Volume 23, Number 1 (January, 2002)

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
md@cropresearch.org


1. H. A. ESECHIE, V. RODRIGUEZ AND H. S. AL-ASMI [Effect of seeding rate on yield of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Batinah Coast of Oman] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 1-6 : (2002). Department of Crop Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out in 1995-96 and 1996-97 cropping seasons to investigate the effect of seeding rate on yield of irrigated wheat in the Batinah Coast of Oman. Three wheat cultivars Kooli, Wadi Quriyat 151 and Wadi Quriyat 160 were grown at three seeding rates 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha. Tillering was enhanced by increasing seeding rate. Increased seeding rate resulted in taller plants, which increased lodging susceptibility. Days to 50% heading and number of kernels/spike did not respond to seeding rate, while 1000-kernel weight (TKW) decreased with increasing seeding rate. Grain yield increased as seeding rate increased, the largest grain yield was obtained at 120 kg/ha seeding rate, but was not significantly different from the 90 kg/ha seeding rate.

2. R. K. MAHEY, ONKAR SINGH, AVTAR SINGH, S. S. BRAR, A. S. VIRK AND JASVINDER SINGH [Influence of first and subsequent irrigations under varying tillage levels on weed control and grain yield of wheat] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 7-11 : (2002). Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India

ABSTRACT

A field trial was conducted to see the effect of timing of first and subsequent irrigations under various tillage levels at the Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana during rabi 1994-95. The tillage treatments are permanent since 1970. The results revealed that grain yield was not significantly affected under zero (41.88 q/ha), reduced (43.53 q/ha) and conventional (43.38 q/ha) tillage. The number of annual weeds before and after spray was significantly less in zero tillage as compared to reduced and conventional tillage but dry matter of perennial weed, Cynodon dactylon was more in zero tillage as compared to reduced and conventional tillage. The significantly higher grain yield was recorded with the aapplication of first irrigation at four weeks after sowing as compared to the application of first irrigation at six weeks after sowing but effect of irrigation on straw yield was non-significant. The irrigation treatments did not influence the weed number and dry matter of weeds before and after spraying of herbicide and at harvest. The results indicated that even after 24 years, the zero, reduced and conventional tillage produced similar grain yield of wheat. So, in view of saving energy and time, the wheat crop could be grown successfully under zero/reduced tillage provided the weeds must be controlled effectively.

3. J. K. SHARMA AND SWARN LATA [Stability analysis in sweat buckwheat] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 12-14 : (2002). Seed Production Unit Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.) India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 1997 to 1999 to study the stability analysis in seven genotypes of sweat buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). The genotypes performed differently during different years and showed significant genotype x environment interaction for seed yield and days to maturity. Genotype Sangla was found stable with high mean performance for seed yield and early maturity and hence may be used for large scale cultivation. Though Kamru and VHC 27 also showed high mean performance and were stable for seed yield but were not responsive for days to maturity, either due to linear or non-linear genotype x environment interaction. Based on their high mean performance and stability for yield, these may be tested further at different locations in different years to establish its superiority and stability for early maturity alongwith seed yield.

4. R. CHANDRASEKARAN, A. SOLAIMALAI, K. SANKARA-NARAYANAN AND N. RAVISANKAR [Effect of water management practices, geometry and stress management strategy on transpiration rate, canopy temperature and yield of rice-rice cropping system] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 15-20 : (2002). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during kharif and rabi seasons of 1998-2000 to study the impact of irrigation regimes, crop espacement and stress management on transpiration rate, canopy temperature and yield of rice-rice cropping system. Irrigation to 5 cm depth on one day after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW) registered maximum transpiration rate and yield of rice with lowest canopy temperature. Lowest plant density (15 x10 cm) recorded higher transpiration rate and canopy temperature with lower yields of rice. KCl spray decreased the transpiration rate and canopy temperature with increased yield of rice under moisture stress condition. Higher yield of rice was obtained with 10 x 10 cm spacing during kharif seasons, while a 12.5 x 10 cm espacement gave maximum yield of rice during rabi seasons.

5. L. SARALA, M. MUTHUSAMY, K. KARUNANITHI AND M. KARTHIKEYAN [Efficacy of plant oils against the pathogens of grain discolouration of rice] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 21-23 : (2002). Coconut Research Station, Veppankulam-614 906 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A study was conduced to find out the effect of plant oils against the pathogens of grain discolouration viz., Sarocladium oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Curvularia lunata. Palmarosa oil (0.1%) 80 EC and palmarosa+neem oil (1 : 2) 80 EC (0.1%) were effective which recorded the mycelial growth inhibition of 100 and 87.34% in S. oryzae, 100 and 92.40% in D. oryzae and 86.12% in case of C. lunata, respectively. Among the four concentrations of palmarosa oil tried, 0.1% was found to be effective, which recorded 100% growth inhibition of all the three pathogens.

