Volume 19, No. 2 (June, 2018)

By | July 14, 2018

1. Oyeyemi A. Dada*, Omolara E. Lawal, Funso R. Kutu and Amudalat B. Olaniyan [Osmotic stress mitigation in upland NERICA field using compost augmentation and silicon enrichment]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 151-162 (2018). 1Food Security and Safety Niche Area Research Group North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, P/Bag  X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa *(e-mail : oadada247@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Drought, a major abiotic constraint in upland rice field, increases production losses and sometimes causes complete crop failure. Information on response of upland New Rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivar to silicon and compost is scanty. An experiment conducted under greenhouse condition investigated the effects of silicon and compost augmentation on performance of upland rice water-stressed at different growth stages. The study was a 3 x 4 factorial fitted into CRD with four replicates. Growth and yield parameters of NERICA at vegetative stage were significantly highest in water-stressed soil amended with compost. Leaf rolling and dried tips were highest at grain filling stage in moisture deficit soil fertilized with NPK+silicon. Soil moisture deficit beyond vegetative stage reduced growth, yield and dry matter accumulation of NERICA. Upland NERICA tolerated drought better under compost and NPK+Si fortification. Application of compost significantly reduced effects of water deficit in upland rice by 55.7% at the heading stage and by 96.5% at grain filling phase.

2. DHIMAN SEN*, SWAPAN KUMAR MAITY AND PRABIR MUKHOPADHYAY [Studies on nutrient uptake of crop and residual soil fertility affected by planting time, organic sources of nutrient and LCC based N application under SRI]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 163-168 (2018). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agriculture Visva-Bharati Sriniketan-731 236 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : sendhiman@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Current study was set up to find out how nutrient uptake and residual soil fertility responded to planting time, organic sources of nutrient and LCC based N application. There were total 20 treatments. Eighteen treatments were comprised of factorial combinations of two planting times (i. e. at two-leaved stage and three to four-leaved stage), three organic sources (FYM 10 t/ha, FYM 5 t/ha, FYM 5 t/ha+Azospirillum) and three N applications (blanket split, LCC at 3 and at 4). There were two absolute controls under each planting stage. Uptakes of N, P and K were significantly higher under two leaved stage treatment. In respect of nutrient uptake, FYM 10 t/ha was observed better than half of its doses with or without Azospirillum through application of Azospirillum with FYM 5 t/ha was responded positively than FYM 5 t/ha alone. There was positive response from LCC based N management to obtain higher N, P and K uptakes. Soil pH, organic carbon and available N were not significantly influenced by planting time and methods of N application treatments. Organic carbon was also not influenced by organic sources. Available P2O5 and K2O significantly responded to planting time, organic sources and methods of N application.

3. SUBHALAKSHMI SHIJAGURUMAYUM*, G. A. SHANTIBALA DEVI AND CH. BRAJAKISHORE SINGH [Grain quality evaluation of some aromatic rice varieties of Manipur, India]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 169-181 (2018). 1Department of Life Science Manipur University, Canchipur-795 003 (Manipur), India *(e-mail : subha1900@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study aims at studying the physical, chemical and cooking quality of 14 indigenous upland aromatic rice varieties of Manipur in comparison with improved variety IR 64. Most of the rice varieties studied were of medium size and shape with good aroma. The hulling % of the rice varieties ranged from 77.06 to 79.72%. The milling % of the rice varieties ranged from 60.43 to 67.7%. Head rice recovery ranged from 40.54 to 59.9%. The least chalkiness area % was observed in Napneng dengmei and IR 64. Anuza rice had the highest L/B ratio of 3.11, while Chakhao angangba had the least L/B ratio i. e. 2.06. Chakhao angouba 1 had the highest 1000-grain weight (34.96) among the varieties studied. All the varieties except IR 64 had soft gel consistency. The amylose content of the aromatic rice studied ranged from 3.40 to 7.55%. The pigmented varieties were more aromatic than the white varieties. The volume expansion ratio ranged from 2.61 to 4.26.The kernel length after cooking of the rice varieties studied ranged from 7.00 to 9.80 mm. The elongation ratio of the rice varieties studied ranged from 1.01 to 1.47. The water uptake of the rice varieties studied ranged from 200 to 400. Cooking time of the rice varieties studied ranged from 16 to 25 min. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between physico-chemical characteristics of the different rice varieties. Cluster analysis was performed to group the varieties based on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics.

