Volume 19, No. 3 (September, 2018)

By | October 10, 2018

1. JAGJOT KAUR, GULAB PANDOVE*, MADHURAMA GANGWAR, SUKHDEEP KAUR BRAR AND KARAMJEET SINGH SEKHON [Mitigating the impact of climate change on wheat by use of liquid microbial inoculants under different planting dates]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 365-372 (2018). PAU, Regional Research Station, Bathinda-151 001 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : gpandove@pau.edu)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was undertaken to study the response of agronomic traits of wheat to different planting dates and liquid inoculants of Azotobacter sp. and Streptomyces badius by mitigating the impact of climate change. The field experiment was conducted at Regional Research Station, Bathinda, Punjab during two consecutive years. The main plots treatment consisted of five planting dates (25th October, 10th November, 25th November, 10th December and 25th December) and four liquid inoculant treatments (T1 : 100% RDF (control), T2 : 100% RDF+seed bacterization with liquid inoculants, T3 : 75% RDF+seed bacterization with liquid inoculants and T4 : 75% RDF+seed bacterization with liquid inoculants+foliar application of liquid inoculants at critical stages of wheat) in sub-plots. The treatments of 20 combinations were tested in split plot design with three replications. Maximum plant height, effective tillers/m2, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and highest grain yield was attained by the crop planted on 10th November. Amongst the liquid inoculant treatments, T4 treatment was found superior in all growth and yield attributing parameters at each date of planting followed by T3, T2 and T1. The T4, T3 and T2 treatments resulted in 4.79, 3.47 and 1.61% more grain yield over T1. Thus, it can be concluded that liquid inoculants of Azotobacter sp. and S. badius can enhance growth and yield of wheat by mitigating the impact of climate change. This combination may be used as an efficient PGPR for wheat production.

2. D. Pal, P. K. Patra and D. Mukhopadhyay* [Effect of tillage and organic residues on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 373-379 (2018). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : dibsm107@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment with wheat was conducted during the years 2014-15 and 2015-16 to find out the effects of different organic inputs on yield of wheat (cv. K-1006) under the conventional tillage (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) operations. The nutrients (N : P : K @ 100 : 60 : 40 in kg/ha) along with the paddy straw [@ 5 and 10 t/ha] and farm yard manure (FYM) [@ 5 and 10 t/ha], respectively, were applied with nine treatment combinations in three fold replications to raise the crop by adopting randomized block design (RBD). The average grain yield (59.02 q/ha) and straw yield (73.28 q/ha) under CT at the treatment T9 and the average grain yield (61.52 q/ha) and straw yield (76.08 q/ha) under ZT at T9 were observed at the treatment where full dose of paddy straw and FYM along with N : P : K were applied. The yield difference of wheat over the control (N : P : K only) was observed relative to the application of organic and inorganic inputs under both the tillage operations (i. e. ZT and CT). The significant difference on uptake of N-P-K of wheat at flowering and harvest was observed irrespective of the tillage practices (i. e. ZT and CT).

3. Manisha Phour* and S. S. Sindhu [Bioherbicidal potential of rhizosphere bacteria for management of Phalaris minor weed]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 380-386 (2018). Department of Microbiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : mphour4@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Phalaris minor is a problematic weed of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Repeated application of herbicides to control this weed causes environmental pollution and some of the weeds even develop herbicide resistance. Recently, phytohormones and allelochemicals produced by rhizosphere microorganisms have been found to suppress the growth of different weeds. Therefore, 32 bacterial isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of wheat were screened for the production of phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Rhizobacterial isolates, having variation in IAA and ALA production ability, were tested for their effect on seedling growth of P. minor on 0.8% water agar plates and four rhizobacterial isolates i. e. HWM 7, HWM 11, HWM 17 and CP 43 caused significant retardation of P. minor seedling growth on 5th and 10th day of seed germination. Under pot house conditions, seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis strain SYB 101 caused 70.8 and 80.7% decrease in root and shoot dry weight of P. minor and its inoculation showed 136.8 and 316.6% increase in root and shoot dry weight of wheat at 75 days of wheat growth. P. minor growth was also suppressed in the pot house by inoculation of Providentia rettgeri strain CPS 67 and Pseudomonas isolate HWM 11. Maximum growth stimulation of wheat was observed by inoculation with rhizobacterial isolates SYB 101 and HWM 11. Maximum growth retardation of weed was observed by inoculation of B. subtilis strain SYB 101 having moderate level of IAA and ALA production, followed by high IAA and ALA producing P. rettgeri strain CPS 67, suggesting that besides phytohormones, some other metabolite was also involved in growth retardation of P. minor. These rhizobacterial isolates could be further tested for suppression of weed growth under field conditions for their subsequent application as bioherbicide.