6. R. R. USHA KUMARI, P. RANGASAMY AND S. MICHAEL GOMEZ [Gene action for seed yield and its components in wide compatible varieties of rice involving indica/japonica crosses] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 24-26 : (2002). Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

The study of genetic effects in four selected crosses involving indica/japonica wide compatible varieties, for yield and its components revealed that all the characters were much influenced by different types of geneaction-additive, dominance and epistasis. In crosses Plate Blanc MNI x Akihiari (C1) and N 22 x IR 50 (C2), the dominance and epistatic effects were predominant. The cross Dular x Toyonishiki (C4) was marked by additive and additive x additive gene effects. Cross Lambayeque-1 x ADT 36 (C3) had an equal situation with various types of gene actions obtained. The present study would suggest multiple crossing programme and selection of superior segregants in later generations for increasing the potential in wide compatible varieties involving indica/japonica crosses.

7. S. K. KARIKARI AND T. MOSEKIEMANG [Yield and yield component compensation in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum L.] in Botswana ] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 27-33 : (2002). Department of Crop Science and Production Botswana College of Agriculture, P/Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana

ABSTRACT

A conventional tillering pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum L.] variety Serere 6A was grown at three ( 125,000; 250,000 and 500,000 plants ha-1) levels of plant population and four levels (0, 1, 3 and 5) tiller numbers over two growing seasons at Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana. The highest grain yield was obtained at 500,000 population maintaining three tillers. Results of path analysis demonstrated that number of plants ha-1 was the primary determinant of grain yield followed by number of tillers plant-1. Heads plants-1, grains head-1 and 1000-grain weight were of minor importance. Path coefficients among yield components were all negative indicating that an increase in one component caused a corresponding decrease in the other. These results have an impact on development of more intensive cultural practices aimed at increasing grain yield in millet under dryland farming conditions in Botswana and other areas with similar semi-arid climate.

8. B. D. BIRADAR, S. C. HONYAL, S. M. VASTRAD, R. A. BALIKAI AND S. JAHAGIRDAR [SPV 1380-A promising rabi sorghum variety] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 34-39 : (2002). Regional Research Station, PO Box No. 18, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

SPV 1380, a new rabi sorghum variety developed from RRS, Bijapur, was found superior in grain and fodder yield over six check varieties viz., M 35-1, CSV 14R, CSV 8R, Swati, SPV 1155 and SPV 1359. Overall percentage increase in grain yield of SPV 1380 was 14.3, 23.5, 30.5, 6.3, 9.2 and 14.6 over M 35-1, CSV 14R, CSV 8R, Swati, SPV 1155 and SPV 1359, respectively, and for fodder yield, percentage increase over above check varieties was 20.6, 16.9, 38.1, 23.3, 26.6 and 8.6 respectively. Under shallow soil conditions, it performed well. Variety was found least susceptible to charcoal rot and lodging due to charcoal rot. In on-farm trials, farmers could realize superior grain yields by SPV 1380 as compared to M 35-1.

9. D. V. SINGH AND B. K. NAD [Protein and oil yield and some oil quality parameters in mustard as influenced by nutrients application] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 40-45 : (2002). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India

ABSTRACT

Content and yield of protein and oil were studied for mustard seeds from two successive field crops grown on a Typic Ustochrept soil with varying combinations of major nutrients alongwith FYM and Zn. While protein yield was largely governed by N and P, the content and yield of oil were favourably influenced by the secondary nutrients ( S, Mg and Ca). Though both protein and oil yields were improved by both N and S, the partial effect due to N rendered the oil to result into lower saponification and higher iodine values. Whereas reverse was due to the effects of S and P. Since oil yield could be raised by applying S with N, the increase in yield was assessed to be against the quality of oil produced i. e. high saponification and low iodine values, which are considered as measures for the order of free fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids content of the oil.

10. GOURANGA KAR AND N. V. K. CHAKRAVARTY [Simple remote sensing technology for predicting yield in Brassica] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 46-48 : (2002).Division of Agricultural Physics Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi -110 012, India

ABSTRACT

As a part of ground truth, data generation through remote sensing technology, in this study, two spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra red/red (IR/R) ratio and normalized difference (ND) were derived and interrelated with grain yield in Brassica. It was found from correlation study that there was strong relationship between peak IR/R and ND with grain yield. These regression equations between grain yield and remotely sensed spectral indices will be useful in prediction of seed yield (without destroying the crop) much in advance and, hence, find potential use of remote sensing techniques in agriculture for predicting yield.