4. Brijesh Kumar, Vivek Yadav, Naleeni Ramawat and Kuldeep Singh* [Effect of zinc fertilization on yield and grain zinc concentration of rice under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 182-190 (2018). 1Amity Centre for Soil Sciences Amity University, Noida-201 313 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : ksingh6@amity.edu)

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five field experiments were conducted on rice (Oryza sativa) as test crop across Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh during the two consecutive kharif seasons of 2015 and 2016. The effects of soil and foliar fertigation of zinc (Zn) on rice grain yield and grain Zn concentration were studied. Farmer’s field under three different Zn application methods was designed with complete randomized block design in three replicates, as following treatments : (i) Farmers’ practices without Zn application or business as usual (control), (ii) Farmers’ practices with 50 kg ZnSO4.7H2O/ha soil Zn application before transplanting of rice crop and (iii) Farmers’ practices with foliar Zn application (0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of ZnSO4.7H2O was realized two times (i. e. first at anthesis or heading and the second one at early milking stage of rice crop). Both Zn application methods increased rice grain yield across 25 sites. However, the effect of soil Zn fertilizer on grain yield was more effective than foliar Zn. Foliar Zn treatments on rice increased grain Zn concentration significantly over control across all locations. In particular rice crop, soil Zn application noticeably increased grain yield and slightly less content of grain Zn over foliar Zn application. However, foliar application of Zn at particular growth stages of rice was an important agronomic practice for the farmers to enhance grain yield and Zn concentration to alleviate ‘hidden hunger’. In conclusion, soil Zn application method increased rice yield and profitability as compared to farmers’ practices (control). Given the high effectiveness of foliar Zn application in increasing grain Zn concentration, it is recommended that farmers apply Zn to rice by foliar application for both grain yield and optimum grain Zn biofortification to combat Zn deficiency.

5. G. Issenova*, A. Mitrofanova, S. Kalugin, S. Efremov and A. Sagitov [Effect of compositions of derivatives of oxone and carbon minerals on the growth and development of wheat crop]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 191-199 (2018). 1Kazakh Research Institute for Plant Protection and Quarantine, Almaty, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : gulm.issen@gmail.com; isenova-gulmira@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to discover an effect of the composition on the basis of heterocyclic series containing derivatives of oxone FGSK-2,2 (dinitrophenylhydrazine 2,2-dimethyltetrahydropyran-4-one) with a concentration of 0.00001%, in different proportions with 20% raw carbon mineral on the growth and development of the spring wheat under laboratory conditions. The standard techniques of seeds’ germination and plant culture were used in this study. Observations on germination, plant growth and thickness, as well as the photopigments’ content were recorded. It was observed that plants in treatment with such composition grew up very well and contained a large amount of chlorophyll. Thus, it showed the rising productivity of plant culture. We observed a stimulating effect of the 20%-concentrated shungite on seed germination of spring wheat. The results of the study showed a decrease in linearity of a bark of the axial bodies and increase in a thickness of plant stems after treatment in a 1:1 ratio by means of the compositions of dinitrophenylhydrazine 2,2-dimethyltetrahydropyran-4-one and shungite. Furthermore, wheat leaves had the rich dark-green colour due to chlorophyll content in wheat plant leaves of all kinds of treatment that was higher in comparison with control plants. Plants in treatment by means of composition in a 2 : 1 ratio had the highest chlorophyll content. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the treatment of spring wheat seeds by means of composition derived from oxone FGSK-2,2 (dinitrophenylhydrazone 2,2-dimethyltetrahydropyran-4-one) and 20%-concentrated shungite of 1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 1 : 2 ratios showed germination. The aqueous solution of shungite in the vegetative phase of wheat had an inhibitory effect on the plant height. There was found the stimulating effect of the composition of dinitrophenylhydrazone 2,2-dimethyltetrahydropyran-4-one and carbon mineral of 1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 1 : 2 ratios on the plant stem thickness.

6. Nazih Y. Rebouh, Meisam Zargar*, Elena Pakina, Norezzine Aabdelaziz, Tamara Astrakhanova and Svetlana Chuburkova [Analysis of various cultivars of durum wheat cultivated in the highlands of Algeria condition]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 200-204 (2018). 1Department of AgroBiotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

Some varieties of wheat cultivated in the highland of eastern Algeria are very weak and threatened with extinction, consequently certain cultivars are extinct. This work is within the context of the evaluation of cereal genetic resources in the highland of eastern Algeria. The experimental study was laid out from research station based in Ras El Oued, Bordj Bou Arrerij, Algeria. The experimental design involved a randomized complete block with four replications, 13 biometric characters and a heading stage date. The Principal Component Analysis illustrated a distinct variation between cultivars from the same region. Some of them presented good traits, such as : high yield and early heading stage. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the crucial interest in preserving the cultivars of interest, and to exploit their genetic potential in a breeding programme.

7. Vidya Kumbhar* and T. P. Singh [Effect of soil and climate parameters on crop yield for semi-arid region of India–A multivariate statistical approach]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 205-210 (2018). Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune-411016 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : drvidyapatkar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Rainfed agro-ecologies contribute 67% of the net sown area in India. Inspite of major contribution of rainfed agriculture, low crop yield is caused in the region due to climate change, land degradation, less knowledge of technology and lack of effective crop yield improvement technology. The uncertainty in rainfall and limited irrigation facilities, climate change, soil fertility and moisture reduction affects the crop yield in the region. The current study has done the multivariate statistical analysis of soil and climate data to identify the effect of them on crop yield for kharif and rabi seasons of semi-arid regions of India. The study revealed that these parameters significantly affected the crop yield. The results also showed that along with climate parameters, soil sodium, iron and phosphorus had major effect on crop yield.