4. Hayyawi W. A. Al-juthery1,*, Abdul Kareem H. Hassan, Radhi F. Musa2 and Abdul Hussein Sahan [Maximize growth and yield of wheat by foliar application of complete nano-fertilizer and some bio-stimulators]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 387-393 (2018). College of Agriculture 1University of Al- Qadisiyah, Diwaniyah 58001, Iraq *(e-mail : hayyawi.aljutheri@qu.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at the Al-Shafeieyah Wheat Research Station of the National Program for Wheat Development in Iraq (NPWD) to study the maximization of growth and yield of wheat by foliar application of complete nano-fertilizer and some of biostimulators. The experiment included mono spray application of complete nano-fertilizer (CNF), biostimulators fertigrain (F), organic materials (New Humic, NH) and dual sources of CNF+NH, F+NH and without application of fertilizers as control. The experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results indicated that significant response was observed with the application of di foliar spray of CNF+NH followed by treatments of F+NH and single spraying of CNF, F and NH compared to control, with an increase of 21.11, 29.61, 22.29, 71.17, 106.66 and 71.71% in plant height, length of spike, total chlorophyll SPAD, concentration of N, P and K, respectively, compared to control treatment. The di foliar spray treatment (CNF+NH) significantly increased the grain yield from 5.200 t/ha under control to 16.705 t/ha and also protein yield increased from 12.44% under control to 14.26%. Likewise, harvest index significantly increased to 45.69, 44.47, 44.36, 40.67, 39.01 and 36.20% for treatments CNF+ NH, F+NH, CNF, F, NH and control, respectively. However, both di and mono nano-fertilizer showed their superiority over other treatments in respect to harvest index.

5. Konthoujam Rohini Devi* and G. A. Shantibala Devi [Proximate composition and elemental contents of three landrace rice varieties of Manipur, India]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 394-397 (2018). Department of Life Sciences Manipur University, Canchipur-795 003 (Manipur), India *(e-mail : rohinikonthoujam@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Three landrace rice varieties of Manipur were evaluated for proximate composition and mineral contents. Studies showed higher crude protein (8.75%), carbohydrate (74.16%) in Kumbiphou and crude fat (3.06%) in Moirangphou Khokngangbi. Evaluation in mineral contents showed higher calcium (4.67 mg/100 g) and zinc content (0.32 mg/100 g) in Moirangphou, magnesium (40.73 mg/100 g), and iron (2.74 mg/100 g) in Moirangphou Khokngangbi and manganese (2.63 mg/100 g) in Kumbiphou. Overall maximum mineral content was recorded in Moirangphou Khokngangbi. These rice varieties had the potential to serve as source of an energy rich diet with adequate minerals.

6. Ali Abd Al-Hadi Hassan* and Shatha Abd Al-Hassan Ahmed [Role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in reducing the harmful effect of water stress on some physiological traits of popcorn]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 398-404 (2018). Department of Field Crops College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq *(e-mail : shchshch2016@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted in the experimental field of field crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the autumn season of 2017. In order to know the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in improving the physiological traits of popcorn crop under water stress, the split plot design was used with three replicates. The main plots included water stress treatments with three levels of irrigation, which were depletion 50% (Control), 60% and 70% of water availability, which were symbolized by S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The secondary plots included four treatments of bacterial vaccine (Control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Azotobacter+Azospirillum) which were symbolized by F0, F1, F2 and F3, respectively. The results showed that the water stress treatment when irrigation by depletion 70% had a significant effect on the decrease in auxin content by 36.44%, gibberellic acid 11.14%, cytokinin 47.55%, chlorophyll 20.07%, relative water content 18.09% and turgor pressure 20.64%. Vaccination with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) significantly increased physiological characteristics, Azospirillum treatment gave the highest average of auxin and gibberellic acid content of 66.28 and 43.72 µM sequentially, the mixture treatment of Azotobacter+Azospirillum significantly increased chlorophyll and proline content, relative water content and turgor pressure of the leaves. Vaccination with types of PGPRs achieved the best contribution to a small effect of water stress when treated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter+Azospirillum. Therefore, we suggest that the vaccination of popcorn seeds is used with water stress.

7. Hayder H. AL-Khafaji*, Mohammed Salim Talib and Karar F. Hadi [Effect of organic manure and plant population on growth and yield of Vicia faba L.]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 405-408 (2018). College of Agriculture Alqassim Green University, 8. Alqussim, Iraq *(e-mail : hayderabbas1000010@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Alwardea farms in Babylon governorate during winter season i. e. 2014-15. The experiments were conducted in silty clay soil to investigate the effect of population density and organic manure on growth and yield of broad bean – Spanish cultivar (Barcelona). Three poultry residue levels (0, 2 and 4 t/ha) and three levels of plant population (180.000, 240.000 and 300.000 plants/ha) were used. RCBD factorial experiment method was followed with three replicates. The results showed that there was a significant difference in organic residue levels. From the results, it was inferred that addition with 4 t/ha was the best choice for optimum plant height, number of branches, chlorophyll content, weight of 100 grains, and total yield when compared to control samples which resulted in low means of the studied parameters. On the other hand, the results revealed a significant difference between the planting density in all growth and yield indicators. The optimum planting density was 180.000 plants/ha in which the number of branches, chlorophyll content in leaves, weight of 100 seeds and total yield (2710 kg/ha) were achieved. The interaction treatment (4 t/ha and 180.000 plants/ha) was significant in all the interactions.