11. S. K. GHOSH AND S. C. GULATI [Selection of practically significant yield components for genetic diversity analysis in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 49-54 (2002). Genetics Division Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110 012, India

ABSTRACT

Genetic divergence as one of the criteria of selection of parents is considered in plant breeding as a means to generate crosses which segregate in later generations into genotypes transgressing the performance of better parent. The concept of genetic distance has been widely used as a tool in determining diversity through multivariate analysis to choose genetically diverse parents . In this investigation, an initiative was undertaken in Brassica juncea to group 36 mustard genotypes based on 12 and 8 selected yield components followed by D2 statistics and clustering. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and based on principal components and eigen values, eight yield components were selected using rejection method B-4, for diversity analysis of the genotypes. Clustering of genotypes followed by D2 analyses involving 12 and eight selected yield components has resulted in minor variation. Results indicated that the selected yield components were significant in grouping genetic diversity of the materials and this technique was certainly very useful to reduce the number of redundant variables, which did not provide any extra information.

12. RAKESH KUMAR AND M. R. SAHARAN [Modulation of NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (from Brassica campestris L.) by chaotropic anions] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 55-57 (2002). Department of Biochemistry CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

ABSTRACT

Neutral salts stimulated the activity of NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate : NADP+ oxidoreductase (Phosphorylating), EC 1.2.1.13) from developing seeds of Brassica campestris L.Br-, ClO4- and Cl- activated the NADP-GAPDH by 68, 49 and 42% at optimal concentration of 0.2 , 0.1 and 0.25 M, respectively. These onions stimulated only the NADPH-dependent activity not the NADH-dependent activity of NADP-GAPDH. These chaotropic anions increased the activity of NADP-GAPDH at low salt concentration and decreased the activity of NADP-GAPDH at higher salt concentration.

13. R. KAVIMANI, K. ANNADURAI AND G. RANGARAJU [Spacing and nutrient management on yield maximisation of irrigated groundnut] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 58-60 (2002).T. N. A. U. Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute Kumulur-621 712 ( Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of spacing and nutrient management on maximising the yield of groundnut crop under irrigated condition of Irugur soil series. The results of pooled analysis of three seasons’ data revealed that spacing had no influence on pod and haulms yield of groundnut and pressmud application at 12.5 t/ha added with 125% recommended dose of NPK/ha recorded the maximum pod yield of 1791kg/ha which was comparable with 150% recommended dose of NPK/ha and organic manure (1803 kg/ha). The yield maximisation was due to the improvement in growth parameters and yield attributes. Sowing of VRI 2 groundnut at 30 x10 cm spacing applied with 125% recommended dose of NPK alongwith pressmud at 12.5 t/ha under irrigated condition recorded the highest net profit of Rs. 14,105/ha and benefit : cost ratio of 1.90.

14. M. P. DUBEY [Economic viability of mulches for double cropping of early soybean (Glycine max) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) under rainfed conditions of Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 61-65 (2002). J. N. K. V. V. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar-470 002 (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A sequential field experiment was conducted during kharif and rabi seasons for two consecutive years on clay soils at JNKVV Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar (M. P.) in order to evaluate the economic viability of mulches for double cropping of major oilseeds under rainfed conditions of Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The present trial was arranged in RBD replicated four times having 12 treatments. Results revealed that though self-mulching either under fallow or cropped condition and wheat straw @ 7.5 t/ha retained significantly more available soil moisture content (32.0, 31.9 and 32.0 mm, respectively ) at the time of linseed sowing but the grain yield of soybean (q/ha) alongwith gross monetary return (GMR, Rs./ha) remained unaffected. Net monetary return (NMR, Rs./ha) and profitability (B : C ratio) varied statistically and none of the mulches was found profitable compared to traditional (without mulched) practice (Rs. 4214/ha and 2.34 : 1.00, respectively). Use of wheat straw @ 7.5 t/ha was found costlier than that of soybean straw. Self-mulching in soybean though earned higher net monetary return (Rs. 2365/ha) compared with both the straws but inferior to local method of soybean cultivation without any mulching. In case of linseed, fallow or mono condition gave higher grain yields (q/ha) as well as GMR (Rs./ha) compared with linseed after soybean. Further, significantly higher grain yield and GMR ( 6.02 q and Rs. 5418/ha, respectively) were obtained in mono crop coupled with self-mulching over rest of the treatments. Fallow self-mulched plot gave 54.41% higher grain yield of linseed over linseed after soybean without any mulching. Although, double cropping of both the oilseeds gave the maximum GMR either self (Rs. 12108/ha) or straw mulch with wheat (Rs. 12103/ha) but none of the mulches was found profitable compared with no mulching under both the field situations (i. e. fallow, Rs. 2260/ha NMR and 2.09 B : C ratio and double cropping of both the oilseeds Rs. 6584/ha NMR and 2.46 B : C ratio, respectively) on vertisols under rainfed conditions of Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh.

