its influence on yield of Kodo millet] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 532-535 : (2002). Department of Plant Pathology J. N. K. V. V. College of Agriculture, Rewa (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field survey was carried out in Rewa and Sidhi districts of Madhya Pradesh to know the status of Striga incidence in Kodo millet from 1994 to 1999. Average incidence of Striga densiflora was recorded 0.0 to 4.2% at Rewa and 0.0 to 2.0% at Sidhi during survey. Kodo millet varieties, namely, JK 41 (0.6%) and GPUK 5 (0.6%) were found least affected with Striga. The adverse effect on plant health was also observed in Kodo millet. Reduction in plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles/plant, length of panicle, grain yield and grain weight were recorded due to incidence of Striga.

27. R. K. MAITI*, BARILLAS GOMEZ ANA LAURA, MARTIN CADENA SALGADO, ELISA FUENTES MONTEMAYOR, IVETTE MACOUZET GARCIA, ADOLFO MADRID CUEVAS, ABIGAIL NIEVES DELGADO, JERÓNIMO GARCIA GUZMÁN AND V. P. SINGH [Germination and propagation of seven species of Cactaceae] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 536-539 : (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the techniques utilized in inducing germination of seven species of Cactaceae. Continuous light (photoperiod) and high temperature (<30ºC) stimulate germination of cactus species. Highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed among species for gemination percentage of cactus species. Among the species, Coryphanta erecta gave 90% germination, Echinocereus pectinatus var. pectynatus and E. p. var. necapilus 60%, but Ferocactus latispinus gave only 23%. This technique is recommended for inducing germination of Cactaceae.


28. R. K. MAITI*, OSVALDO ERIC RAMIREZ, PERDOMO VELÁZQUEZ HECTOR, LUIS MARTÍNEZ ROCHA AND V. P. SINGH [Dermal surface comparison between some species of Cactaceae and its possible relation with the adaptation to arid conditions] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 540-545 : (2002). Departamento de Quimica y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The paper describes variability in epidermal stem surface and stomatal characteristics of different species belonging to six genera. The form, number, and other characteristics could help us to identify different species and their relations with adaptations in xeric environments.

29. R. K. MAITI*, A. DÍAZ SYLVIA, PENICHE PEYRON GABRIELA, JERONIMO GARCIA-GUZMAN, JAIME ALIOCHA CUERVO PARRA, EUGENIO SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA, P. WESCHE-EBELING AND PEDRO GUADALUPE MIRANDA PACHECO1 [Variability in seed viability of seven species of Cactaceae reserve biosphere of Tehuacán-Cuítlán, Mexico] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 546-548 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

The conservation of the species of Cactaceae in a country with a great diversity such as México is of great importance in any country of the world. A large number of these species are endemic and many of these have important use in the commerce, medicine, food, etc. as a result are found in great danger of extinction. In order to avoid the extraction and consequent exinction of these species, it is proposed to realise the germination of the seeds from the germplasms of The Reserve Biosphere of Tehuacán-Cuítlán. The germination of seven species of Cactaceae was induced showing great variation among viability of the species. The species also showed great variations in seed morphology.

30. H. A. ESECHIE, M. O. EL-MARDI, A. M. SOUKHAROUN AND S. AL-KHANJARI [Influence of temperature on yield and chemical composition of alfalfa cv. Buraimi at first flower] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 549-555 : (2002). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

ABSTRACT

The influence of temperature on yield and chemical composition of alfalfa cv. Buraimi was investigated in experiments conducted in temperature-controlled growth chambers. Temperature regimes used were 45ºC day/35ºC night (WR) and 25ºC day/15ºC night (CR). Alfalfa grown in the warm regime (WR plants) flowered in 30 days in the first cut, while the cool regime plants (CR plants) did not flower until 42 days. After the first cut, the WR and CR plants flowered in 29 and 40 days, respectively. The CR plants had significantly larger biomass and root yields than the WR plants. Carbohydrates (starch, reducing sugars and total non-structural carbohydrates), Ca and Mg were present in significantly larger quantities in the CR plants than the WR plants. However, the WR plants accumulated significantly higher concentrations of crude protein, P and K than the CR plants. Similarly, cell wall components, such as crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, were deposited in significantly higher amounts in the WR plants than the CR plants. Ether extract was not affected by temperature. The implication of some of these findings in forage quality was discussed.


31. R. K. MAITI*, JESÚS HER´NANDEZ ORTZ, PAOLA GARCIA DE LA TORRE, JERONIMO GARCIA-GUZMAN AND V. P. SINGH1 [Variability in salinity tolerance of seven alfalfa varieties at the germination stage : A preliminary study] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 556-558 : (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martír, Cholula, Puebla, México (*email : rmaiti @ mail.udlap.mx)

ABSTRACT

Alfalfa is a native of Occidental Asia and Mediterranean region. The results obtained through experiments of seven varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under different concentrations of salinity indicated that the average germination of each variety showed significant differences among varieties and was also affected by different concentrations of salinity. In general, alfalfa was moderately tolerant to salinity at early seedling stage.

32. PADMANABH DWIVEDI1 [Decline in the amount of Rubisco, cytochrome c oxidase and acid invertase in barley plants subjected to carbohydrate starvation] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 559-568 : (2002). Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of Cambridge, Cambridge, U. K.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the work described was to investigate the effect of extended darkness on the protein content and amount of selected enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism and respiration in barley plants. The results showed a greater reduction in the protein content as well as content of Rubisco, cytochrome c oxidase and acid invertase, as evinced from the western blots, in both leaves and roots. The study further indicated that carbohydrate starvation in plants led to degradation of proteins, even when the plants were growing naturally i. e. intact and undisturbed.

33. PADMANABH DWIVEDI1 [Effect of prolonged darkness on the activity of respiratory enzymes in Arabidopsis roots] Crop Res. 23 (3) : 569-573 : (2002). Department of Plant Sciences University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U. K.

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the investigation of the effect of prolonged darkness on the activity of some of the respiratory enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The results showed that whereas the activity of fumarase and PFK (ATP) was unaffected in both the wild type and the mutant TC 265 (mutant in starch degradation), that of b-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase declined at the end of 72 h darkness. It was suggested that roots were supplied with carbon substrate from shoot throughout the dark treatment so that the glycolysis and the citric acid cycle were still in operation.

 

 

error: Content is protected !!