8. Hemesh Joshi*, P. Hariprasad, Ajit Varma and Amit C. Kharkwal [Assessment of fungal and bacterial co-inoculation on plant growth, yield and phytosterol content of Indian mustard cultivated under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 409-413 (2018). Amity Institute of Microbial Technology Amity University, Noida-201 313 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : hjoshi@amity.edu)

ABSTRACT

Inadequate monsoon influences crop productivity in sub-mountainous areas such as Kandi zone, which is characterized as a rainfed area. The present study was conducted over the period of three years (2014-17, rabi season) in rainfed area of the Kandi zone in Punjab, India. Primary focus was on the enhancement of rabi crop productivity (mustard) through application of biologically active formulation of plant beneficial microbes, Piriformospora indica alone (Pi, T1) and Pi in combination with Azotobacter chroccocum WR 5 (Pi+Az, T2). Significant improvement in plant growth and gross yield production of mustard was observed in both the treatments with maximum yield in T2 (31.3%), followed by T1 (14.6%) as compared to control. Agro-morphological traits like root length, shoot length, number of siliqua and total biomass exhibited a similar trend with T2 having maximum result followed by T1 and control. Industrially important compounds such as Beta sitosterol was present in large amount with varying concentrations in T2 (58.6%), T1 (54.5%) and control (52.3%). This study also encouraged local farmers to gain interest in sustainable agriculture through organic farming especially for mustard cultivation and demand for our commercial bio-formulation in the area has increased in the past years.

9. MADEHA H. HUSSAIN AND ALI S. HASSOON* [Direct measurement of fatty acid composition of sunflower and variation of the fatty acids distribution with different treatments of fertilizer using HPLC technique]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 414-418 (2018). Department of Pharmacy Medical Institute Tech. Mansour, Middle Tech. University, Iraq *(e-mail : alisalealtaie.2015@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The difference in the composition of fatty acid in the seed oil of sunflower using 11 doses of organic fertilizer treatments compared with control treatment has been studied. The organic fertilizer played an important role in elevating the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, oil yield, which are the essential factors for determining oil quality of sunflower. The separation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids occurred by using direct HPLC analysis method under the optimum separation conditions using Fast Liquid Chromatographic methods (FLC) applied, short and efficient HPLC (50 mm x 4.6 I.D.), C-18DB column with high surface area, 3 µm particle size packing. The analysis results showed that an increase in fertilizer resulted in steady increase in yield and contents of linoleic acid. The concentration and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and linoleic acid have steady increased with fertilizer treatments (55.6-75.91%), whereas percentage of oleic acid responded negatively with elevated percentage of the fertilizer treatments compared with control treatment, consequently, the concentration and percentage of oleic acid slightly decreased in the range (33-19.06), however, the percentage of saturated SFA was in the range of 2.93-4.85% for palmatic acid and 2.2-5.13% for stearic acid. The results showed that the highest concentration of oil was in T12. The results showed slight increase in specific gravity of oil with variation in organic fertilizing treatments. Oil yield was changed from 23% for control treatment to 43% through organic fertilizer treatments.

10. Debashis Mandal*, Lalrinpuii Sailo, Tridip Kumar Hazarika and Amritesh Chandra Shukla [Effect of edible coating on shelf life and quality of local mango cv. Rangkuai of Mizoram]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 419-424 (2018). Department of Horticulture Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University, Aizawl-796 004 (Mizoram), India *(e-mail : debashismandal1982@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Highly nutritious, delicious and attractive looking fruits of mango which are generally consumed fresh undergo high amount of post-harvest losses. An experiment was taken up to study the impact of different edible coatings viz., olive oil, wax, chitosan, carboxy methyl cellulose, aloe gel on shelf life and quality of local mango cv. Rangkuai collected from Saiha district of Mizoram; kept in ambient condition. Results of the experiment showed that fruit coated with wax remained dark green skin colour (L : 28.73, a :-18.55, b : 26.03) and pulp colour was slightly yellowish orange (L : 63.69, a : -2.38, b : 60.78), whereas fruit skin colour at control had slightly light green colour with yellowness (L : 35.87, a :-18.88, b : 38.58) with completely dark orange colour pulp (L : 44.21, a : 23.32, b: 52.34) at 12 days after storage (DAS). Waxed mango fruits had minimum weight loss (1.18%) and high amount of ascorbic acid (19.92 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (4.64 mg/100 g) even after 12 DAS. Maximum shelf life was observed in waxed mango (19.65 days) as the fruit decay was only 10.05%.

11. Sunaiana*, Monika Gupta, H. S. Rattanpal, G. S. Sidhu and Gurteg singh [Genetic diversity in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) germplasm based on fruit morphological and physiological traits]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 425-429 (2018). Department of Fruit Science Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : sunaianasandhu2017@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out during 2016-17 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Eight sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) genotypes were evaluated for quantitative and qualitative characters based on IPGRI descriptors. These genotypes were studied on the basis of fruit morphological and physiological characters. Variability was recorded among quantitative characters. Fruit count per tree was recorded highest in M-4 (164) followed by Phule Mosambi (158). Fruit yield was recorded maximum in M-4 (28.66 kg/tree) followed by Phule Mosambi (26.10 kg/tree) and Blood Red (25.40 kg/tree). Juice percentage was highest in M-4 (43.60%). TSS : acid ratio was highest in Mosambi (28.74) followed by Phule Mosambi (23.12). On the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters, M-4 and Phule Mosambi could be suitable cultivars for cultivation under Punjab conditions.