15. N. B. SINHA, T. K. BERA AND P. N. NANDI [Effect of ascorbic acid on amino acids translocation and nodulation in moong (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 66-73 (2002). Department of Agricultural Biochemistry Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal) India

ABSTRACT

Experiments were conducted with ascorbic acid (AA) at 25 mg/l and100 mg/1 for seed treatment and 500 and1000 mg/1 for sand treatment in pea and moong plants. These doses were standardised in the isolated root culture technique and pot culture experiments. Amino acids of bleeding sap were analysed by TLC. With these treatments, the nodulation of the plants was also studied. The following amino acids were found in the bleeding sap of nodulated and ascorbic acid treated pea and moong plants viz., glutamine, asparagine, aspartic acid, leucine and valine. Two more amino acids i. e. threonine and alanine were present in moong plants only. These amino acids were found in the control as well as in the seed and sand treated pea plants. In seed treated plants 63 to 80% and in sand treated plants 100 to 130% NH2-N was translocated as compared to the untreated control. In case of moong, the same amino acids were found in control and in AA treated plants and results showed 21 to 31% more NH2-H in seed treated plants and 37 to 44% more NH2-N in sand treated plants translocated as compared to the control.The AA treated moong and pea plants showed also an increase in the nodule number, nodule volume, dry weight of plants and total nitrogen content as compared to the control. Sand treatment method was more effective than seed treatment one. Nitrogen fixed per nodule showed a decrease in the treated pea plants and remained more or less unchanged in moong plants. This may be due to increased nodule number.

16. K. K. MANOJKUMAR, S. S. CHANDRAKUMAR AND T. V. MUNIYAPPA [Productivity and economics of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) as influenced by weed management practices in alfisols of Karnataka] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 74-78 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during 1997-98 at Main Research Station, Hebbal, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore to study the effect of herbicides and hand weeding alone and in combination with earthingup at 30 days after sowing (DAS) on productivity and economics of cowpea. The results indicated that hand weeding (at 15 and 30 DAS) with earthingup at 30 DAS gave excellent control of weeds and recorded higher seed yield (1312 kg/ha) followed by weed-free throughout, two hand weedings and alachlor and metolachlor at 0.75 kg/ha with earthingup at 30 DAS. Higher net additional returns and marginal benefit : cost ratio (Rs.1784/ha and 8.44) were observed with alachlor at 0.75 kg/ha+earthingup at 30 DAS compared to weed-free check.

17. C. BHATTACHARYYA AND N. BHATTACHARYYA [A comparative study of correlation and path coefficient values in Pisum at different population levels] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 79-86 : (2002). B. C. K. V. Regional Research Station, Jhargram-721 507, India

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the extent of similarities or differences of correlation and path coefficient values obtained from the different population levels like parental, hybrids without reciprocals and parental as well as hybrids combined population, for yield and five other characters in Pisum. From the experimental results, it was observed that the values not only differed at genotypic and phenotypic levels but also at population levels. Seed yield had significant correlation with number of branches at maturity in the parental and combined population levels but not in the hybrid population and with plant weight without fruits at combined population level only. From the path coefficient analysis, the direct effect of plant weight without fruit was negative and high at parental level but low and positive at pooled population and lowest as well as positive at hybrid population level. But for the character leaflet number of reproductive leaves, the direct effect was high and positive at parental level, but low and negative at hybrid as well as pooled population levels for this character studied. Different types of findings have been recorded from this experiment. It was suggested that the utility of correlation and path coefficient values in selection and breeding objectives should be restricted to those similar kinds of populations from which these values are estimated and the experiment is also indicative of the changes in genetic relationship of different characters at different population structures, at least in the species studied.

18. MOHAR SINGH AND DORIN GUPTA [Genetic divergence in lentil] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 87-89 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany P. G. College, Narsan, Distt. Meerut-249 406 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five genotypes of lentil were grouped into five clusters following non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis utilizing data on a set of 11 characters. The largest cluster contained 12 genotypes and the smallest two genotypes. The intra-cluster genetic distance ranged from cluster II to V, while inter-cluster ranged from cluster III to IV.

19. P. GAYEN, A. K. PAL AND S. BASAK[Genetic variability and analysis of yield components in mungbean from a spring crop under terai region of West Bengal] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 90-94 (2002). Faculty of Agriculture N. B. Campus, B. C. K. V., Pundibari, Cooch Behar, India

ABSTRACT

High heritability and high or moderate genetic advance were observed for all the characters except seeds per pod. Seed yield was significantly and positively related with clusters per plant, pods per plant and pod length. Clusters per plant and pods per plant had high positive and significant association between them. Path coefficient analysis indicated that pods per plant, 100-seed weight and shelling percentage registered high positive and direct effect on yield. Indirect effects of clusters per plant via pods per plant and pod length via 100-seed weight were high and positive. The study revealed the importance of clusters per plant, pods per plant, pod length, 100-seed weight and shelling percentage for effective selection in mungbean.

