Volume 19, No. 1 (March) 2018

By | April 13, 2018

1. Yan ru Fang, Lu Yang, Qiqi Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Baogui Zhang and Guang hui Xie* [Estimation of stubble biomass in major field crops using residue cutting height]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 1-12 (2018). 1College of Agronomy and Biotechnology China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China *(e-mail : xiegh@cau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

Crop residue is recognized as a potential feedstock for biofuels and a sustainable substitute for fossil energy sources. Expanding the acreage of biofuel crops, it is important to establish a crop residue retention regime to conserve soil fertility and prevent soil erosion. This paper presents simple linear and power equations between stubble biomass ratio (SBR, i. e. percentage of stubble biomass to whole plant biomass) and stubble height ratio (SHR, i. e. percentage of stubble height to maximum plant height) for a wide range of field crops of rice, wheat, oat, corn, sorghum, sunflower, canola, soybean and cotton, using data collected from 15 sites in production fields in 11 provinces across China from 2009 to 2012. Simple linear regressions for the crops were associated with highly significant coefficients of determination (R2) for all crops. Validation with independent datasets also showed high R2 values, indicating model goodness-of-fit. Mean relative error (MRE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values showed good fit for the two allometric relationships for each field crop studied. These results could be used to assess stubble mass for sustainable residue removal in bio-based energy systems.

2. MD. ABDULLAH AL MAMUN*, MOST. SARMIN ASHRAF, MD. MIZANUR RAHMAN, A. K. M. MOSHAROF HOSSAIN AND MOST. MOHOSHENA AKTAR [Effect of organic and inorganic amendment of nitrogen on soil properties and yield of BRRI Dhan 29]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 13-19 (2018). Department of Soil Science Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh *(e-mail : nion.agss@hstu.ac.bd)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen on the post-harvest fertility status and yield of BRRI Dhan 29. Incorporation of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) @ 150 kg/ha from cowdung as organic nitrogen source and urea as inorganic nitrogen source along with a control was performed under RCBD design. All the treatments under study also received P20K65S18Zn1.3 through inorganic sources of fertilizers. The grain and straw yields as well as the yield contributing characteristics like plant height, number of tillers/hill, number of effective tillers/hill, panicle length, number of grains/panicle and number of filled grains/panicle were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Significantly highest grain (5.89 t/ha) and straw (6.14 t/ha) yields were recorded from the treatment T1 where 100% RDN provided from urea that was closely followed by the treatment T6 (80% RDN from urea+ 20% RDN from cowdung). Analyses of post-harvest soil fertility status revealed that the treatments amended with cowdung as organic source of nitrogen positively influenced the bulk density, porosity, organic carbon, total N, available P, exchangeable K and available S contents of soil, while all the treatments slightly decreased the bulk density and soil pH. Considering the results, treatment T6 (80% RDN from urea+20% RDN from cowdung) may be suggested for adequate substitute in reducing the chemical nitrogen usage for sustained boro rice cultivation.

3. Duy Le*, Chon M. Nguyen, Bobba V. N. Kumar and Richard K. Mann [Weed management practices to control herbicide-resistant Echinochloa crus-galli in rice in Mekong Delta, Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 20-27 (2018). 1Dow AgroSciences B. V. Nguyen Van Troi, Phu Nhuan, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *(e-mail : DLE@dow.com)

ABSTRACT

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is one of most important weeds in rice field in Vietnam. Seventy-eight barnyardgrass seed samples were collected from rice fields in seven provinces in Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The seedlings grown from collected seed samples were evaluated to determine the level of resistance to bispyribac, penoxsulam and quinclorac. Farmers who managed the fields from which samples collected were interviewed about weed management practices and the cost of weed control per season. The average cost for weed management was 1,980,000 VND per hectare, the total cost included 650,000 VND for herbicide and 1,330,000 VND for hand-weeding. Echinochloa crus-galli biotypes resistant to bispyribac, penoxsulam and quinclorac were found and biotypes with resistance to multiple herbicides were detected. The average resistance-score of three tested herbicides was 3.4 in the 78 samples collected. There was a correlation between field size, hand-weeding practice, and the herbicide-resistance level, herbicide-resistant weeds were less common in smaller fields where hand-weeding was commonly used. The high cost and limited labour pool for hand-weeding in this region of Vietnam limits the long-term viability of this approach.