12. Suman Lata*, Girish ShRAma, Sourbh Garg and Gopa Mishra [Effect of different modes of pollination on fruit set and malformation of strawberry cultivars]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 430-435 (2018). Department of Fruit Science Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : suman.india14@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The effect of different modes of pollination viz., self, open, hand and cross and the relative position of stamens to the receptacle in the flower on fruit set and malformation were determined in 16 strawberry cultivars. Uniform cultural practices were followed throughout the course of investigation. Receptacle length ranged from 2.33 to 5.88 mm. Maximum was in Gorella and minimum in Elasantha and stamen length varied from 2.10 (Catskill) to 3.89 mm (Confectura). Among the different cultivars, maximum malformed fruits were observed in Torrey (which had shortest stamens than receptacle) and minimum malformed fruits were observed in cultivar Elasantha (stamens longer than receptacle) both under self and open-pollination. Maximum malformed fruits were recorded under self-pollination followed by open-pollination. Both hand and cross-pollination were found to lower the number of malformed fruits. In hand pollination Fern and Shasta had least malformed fruits. In cross-pollination, Pajaro x Catskill and Belrubi x Douglas showed least malformed fruits. Maximum fruit set with better fruit size was observed from cross-pollination, followed by hand and open pollination and least was in self-pollination.

13. Ali Hassen Ali AL-Zubaidi* [Effects of salinity stress on growth and yield of two varieties of eggplant under greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 436-440 (2018). Al-Mussaib Technical College Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq *(e-mail : Alihussan.75@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at finding out the performance of growth and yield of two cultivars (Threa and Barcelone) of eggplant grown under four salinity stress levels of electrical conductivities (control, 4, 8 and 12 Ec (dS/m), which were considered treatments of stress, under greenhouse conditions. Tap water as a control management was exploited, altogether managements were given to the plants at the first day of removing and continued during the whole growing season. Our results demonstrated that salt irrigation had an unfavourable effect on plant growth and yield. Also it was observed that the effect of increasing irrigation water salinity lowered in most of the traits. The study also indicated that Threa was sensitive to salt stress. Phenotypic data of plant height, leaf number, branches number, leaf area, shoot dry weight, average of fruit number, average of fruit weight and total fruit harvest showed high decrease under 8 and 12 Ec (dS/m) under salt stress. The highest level in proline (mcg/g) and root dry weight (g) under increasing irrigation water salinity recorded the highest rate (7.81 and 141.89, respectively), with Threa variety under salinity stress level 12 Ec (dS/m).

14. DURAID K. A. AL-TAEY*, SAAD S. M. AlAZAWI, MOHAMMED J. H. AL-SHAREEFI AND ABDELRAZZAQ AL-TAWAHA [Effect of saline water, NPK and organic fertilizers on soil properties and growth, antioxidant enzymes in leaves and yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Parris Island)]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 441-449 (2018). Department of Horticulture Science Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, 8, Al Qasim, Iraq *(e-mail : duraidaltaey@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of saline water, chemicals and organic fertilizers on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth, its yield and their antioxidant and soil properties. There were two experiments, one was soil, and another was lettuce growth parameters with anti-oxidant enzyme activities by using split-plot design method. Study findings showed the soil properties, the effect of saline water and rice wastes on some soil characters in the first experiment. And the second experiment findings revealed that the higher effect of overall yield, chlorophyll, NPK content, antioxidant enzymes and proline, higher POX level, increased activity of CAT, SOD level, maximum accumulation of proline and dry weight of head were observed in rice wastes and DAP 400 kg/ha treatment than control.

15. MOMOTAJ BEGUM, MD. MAMUNUR RASHID, MD. ARIFUZZAMAN*, M. SHAMIM HASAN AND M. A. A. ZAKIUL HASAN [Genetic variability and crossing among blast resistant and susceptible fine aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) land races]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 450-457 (2018). Department of Plant Pathology Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh *(e-mail : arif.gpb@hstu.ac.bd)

ABSTRACT

Blast is a serious threat in rice production worldwide. For this, a field research was conducted to study the variability of blast disease and yield parameters and to generate a blast resistant fine aromatic rice from June to December 2016 using blast susceptible genotype BRRI dhan 34 and blast resistant genotypes Zotakatari and Kalijira. The data were assessed on eight yield and yield contributing characters and four blast disease parameters. The results indicated that BRRI dhan 34 had the highest number of tillers per plant (29.20), length of leaf blade (60.80 cm), number of spots per plant (94.47), number of death leaf per plant (6.20), number of effective tillers per plant (23.93), panicle length (25.20 cm), number of spikelets per panicle (153.3), 1000-grain weight (27.52 g), number of spots per plant and yield per plant (3.251 g). The mean squares of the three cultivars exhibited strong and significant differences for most of the characters studied. The phenotypic variance (Vp) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were higher than genotypic variance (Vg) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), respectively. The higher heritability (h2b) was exhibited for all traits. Very high phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were found in number of spots per plant. The strongest significant and positive correlation was exhibited between plant height and length of leaf sheath (0.84***) followed by yield per plant with spikelet per plant (0.71). Among the disease parameters per cent leaf blast severity showed higher positive direct effect (0.369) on yield and highest indirect effect on yield via number of spots per plant (0.251). In crossing, number of successful pollinated panicle was low (5%). Therefore, the seeds of successful crossed plants would be used for backcrossing of transfer blast resistant gene in blast susceptible genotypes.