20. NAGARAJ KAMPLI, P. M. SALIMATH AND S. T. KAJJIDONI [Transgressive segregants in populations derived from different mating and selection schemes in chickpea*] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 95-98 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The F2 generation of ICCV-10 x BG-256 cross of chickpea was advanced to F3 generation by following selective biparental mating (BIP), random bulk and selected bulk methods. The resultant F3 populations were evaluated for comparing their relative efficiency in throwing transgressive segregants for yield and its components. The BIP proved to be superior to selected bulk and random bulk methods in producing greater frequency of transgressive segregants for individual traits as well as for combination of characters including seed yield. The random bulk method was least promising in this regard.

21. L. WANGCHU AND S. K. MITRA [Feasibility study on different intercrops in a mixed fruit orchard] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 99-104 (2002). Department of Fruits and Orchard Management Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to develop a fruit crops based intercropping system which could be used for homestead in southern districts of West Bengal, where many homesteads ususlly had few fruit plants alongwith vegetables, pulses, roots and tuber crops. The proposed model with six pummelo, seven sepota, five mango and three jackfruit trees in an area of about 0.40 acre yielded about 2500 kg fruits, which not only provided the requirements of the family (requirement estimated about 165 kg, considering 90 g fruit/day/adult and a family of five) but also showed an additional income of about Rs. 5000 per year from the homestead. It also appears that half of the requirements of vegetables and spices annually could be met by growing suitable intercrops like colocasia, tapioca, pachyrrhizus, cowpea and turmeric in the homestead alongwith fruit crops.

22. M. A. TURK AND A. M. TAWAHA [Onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by rate and method of phosphorus placement] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 105-107 (2002). Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P. O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan

ABSTRACT

The effect of phosphorus levels (0, 35.0, 52.5 and 70.0 kg P ha-1) and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast) were investigated at the semi-arid region in the north of Jordan. High yields were obtained by P application (70 kg P ha-1) drilled with the onion cloves after cultivation (banded).

23. SUNIL KUMAR GHOSH AND S. K. SENAPATI [Field evaluation of some pesticides from different origins against pest complex of brinjal under terai region of West Bengal] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 108-115 (2002). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, North Bengal Campus, Pundibari Cooch Behar-736 165 (Bengal ), India

ABSTRACT

Field evaluation of some pesticides from different origins (synthetic and biological) against pest complex of brinjal in terai region of West Bengal revealed that avermectin (0.01%) was found relatively more effective against the pest complex of brinjal, followed by DDVP (0.05%) and malathion (0.05%). Better efficacy of avermectin led into elevated yield of brinjal (30.90 t/ha), although performance of DDVP (30.75% t/ha) and malathion (0.05%) cannot be ignored. Avermectin, though, did not provide satisfactory control against shoot and fruit borer, the key pest of brinjal suppressed 59.57% dead heart and 54.83% fruit damage but comparably it was more effective among the pesticides tried and also safer to health and environment.

24. S. U. KAKADE, P. D. THAKRE, B. M. PATIL AND S. T. DANGORE [Effect of sequential application of pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides on nutrient uptake and economics of weed control in cotton] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 116-120 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 1995-96 to study the effect of sequential combinations of pre-emergence herbicides with cultural practice, combination of non-selective herbicides alone and with pre-emergence residual herbicide diuron on nutrient uptake by crop and weed, and to evaluate best economical sequential combination of herbicides in cotton. The treatments affected significantly the uptake of crop and weed at harvest. Highest uptake of NPK(kg/ha-1) by crop was in treatments of farmers’ practice (three hoeings+three weedings) closely followed by diuron 1.0 kg ha-1 as pre-emergence spray+directed application of combination of glyphosate 0.5 kg ha-1 at 25 DAS+hand weeding in rows at 40 DAS. Lowest uptake was observed in unweeded control (T12). Similarly, lowest uptake of NPK (kg ha-1 ) by weed was observed in treatments of farmers’ practice followed by treatment T11 (D-G+D+HWR). Highest removal of NPK (kg ha-1) by weed in unweeded control (T12) was recorded due to presence of more weeds throughout the season. Inclusion of hand weeding in rows at 40 DAS in addition to sequential application of pre-emergence herbicides+POE glyphosate+diuron residual POE resulted in much higher increase in net return per hectare. Treatment T1 (farmers’ practice ) and T11 (D-G+D+HWR) gave net returns as high as Rs. 17050 and 15028 ha-1, respectively.

