Volume 23, Number 2 (March, 2002)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org


1. H. A. ESECHIE, V. RODRIGUEZ AND H. S. AL-ASMI [Effect of seeding rate on yield of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Batinah Coast of Oman] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 1-6 : (2002). Department of Crop Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out in 1995-96 and 1996-97 cropping seasons to investigate the effect of seeding rate on yield of irrigated wheat in the Batinah Coast of Oman. Three wheat cultivars Kooli, Wadi Quriyat 151 and Wadi Quriyat 160 were grown at three seeding rates 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha. Tillering was enhanced by increasing seeding rate. Increased seeding rate resulted in taller plants, which increased lodging susceptibility. Days to 50% heading and number of kernels/spike did not respond to seeding rate, while 1000-kernel weight (TKW) decreased with increasing seeding rate. Grain yield increased as seeding rate increased, the largest grain yield was obtained at 120 kg/ha seeding rate, but was not significantly different from the 90 kg/ha seeding rate.


1. HARBIR SINGH, KEITH T. INGRAM AND R. K. JHORAR [Comparative performance of different water production functions for rice (Oryza sativa L.)] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 203-213 (2002). Agronomy, Plant Physiology and Agroecology The International Rice Research Institute, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines

ABSTRACT

In a naturally illuminated greenhouse at the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, experiment with controlled irrigation was conducted to study the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars IR 58 and IR 25588-7-3-1 to wellwatered (continuously saturated) and induced stage specific water deficits : (i) Vegetative deficit from 15 to 35 days after seeding (DAS) and (ii) Reproductive deficit from 49 to 70 DAS. Crop production functions, relating to grain yield of rice with evapotranspiration with and without the consideration of the time of water deficit during plant growth period, were derived. For developing water production functions considering the time of water deficit, the total growing season for rice cultivars was divided into three sub-periods i. e. sub-period I covering 0 to 14 DAS, sub-period II covering 15 to 48 DAS (water deficit during 15 to 35 DAS) and sub-period III covering 49 DAS to maturity (water deficit during 49 to 70 DAS). There was significant correlation of seasonal evapotranspiration with grain yield. The correlation, which was quite high for linear functions, was slightly greater for non-linear functions. The correlation was also markedly improved if evapotranspiration for different growth stages (sub-periods) was considered rather than total seasonal evapotranspiration. Since there appears to be no single equation that fits all of the conditions under present study and since different equations lead to different conclusions, it is impressed upon that the water production functions considering evapotranspiration at different growth stages be used with caution. In general, the degree of sensitivity of grain yield to water deficit for rice cultivars IR 58 and IR 25588-7-3-1 decreased in the order of plant growth sub-period III (reproductive–49 DAS to maturity) and sub-period II (vegetative–15 to 48 DAS) indicating thereby that plant growth period from booting to grain fill (reproductive stage) was most sensitive to water deficit.


2. V. K. PANDEY AND L. P. AWASTHI [Studies on genetic-variability for yield contributing traits in aromatic rice] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 214-218 (2002). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Significant genetic variability was observed among 21 genotypes of aromatic rice for yield contributing traits viz., plant height, days to 50% flowering, total number of tillers/plant, panicle length, number of grains/panicle, test weight, grain length, grain breadth and grain yield/plant. Thus, from the present study, it may be concluded that the all yield contributing traits play major role in enhancement of production of grain yield. These traits could easily serve as an important criterion for screening the germplasm to identify suitable aromatic rice cultivars.


3. GOURANGA KAR, S. MOHANTY AND B. K. JAMES [Thermal environments study for exploring wheat cultivation and determination of best fit probability distribution model for monsoonal rainfall prediction in coastal Orissa] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 219-227 (2002). Water Technology Center for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar (Orissa), India

ABSTRACT

Though the coastal stations of Orissa have high crop production potential but due to lack of appropriate water and soil management the region has one of the lowest agricultural productivity in the country. In this region, major portion of its rainfall occurs due to south- west monsoon with heavy downpour resulting in substantial runoff and flood. Whereas during other season, water stress conditions create adverse conditions for growing crops and agricultural droughts of varying intensities limit the crop production potential. Determination of best fit probability model for monsoonal rainfall prediction at different probability levels will be useful for evaluating climatic potential to evolve a suitable crop plan, cropping system through crop diversification and substitution and runoff recycling. It will also provide useful information for designing proper hydraulic structures and to develop a comprehensive soil water conservation plan on watershed basis. In the present paper, 31 years’ rainfall data of three coastal stations of Orissa were analysed and rainfall during monsoon months at different probability was predicted using four different probability distribution functions viz., normal, Log normal, Log Pearson and Extreme Value Type-1. The predicted values were compared to observed values using chi-square test to obtain best fit probability distribution functions to predict monsoonal rainfall of coastal Orissa. An attempt has also been made to study the thermal environments for exploring possibility of wheat cultivation in the coastal districts.