4. HYUN SUG CHOI AND SEOK KYU JUNG* [Review of various issues and productivity of organic rice paddy in South Korea]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 28-33 (2018). Department of Horticulture Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 38430, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : gentleman71@msn.com)

ABSTRACT

Online search and phone interview were performed with expert of Agricultural Technology Centers located in each 44-large-scale eco-agricultural district (LED) in South Korea. Field surveys were conducted with each rice (Oryza sativa L.) farm house of 7-prime LED, with comparing conventional and organic farming systems for soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and the productivity. Only one farm house in Jangheung practised crop-livestock farming system, with/without crop rotation for the other farm houses. Soil EC in conventional farming systems had two times higher than those of organic farming systems and LED. A farm house in Suncheon was observed on dominant population of Sphagnum inhibiting rice growth often found in summer, which was mostly eliminated by application of 120 kg muscovite per ha. Based on the field survey, LED farmers’ requests included insufficient poduction of compost from the livestock, labour shortage, complicated distribution systems, price deviation, improper maintenance of facilities, and lack of advertisement and branding of the organic rice. LED farm houses increased to total gross production of $ 13,725 compared with those of conventional and organic farming systems presumably due to the well-managed rice cultivation, high rice quality and high premium price.

5. U. S. MISHRA, DEEPENDRA SHARMA AND B. P. S. RAGHUBANSHI* [Effect of zinc and boron on yield, nutrient content and quality of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 34-37 (2018). Department of Natural Resource Management M. G. C. G. Vishwa Vidyalaya, Chitrakoot-485 780 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : drbraghu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out in sandy loam soil at M. G. C. G. Vishwa Vidyalaya Farm, Chitrakoot during kharif of 2013. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) and boron (B) on the yield, nutrient content and quality of blackgram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and to find out the optimum dose of Zn and B for yield maximization. There were four levels of zinc (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg/ha) and boron (0, 2.0 kg/ha one spray with boric acid and 2 kg/ha two sprays with boric acid) along with a blanket dose of N20P40K20 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that the application of 30 kg zinc/ha and boron 2 kg/ha with two foliar sprays resulted in highest grain yield with their interaction effect on grain yield (8.98 q/ha) as well as all growth, yield, quality and nutrients uptake parameters. The lowest value of symbiotic traits, yield parameters, quality and uptake status were recorded under control treatments. Increasing dose of zinc and boron increased the all parameters.

6. A. A. UMALE*, N. P. CHAUHAN, K. D. MEVADA, H. K. PATEL AND S. P. KADU [Effect of levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizer on growth, yield attributes and yield of rabi greengram]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 38-42 (2018). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : umaleaniket@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during rabi season of the years 2013-14 and 2014-15 to study the response of rabi greengram (Vigna radiata L.) to levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizer. An experimental result on pooled basis revealed that application of nitrogen, phosphorus and biofertilizer recorded significant increase in various growth attributes, yield attributes and yield of rabi greengram. Among the different levels of nitrogen, application of N @ 30 kg/ha produced significantly superior plant height, number of branches per plant, dry weight of root nodules per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield (1219 kg/ha) and haulm yield (2823 kg/ha) and it remained at par with application of N @ 20 kg/ha. Similarly, application of phosphorus @ 40 kg/ha recorded significantly higher plant height, number of branches per plant and test weight and the highest in dry weight of root nodules per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield (1240 kg/ha) and haulm yield (2863 kg/ha) as compared to lower levels of phosphorus. Biofertilizers (seed inoculation of Rhizobium + soil application PSB) recorded significantly the highest on growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield (1212 kg/ha) and haulm yield (2816 kg/ha) over control. Treatment combination P3B1 (40 kg P2O5/ha along with biofertilizer i. e. Rhizobium+PSB) gave outstanding performance in case of dry weight of root nodules per plant, number of pods per plant and seed yield of rabi greengram.