25. J. P. KHATOD, L. D. MESHRAM, P. P. JAIN AND S. B. THAWARI [Mutagenesis in naturally coloured cotton] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 121-128 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

The seeds of naturally coloured cottons were treated with 15 kR, 20 kR doses of gamma rays and 0.5% EMS (Chemical mutagen) and their combination doses. The treated plants were studied in M1 and M2 generations. The treatments were tested for their mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in inducing the useful mutants, spectrum of mutation and their effects on bract characters. The results obtained revealed that the doses 15 kR and 20 kR were more effective in inducing the mutations. In Gossypium hirsutum, significant differences were found for bract size and dry weight of bract. Increased ratio of bract surface area to lint weight per boll was noted in 20 kR dose and low in 0.5% EMS in M1. In M2, the increase was noted in 20 kR+0.5% EMS in addition to this the other variations induced are discussed in the present paper.

26. G. D. SATISH KUMAR AND B. V. SUDERSHAN RAO [Factors for the suicide of cotton farmers] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 129-132 (2002). Department of Extension Education Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh to elicit the reasons for suicide of cotton farmers in 1998. The cotton farmers perceived that loss of crop due to infestation of bollworm and white fly, debts to moneylenders and tenant farming were the primary reasons for suicide. In addition they attributed high cost of cultivation, spurious pesticides, lack of irrigation water, lack of requisite knowledge and skills in cotton cultivation, family problems, tenant farming, low price of cotton in the market and high labour charges to be the reason for the social menace. The family members of the deceased farmers also perceived the same reasons. The cotton farmers and the family members of the deceased farmers suggested that provision of institutional credit, advance information regarding incidence of pests and diseases, checking the quality of pesticides and provision of adequate irrigation facilities will prevent such tragedies in future.

27. K. S. P. RAO AND C. H. MUKUNDARAO [Response of sugarcane genotypes to different dates of sowing and harvesting in Andhra Pradesh] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 133-136 (2002). Sugarcane Research Station, Rudrur-503 188 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted on sandy clay loam soil at Sugarcane Research Station, Rudrur in Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh during 1996-97 and 1997-98. Two genotypes viz., 83 R 23 (Early) and 85 R 186 (Mid-late) were available for their performance when sown on 15 December, January, February and harvested on 15 October, December, January, February and March. The genotype 85 R 186 grew significantly tall. But 83 R 23 produced significantly more number of millable canes. It was also superior with significantly more cane as well as commercial cane sugar yield and higher sucrose per cent. The ideal time to sow sugarcane was 15 December. The crop sown later on 15 January and February produced less number of millable canes and cane yield. The commercial cane sugar and sucrose per cent were on par in sugarcane sown on 15 December or January. The appropriate time of harvesting sugarcane was 15 December. The plant height and cane yield were on par when sugarcane harvest was delayed from 15 December to January or February. The commercial cane sugar and sucrose per cent were maximum when sugarcane was harvested on 15 February. The recovery of commercial cane sugar and sucrose per cent was significantly low when sugarcane was harvested early.

28. S. BABU, S. V. S. R. K. NETAJI AND P. RANGASAMY [In vitro influence of some organic additives on callus development of sugarcane varieties] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 137-140 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College & Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop, which responds well to tissue culture. An in vitro investigation was carried out to study the genotypic, nutritional and hormonal factors affecting callus intiation in two varieties (CO 86249 and CO 8021) of sugarcane. Young rolled leaves are used as explant. The explant was cultured on 12 different media composition keeping MS media supplemented with 2, 4-D at four concentrations (2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l) and same set of concentration alongwith casein hydrolysate (0.1 g/l) and coconut milk (100 ml/l). The callus induction percentage was recorded on 25, 35 and 45 days after inoculation. 66.38% callusing was noticed with CO 86249 in the MS media supplemented with 2, 4-D (3 mg/l) and coconut milk (100 mg/l) followed by 63.94% at 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l) and casein hydrolysate (0.1 g/l) combination in the same variety. In the variety CO 8021, a least callus induction response of 36.91% was observed in the MS media supplemented with 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l) alone. A decrease in days taken for callus induction was observed with increase in concentration of 2, 4-D supplemented with casein hydrolysate.