16. M. Azrai*, M. Aqil, Roy Efendi, Suwardi and N. N. Andayani [Heterotic groups and combining ability of yellow maize inbreds with three commercial hybrids]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 458-464 (2018). Department of Plant Breeding Indonesian Cereals Research Institute, Maros, Indonesia *(e-mail : azraimulia@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to study heterotic groups and combining ability of yellow maize inbreds along with three commercial hybrids in Indonesia. Six inbred lines and two testers were crossed and evaluated for grain yield and heritability of agronomic characters. Randomized complete block design was used as an experimental design with three replications at each location. The hybrids and three commercial checks were evaluated across three locations in Indonesia (Bone/South Sulawesi, Mataram/West Nusa Tenggara and Probolinggo/East Java Province, Indonesia). The results of variance analysis showed that interaction mean squares of test crosses × locations exhibited significant results for grain yield (1.29**). Mean performance of test crosses for grain yield indicated that three test crosses viz., L3 x T2 (10.97 t/ha), L5 x T2 (10.39 t/ha) and L6 x T2 (10.27 t/ha) showed significantly higher yield over the best check DK 979 (9.80 t/ha), while hybrid L4 x T1 was the least performing in grain yield (8.44 t/ha). Based on the sca effect for grain yield, the inbred lines were clustered into two different groups. Inbred lines under heterotic group A were inbreds CLYN 10 (L3), CLYN 15 (L5) and CLYN 16 (L6), while CLYN 2 (L1), CLYN 7 (L2) and CLYN 12 (L4) were under heterotic group B. This information is useful for the development of superior hybrid in Indonesia.

17. R. A. Gami*, R. M. Chauhan, M. S. Patel, J. A. Patel and S. D. Solanki [Line × Tester analysis for kernel yield and component traits in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 465-471 (2018). Sorghum Research Station S. D. Agricultural University, Deesa-385 535 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : ramangami@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Line × Tester analysis performed using 10 female and 4 male parental lines and their 40 hybrids in yellow maize. The analysis of variance showed that the enormity of sca variance was higher than the gca variance for all the traits except for days to tasseling, days to silking and ASI. The ratio of 2gca/2sca was less than unity for all the characters except days to silking, which indicated predominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. Based on general combining ability (gca) effects, none of the parents was good general combiners for all the characters. Parental line IMR-33 was good general combiner for cob yield per plant, kernel yield per plant, plant height, ear height and cob length, while it was average for rest of the traits except days to dry husk. The cross combination VL-1032 × WNC 40218 exhibited highest significant positive sca effects for cob yield per plant (63.08) and kernel yield per plant (49.09). The cross BLD-329 × BLD-270 exhibited highest heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for both cob yield per plant and kernel yield plant.

18. Rekha Jangir, Indu Singh Sankhla and Kailash Agrawal* [Characterization, incidence, transmission and biological control of Ralstonia solanacearum associated with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] in Rajasthan, India]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 472-479 (2018). Lab No. 10, Department of Botany University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : agkailashindia@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Ralstonia solanacearum is a diverse species that differs in their host range and recently it showed pathogenicity to soybean crop and considered as seed-borne. In the present study, 21 pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated and purified from seeds of soybean (collected from fields of major soybean producing districts of Rajasthan state). These strains were characterized for their biochemical activities and subsequently three strains (KARA 72, 82 and 90) were subjected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic study. Disease incidence and biological control of the pathogens were also studied. Incidence of the pathogen in different seed samples was figured 14-100% on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TZC) agar medium. Studied pathogenic strains were diverse in their biochemical activities although all strains were positive for potato soft rot, nitrate reductase, oxidase activity and negative for levan production. The phylogenetic study of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that all three sequenced strains showed 100% sequence similarity to existing type strain R. solanacearum ATCC 11696 and R. solanacearum K60-1 11696 those were isolated from tomato in North Carolina, USA. In biological control study, it was found that P. fluorescens showed higher antagonistic activity (IA of 190.545 mm2) than B. subtilis (IA of 53.90 mm2) against tested wilt pathogen. The study has shown that wilt pathogen exists as seed-borne which can be a source of contamination for whole plant system and if not prevented it may cause a huge loss to the crop.

19. M. E. KOLA*, P. W. MASHELA and P. LUKHELE-OLORUNJU [Response of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodule variables to cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on N-deficient soil]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 480-485 (2018). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Elizabeth.kola@ump.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

The Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) had been adopted to develop the non-phytotoxic concentration of phytonematicides, technically referred to as the mean concentration stimulation point (MCSP). The MCSP for cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides on Bradyrhizobium-nodulated legume crops had not been documented in low-input agricultural farming systems. The objective of this study was to determine the MCSP values of Nemarioc-AL and nemafric-BL phytonematicides on B. japonicum-nodulated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) on nitrogen-deficient soils. Inoculated cowpea seeds were sown in 20-cm diameter plastic pots containing steam-pasteurised N-deficient loamy soil and Hygromix at 3 : 1 (v/v) ratio. Two parallel experiments comprised Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides, each had seven treatments (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64%) and applied once weekly. At 56 days after the treatments, the MCSP values for Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on cowpea were 5.4 and 6.3%, respectively, with the overall sensitivity (k) of one for each phytonematicide. In conclusion, the observed MCSP and k values suggested that the two cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides were suitable for Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea production systems on N-deficient soils.