7. M. G. MANJUNATH, S. R. SALAKINKOP AND G. SOMANAGOUDA [Productivity and profitability of soybean based millets intercropping systems]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 43-47 (2018). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : salakinkop@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Bailhongal, Belagavi district, Karnataka on mixed red and black medium soil during kharif 2016 to study the productivity and profitability of soybean and millets (foxtail millet, finger millet and little millet) under different row proportions. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with 10 treatment combinations replicated thrice.Millets were intercropped with soybean at different row proportions (2 : 1 and 4 : 2) along with sole millets and soybean. Sole soybean recorded significantly higher grain yield (2,255 kg/ha) over intercropping treatments. Among the intercropping systems, soybean grain yield was higher in 4 : 2 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (1,697 kg/ha) followed by 2 : 1 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (1,673 kg/ha). Sole foxtail millet recorded significantly higher grain yield (1,901 kg/ha) than other treatments. Among the intercropping treatments, soybean+foxtail millet in 4 : 2 row proportion recorded significantly higher grain yield (1,429 kg/ha) and it was on par with 2 : 1 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (1419 kg/ha). Among various intercropping treatments, the highest soybean equivalent yield and land equivalent ratio (LER) were recorded in 4 : 2 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (2,334 kg/ha, 1.50 respectively). It was on par with 2 : 1 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (2,310 kg/ha, 1.49, respectively). While ATER was highest in 4 : 2 row ratio of soybean+little millet (1.48) and it was on par with 2 : 1 row ratio of row ratio of soybean+little millet (1.46). Significantly higher net returns and B : C ratio were recorded in 4 : 2 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (Rs. 68,457/ha and 2.45, respectively) and it was on par with 2 : 1 row ratio of soybean+foxtail millet (Rs. 66,779 /ha and 2.40, respectively).

8. Akylbek Kurishbaev, Valentina Chernenok* and ERBOL NURMANOV [Response of soybean to nitrogen nutrition conditions and nitrogen fertilizers on soils of dry steppe area of northern Kazakhstan]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 48-52 (2018). 1Department of Agriculture and Plant Growing S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : chernenok2@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

The work presents results of three-year research, which was conducted on dark chestnut carbonate easily clay soils of JSC AF «Aktyk» Tselinograd area of Akmola region by studying the reaction of soybean to the conditions of nitrogen nutrition and nitrogen fertilizers. In this work, we identified the main factors which determined efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers, offered the method of determination the optimal level of nitrogen in the soil and its achievements, where the soybean generated the maximum possible harvest in emerging moisture conditions. The method allowed determining the nitrogen deficiency in soil and calculating the required dose of nitrogen fertilizers to achieve an optimal level. Thus, the method allowed to purposefully managing the nitrogen regime of soils considering the biological characteristics of soybean and its requirements to the conditions of nitrogen nutrition. And it was guaranteed by economic efficiency and environmental safety of fertilizers application. The effect of climatic factors on the nitrogen-fixing ability of soybean was revealed.

9. Dorodi P. Duarah*, D. N. Hazarika, S. Langthasa, R. K. Goswami and M. K. Kalita [Response of banana cv. Malbhog (AAB) to in situ macro-propagation technique for the production of quality planting material in Assam]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 53-57 (2018). B. N. College of Agriculture Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali, Biswanath-784 176 (Assam), India *(e-mail : dorodipriyomduarahaau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Initiation and stimulation of lateral bud development and sucker production is accomplished through decapitation and decortication method in banana. Experiment was conducted in the present study to produce quality planting materials of cultivar ‘Malbhog Banana’ and to enhance efficacy of macropropagation technique by using additives like fertilizer, bio-fertilizers and plant growth regulators. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications under field condition. This trial was carried out with suckers weighing 400-500 g in soil with decomposed cow dung (in situ). The treatments were T1 (Control), T2 (Trichoderma viride), T3 (30 g BAP+30 g T. viride), T4 (0.04% BAP), T5 (0.04% BAP+30 g enriched compost), T6 (30 g T. viride+0.04% BAP+30 g enriched compost), T7 (200 g Azospirillum and 200 g PSB in 10 kg of vermicompost), T8 (50 ppm GA3), T9 (0.25% IBA) and T10 (100 g nitrogen/plant). All treatments tested, T3 (18.94 ) followed by T4 (18.40) showed good response in terms of plantlet production and enhanced bud proliferation, growth and better root profiles but the lowest sucker (5.23) was produced by T8. The shortest time for primary sucker emergence (26.25 days) was recorded in T3. The weight of tertiary suckers varied significantly due to the treatment effect which ranged from 153.12 to 296.09 g at the end of hardening period.