4. M. A. HUSSAINI, V. B. OGUNLELA, A. A. RAMALAN, A. M. FALAKI AND A. B. LAWAL [Productivity and water use in maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus and irrigation levels] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 228-234 (2002). Department of Agronomy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

A two-year field study was conducted in 1997 and 1998 dry seasons at the Kadawa Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1), phosphorus (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha-1) and irrigation regimes (based on irrigation water (IW): cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) ratios of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) on the productivity and water use of dry season maize. The nitrogen and irrigation were factorially combined to make the main plots, while phosphorus was assigned to the sub-plot in a split-plot arrangement using three replications. The influence of nitrogen was significant on shelling percentage, harvest index, grain yield, water use and water use efficiency, while phosphorus was significant on all but shelling percentage. Moisture regime also had a significant effect on harvest index, grain yield and water use.


5. Y. E. EI MAHI, A. M. A. SOKRAB, E. A. ELAMIN AND I. S. IBRAHIM [Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers effect on growth and yield of irrigated forage sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.)} Moench grown on a saline-sodic soil] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 235-242 (2002). Department of Soil Science Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan

ABSTRACT

Split-plot design field experiments were conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan for two successive summer seasons of 1993-94 and 1994-95 to examine the effect of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on the performance of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The land was chiseled down to 40 cm, harrowed and levelled. Four levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers were applied before sowing in the form of triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. Potassium was allotted for the main plots and the sub-plots for phosphorus. The crop was grown on a highly saline-sodic soil (Natrargid) under irrigation. Phosphorus fertilization and the interaction of phosphorus and potassium significantly increased the growth attributes and the dry matter yield. Phosphorous fertilizer increased the leaf phosphorus and nitrogen contents significantly in the first season when salinity was high, whereas potassium application was not effective. Leaf phosphorus and nitrogen contents were greatly improved in the second season when salinity became low even without phosphorus fertilization. Potassium, however, caused a significant reduction in leaf sodium content. It was concluded that a large phosphorus dose in excess of 300 kg P/ha may be required by the crop in the first season, but only a maintenance dose may be required in subsequent seasons.


6. K. PONNUSWAMY, P. SUBBIAN, P. SANTHI AND N. SANKARAN [Integrated nutrient management for rainfed sorghum] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 243-246 (2002) Department of Agronomy

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments conducted during 1999 and 2000 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in rainfed sorghum with inorganic nitrogen combined with FYM and bio-fertilizers revealed that the application of 100% recommended NPK alongwith FYM @ 10 t/ha and seed and soil application of both azospirillum and phosphobacteria recorded the highest grain yield of 4830 kg/ha followed by 100% NPK+ FYM+azospirillum (4429kg/ha) and 100% NPK+FYM+ phosphobacteria (4382 kg/ha). Seed and soil application of both azospirillum and phosphobacteria has alone recorded 14% higher grain yield over no bio-fertilizer application. During second year, the decrease in grain yield was 5.8 and 8.3%, while in fooder yield was 2.3 and 4.2% as the nitrogen application rate decreased to 75 and 50% of recommended dose, respectively. Application of FYM @ 10 t/ha significantly increased the grain and fodder yield. A combination of phosphobacteria + azospirillum had significant positive effect on yield and yield characters compared to no bio-fertilizer application or either of PSB/azospirillum alone. Recommended dose of fertilizer with FYM @ 10 t/ha and PSB + azospirillum has recorded the highest fodder yield of 11022 and 8226 kg/ha, respectively, during 1999 and 2000.


7. O. P. CHAUDHARY AND S. S. DASHAD [ Effectiveness of insecticides against white grub and their deleterious effects on germination in pearl millet] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 247-252 (2002). CCSHAU Regional Research Station, Bawal-123 501 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