20. Lily Bell Ch Marak, Lolly S. Pereira*, R. Chakraborty and D. Majumdar [Plant pathogens and soil microbes associated with Citrus indica in Nokrek biosphere reserve of Meghalaya]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 486-491 (2018). Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Production North-eastern Hill University, Tura Campus, Chandmari-794 002 (Meghalaya), India *(e-mail : drlollysp@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Citrus indica Tanaka, commonly known as Wild Indian Orange, is the most primitive of all citrus fruits found around the world. This plant is found growing in the wild only in Nokrek Biosphere Reserve of Garo Hills, Meghalaya. The plant is of great significance among the local people for various traditional medicines and spiritual purposes. The objective of the study was to identify the disease causing pathogens and soil microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere of C. indica in the three zones of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, as well as to assess the relationship between soil microbes and occurrence of plant pathogens. Nine diseases caused by fungal pathogens and one disease caused by algae were observed. Change in zone exerted a significant influence on occurrence of pathogens in C. indica. Occurrence of soil microbes in the rhizosphere of C. indica was significantly influenced by change in zone, soil depth and season. Soil microbes were found to be more in top soil than sub-soil. Among the identified soil microbes, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus nigricans were the dominant ones. At 0-15 cm soil depth, soil microbes Curvularia lunata, Drechslera oryzae and Aspergillus niger exerted positive influence on occurrence of plant pathogens Capnodium citri, Cephaleuros virescens, Alternaria citri and Mycoshaerella citri, while plant pathogens like Acrosporium tingitanium, Diaporthe citri, Penicillium digitatum and Phytophthora citrophthora were antagonistically affected. At 15-30 cm soil depth, soil microbe Drechslera oryzae positively influenced the occurrence of plant pathogens Alternaria citri and Cephaleuros virescens, while Colletotrichum falcatum at 15-30 cm soil depth positively influenced the occurrence of plant pathogens Acrosporium tingitanium and Diaporthe citri.

21. M. M. MAKHWEDZHANA*, P. W. MASHELA AND K. M. POFU [Mechanism of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars ‘Bosbok’ and ‘Mvuvhelo’]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 492-497 (2018). University of Limpopo, Green Biotechnologies Research Centre, Private Bag X 1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : makhwexm@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars ‘Bosbok’ and ‘Mvuvhelo’ were previously shown to be resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, without information on the mechanism of resistance. Among the two mechanisms of nematode resistance, the latter is the only one that is useful in plant breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the existing nematode resistance mechanism in cultivars ‘Bosbok’ and ‘Mvuvhelo’ to M. incognita race 2. Uniform rooted cuttings in 250 ml polystyrene beakers containing fine sand were inoculated with 100 second stage (J2) with four plants harvested every other day for 30 days. Roots were severed, cleaned, stained and then distained, assessed under the stereomicroscope for the existence of (1) necrotic spots, (2) poorly developed giant cells, (3) formation of rootlet interferences, (4) absence of root galls and (5) non-detectable J2 in roots. All plant variables over time exhibited quadratic relations with coefficients of determination ranging from 65 to 85% and from 72 to 94% in cultivars ‘Bosbok’ and ‘Mvuvhelo’, respectively. In conclusion, the two cultivars were shown to contain post-infectional nematode resistant attributes and could, therefore, be candidates to serve in introgression intended for breeding nematode-resistant sweet potato cultivars.

22. P. W. MASHELA* and K. M. POFU [Influence of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide on suppression of Meloidogyne incognita and growth of zucchini under greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 498-503 (2018). University of Limpopo, Green Biotechnologies Research Centre, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Phatu.Mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Zucchini or squash (Cucumis pepo), also referred to as the green baby marrows, are highly susceptible to Meloidogyne species, without any genotype with resistance to the nematode genus. Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides are being used as alternatives to methyl bromide in various crops, with limited information on whether the product could induce auto-allelopathy in C. pepo cultivars. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide on suppression of M. incognita and growth of zucchini under greenhouse conditions. Zucchini cv. ‘Cartesa’ seedlings were inoculated with 5000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and then managed at weekly basis using Nemafric-BL phytonematicide at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32%. Eight weeks after the treatments, relative to untreated control, the treatments reduced eggs (95-100%) and J2 (99-100) in roots, J2 (86-110%) in soil and final nematode population densities (97-100), but increased dry fruit mass (5-14%) and fruit number (66-137%), without affecting other plant variables. Nemafric-BL phytonematicide could be used in managing population densities of Meloidogyne species in zucchini production under greenhouse conditions without inducing phytotoxicity.

23. Z. P. DUBE* AND P. W. MASHELA [Effects of cucurbitacin A on mobility of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 504-508 (2018). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : zakheleni_dube@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Registration authorities of botanical inputs in crude extract form demand that the active ingredients be isolated, identified and efficacy tests on target pests be investigated. Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, with active ingredient cucurbitacin A, consistently suppress bioactivities of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematode, with limited information on the efficacy of its purified active ingredient. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cucurbitacin A on mobility of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). Approximately, 450 freshly hatched J2 were exposed to pure cucurbitacin A concentration at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 µg/ml distilled water, arranged in a completely randomized design, with three replicates. Experimental units were placed in an incubator at 25±2°C for 12-, 24-, 48- and 72-h. After each duration, mobile and immobile J2 were each counted using a stereomicroscope. Cucurbitacin A concentration effects were highly significant on J2 immobility at all four exposure periods, contributing 84, 99, 99 and 99% in total treatment variation of the variable at the respective periods. Relative to untreated control, J2 immobility increased with increasing concentrations in density-dependent growth (DDG) patterns. In conclusion, cucurbitacin A had significant bioactivity effects on mobility of M. incognita J2 and could be one of the bioactivities through which Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide suppressed nematode population densities.