10. J. Hosseininejadian and M. Naderidarbaghshahi* [Effects of biological growth stimulants on physiological traits and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in minituber production system]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 58-61 (2018). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

In order to achieve sustainable agriculture, this study intended to investigate the effects of biological growth stimulants on physiological traits and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in minituber production system in Iran. Seedlings potato from Agria cultivar, which were produced by tissue culture, were treated with eight biological growth stimulants containing Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis, mycorrhiza (Glomes mosseae) and combine them and then cultivated in appropriate bed at the completely randomized design in a greenhouse condition. Based on the results, using fungal and bacterial growth stimulants could improve plant growth and increased biomass, plant height, chlorophyll content of the leaf and minituber yield of potato. The most effective treatment was combination of mycorrhiza fungi+pseudomonas+bacillus bacteria with 3.81 kg/m2 minituber production in comparison with control treatment (2.06 kg/m2). Synergic effect of fungi and bacteria improved minituber production. Meanwhile reduced dependence of plant on chemical inputs; therefore, these results can be advisable to achieve sustainable agriculture.

11. P. M. KGOPA*, P. W. MASHELA AND A. MANYEVERE [Accumulation of heavy metal in onion (Allium cepa) plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 62-67 (2018). Department of Plant Production, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering University of Limpopo, P Bag X 1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : pholosho.kgopa@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of crops irrigated with treated wastewater could create a health hazard. The objective of the study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals in edible and non-edible parts of onion (Allium cepa) plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. A 15-ha field was established for onions irrigated with centre pivot using commercial cultural practices. At harvest, 1 ha among the 15 ha was selected at random and demarcated into eight blocks for sampling five plants at random during two different seasons. Plants were separated into root, bulb and leaf, which were separately dried, ground and quantified for heavy metals using ICP-OES. In Experiment 1, plant organ treatments were significant (P0.05) on Arsenic (As), Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu) and Lead (Pb), contributing 73, 84, 80, 76, 95 and 81% in total treatment variation (TTV), of the respective treatments. In Experiment 2, treatments were significant on As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb, contributing 83, 88, 80, 74, 96 and 78% in TTV of the respective variables, with no significant effects on Co. Relative to root tissues, the accumulation of heavy metals increased (32-35%) and decreased (20-87%) in leaf and bulb tissues, respectively. In conclusion, onion bulbs were relatively safe for consumption in plants irrigated with treated wastewater.

12. Mohammad Hassan Mahjor, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh* and Esmaeil Mahmoudi [Effect of different concentrations of vermicompost-tea and Dupinix organic fertilizer on some characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 68-71 (2018). 1Department of Horticulture Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : h.asadi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Spinach (Spinacia oleraceae L.) is an important leafy vegetable and belongs to Chenopodiaceae family. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of vermicompost-tea and Dupinix® organic fertilizer on some characteristics of spinach cv. “Oriental Pride”. The experiment was done in randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were five vermicompost-tea concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80%) and organic fertilizer Dupinix® in four concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4 per 1000 V/v). Results indicated that the foliar application of both the fertilizers had significant effects on evaluated characteristics. The highest (28.96 g) and lowest (14.47 g) plant fresh weight were measured in Dupinix® 4 per 1000 V/v and control treatments, respectively. Plants were treated with both of fertilizes had higher amount of leaf area than control. The highest total phenolic content (58 mg/kg) was measured from Dupinix® 3 and 4 per 1000 V/v and the lowest (43 mg/kg) in the control treatment. Elements analysis of plant tissue showed that treated plants with organic fertilizer had higher concentration compared to control. It was suggested that vermicompost-tea and Dupinix® fertilizer could be used to improve important parameters of spinach.

13. P. E. TSEKE* and P. W. MASHELA [Growth response of leafy vegetable Cucumis myriocarpus to chloride salinity]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 72-79 (2018). University of Limpopo, Green Biotechnologies Research Centre Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : tsekepe@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In context of climate-smart agriculture, soil chemical factors had been receiving much less attention in comparison to the soil physical and soil biological factors in crop husbandry. The objective of this study was to determine the growth responses of the drought-tolerant wild cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus) leafy vegetable to chloride salinity. Uniform seedlings at five leaf-stage were each transplanted into 20 cm diameter plastic pots, containing 2 700 ml steam-pasturized river sand and Hygromix at 3 : 1 (v/v) ratio. A geometric series of NaCl and CaCl2 at 3 : 1 mM ratio induced chloride salinity. At 56 days after treatment, dry shoot mass, dry root mass, stem diameter, leaf number, vine length and chlorophyll content were significantly affected by salinity in both the experiments, with TTV of 73-93, 46-93, 59-77, 78-90, 77 and 80-82%, respectively. Dry shoot mass, dry root mass, stem diameter, leaf number, vine length and chlorophyll content versus salinity levels exhibited quadratic relations, with 93-98, 95-97, 91-98, 91-96, 84-95 and 90-100%, respectively, coefficients of determination. In Experiment 1, salinity had highly significant effects on soil pH and soil EC, contributing 73 and 77% in total treatment variation (TTV) of the respective variables, whereas in Experiment 2 the treatments contributed 64 and 98% in TTV of the respective variables. In conclusion, findings in the current study demonstrated that growth responses of C. myriocarpus to chloride salinity had density-dependent growth patterns.