29. A. BALASUBRAMANIAN, V. BALASUBRAMANIAN AND S. KUMARAN [Effect of pressmud, biofertilizers and graded doses of inorganic nitrogen on the yield of seed crop of sugarcane] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 141-143 (2002). T. N. A. U. Agricultural Reasearch Station, Virinjipuram-632 104 (T. N.), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of pressmud and two biofertilizers i. e. Azospirillum brazilense and Acetobacter diazotrophicus and was tested with graded doses of nitrogen in seed crop of CoG 93076 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) at Annamalai University Experimental Farm during January 1998. Azospirillum and Acetobacter were applied in separate treatments as soil application. The results indicated that application of 75% recommended dose of N (206.3 kg N/ha) with Acetobacter recorded as much cane yield as compared to 100% recommended dose of N with no biofertilizers. It was concluded that 25% of inorganic nitrogen (68.7 kg N/ha) could be saved by the use of A. diazotrophicus.

30. N. K. KRISHNAPRASAD, B. SANNAPPA, B. C. DHARMA NAIK AND S. SUNDAR RAJ [Effect of mulberry leaf maturity on the grainage performance of Pure Mysore silkworm breed during different seasons] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 144-149 (2002). Department of Sericulture University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Feeding silkworms with varied leaf maturity during different seasons significantly influenced the grainage performance of Pure Mysore silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Tender leaves fed to silkworm during late-age recorded maximum pupal weight (11.40 g/10), fecundity (510 eggs/laying) and hatchability (94.41%), rate of pupation and rate of moth emergence were higher with medium leaves (91.00 and 90.25%) during winter season. However, silkworms reared on soiled leaves during summer found least for pupal weight (6.64 g/10) and rate of pupation (67.25%); rate of moth emergence with over matured leaves x summer (65.50%); fecundity (280 eggs/laying) and hatchability (87.52%) with soiled leaves x monsoon season.

31. N. RAY AND S. K. SENAPATI [Studies on combined effect of fertilizer levels and antibiotic on rearing performance of bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori L. under terai region of West Bengal] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 150-155 (2002). Department of Zoology A. B. N. Seal College , Cooch Behar-736 101 (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

With a view to exploit high yielding potentiality of bivoltine hybrid of Bombyx mori L. P5 x KPGB in favourable and adverse rearing seasons, combined effect of different levels of fertilizer on mulberry plant and antibiotic fortified leaves on rearing performance was studied under terai agro-ecological situations. Among the different levels of plant nutrition and antibiotic combinations, leaves at higher nutrient level with 0.1% Gentamycin (antibiotic) when fed to the fifth instar larvae increased growth of larvae, productivity and quality of cocoon, fecundity and survivability of silkworm.

32. R. K. MAITI, EUGENIO SÁNCHEZ-ARREOLA, P. WESCHE-EBELING, OSVALDO ERIC RAMIREZ, MARGOT CRUCET, ANAID DÍAZ PALACIOS AND V. P. SINGH [Agave spp. : Distribution, ecology and botany] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 156-166 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas, Santa Catarina Martir Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México

ABSTRACT

The geographical distribution and possible center of origin and the migration pathways of this plant in the American continent are analyzed by Hamilton, 1989. With exception of Hosta, Agavaceae is exclusively American. The actual distribution of Agavaceae is characterized by a heavy concentration of genero in the center of Mexico, followed by its distribution in the nothern part of Mexico and extending to Central America.

33. R. K. MAITI, JAIME ALIOSCHA CUERVO PARRA, P. WESCHE-EBELING, JERONIMO GARCIA GUZMAN AND V. P. SINGH [Development of techniques for seed germination, propagation and conservation of Cactaceae] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 167-174 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universided de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir Cholula, C. P. 72 820, México

ABSTRACT

The paper discusess the results of development of techniques in inducing germination and propagation of many species of Cactaceae. It is concluded that presence of light and temperature ranging from 25 to 30ºC is necessary to induce germination of Cactaceae. More than 40 species of Cactaceae were germinated utilizing this technique. The results were highly satisfactory in some species. The authors strongly recommend to utilize this simple technique for germination and propagation of Cactaceae. The paper also discusses other methods of propagation and precaution.

34. M. CHANDRA SEKHAR REDDY, K. HARIPRIYA AND S. KAMALAKANNAN [Correlation and path analysis in crossandra] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 175-179 (2002). Department of Horticulture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, India

ABSTRACT

Eighteen genotypes of crossandra were studied for correlation of yield with its component characters. The traits plant height and number of flowers per spike showed positive and significant correlation with flower yield. The characters that exhibited positive correlation include numbers of days for first flowering, number of branches per plant, spike length, number of spikes per plant, flower length and flower diameter. Results of path co-efficient analysis revealed the direct influence of flower yield by number of branches per plant, flower diameter and number of flowers per spike.