8. NAIF BASHABSHEH, EZZ AL-DEIN AL-RAMAMNEH*, HUSSEIN ALHROUT, ABDEL RAHMAN AL-TAWAHA and Ziad Barakat Al-Rawashdeh [Effects of pre-treatment solution, soaking period and cultivar on germination of pistachio (Pistacia vera) seeds]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 211-216 (2018). 1Department of Agricultural Sciences AL-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, AL -Shouback, Maan, Jordan *(e-mail : ezznew@bau.edu.jo; ezznew@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Pistacia vera is an important fruit tree in Jordan especially in the southern part of the country. It is known for its seeds that are eaten fresh or used in food. The yield of seeds is considered profitable which makes the multiplication and area increase of this tree highly recommended. Soaking in water or in molybdenum is thought to enhance imbibitions and germination in many plants. An experiment was conducted in plant laboratory of Aleppo University that addressed the effects of pre-soaking solution (water or 5 ppm molybdenum) and soaking duration (24, 48 and 72 h) on the subsequent seed imbibition and germination of pistachio cvs. Ashouri, Alemi and Batori. The experiment was three-factor based and arranged in a completely randomized design. The highest imbibition percent resulted from soaking Batori seeds in water for 72 h (67.74%), whereas the highest germination percent was recorded in Ashouri seeds pre-soaked for 27 h in molybdenum (84.35%). Thus, the treatment inducing the highest germination percent was not necessarily that inducing the highest imbibition response. In general, increasing pre-soaking duration of pistachio seeds resulted in a corresponding increase in both imbibition and germination percentages irrespective of cultivar. However, the main effects of studied factors indicated that the highest germination per cent resulted, on an average, when using Ashouri seeds, or 72 h pre-soaking duration or with 5 ppm molybdenum as a pre-soaking solution.

9. M. S. SONAWANE*, V. S. SUPE and V. P. CHIMOTE [Molecular characterization of Bhagwa like genotypes of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 217-226 (2018). 1Department of Horticulture Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413 722 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : madhurishrikant@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Molecular characterization of the most popular pomegranate cultivar Bhagwa and its 16 closely related genotypes available in Maharashtra state of India along with two other cultivars, Phule Arakta and Mridula was carried out to assess their diversity. Sixteen SSR primer pairs amplified 32 alleles of which 16 were polymorphic with PGCT088 and Pom024 primers producing six and four polymorphic alleles, respectively. Of them, three were Bhagwa specific polymorphic alleles i. e. Pg6-164bp, Pg14-254bp and PGCT093B-153bp amplified only in all 17 Bhagwa types, while PGCT093B-187bp allele was present only in Phule Arakta and Mridula. Limited divergence was observed among them on SSR analysis with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.80 to 1.00. On SSR data based clustering analysis; all Bhagwa like genotypes could be clearly differentiated from cultivars Phule Arakta and Mridula. All Bhagwa like genotypes were found sharing common genetic basis, claims of these genotypes being independent identities were rejected.

10. Adnan Hussein Al-Wagaa* [Effect of glyphosate doses applied through different methods on the control of Congo grass (Imperata cylindrica L.) growing in newly planted pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in Iraq]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 227-236 (2018). Department of Field Crops Science College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq *(e-mail : adnan_alwakaa2003@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Congo grass, Imperata cylindrica L. is one of the most harmful invasive perennial grasses in Iraq, infesting newly planted pomegranate orchards. Therefore, the field experiment was conducted to control Congo grass by spraying different concentrations of glyphosate (0.36 kg a. i./l). The complete randomized block design (CRBD) was used for the experiment with three replications. Total eight treatments of glyphosate were used in this study. In first control treatment (T1), only water was used i. e. without glyphosate. The second treatment (T2) contained 1 litre glyphosate in 1 litre of water. The third treatment (T3) contained 1 litre glyphosate in 2 litres of water. Likewise, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th treatments contained 1 litre glyphosate in 3, 4, 5 and 6 litres of water, respectively. In eighth treatment (T8), herbicide glyphosate @ 1.8 kg a. i./ha was sprayed with a Knap Sack pressure sprayer on Congo grass. The results indicated the superiority of T2 treatment for the control of Congo grass as compared to other treatments. It showed the highest control rate which reached to 62.40% in the scale of 1 to 100. Whereas T2 and T3 treatments indicated the lowest average regrowth rates of Congo grass to the tune of 6.03 and 6.98%, respectively, in the scale of 1 to 10. It appeared that the effectiveness of the glyphosate continued beyond 360 days after treatment. Significant differences were found in the reduction of the plant height to 74.3 cm under T5 as compared to other treatments. Significantly lowest foliage dry weight (125.67 g/m2) of Congo grass was recorded under T4 as compared to T1, T7 and T8 treatments. The other treatments (T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6) were at par in respect to production of foliage dry weight. Significantly lowest rhizome dry weight was observed under T5 (141.33 g/m2) as compared to T1, T3, T6, T7 and T8), whereas rest of the treatments (T2 and T4) were at par with T5 in respect to rhizome dry weight production. The Rope-wick sprayer gave greater control of Congo grass compared with Knap Sack sprayer and that too without affecting pomegranate plants.