14. D. A. Katsileros* and G. N. Skaracis [Interplot competition and its control in durum wheat genotypes evaluation]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 80-85 (2018). Laboratory of Plant Breeding and Biometry Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens 11855, Greece *(e-mail: katsileros@aua.gr)

ABSTRACT

Interplot competition may lead to biased yield comparisons in cereal variety trials, especially when varieties differ in plant height. In order to evaluate and control the phenomenon of interplot competition, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the competition effect in relation to border row number, grouping varieties according to their height and plot row orientation. The results revealed a significant effect of interplot competition, mainly manifested on the border rows, when the varieties differed in height. Such a significant effect of interplot competition was also evident when plot rows were shown in the east-west orientation.

15. Maen Hasan*, Nidal Odat, Issam Qrunfleh, Yahya Shakhatreh and Sobhia Saifan [Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Jordanian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals genetic polymorphism and divergence associated with inflorescence type]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 86-96 (2018). Department of Plant Production and Protection Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : maen_hasan@bau.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Twenty-eight mapped SSR markers were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Jordanian barley landraces. The neighbour-joining (NJ) clustering and admixture model-based population structure analysis grouped the Jordanian barley landraces and cultivars according to the inflorescence type. High genetic distance (1-GSD=0.779) was observed between the two-row and six-row barley landraces. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value of SSRs loci ranged from 0.297 to 0.899, with a mean value of 0.658. The results of this study demonstrate the suitability of SSR data for analysis of genetic diversity and the population structure in barley landraces.

16. Kavita, Madan Lal and Sangeeta Saxena* [Effect of explanting season and source of explants on in vitro morphogenetic responses of shoot tip explants of sugarcane]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 97-100 (2018). Sugarcane Research Institute UPCSR, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : dr_sangeeta_saxena@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Micro propagation is an efficient technique used for seed development of sugarcane. Protocol for the rapid propagation of Co 05011, a newly released variety, was optimized in the present study with a view to find out the best explanting season and source for obtaining optimum morphogenetic responses. Shoot tip explants were collected at monthly interval on 20th of each month from the field grown crops of sugarcane variety Co 05011 and inoculated on MS medium. The highest frequency of establishment (75%) of explants inoculated in the month of March was recorded followed by October, February, September, April and November as compared to those explanted in other months. Explants inoculated in the months of March to November required a minimum period of about 40 to 45 days for establishment of shoot cultures, whereas those inoculated in the months of December and January which required 60 to 70 days to complete the establishment. In an another set of experiment, shoot tip explants were collected from different sources e. g. spring planted, autumn planted and ratoon of spring planted crop. Results revealed that explants collected from spring planted crop gave the best responses regarding frequency of shoot initiation (85%), establishment of shoot cultures (65%), number of shoots/culture (24.3) and rooting responses (86.7%) followed by those collected from autumn planted crop and ratoon of spring planted crop. These results indicated a remarkable effect of season of explanting and source of explants on various in vitro morphogenetic responses. The aforesaid results suggested that the season of explanting and source of explant were important factors which should be taken into consideration during micropropagation of sugarcane varieties.

17. NIDAL ODAT* [Molecular and biochemical responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to NaCl salinity stress and salicylic acid]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 101-106 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Al Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : nidalodat@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Salicylic acid (SA) is believed to play a role in modulating the adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants, by regulating varied molecular and biochemical responses. The present study was aimed at investigating the combined effects of exogenously applied SA and salinity on root length, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Rum) at seedling stage. The results revealed that salt stress negatively affected total and maximum root length, total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance and the expression of CuZn-SOD gene. However, the SA-treated plants had longer total and maximum root length (stimulation of about 13% and 51, respectively), higher chlorophyll content, lower stomatal conductance and lower expression of CuZn-SOD gene compared to plants exposed to salt stress. Overall, these data may lead to a conclusion that SA increases cv. Rum barley growth by improving photosynthesis and regulating osmotic potential.