In an attempt to control white grubs in pearl millet, chlorpyriphos 20 EC, quinalphos 25 EC (@ 15, 20, 25, 35 and 50 ml/kg seed), fenvalerate 20 EC, cypermethrin 25 EC, deltamethrin 2.8 EC and alfamethrin 10 EC (10, 15 and 20 ml) and imidacloprid (10, 20, 30 and 50 g) were applied as seed treatment. Phorate 10 G was applied at 4 and 8 kg/acre as pre-sowing soil mix, mixed with seed and after 15, 30 and 45 days of sowing (DAS) between the rows in the standing crop. All insecticides provided effective protection upto 35 DAS (0.07 infested plants/13.4 m row length) and at 60 DAS also, the infestation was low (0.81 plants) compared to 70 DAS (10.81) and untreated control (16.8). Higher doses of organophosphates hampered seed germination appreciably. In plots treated with chlorpyriphos at 25, 35 and 50 ml/kg seed, the germination was hampered significantly and progressively with only 51.3, 41.3 and 13.3 plants/13.4 m row length, respectively, compared to 64.0 in control. Quinalphos significantly reduced germination in all concentrations, this reduction being more pronounced with higher doses. All the concentrations of fenvalerate, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, alfamethrin and imidacloprid did not affect the germination and were safer. Phorate application by mixing with seed (8 kg/ha) though was effective but adversely affected germination. Phorate application in standing crop was least effective but was safer to the pearl millet plants. Insecticides used as seed treatment were not only more effective against white grubs but also safer to the pearl millet plants. Chlorpyriphos @ 20 ml/kg seed is most effective treatment followed by imidacloprid, cypermethrin and fenvalerate @ 10 ml/kg seed each.


8. H. A. ESECHIE, V. RODRIGUEZ AND H. S. AL-ASMI [Effect of sodium chloride salinity on cation equilibria in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 253-258 (2002). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

ABSTRACT

The effect of NaCl salinity on cation equilibra in alfalfa was evaluated in a 2-year field based study. The concentrations of the saline solutions, mixed with half-strength Hoagland solution, were 0 (control), 2.0, 4.2, 6.4, 8.2, 10.4 and 12.2 dS/m. The plant parts studied were roots, stem, leaf petiole and leaf lamina. Apart from Na whose concentration increased significantly in all plant parts as the level of salinity treatments increased, a decrease was observed in the concentration of P, K, Ca and Mg. The roots accumulated significantly more Na than the other plant parts, while significantly more Ca was accumulated in the patioles. The cationic sums were relatively constant in plants under 0 to 6.4 and 8.2 to 12.2 dS/m treatments. Based on these results which support the cationic constancy rule proposed by Bear and Prince in 1945, it was suggested that this concept may have a potential in identifying the salinity levels that may seriously affect normal growth and yield of plants


9. S. K. KARIKARI, A. PANSIRI AND D. J. TEMBA [Competitive ability and growth habit of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc] landraces for intercropping] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 259-268 (2002). Department of Crop Science and Production Botswana College of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana

ABSTRACT

Three Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc] landraces, namely, Diphiri Cream (DipC), OMotswasele 6 (OM6) and National Tested Seed Red (NTSR) were grown intercropped with sorghum variety Segaolane during 1994-95, 1995-96 and 1996-97 seasons at treatments involving Bambara groundnut/sorghum in 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3 ratios. The competitive relationship between sorghum and Bambara groundnut was determined by the relative crowing coefficient (K) and relative yield total (RYT). The K values for sorghum with respect to Bambara groundnut (Ksb) were above unity indicating that the yield of sorghum was not suppressed by Bambara groundnut. However, the K values for Bambara groundnut with respect to sorghum (Kbs) were variable. While the Kbs for DipC was about unity, those for OM6 and NTSR were below unity. This degree of relationship showed a better competitive ability for DipC than OM6 and NTSR. The RYT values were also higher for DipC than OM6 and NTSR. This study shows that DipC is a better competitor and more suitable for intercropping than OM6 and NTSR. Therefore, it could be developed as an ideotype Bambara groundnut for intercropping under arid conditions such as pertain in Botswana.


10. G. E. SÁNCHEZ-VALLDUVI, C. C. FLORES, R. A. BARREYRO, M.V. ANGHI AND S. J.SARANDÓN [Competence of natural weed community at different stages of linseed crop development] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 269-276 (2002). Cultivos Industriales, Departamento de Producción Vegetal Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, U. N. L. P. CC 31 (1900), La Plata, Argentina

ABSTRACT

Linseed crop is especially sensitive to the interspecific competition; therefore, weeds are one of the greatest restrictive factors to yield. The competitive effects of natural weed community, in different moments of linseed development on seed yield and its components were studied. A field experiment was carried out in La Plata (Argentina) and the treatments consisted in keeping linseed with and without weed presence at different development stages (10 cm high, first visible floral buttons, end of flowering and during the whole cycle). Specific composition of weed community was modified by different treatments used, prevailed less competitive weeds in these with early control. Weed biomass was associated with the number of days that weed and linseed grew together and it depended on linseed development stage. Weeds biomass accumulation rate was higher when weeds were removed late than at early removal. Weed competition caused significant decreases in linseed yield and biomass only when weeds remained until first visible floral buttons, end of flowering and during the whole cycle. Decreases in linseed biomass, yield and seed number were proportional to weed dry matter accumulation. The presence of great weeds biomass limited the available resources for crop before the definition of the number of seeds/m2, affecting dry matter partition.