24. Ahmed A. Al-Hammouri*, William Lindemann, Stephen Thomas and Saum Sanogo [Effect of inoculum levels of Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita on chile pepper in soil simultaneously infested with both pathogens]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 509-519 (2018). Department of Land Management & Environment Faculty of Natural Resources & Environment Hashemite University, P. O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan *(e-mail : hammouri@hu.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani have been isolated from chile fields in New Mexico. Our hypothesis investigated whether inoculum level of R. solani and M. incognita had a synergistic effect on chile injury in greenhouse experiments. Nematodes were inoculated at rates of 200 and 2,000 second juveniles (J2) per plant and fungi was inoculated at rates of five and 10 R. solani agar pellets (each 1-cm in diameter) for low and high level of inocula, respectively. Plant growth measurements were recorded three months after inoculation. The frequency of recovery of R. solani from tap roots and stem segments, M. incognita egg counts and reproduction factor were measured at the termination of each experiment. Generally, there were slight evidences for the effects of inoculum level on the interaction of R. solani and M. incognita. Changes in reproduction factor for M. incognita were detected in the presence of R. solani at different inoculum levels. Frequencies of R. solani were slightly affected by M. incognita inoculum levels. Chile growth parameters were not affected by the interaction between the two pathogens regardless of inoculum levels. Thus, sporadic influence of inocula level on the inoculation of R. solani and M. incognita was detected occasionally.

25. Niren Majumdar* and Nakul Chandra Mandal [Effect of different modified growth media on post-harvest pathogens]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 520-525 (2018). Department of Plant Protection Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture) Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 236, Birbhum (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : niren_majumder@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Several external factors have great influence on growth and development of fungi but media plays the primary role. Fungal growth largely depends upon the quality of medium upon which it grows. The medium has a great role in anatomical, morphological and physiological characters of the fungi. Depending on the class, fungi and fungi like organisms belonging to different taxa need different types of media to grow and sporulate successfully. Six different types of media like PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar), TDA (Taro Dextrose Agar), EYDA (Elephant foot Yam Dextrose Agar), BEA (Banana Extract Agar), OMA (Oat Meal Agar) and RAM (Richards Agar Medium) have been used to study the morphological characters, growth behaviour and sporulation of three important post-harvest fungi, namely, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Curvularia lunata under in vitro condition. L. theobromae did not sporulate throughout the experimental period of 10 days but had the fastest mycellial growth rate on OMA, TDA and BEA. C. gloeosporoides showed maximum sporulation on OMA with relatively fast growth on PDA. C. lunata had almost maximum mycellial growth, sporulation and spore size on TDA. Maximum spore size of C. gloeosporioides and Curvularia sp. has been found in PDA and TDA but minimum size of spore found in TDA and EYDA, respectively.

26. Mahak Tufchi*, Rashmi and Narendra Kumar Singh [In silico prediction of 3D structure of Opaque-2 protein in maize]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 526-536 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Government College for Women, Parade, Jammu-180 001 (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : 2828004mahakt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Opaque-2 (o2) protein is a transcription factor regulating the expression of genes involved in controlling the amount of limiting amino acids in maize kernels. Quality protein maize (QPM) is the maize with enhanced level of lysine and tryptophan along with normal kernel phenotype developed so as to minimize the nutritional problems pertaining to protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in countries where maize is the stable food. This protein, however, has showed anomalous behaviour in some of the QPM lines developed so far to usual that is enhanced essential amino acids. In the event to understand the functioning of the o2 protein, its tertiary structure needs to be understood. Due to the technical limitation to uphold the native state of o2 protein after crystallization process during X ray crystallography projects the need for predicting the protein structure computationally using in silico tools. Hence, the current research aimed at predicting in silico tertiary structure of o2 protein using Phyre2 and so, on-line analytical tools. From a total of 120 templates aligned, 16 templates showed more than 95% confidence with the query input and gave a 3D model. The results showed presence of  helices and coils in o2 protein with absence of  pleated sheet structure. Presence of many coils provided the reason for variable behaviour of this protein. The best probable structure predicted by Phyre2 software showed the presence of residues of which 27% were modelled at >90% confidence, while 79% were predicted disordered/coiled. Structure was validated using SELECT pro web tool with Global Relative Model Confidence Score of 0.009. This information may play a key role in unveiling the behaviour in terms of quantitative profile of lysine and tryptophan of QPM lines having o2 protein.