18. SAEID ABU-ROMMAN* AND M. A. SUWWAN [Changes in osmotic potential, protein content and proline accumulation in response to NaCl salinity and phosphorus in cucumber microshoots grown on proliferation medium]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 107-112 (2018). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan *(e-mail : ssadroman@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to explore the contributions of phosphorus in mitigating the salinity impacts on osmotic potential, protein content and proline accumulation of cucumber grown in vitro on proliferation medium. Microshoots were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) proliferation media containing 1 mg/l kinetin and supplemented with a combination of NaCl at 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mM with 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM phosphorus using KH2PO4. Leaf osmotic potential was reduced with increasing NaCl concentration and within each of the 50,75 and 100 mM NaCl concentrations, the incorporation of 2 mM KH2PO4 was needed to significantly increase leaf osmotic potential. Protein content of cucumber microshoots was shown to decrease with NaCl concentration, this reduction was lessened with increase in KH2PO4 level applied. In vitro-induced salinity caused profound proline accumulation in cucumber microshoots and combinations having 2 mM KH2PO4 showed lower proline accumulation especially at the highest two concentrations of NaCl.

19. M. S. Sandesh*, G. Raviraja Shetty, K. Souravi, P. E. Rajasekharan, M. Ganapathi and C. S. Ravi [Standardization of vegetative propagation in Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. : A threatened medicinal tree]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 113-119 (2018). Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops College of Horticulture (UAHS), Mudigere-577 132, Shivamogga (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sandeshmullia@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was undertaken to standardize the vegetative propagation in Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. at College of Horticulture, Mudigere during 2016-17. Hardwood and limb cuttings were used for the study. The cuttings were treated with different hormonal treatments like NAA, IBA and their combinations. Among the different treatments, hardwood cuttings treated with NAA 200 ppm+IBA 3000 ppm showed maximum sprouting (86.67%), number of shoots (7.05), shoot length (10.97 cm), number of leaves (28.33), rooting percentage (60.33), number of roots per rooted cutting (43.30) and average root length (31.53 cm). Findings of this study can be used for large scale propagation of this highly useful medicinal tree species for their sustainable use.

20. H. G. ANUSHA* AND R. N. BHASKAR [Identification of new pathogenic bacteria (Alcaligenes faecalis) and assessment of pathogenecity with mixed infection on rearing and cocoon parameters of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 120-126 (2018). Department of Sericulture University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : bhumihg@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Silkworm, being a poikilothermic, is susceptible to various infectious diseases caused by various pathogenic microorganisms. Among diseases, mixed infection is caused by many combinations virus and bacteria, bacteria and bacteria and bacteria and virus which cause havoc in silkworm rearing. The larvae showing symptoms of mixed infection reported a new bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis which was isolated and confirmed through 16S rRNA gene action. During investigation, when A. faecalis was administered to third instar larvae of PM × CSR2, pathogenic effect was noticed and resulted in variation in rearing and cocoon parameters. The larval weight ranged from 0.78 (T6)-0.85 (T5), 2.47 (T6)-3.52 (T3) and 18.70 (T6)-22.00 (T3) g/10 silkworms during end of the third, fourth and fifth instars of third instar inoculated batch, respectively. In addition, the per cent larval weight reduction also noticed the same trend. Further, the extended maximum and minimum larval (24.65 and 21.25 days) and moulting duration (79.26 and 63.28 h) were noticed in T5–Alcaligenes faecalis+Bacillus subtilis+Lysinibacillus sphaericus and T1–Alcaligenes faecalis infections. It is inferred that, sole administration of A. faecalis was found less pathogenic compared to combination. In addition to this, maximum larval mortality (71.80%), less number of days for ET50 for symptom expression (6.88 days) and mortality (8.50 days), less ERR (28.20%) resulted in T6–Alcaligenes faecalis+Bacillus subtilis+NPV and minimum mortality (53.75%), maximum ET50 for symptom expression and mortality (20.78 and 23.14 days), ERR of 46.25 per cent was observed when silkworms were inoculated with A. faecalis alone.