11. r. k. yadav and s. b. l. srivastavA [Combining ability analysis over environments in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 277-282 (2002). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India

abstract

Combining ability analysis for seed yield and its components was studied through diallel crosses analysis involving 10 diverse linseed lines over three environments. Analysis of variance for combining ability for pooled over environments showed highly significant gca and sca variance for all the characters studied indicating importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. Gca x environment and sca x environment interactions also gave significant differences for all the traits. Parent, Garima was found good general combiner for early growth vigour, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and seed yield per plant. Crosses lck 8528 x es 44, Garima x Acc No. 692, Garima x T 397, Neelum x T 397, Laxmi 27 x LCK 88062, ES 44 x LCK 88062, RL 904 x Acc No. 692 and RL 904 x LC 2023 were good specific combiners for seed yield in both F1 and F2 generations.


12. pradip kumar, k. s. rathi and kedar prasad [Effect of component crops in intercropping of linseed+mustard under increasing rates of nitrogen] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 283-286 (2002). Department of Agronomy C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (U. P.), India

abstract

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 1999-2000 to evaluate the intercropping of linseed+mustard with increasing rates of nitrogen. Treatment consisted three cropping systems (Pure mustard, pure linseed and linseed+mustard in 5 : 1 row ratio) and four does of nitrogen (control, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha). Intercropped mustard exerted adverse effect on linseed by 12%. Linseed produced seed yield 8.77 q/ha or 71.30% with 83% plant population to pure cropping. Intercropped linseed had beneficial effect on mustard yield by 22%. Seed yield of mustard by 33% plant population was 8.37 q/ha or 55.10% to that of pure cropping. Application of 120 kg N/ha gave significantly higher seed yield of mustard and linseed alongwith their yield attributes. Intercropping of linseed+mustard (5 : 1) gave maximum linseed equivalent yield (15.74 q/ha), net profit (Rs. 12538/ha) and LER (1.29). The highest net profit of Rs. 12281/ha was achieved with application of 120 kg N/ha.


13. s. s. chandrakumar, h. v. nanjappa, b. k. ramachandrappa and mirza karim baig [Weed control in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) through soil solarization] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 287-292 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, g. k. v. k., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

abstract

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 1999 at Agronomy Field Unit, Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore to study the effect of soil solarization as a means for weed control in sunflower. The performance of transparent polyethylene sheets with varying thickness and duration was compared with recommended dose of herbicide (pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha) and weed-free check. The results indicated the superiority of soil solarization in increasing the soil temperature (50.60C) with 0.05 mm transparent polyethylene sheet for 60 days compared to non-solarized plot (420C). Continuously higher soil temperature was maintained with longer period of soil solarization (60 days) compared to shorter period of soil solarization (40 and 20 days). Throughout the period of soil solarization, higher soil temperature was recorded in top 0.5 cm soil depth as compared to 5-10 cm soil depth. Further, lower weed dry weight of monocot, dicot and sedges (1.56 to 2.27 g per 0.25 m2) was observed at 80 DAS with TPE tarped for 60 days. Consequently the increased yield of sunflower was attained.

 


14. m. m. bahadur, M. ashrafuzzaman, m. a. kabir, m. f. chowdhury and d. a. n. majumder [Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties of different levels of phosphorus] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 293-299 (2002). Hajee Mohammad Danesh Agricultural College, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

abstract

A field experiment was carried out during rabi season of 1998-99 to study the effect of five levels of phosphorus on the growth and yield of three chickpea varieties. The varieties significantly differed among themselves for all the characters studied. Seed yield and biological yield alongwith yield components was maximum in the variety Barichola-5. The maximum seed yield was recorded in the variety Barichola-5 followed by Nabin with 1.57 t/ha and 1.38 t/ha, respectively. Phosphorus significantly improved the vegetative and yield components. Particularly to phosphorus @ 60 and 80 kg/ha significantly increased the growth, yield and yield attributing characters.