27. Preeti Sharma*, Bindu Battan and Anil Sindhu [Effect of additives on enhanced in vitro shoot multiplication and GC-MS analysis of Lawsonia inermis L.]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 537-545 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : er.preetijmit@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Investigations were undertaken to explore a successful and reproducible protocol for plant regeneration of Lawsonia inermis L. Shoot tip and nodal segment were excised and cultured upon MS medium supplemented with various cytokinines i. e. BAP, kinetin, zeatin, GA3 and spermidine. The explant responded successfully at a concentration of BAP (2 mg/l). Additives like silver nitrate (AgNO3), adenine sulphate (AdSO4) and casein hydrolyzate (CH) were tried for improving shoot regeneration abilities. A complete success was achieved using BAP (2 mg/l) along with kinetin (0.25 mg/l) and adenine sulphate (20 mg/l) after 45 days. For root induction, surgically separated microshoots were cultured upon half strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with an average of 76.66%. After one month, the in vitro regenerated plantlets were transferred to greenhouse condition in clay pots containing a mixture of sand : soil : vermicompost (1:1:1). The regenerated plantlets were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compared with the mother explants. The higher beta-glucopyraoside, methyl (59.75%) and alpha linoleic acid (11.25%) were observed indicating the application of plantlet in skin aliments and heart problems. The increase in active phytochemical components of in vitro regenerated plants over its mother plants showed the applicability of this technique over conventional method.

28. FADILA FEKRACHE* [Spatial variability and correlation of soil properties in the Annaba plain (North-East Algeria)]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 546-548 (2018). Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences University 20 august 1955-Skikda, Postal Box 26 Skikda 21000, Algeria *(e-mail : f.fekrache@univ-skikda.fr)

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to study the spatial variability of soil acidity (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), texture and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The total of 23 soil samples were collected from different plots at 0-0.3 m in depth and were analyzed in the laboratory. The statistical analysis showed high spatial variability across the experimental field based on EC, CaCO3, clay, sand and silt indicated by values of the coefficient of variation (CV) of 46.537, 38.156, 32.289, 49.037 and 34.742%, respectively. However, very low variability was observed for soil pH; with CV value of 2.759%. Correlation matrix indicated that soil pH was significantly correlated with CaCO3 (r=0.74) and electrical conductivity (r=-0.448). Clay was positively and significantly correlated with silt (r= 0.635) and negatively and significantly correlated with sand (r=0.907). Silt was negatively and significantly correlated with sand (r= – 0.907).

29. M. M. Masowa1, F. R. Kutu*, O. O. Babalola and A. R. Mulidzi [Physico-chemical properties and phyto-toxicity assessment of co-composted winery solid wastes with and without effective microorganism inoculation]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 549-559 (2018). Food Security and Safety Niche Area Research Group Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North West University P/Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa *(e-mail : Funso.Kutu@ump.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

This study assessed both the physico-chemical properties of winery solid waste (WSW) composts with or without microbial inoculation and the phyto-toxicity of their extract. Four different composts with initial pile height of 1 or 1.5 m were prepared through aerobic thermophilic process by mixing the filter materials (FM) and waste plant materials at 40 : 60 ratio on dry volume basis. Cured composts were evaluated for selected physico-chemical properties and germination attributes at varied extract concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100%) using cowpea, maize and tomato seeds. Microbial inoculation exerted significant effects on compost Bray-P2 content, while interaction between inoculation and compost pile size similarly had significant effect on ammonium-N content. The contents of bulk density, volatile solids, water holding capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate-N and exchangeable K among the various composts did not differ significantly. The composts possessed high electrical conductivity (range : 9.03-10.23 dS/m) suggesting high soluble salts concentrations. Compost type and extract concentration interaction exerted significant effect on the germination index (GI) of all three crops; with phyto-toxic effects on maize and tomato at 50% extract concentration and beyond. The compost extracts showed varying degree of phyto-toxicities to maize and tomato, while cowpea experienced no phyto-toxicity effect. Besides, the composts also showed phyto-nutrient and phyto-stimulant capabilities with greater than 100% root length and GI values. Nonetheless, the phyto-toxicity recorded in maize and tomato can be eliminated using lower application rates.

30. A. YU. NESMIYAN*, V. A. CHERNOVOLOV, A. M. SEMENIHIN, V. P. ZABRODIN AND S. L. NIKITCHENKO [A review of assessment of the machinery tillage tools’ performance for higher crop production efficiencies]. Res. on Crops 19 (3) : 560-567 (2018). Department of Technology and Mechanization of Agroindustrial Complex Faculty of Engineering and Technology Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute of Don State Agrarian University 347740, 21 Lenin Street, Zernograd, Russian Federation *(e-mail : nesmiyan.andrei@yandex.ru)

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of crop production technologies to a great extent depends on the selected tillage tools and their performance. The aim of this study was to assess general quantitative performance of various machinery tillage tools. At first stage of study, the general assessment of soil tillage tools with regard to crop yielding capacity was assessed. The task of the second stage of study was to assess the performance of modern tillage tools from the perspective capacity of tractors. The study showed that the most rational practice was alternation of soil tillage tools for different crops grown under various crop rotations. At the same time, the energy-saturated aggregates, on an average, showed the same indicators of specific fuel consumption, running speed and switch-over time utilization coefficient as that of the aggregates with tillage tools of less operating width. The primary advantage of the wide-cut aggregates was narrowed to reduction of labour input, the value of which was reciprocally proportional to the operating width of the given tool. The gain in specific materials consumption of the tillage tools outruned the intensity of their operating width, which had a non-linear increase in the machinery cost, the level of its negative impact on the territory, and it’s more complicated exploitation. These drawbacks were compensated with a series of advantages with the decrease in the labour input. In case of introducing driverless tractors, the profit from the diligence of the aggregates with an increased operating width was to a great extent smoothed over. Thus, hypothetically the development of site-specific crop growing and automation of the agricultural processes will lead to the limitation of tractor capacity and operating width of the tools aggregated with them.

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