21. M. CHANCHAN*, P. THAPA AND J. K. HORE [Effect of biofertilizers with graded levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.)]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 127-131 (2018). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : chanchan.meinam17@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out at the Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, BCKV, West Bengal during 2013-14 and 2014-15. In both the years, cloves of garlic cv. Katki were planted during 1st week of November in 2.0 x 1.5 m plots, at 20 x15 cm spacing accommodating 100 plants per plot. The experiment was laid in RBD with three replications. Four biofertilizers, namely, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chrococcum, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomus fasciculatum) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus polymixa) were applied @ 6 g per plot each with 250 g well rotten FYM. Different combinations of nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers along with three levels i. e. 100, 75 and 50% of recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphate were included in the experiment. There were altogether 13 treatments including control. NPK dose was 150 : 125 : 150 kg/ha. Maximum plant height (74.32 cm), leaf number (11.86), bulb weight (26.34 g), plot yield (2.76 kg/3 m2) and projected yield (6.92 t/ha) were recorded with NP (100%)+Azospirillum+VAM. The next best treatment in respect of yield was NP (100%)+Azotobacter+VAM (6.71 t/ha) followed by NP (75%)+Azospirillum+VAM (6.37 t/ha). The maximum number of cloves (28.25), neck thickness (1.06 cm) and length of both long clove (2.93 cm) and medium clove (1.96 cm) were noticed with NP (100%)+Azotobacter+VAM. From yield maximization point of view, the most effective treatment was NP (100%)+Azospirillum+VAM followed by NP (100%)+Azotobacter+VAM under alluvial plains of West Bengal for garlic production.

22. G. Zhidekulova, Zh. Mustafayev* and A. Kozykeyeva [Regulation of irrigation : Modelling of bioclimatic coefficients of agricultural cultures]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 132-143 (2018). Department of Water Resources and Reclamation Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : zhidekulova.gulkiz@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The methods of our research were based on the usage of equations, characterizing the dynamics of warm- and moisture exchange in the system of “soil–plant”. For determination of total water consumption, we used the biological and microclimatic coefficients, levelling the quantitative differences between actual water consumption optimally irrigated crop and evaporation. Based upon systematization of the materials on the study of agricultural crops in different agroclimatic zones of Kazakhstan, the model of biological coefficients of agricultural crops for creation of information, methodological and software provision of regulation of water demanded of the agricultural lands was created. Presently, the usage of biological curves of water consumption regulation of the agricultural crops was the most substantiated and universal method, which was widely used at melioration of the agricultural crops in Kazakhstan. Thus, the construction of the biological coefficients model of the agricultural crops, taking into account the biological peculiarities of the plants and tied to the amount of accrued temperatures over 10°C from the moment of hay-harvest with interval 200°C, that allows creating the informational, methodological and software provision for water consumption provision of the agricultural lands in Kazakhstan.

23. Serik Kenenbayev* and anatoly jorgansky [Adaptive landscape agricultural development in the south-east of the Republic of Kazakhstan]. Res. on Crops 19 (1) : 144-149 (2018). LLP Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing Almalybak 040909, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : serikkenenbayev@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the research was to develop an adaptive landscape agriculture system (ALAS) for the test (in terms of agri-environmental conditions of foothill plain of the Iliysky Alatau mountain range) of commercial farm unit “Bayserke-Agro” LLP (Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty Region, Talgar District) providing high productivity and sustainability of agro-landscapes and effective reproduction of soil fertility. ALAS design was carried out in stages by developing of the geo-information system (GIS) for agro-ecological land assessment as the first stage, namely – electronic maps composition reflecting the relief, exposure, lithological, hydrological conditions and soil cover structure of agro-landscapes. Electronic maps were made by soil-landscape mapping of rangelands on a scale of 1 : 50000 in the context of the elemental areal of agro-landscapes (EAA), ranked in a certain structural hierarchy in accordance with the landscape-ecological classification of lands. Developed map of agro-ecological land groups and types is a basis for designing ALAS and agro-technologies for various agro-ecological land groups. It defines their specific agro-ecological position, which is of a general nature in the widespread climatic cropping patterns. Our approach to ALAS development in the south-east of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based on various electronic maps reflecting to landscape differentiation of rangelands, is the first known approach in the Republic. It is the first stage of this process that may be interesting and complement the world data bank with agro-ecological features of lands in the region. This reveals practical significance and the world novelty of the research.

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