15. A. K. GARAI AND J. K. DATTA [Sources of phosphate fertilization and cycocel spray on some physiological attributes and seed yield in mung] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 300-304 (2002). Plant Physiology Laboratory Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati University, Sriniketan-731 236, India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in summer season of 1995-96 to study the effect of sources of phosphate fertilization and cycocel spray on some physiological growth attributes and yield of green gram var. B-105 (Panna). Among five levels of phosphorus sources (control, Purulia rock phosphate–PRP, single super phosphate–SSP, cattle urine treated Purulia rock phosphate–CUTPRD, whey treated Purulia rock phosphate–WTPRP), WTPRP increased LAI, CGR, chlorophyll content in leaf, hastened flowering, lessened abscission of flowers and increased seed yield as compared to other sources. WTPRP recorded 75.5% yield increase over control. Spraying CCC-100 ppm twice on 30 and 45 DAS revealed the same trend as was observed in WTPRP in case of LAI, leaf chlorophyll content, times for flower induction and retention behavior and seed yield, and its affectivity was superior to that of control and single spray (30 DAS) of CCC-100 ppm. WTPRP vs. CCC-100 ppm (double spray) proved its significant efficiency in terms of seed yield (878 kg ha-1).


16. M. A. TURK, A. F. AL-JAMALI AND A. M. TAWAHA [Effect of seeding rate and ethrel spray on the morphology and yield traits of irrigated faba bean {Vicia faba (L.) major}] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 305-307 (2002). Department of Plant Production Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

ABSTRACT

Faba bean [Vicia faba (L.) major] is normally harvested by hand in west Asia and north Africa but research is needed on mechanizing its harvest to reduce input costs. Yield losses from a mechanized harvest increase with increased lodging. Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-01 at Houfa in northern Jordan, to study the effect of seeding rate and ethrel spray on the morphology and yield traits of irrigated faba bean [V. faba (L.) major]. Seed of the locally planted faba bean cultivar [V. faba (L.) major] were sown at different seeding rates (100 and 150 plants m-2) in the main plots, ethrel treatment [(1500 ppm ethrel (2-chloroethel phosphonic acid) was applied after 28 days of sowing or without ethrel spray] kept in sub-plots. Seed yield, seeds pod-1, pod length and plant height were decreased significantly with ethrel application compared with the control. Seed yield was not significantly affected by sowing rate.


17. K. DHINESH BABU, D. S. YADAV, M. S. PRASAD AND Y. P. SHARMA [Preharvest fruit drop in Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 308-312 (2002). Division of Horticulture ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani (Meghalaya), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during the years 1999 and 2000 to find out the proportion of pre-harvest fruit drop in 15 year old Khasi mandarin trees. Results revealed that the fruit drop was high in the month of October (16.74) as compared to November (10.22) and December (8.00). The treatments differed significantly with respect to their ability to control the fruit drop. The fruit drop was the least (24.33) in T7 (2,4-D : 20 ppm+carbendazim 0.1%+micronutrients 0.5%). T9 (control) registered the maximum fruit drop (52.00). The best fruit weight (128.00 g), fruit volume (136.00 ml), TSS (9.70%), titrable acidity (0.88%), ascorbic acid (37.50 mg/100 g ) and juice content (62.00%) were recorded by T7 in those fruits retained by the trees. The fruits that were retained on the trees have been found to be superior in yield and quality traits to the dropped fruits irrespective of the treatments.


18. B. C. SHARADAMMA, J. V. NARAYANA GOWDA AND T. V. RAMACHANDRA PRASAD [Chemical weed management in crossandra (Crossandra undulaefolia Salisb.) cv. Saoundarya] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 313-316 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2000-01 at Horticulture Division, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore. Herbicides used were alachlor, pendimethalin and metolachlor each at two dose rates along with hand weeding and unweeded control (weedy check) and were tested in RCBD with three replications. The results revealed that metolachlor 1.25 kg/ha recorded significantly lower weed density and significantly increased plant growth, flower yield and quality of flowers. This was on par with alachlor 1.25 kg/ha. While pendimethalin both at 1.0 and 1.25 kg/ha gave poor control of weeds and reduced plant growth, yield and quality of flowers but significantly superior to unweeded control.


19. R. K. NANDI, M. DEB, T. K. MAITY AND G. SOUNDA [Response of onion to different levels of irrigation and fertilizer] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 317-320 (2002). Department of Vegetable Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bangal), India

ABSTRACT

Field investigations were conducted to study the effect of irrigation and fertilization on growth, yield and post-harvest shelf life of onion on a sandy loam soil during 1995-96 and 1996-97 at Horticultural Research Station of the Viswavidyalaya, Mondouri. The experiment with four levels of irrigation i. e. no irrigation, farmer’s practice (8-10 days interval), at 0.55 and 0.80 atm. tension with three levels of fertilizer i. e. no fertilizer, N100K120S40 and N150 K180S60 was conducted in split plot design with three replications. Results indicated that growth and yield of onion were significantly influenced with irrigation and fertilizer application, while post-harvest shelf life of the crop was not responded positively by these variables. The highest yields (198.75 and 201.25 q/ha in 1st and 2nd year, respectively) were recorded where irrigation was given at 0.55 atm. tension with the application of 150 kg N, 180 kg K and 60 kg S/ha. Consumptive use and consumptive use efficiency were maximum at 0.55 atm. tension and no irrigation treatments, respectively.