11. NABEEL M. BANI-HANI, MOAWIYA A. HADDAD, JALAL A. AL-TABBAL*, AHMAD H. AL-FRAIHAT, Maisa Al-Qudah, Sati Y. A. Al-Dalain and Musa Atallah Al-Tarawneh [Optimum irrigation regime to maximize the yield, water use efficiency and quality of potato [Solanum tuberosum (L.) cv. Spunta]]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 237-244 (2018). 1Deir Alla Agricultural Research Station National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE), Baq’a 19381, Jordan *(e-mail : Jaltabbal@bau.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of different irrigation regimes on the yield, water use efficiency and quality of potato [Solanum tuberosum (L.) cv. Spunta] grown at the experimental field of Deir Alla Agricultural Research Station, Jordan during 2012-13 and 2013-14 growing seasons. Five different drip irrigation regimes were compared : 50% (I50), 75% (I75), 100% (I100) and 125% (I125) of crop evapotranspiration assessed according to the class A pan equation (which equated to 184, 274, 366 and 458 mm, respectively), and farmer irrigation (506 mm). The results indicated that irrigation to 100% of evapotranspiration (I100) was the optimum regime for maximizing potato production. The specific gravity and water use efficiency, as well as most nutritional contents of potato decreased with increasing amounts of water, and the maximum ash content was achieved with I100. Thus, use of the I100 regime would improve water use efficiency in potato crops compared with farmer irrigation levels that are currently used, allowing significant reductions in water use while maintaining production levels.

12. H. YASMIN, J. ANBUMALARMATHI* AND S. ARUNA SHARMILI [Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 245-248 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Stella Maris College (Autonomous), 17, Cathedral Road Teynampet, Chennai-600 086 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : amalarmathi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents and explicit the antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of big and small Allium sativum and Allium cepa. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, quinines, glycosides, carbohydrates and proteins. Big garlic showed a maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus 9.0 mm at 400 µl. Big garlic and small onion showed a maximum zone of inhibition against K. pneumoniae (13.0 mm) at 400 µl. The study proved that garlic and onion could be used as one of the effective therapeutic phytomedicines.

13. P. K. KARAK, S. CHAKRABORTY, A. PARIARI* AND C. KARAK [Effect of growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of chilli in saline belt of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 249-253 (2018). 1Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal & Aromatic Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, District Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : dranupariari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To identify the most suitable growth regulators among GA3, NAA, CCC, Ethrel, PPP333 and MH to influence the vegetative growth, flowering behaviour, yield and quality for improvement of chilli var. Beladanga, the experiment was conducted in the saline belt of West Bengal with 13 treatments and three replications. The investigation revealed that NAA at lower concentration (50 ppm) by foliar spray showed encouraging effect on vegetative growth and yield parameters. The highest green chilli yield per ha was obtained (270.75 q/ha) with NAA at 50 ppm in comparison to other treatments. Whereas PPP333 at 250 ppm treated plants produced the lowest yield (59.47 q/ha). Regarding quality parameters of fruit, as obtained from fruit analysis, GA3, CCC and MH improved fruit quality at all concentrations with higher capsaicin (100.80-115.30 mg/g of dry biomass) and ascorbic acid content (172.60-177.50 mg/100 g of green edible chilli).

14. SUK YOUNG YUN*, EUN JIN JANG AND BYUNG JIN CHOI [Plant growth of Hedera helix and Chamaedorea elegans planted in pots in the hospital room]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 254-258 (2018). 1Department of Horticulture The Graduate School, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, 38430, South Korea *(e-mail : yune1004@cu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the growth of plants in the hospital ward depending on the types of media. After Hedera helix and Chamaedorea elegans which are the most commonly used for horticultural activities were cultured in three media such as horticultural bed soil, culture soil and tap water for 63 days, the growth status was examined. The results of the study are as follows. First, there was no significant difference in the plant height, leaf number and chlorophyll content of H. helix among three media. However, there was a significant difference in chlorophyll content of C. elegans as follows : Horticultural bed soil (SPAD=-0.2), culture soil (SPAD=-7.9) and tap water (SPAD=-14.7). There was no difference in the plant height among three media. Second, the changes of growth status between soil (horticultural bed soil and culture soil) and water (tap water) were compared. As a result, there was a significant difference in the height of H. helix (P=0.24). There was a significant difference in the chlorophyll concentration of C. elegans (P=0.24). Third, fresh weight and dry weight of plants growing in each medium were compared. The T/R ratio of fresh weight (9.51%) and dry weight (7.00%) of H. helix growing in horticultural soil was the highest. The T/R ratio of fresh weight (9.15%) and dry weight (9.00%) of C. elegans growing in tap water was the highest. According to the results of the investigation on the growth status of plants, there was no significant difference in the growth of H. helix depending on the media. However, it would be good for C. elegans to grow in soil rather than in tap water.