35. MIRZAKARIM BAIG, H. V. NANJAPPA, B. K. RAMACHAND-RAPPA AND M. V. SOLAPURKAR [Arable soil weed seed bank and a modelling approach to predict future weed problems] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 180-184 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

The seed composition in the upper 15 cm soil horizon was determined and correlated with weed seedling growing with maize crop (Zea mays L). The estimated value of viable weed seed was 8205/m2 with standard error of 726.07. Seeds occurring with most frequently were Legasca molis L., Commelina benghalensis L. and Cyperus rotundus L. which accounted for 57.35% of the seed found. Seeds in the soil were correlated with the number of weed seedlings emerged in crop field. L. molis had higher correlation between the seed estimate and weed counts (r=0.781) whose seed count could be used to explain 61% of the subsequent weed population level. Lowest correlation between seed estimate and weed count was obtained for Euphorbia geniculata L. (r=0.181).

36. R. KAVIMANI, K. ANNADURAI AND G. RANGARAJU [Integrated weed management in rainfed sorghum+pulses intercropping system] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 185-188 (2002). T. N. A. U. Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute Kumulur-621 712 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season of 1998-99 to find out a suitable weed management for sorghum+pulses intercropping system. Results revealed that pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha recorded the lowest weed population and weed dry weight on 20 and 35 days after sowing (DAS). But it had detrimental effect on main crop of sorghum.The same herbicide at lower level (0.50 kg/ha) followed by one hand weeding on 35th DAS recorded the lower weed population, weed dry weight and enhanced grain yield of 213 kg/ha of sorghum and grain equivalent yield of 189 kg/ha over hand weeding twice. It also recorded the highest net profit of Rs. 17,437 and benefit : cost ratio of 3.13.

37. R. P. SHARMA, R. C. DADHEECH AND T. C. GUPTA[Effect of weed and nitrogen management on crop-weed competition for nutrients in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench}] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 189-191 (2002). Department of Agronomy Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

Field investigation, carried out at Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during kharif 1996-97, revealed that minimum nutrient uptake by weeds was registered under weed-free treatment. Amongst various weed control treatments except weed-free, atrazine 0.5 kg/ha+intercultivation found significantly superior over all rest of the treatments in relation to reducing nutrient uptake by weeds. Consequently higher uptake by crop was registered under weed-free and atrazine 0.5 kg/ha+intercultivation were found statistically superior over rest of the treatments. Application of 80 kg N/ha resulted significantly in higher N, P and K uptake by weeds and crop.

38. AKHILESH SINGH AND DHANBIR SINGH [Efficacy of fungicides against Alternaria leaf spot of cabbage] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 192-193 (2002). CSKKV Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan-173 001 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

The leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola causes severe damage to cabbage right from germination till harvest, storage and transit producing various types of symptoms. Seven fungicides, namely, Dithane M-45 (0.25%), Bayleton (0.05%), SAN 619 (0.05%), Kavach (0.1%), Foltaf (0.25%), Baycor (0.05%) and Contaf 5 EC (0.05%) were evaluated against the disease during the crop seasons of 1996 and 1997 under field conditions for their efficacy and increase in yield to suggest suitable control measures for adoption by the farmers. The average of two years’ data showed that three sprays of Dithane M-45 (0.25%) proved superior to others, in terms of additional yield (127.95 q/ha) followed by Kavach (92.61 q/ha), Foltaf (91.12 q/ha), Bayleton (67.43 q/ha), Baycor ( 53.00 q/ha) and Contaf 5 EC (23.89 q/ha). Three sprayings of Dithane M-45 (0.25%), Kavach (0.1%) or Foltaf (0.25%) at 10 days interval may, therefore, be recommended for adoption by the farmers.

39. R. N. KATKAR, A. B. TURKHEDE, V. M. SOLANKE AND S. T. WANKHADE [Response of cotton to integrated management of various types of organic manures and fertilizers] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 194-197 (2002). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Non-replicated field experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.). The 11 treatment combinations consisting of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers were tested in simple design during kharif seasons of 1996-97 to 1998-99. The rainfall received during the respective seasons was 703.8, 818.0 and 840.0 mm. The soil was medium deep black. Available nitrogen, phosphate and potash content of the soil varied in each treatment plot. Sowing of cotton (PKV Rajat) was undertaken on 5, 4 and 3 July at 60 x 30 cm spacing during respective seasons.

40. RASHEED AHMAD, B. Y. K. RAO AND RAJEEV BHAT [Elimination of Araecerus fasciculatus (Deg.) in monsooned coffee beans through low dose gamma irradiation process] Crop Res. 23 (1) : 198-201 (2002). Food Technology Division FIPLY, Bhaba Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400 085 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

Fumigants like methyl bromide and ethylene di bromide are widely used at present for the control of insect-pests in coffee beans during storage. Due to wide global concern over increasing risk to human health and environment, irradiation at a fairly lower dose of the order of 1 kGy or less proved to be an effective alternative to chemical treatments in coffee.

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