20. MUNIR A. TURK AND A. M. TAWAHA [Crop-weed competition studies in garlic (Allium sativum L.) under irrigated condition] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 321-323 (2002) Department of Plant Production Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during the two growing seasons of 1999 and 2000 at the research farm of the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), to study the effect of time of weed removal on the yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Removing weeds from 25 to 75 days after crop planting led to significantly larger yields than on plots, which were not weeded. Maximum yield was obtained when weeds were removed thrice at 25, 50 and 75 days after crop planting.


21. R. S. TIWARI, ANKUR AGARWAL AND S. C. SENGAR [Effect of dates of sowing and number of cuttings on growth, seed yield and economics of coriander cv. Pant Haritima] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 324-329 (2002). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal), India

ABSTRACT

Effect of two dates (15 and 30 October) of sowing and six cutting levels was studied on leaf and seed yield of coriander cv. Pant Haritima. Increase in number of cuttings resulted in increase in leaf yield with a maximum in five cuttings in both sowing dates (132.5 and 118.5 q/ha). 15 October sowing resulted in comparatively higher seed yield with a maximum (13.94 q/ha) in two leaf cuttings. Number of leaf cuttings significantly affected the plant height. Number of primary and secondary branches/plant and umbels/plant was found maximum (9.46, 3.84 and 78.45, respectively) in 15 October sowing under two leaf cuttings. Umbellets/umbel was found maximum (5.71) in 30 October sowing under one leaf cutting. 1000-seed weight was found maximum (9.60 g) in 15 October sowing under no leaf cutting. Economics of cultivation showed highest benefit: cost ratio in two leaf cuttings in 15 October sowing.


22. J. A. RAJI [Effect of planting patterns on kenaf in kenaf/millet intercropping] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 330-336 (2002). Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Obafemi Awolowo University, P. M. B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan

ABSTRACT

Transgressive yields of kenaf core and fibre weight yields were observed in kenaf/millet mixtures. The optimum intercrop ratio for kenaf core and fibre weight yields was kenaf/millet 2 : 1 which out yielded the sole kenaf by 21.8 and 14.8%, respectively. Transgressive yield for fibre alone was observed in the intercrop ratio 4 : 1. This was 4.7% higher than the fibre yield in kenaf/millet ratio 3 : 1, and 18.7% higher than the cropping ratio 2 : 1. However, the LER value for kenaf/millet ratio 4 : 1 was lower than for ratio 2 : 1. The highest LER value obtained from the intercrop ratio 2 : 1 confirms its superiority. The intercrop ratio 2 : 1 is therefore recommended for its relatively higher fibre production. The core/fibre yield ratios for sole and intercropped kenaf were 3 : 3 and 2.5-4.4. Millet did not have consistent effect on kenaf core and fibre yield depression but kenaf had consistent effect on millet grain yield and 100-seed weight depression. Intercropping did not significantly affect kenaf height, internodes length, number of leaves and number of capsules per plant.


23. S. T. KAJJIDONI, S. J. PATIL, B. M. KHADI AND P.M. SALIMATH [Effect of genetic male sterility on seed cotton yield and ginning out-turn in intra-arboreum cotton hybrids] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 337-340 (2002). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The present study deals with the effect of genetic male sterility (GMS) in hybrid combinations on seed cotton yield and ginning out-turn traits. Utilising two GMS lines viz., DS-5 and GAKA-423, 36 GMS based and 36 conventional intra-arboreum hybrids were generated and evaluated during kharif 1995. The average performance of GMS based hybrids was statistically superior in respect of seed cotton yield compared to conventional hybrids. The conventional hybrids exhibited statistically better average ginning out-turn compared to GMS based hybrids, indicating effect of genetic male sterility locus in heterozygous condition on these two traits. Among six high yielding GMS based hybrids, three were significantly superior in respect of seed cotton yield and one hybrid showed significantly lower ginning out-turn compared to their respective conventional hybrids.


24. A. BALASUBRAMANIAN, V. BALASUBRAMANIAN AND S. KUMARAN [Effect of biofertilizers and graded doses of inorganic nitrogen on the yield of seed cane] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 341-343 (2002) T. N. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Virinjipuram-632 104 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during January 1998 to study the effect of two biofertilizers i. e. Agrospirillum brazilense and Acetobacter diazotrophicus with graded doses of inorganic nitrogen on the yield of seed crop of Co.G 93076 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). The study revealed that application of Acetobacter (10 kg/ha) with 75% recommended dose of N (206.3 kg N/ha) recorded as much cane yield as compared to the recommended dose of N (275 kg ha-1) with no biofertilizers. The yield increase over recommended level of nitrogen alone was accounted to be 3.97%. The cane yield from the plots treated with Acetobacter+75% of recommended nitrogen was on par with the treatment Acetobacter with 100% of recommended nitrogen.