15. Subhankar Saha*, Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar, Ananta Saikia and Prakash Kalita [Standardisation of growing media and its depth for rooftop gardening of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Prof. Harris]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 259-263 (2018). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : subhankarshubs@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to study the standardisation of growing media and its depth for rooftop gardening of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Prof. Harris during 2016. The experiment was laid out in two-factor completely randomized block design comprising five growing media having different components by volume at three different depths viz., D1 : 10 cm, D2 : 20 cm and D3 : 30 cm depths. The media compositions were G1 : Soil+sand+coco peat+vermicompost (1 : 1 : 2 : 2), G2 : Sand+coco peat+vermicompost (1 : 2 : 2), G3 : Sand+coco peat+vermicompost +vermiculite (1 : 2 : 2 : 0.5), G4 : Sand+coco peat+vermicompost+perlite (1 : 2 : 2 : 0.5) and G5 : Sand+coco peat+vermicompost+vermiculite+perlite (1 : 2 : 2 : 0.25 : 0.25). Among the depths of growing media, D3 i. e. 30 cm was found best for increasing the plant and flower characters. It induced early flowering (bud visibility at 46.53 days, bud opening at 61.89 days and full bloom at 75.84 days), greater flower number 47.13/plant and longer flowering duration 62.37 days. Among the media, G5 responded best in terms of flower earliness (bud visibility at 49.00 days, bud opening at 64.35 days and full bloom at 78.85 days), more number of sprays per plant i. e. 7.01 sprays per plant and longer duration of 54.52 days compared to other growing media. The treatment combination of media depth D3 i. e. 30 cm and growing media G5 was best for rooftop gardening of chrysanthemum.

16. A. H. Madakemohekar*, L. C. Prasad, J. P. Lal and R. Prasad [Estimation of combining ability and heterosis for yield contributing traits in exotic and indigenous crosses of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 264-270 (2018). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : anant.madke@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Combining ability and heterosis were determined in a population obtained from crosses between four indigenous testers and 10 exotic lines and grown under irrigated condition during 2014-15. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed the presence of significant variance due to general combining ability (gca) as well as for specific combining ability (sca) among the parents for all the traits. Among the parents, Marriya, Moroc 9-75, V Morles and BH 902 were good general combiners for grain yield and its component traits. On the basis of sca effects, Yardu x Lakhan showed significant sca effect for grain yield under both the irrigated and rainfed conditions. Pristage x BH 902, Himani x RD 2508 and Atahualpa x Lakhan were recorded as desirable for number of grains per spike, whereas Marriya x K 603 for chlorophyll content. For grain yield, the maximum per cent heterosis over standard check (K 603) was observed in Moroc 9-75 x BH 902, Atahualpa x RD 2508, Marriya x Lakhan and Moroc 9-75 x K 603. Moroc 9-75 x RD 2508, Marriya x Lakhan and Rihane x BH 902 under rainfed conditions, while Atahualpa x BH 902, Yardu x Lakhan and V-Morles x RD 2508 exhibited heterobeltiosis under irrigated condition (2014-15).

17. Nidhi Dubey, H. A. Avinashe* and A. N. Shrivastava [Assessment of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 271-275 (2018). Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidhyalaya, Jabalpur-482 004 (M. P.) India *(e-mail : havinashe@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a major oil seed crop having 20% oil and 38 to 43% protein which has biological value as meat and fish protein. A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2014-15 under All India Coordinated Research Project on Soybean at Seed Breeding Farm, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidhyalaya, Jabalpur (M. P.) to study the genetic divergence in 50 soybean genotypes and observations on 13 traits were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated that significant variation was present among the different genotypes of the soybean for all the traits under study. Genetic divergence assessed using D2 statistics for characters enabled grouping of all the genotypes in 13 clusters. Among 13 clusters, cluster I was the biggest with 24 genotypes followed by cluster III with 11 genotypes and cluster IV with five genotypes. Clusters II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and XIII were solitary. Maximum differences among the genotypes within the same cluster (intra-cluster) were shown by cluster IV (76.21) followed by cluster III (62.03) and cluster I (60.32). Solitary clusters II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and XIII showed zero intra-cluster distances. Diversity among the clusters varied from 38.21 to 987.90 inter-cluster distances. Clusters IV and XIII showed maximum inter-cluster distance (987.90).