25. H. T. NAGARAJU, J. V. NARAYANAGOWDA AND G. S. NAGARAJA [Effect of non-toxic minerals and sucrose on vase life of tuberose cv. Double] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 344-348 (2002) U. A. S. Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Investigations carried out on the effect on non-toxic minerals viz., calcium nitrate, zinc sulphate and magnesium sulphate at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mM and sucrose (2%) alone and in combination with mineral salts revealed that pre-treating the harvested spikes of tuberose cv. Double in the vase solution containing sucrose 2% and calcium nitrate or magnesium sulphate or zinc sulphate at 0.50 mM extended vase life. Among the three, sucrose 2%+calcium nitrate 0.50 mM extended the vase life upto 18.5 days as against nine days in control by maintaining water uptake, reducing transpiration loss and water balance.


26. H. T. NAGARAJU, J. V. NARAYANAGOWDA AND G. S. NAGARAJA Effect of pulsing with sucrose on vase life of tuberose cv. Double Crop Res. 23 (2) : 349-353 (2002). Department of Horticulture College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya

ABSTRACT

Investigations carried out on the effect of pulsing on vase life of tuberose cv. Double with sucrose at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.00% for 4, 8 and 12 h of pulsing duration, revealed that pre-treatment with sucrose at 5% for 8 h enhanced the vase life upto 18 days as compared to 9.8 days in control by maintaining water uptake reducing transpiration loss and water balance.


27. V. CHIKKASUBBANNA AND C. SUMA [Effect of chemical preservatives on post-harvest longevity of cut Alstroemeria flowers] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 354-356 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Chemical substances such as Benzyl adenine (BA), Triadimefon (TAF), Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) were used in four concentrations with two levels of sucrose (4 and 6%) and 8-HQ (200 and 400 ppm) was tried to extend the vase life of Alstroemeria cv. Mona Lisa. Among the chemicals, BA treated flowers had maximum vase life followed by TDZ, AgNO3 and TAF. Extension of vase life was maximum (12.6 days) at 15 ppm BA+4% sucrose+200 ppm 8-HQ (11.4 days), TDZ+4% sucrose+200 ppm 8-HQ (12.2 days) 10 ppm, AgNO3+4% sucrose+200 ppm 8-HQ (11.6 days) and 20 ppm TAF+6% sucrose+400 ppm 8-HQ, respectively.


28. V. CHIKKASUBBANNA AND R. SHARADA [Effect of floral preservatives on the longevity of cut carnations) Crop Res. 23 (2) : 357-361 (2002). Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cvs. Pentara and Sunrise grown under polyhouse with standard production techniques were subjected to various preservatives solutions containing metal salts like aluminium sulphate [Al2(SO4)3], calcium nitrate [Ca (NO3)2], sodium benzoate (C6H5 CooNa), silver thiosulphate (STS) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) in combination with different levels of sucrose and germicide 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ). Maximum vase life of 10.80 days was recorded in cv. Pentara in 0.4 mM STS+6.1% sucrose+400 ppm 8-Hydroxyquinoline as against control (4.80 days). Cultivar Sunrise recorded 15.80 days of vase life in 100 ppm silver nitrate+4% sucrose+200 ppm 8-HQ compared to 7.40 days in control.


29. L. ALIYU AND N. C. KUCHINDA [Analysis of the chemical composition of some organic manures and their effect on the yield and composition of pepper] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 362-368 (2002) Department of Agronomy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, P. M. B. 1044, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted for three years to determine the chemical composition of organic manures and their effect on the yield and composition of pepper. Poultry manure had higher concentrations of manganese, zinc and phosphorus throughout the study and nitrogen in 1996 and 1997. Iron concentration was higher in Guano, while farmyard manure had higher concentration of sodium in all the years tested. Poultry manure and Guano were significantly comparable in dry fruit yield and higher than farmyard manure. Application of 9 t ha-1 poultry manure and Guano significantly outyielded lower rate, while 30 t ha-1 farmyard manure significantly outyielded lower rates in 1995 and 1996 only. Elemental contents in fruits were not significantly affected by manure source. The rates applied, however, influenced the contents of P and K in fruits. Polynomial analysis showed that linear response had the highest coefficient of determination and also gave the closest fit to the observed data irrespective of manure source.


30. R. S. TIWARI, ANKUR AGARWAL AND S. C. SENGAR [Effect of intercropping on yield and economics of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 369-374 (2002). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttaranchal) , India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of eight intercrops (fenugreek, coriander, carrot, French bean, radish, palak, pea and potato) on fennel yield and economics. Intercropping resulted in decrease in fennel yield than sole cropping, which showed maximum seed yield (19.65 q/ha). Intercropping with fenugreek, coriander and palak showed non-significant decrease, while radish showed maximum decrease in main crop yield. Pea appeared as best intercrop as it gave maximum cost : benefit ratio (1 : 2.17).


31. E. SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA, R. K. MAITI, P. WESCHE EBELING, E. RAMÍREZ-BRAVO, A. DÍAZ-PALACIOS AND V. P. SINGH [Contribution to medicinal uses and chemistry of some species of Agave : A review] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 375-381 (2002) Dept. Quimica y Biología, Escuela de Ciencias Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Santa Catarina Mártir, Puebla, CP 72820, México

ABSTRACT

The present paper gives a short review on ethnopharmacology and biochemistry of Agave spp. The medicinal uses as well as the effects on inducing dermatitis on humans, as well as other traditional uses of Agave spp. are described. The chemistry of Agave is also described focusing on some secondary metabolites such as saponins, steroids and sapogenins.


32. Gamez Gonzalez hilda, zavala garcia francisco, R. K. maiti, moreno limon sergio, lozano del rio dora elia and martinez lozano salomon [Effect of extracts of Cynodon dactylon L. and Sorghum halepense L. on cultivated plants] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 382-388 (2002) Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León (uanl), Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal-F-16, C. P. 66450, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

abstract

Different experiments were conducted with an objective to evaluate the potential allelopathic effect of the extracts of stem of Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense on respiration and germination of avena (var. L-138) and wheat (var. Glennson 81), sorghum (var. Pronasa 522) and bean (var. Pinto Americano). It was observed that in wheat and avena the respiration (production of CO2) decreased mainly by the extract of the stem of S. halepense, while in bean all the extracts had stimulant effect. The gemination percentage was found to be affected by the application of the different extracts both on wheat and avena. Similarly, the extracts of these weeds had negative effect on dry matter accumulation in the radicle, shoot, endosperm and non-germinated seeds indicating that the stem extract of C. dactylon had shown very low values.


33. rita dahiya, R. S. malik and B. S. jhorar [Applicability of truncated sine model to predict daytime air and soil temperature of dunal topography] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 389-393 (2002). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

abstract

Extreme temperatures have been one of the problems in afforestation of sand dunal desert eco-system regions. Modeling of soil temperature may be helpful to optimize different temperature management practices of dunal topography of arid climate. Thus, our objective was to study the applicability of truncated sine model TSM 16 for predicting air and soil daytime temperatures of dunal topography. The model required easily measurable air and soil surface maximum and minimum temperatures. The hourly temperatures were recorded using YSI tele thermometer at air (1 m height) and soil (0, 10 and 15 cm) for sand dune top and the bottom on 5 February 1999. The model TSM 16 predicted the air and soil (0 and 10 cm) daytime temperature variations of sand dune top and the bottom accurately having mean relative deviation Y values less than 10%.


34. r. k. maiti, ana laura barillas, G. martÍn Cadena, S. Elisa Fuentes, M. Ivette macouzet, G. Adolfo madrid, abigail nieves and jose luis lorenzo [Management and intensive production of species of Cactaceae in a green house nursery : A model] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 394-396 (2002) Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas, Santa Catarina Martir Cholula, C. P. 72 829, Puebla, México

abstract

The present paper gives the information on management and intensive production of species of Cactaceae in a green house nursery. The information provided on nursery of reproduction, production of cactus through seeds, selection of cactus varieties, seed treatment, substrates for cactus sowing, method of sowing, cactus grafting and physical structure of the green house nursery can be used as amodel for the production of cactus species in different countries.


35. a. b. turkhede, r. n. katkar, v. m. solanke and s. t. wankhade [Integrated weed management in cotton] Crop Res. 23 (2) : 397-401 (2002) Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

abstract

Weed free check showed minimum number of monocot and dicot weeds/m2 followed by farmers’ practice. Dry weight of monocot weeds was comparatively less in all the treatments (except control) than dry weight of dicot weeds. Maximum seed cotton yield was recorded (612 kg ha-1) by weed free check which was at par with the treatment having three weedings and three intercultures i. e. farmers’ practice (575 kg ha-1). Unweeded treatment was significantly lowest in seed cotton yield (127 kg ha-1). Concentration of herbicides did not differ significantly in seed cotton yield, it only increased 40.6% more than untreated control.


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