18. SHAHNAWAZ KHURSHEED, AAMIR RAINA, RUHUL AMIN, MOHAMMAD RAFIQ WANI* AND SAMIULLAH KHAN [Quantitative analysis of genetic parameters in the mutagenized population of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 276-284 (2018). 1Mutation Breeding Laboratory Department of Botany Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : botanyrafiq@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a rich source of dietary proteins, minerals and nutrients particularly in India and a feed crop in the world. Successful crop breeding programmes require the recognition and understanding of different genetic parameters like genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance. In this backdrop, a field experiment was conducted to study the genetic parameters in M2 generation of faba bean using 60Co source gamma irradiation and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) as physical and chemical mutagens. The mutagens were used both individually and in combination. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), heritability (h2) and genetic advance (GA) were calculated for total seed yield per plant (g) and its associated components like seeds per pod and pods per plant. Gradual increase in mean values for all quantitative characters was observed at lower doses/concentrations of gamma rays and EMS employed alone or in combination. Genotypic coefficient of variation and heritability increased considerably in the mutagenized population for all the traits in both the varieties suggesting the possibility of more genetic progress of these traits in subsequent generations which could lead to the overall improvement of these varieties.

19. Peeta Gopi, A. Satyanarayana, A. Rama Krishna and K. R. S. Sambasiva Rao* [Genetics of resistance to yellow mosaic virus (YMV) disease in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 285-288 (2018). 1Department of Biotechnology Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522 510 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : krssrao@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Yellow mosaic virus (YMV) causes one of the most severe of biotic stresses in Vignas, an important group of pulse crops. The viral disease is transmitted through the white fly, Bemicia tabaci, and the yield of the plant is affected drastically. YMV resistant genotype PU-31 was identified in the field within a large population of susceptible genotype lines. PU-31 was crossed with LBG-402, LBG-645 and LBG-685 and raised F1, F2 and F3 progenies. The different generations were phenotyped for YMV-reaction. Resistance to YMV disease governed by two dominant genes acting in complementary fashion, YMV-resistance was revealed from F2 segregation ratio of 9 : 7 (Resistant : Susceptible), which was confirmed by the segregation ratio of the F3 families. This is the first report of YMV-resistance controlled by only complimentary gene action.

20. P. E. TSEKE* AND P. W. MASHELA [Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on growth of Cucumis myriocarpus indigenous leafy vegetable]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 289-293 (2018). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : tsekepe@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Roots and fruit of wild cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus Naude.) contain cucurbitacin A (C32H46O9), whereas leaves are cucurbitacin-free and therefore the plant is used as a leafy indigenous vegetable in most marginalized communities in South Africa. Cucurbitacin A, both in vivo and in vitro, was shown to be highly toxic to certain pests and pathogens. It was, therefore, in this backdrop that a study was initiated to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) on growth of C. myriocarpus seedlings. Four-weeks old seedlings of C. myriocarpus were treated with MycorootTM AMF at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 g/pot. At 56 days after the treatment, AMF had no plant growth variables of C. myriocarpus and, therefore, should not be used in the production of this plant as an indigenous leafy vegetable.

21. Sati Yassin Ahmed Al-Dalain* [Utilization of mushroom fungi in processing of meat sausage]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 294-299 (2018). Department of Medical Supports Al-Karak University College, Al-Blqa Applied University, Jordon Kingdom *(e-mail : dr_sati2006@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This study throws the light on the utilization of mushroom with 0, 15, 30 and 45% of meat content in beef sausage recipe. Proximate composition, physical, chemical properties TBARS, amino acids profile and sensory evaluation were carried out. Substitution with 30% mushroom gave the best treatment. During subsequent frozen storage, a continuous reduction in moisture content was recorded. Protein content was around 15%, a slight increase was noticed by increasing substitution ratio. The higher the substitution level, the lower the fat content was recorded. Substitution treatment led to increase the pH value correspondingly with the level of substitution. The higher WHC was found in case of sample that substituted with 15% mushroom. The plasticity of various investigated samples did not affect at the beginning of storage. The cooking loss per cent did not affect before storage, it was around 15%. It increased with about 1.12, 1.14, 1.14 and 1.19 fold in 0, 15, 30 and 45% substitution level, respectively, after 45 days storage. Regarding to cooking yield per cent, a contradicted trend was recorded. The predominant essential amino acid was lysine (9.80%), while leucine came in the second order. Generally, substitution with 30% mushroom increased the total essential amino acids with 1.11 fold. Total of non-essential amino acid did not affect owing to substitution treatment. The total essential amino acids/total non-essential amino acids per cent was increased in treated sample. The TBARS of various sausage treatments showed substitution with 30% mushroom had lowest one till the end of frozen storage period indicating the antioxidant effect of mushroom. Sausage sample substituted with 30% mushroom had higher scores for all sensory parameters scores.

22. SUK YOUNG YUN*, EUN JIN JANG, BYUNG JIN CHOI AND HYUN SUG CHOI [A survey on the soil pathogenic microorganisms of flowerpot in the hospital room]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 300-303 (2018). 1Department of Horticulture The Graduate School, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, 38430, South Korea *(e-mail : yune1004@cu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the pathogenic microorganisms were detected in water and soil used as the media. After ‘Hedera helix’ and ‘Chamaedorea elegans’ which are the most used for horticultural activities were cultured in three media such as horticultural bed soil, cultural soil and tap water for 63 days, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms was examined. Pathogenic microorganisms was analyzed such as Escherichia coli O157 : H7 (E. coli O157 : H7) and Salmonella spp., and the method for analysis was carried out in accordance with the quality inspection on fertilizer by Rural Development Adminstration (RDA). The results of the study, pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella spp. were not detected in the soil and water when the plants were cultivated in horticultural bed soil, cultural soil and tap water within the same conditions as the hospital environment.

23. FARHANA ZAMAN*, MD. SHAFIQUL ISLAM AND HISASHI KATO-NOGUCHI [Allelopathic activity of the Oxalis europea L. extracts on the growth of eight test plant species]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 304-309 (2018). Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan *(e-mail : fzamanbau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Oxalis europea (Oxalidaceae) is an annual weed widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A common wheat field weed, O. europea was studied to evaluate its allelopathic potential. Aqueous methanol extracts of O. europea were applied to cress, rapeseed, alfalfa, lettuce, Italian ryegrass, barnyard grass, foxtail fescue and timothy at six different concentrations to assess their effect on seedling growth. At a concentration  0.003 g dry weight equivalent extract/ml, the O. europea extracts significantly inhibited the shoot and root growth of all the test plant species with the exception of the root growth in cress. There was a significant negative correlation coefficient (R) between the concentration of the O. europea extracts and seedling length. The concentration needed to produce a growth inhibition of 50% of the all test plant species was in the range of 0.002 to 0.026 g dry weight equivalent extract/ml for shoot growth and 0.002 to 0.018 g dry weight equivalent extract/ml for root growth. The lettuce shoots and roots were more sensitive to the extracts, whereas the barnyard grass shoots and cress roots were less sensitive to the extracts of O. europea. These findings indicate that O. europea may have allelopathic activity and may contain growth inhibitory substances. Thus, O. europea is a potential candidate for isolating and identifying allelochemicals to develop environment- friendly bio-herbicides to control weeds.

24. Seung Kyu, LEE* and Truong An DANG** [Application of AquaCrop model to predict sugarcane yield under the climate change impact : A case study of Son Hoa district, Phu Yen province in Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 310-314 (2018). 1Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University 19, Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, Dist. 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *(e-mail : leeseungkyu@tdt.edu.vn; **dtan@hcmus.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

This work evaluates the climate change impact on sugarcane yield and proposes the solution to shift the seasonal calendar for matching with sugarcane in the Son Hoa District, Phu Yen Province of Vietnam. Future climate change scenarios for time periods in the 2020s, 2055s and 2090s corresponding to low emission scenario RCP4.5 and high emission scenario RCP8.5 were selected to evaluate sugarcane yield in the study area. Simulated results showed that climate change impact would increase sugarcane yield from 1.73 to 8.26% for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The increase of sugarcane yield can be significantly improved when the crop planting calendar will be shifted 40 days delay and sugarcane yield will increase from 1.12 to 8.42 t/ha for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

25. Hammad K. Aldal’in* [Chemical composition of the methanolic extract from seeds, thorns and leaves of Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) (Rosaceae) grown in Al-Tafila, Jordan]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 315-319 (2018). Department of Medical Support Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Karak University College, Al-Karak, Jordan *(e-mail : hammadhammad1977@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In the present work, the chemical composition of methanolic extract from seeds, thorns and leaves of S. spinosum that growing in Jordan has been investigated, compared for the first time and analyzed by of GC-MS. These parts of S. spinosum were collected during the spring semester 2018. Results showed that seeds extract had’t any phytoconstituents, while thorns and leaves extracts were a rich source of various bioactive phytochemicals. These compounds gave thorns and leaves an important role to use it as anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory due to the presence of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Thorns were much interesting parts than leaves due to the availability of these bioactive compounds as major compounds more than leaves. Furthermore, other polar compounds were found in these parts but in limited amounts. Thus, the isolation of thorns and leaves phytochemical compounds will give fruitful results.

26. Kalyani Khanra, Indranil Choudhuri and Nandan Bhattacharyya* [Bio-efficacy of nanoparticles in tea garden prepared from Heliotropium indicum]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 320-324 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Panskura Banamali College, Panskura R. S.-721 152, District Purba Medinipur (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : bhattacharyya_nandan@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Silver nanoparticles prepared from aqueous extract of Heliotropium indicum leaves showed the potentiality to control the pests in tea garden. The nanoparticles controlled all of the insects including looper and semi-looper, red slug caterpillars and aphids. At 1 DAS (day after spraying), the winged and wingless aphids and termites died at a concentration of 20 mg/l of water. At 2 DAS, 80% semi-looper died and at 3 DAS 50% red slug beetles died. The nanoparticles were less toxic to human cells. This approach was eco-friendly and cost effective as compared to the chemical pesticides use in the tea gardens.

27. Zh. Mustafayev*, A. Kozykeyeva and A. Zhatkanbaeva [Improving the drip irrigation system for crops in foothill areas of Kazakhstan with minor elevation difference]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 325-334 (2018). 1Department of Water Resources and Reclamation Kazakh National University, Kiz-Zhibek St, 41, Almaty, 080020, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : zhidekulova.gulkiz@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted with an objective to develop the construction of an open flow drip irrigation system for crops that do not require additional pumping equipment, providing even distribution of water along the length of the dripper line. The present study was based on general scientific methods, in particular, mathematical modelling of processes, graphical method and experimental production experiment. The analysis of results was carried out with regard to the field experience methodology and specific conditions and challenges. The study was carried out by field experiments in Jambyl Region of Kazakhstan, in desert areas with a pronounced continental climate. The system provides the possibility to fully automate dripper cleaning simultaneously on the entire area of irrigated land, and to accumulate the calculated irrigation norms with a view to provide local moisturizing of plant root zone within a short period. The open flow drip irrigation system with technical means of supplying water to the soil provides high-performance micro irrigation for farms and farmers in the arid zone. Optimizing the geometrical parameters of the irrigation circuit where the pre-irrigation moisture content, type, granulometric content, water-physical properties of the soil, interrelated position of drip lines, head-capacity curve of drippers and system pressure are the main factors, it is necessary that minimum water consumption be provided with a view to ensure crop yield and evolution.

28. T. G. Apata*, M. O. Oladapo, S. I. Ogunjimi, A. I. Ogunyinka, C. Ifejirika, S. Anugwo, B. J. Olorunfemi and S. O. M. Awoniyi [Can social assistance programmes stimulate fairness of access to agricultural inputs acquisition and reduce poverty among small-scale farmers in south-western Nigeria ?]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 335-352 (2018). 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria *(e-mail : dayo.apata@fuoye.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

This article examines whether access to social-assistance programmes can stimulate fairness to acquisition of agricultural inputs and poverty reduction among small-scaled farmers. The study focused on social-assistance programmes of e-wallet scheme and analyzed the extent. This method was able to improve the life chances of extremely poor beneficiaries. Mixed method approaches were adopted and this included a quantitative survey of about 8,000 beneficiaries, and a representative sample of 600 data in south-west zone, Nigeria. An experimental-design adopted was used to compare households before and after e-wallet scheme (EWS) with non-beneficiaries households. Hence, 203 non-beneficiaries small-scaled farmers were recruited into the programme through the methodology of the selection of 600 beneficiaries Regression discontinuity design (RDD) was used to examine the causal impact of social-intervention programmes on agricultural outputs and poverty status of respondents. Descriptive statistics indicated that 87.5% of EWS beneficiaries had income increase, mean age of 47 years and diversification index of 11.5. Instrument adopted in the RDD gave the model a good fit (F statistic of 40.91). The RDD model results revealed that 1% increase in per capita income from the EWS beneficiaries was linked with 0.75 increase in a household’s livelihood diversification. There existed a causal impact of EWS beneficiaries on income increase and improvement of poverty status.

29. S. O. M. Awoniyi, T. G. Apata*, A. O. Igbalajobi , S. B. Fakayode, R. A. Sanusi, B. J. Olorunfemi and S. I. Ogunjimi [Malaria and agriculture : Evidence of relationship and labour/income loss among rural rice-farming households in Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 19 (2) : 353-364 (2018). 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria *(e-mail : dayo.apata@fuoye.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

The present study examines relationship between malaria and labour/income loss in rice production. Also, factors influencing sickness absence and choice of care provider among rice farming households in Nigeria were analyzed. Multistage sampling technique was employed in data collection where 570 rice farmers were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit regression model and Multinomial Logit model (MNLM). Marital status, number down with malaria, malaria perception waiting time, choice of caregiver and hired labour availability significantly influenced sickness absence rate, while the choice of malaria care provider was influenced by household size, education, clinic distance, treatment cost, and malaria perception for public hospital over self-medication. More clinics should be provided in the hinterland for prompt treatment of malaria. Policies to address rice output increase or rice farmers’ productivity enhancement should be in consonance with health policies in rural Nigeria where the majority of the farmers reside.
JEL classification : I150, I180, Q180

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