Volume 18, No. 4 (December, 2017)

By | December 29, 2017

1. Meisam Zargar*, Nazih Rebouh, Elena Pakina, Anvar Gadzhikurbanov, Marina Lyashko and Bashir Ortskhanov [Impact of climate change on cereal production in the highlands of eastern Algeria]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 575-582 (2017). 1Department of AgroBiotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

The results obtained indicate a favorable climate change for cereal yields. This change in climate was expressed by increase in maximum temperature of 1.45°C, minimum temperature of 1.26°C and 2.5 mm increase in precipitation. It was also observed that change in climate increased the total production of wheat to 16544.4 tonnes during the studied periods of 1990 to 2004 and 2004 to 2014 due to improved productivity of wheat to 6.33 tonnes/ha. It was also observed that different durum wheat producing regions in eastern Algeria did not differ significantly in respect to production. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that climate change had positive effect on durum wheat production in the Bordj Bou Arréridj province of Algeria.

2. Anita Jaswal, Raj Kumar, Arun Kumar*, Arshdeep Singh, Maninder Singh and Harmeet Singh Janeja [Impact of different herbicides on transplanted basmati rice in a Typic Haplustept soil of Punjab, India]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 583-588 (2017). Department of Agronomy School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : karunkumark@hotmail.com; arun.18703@lpu.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact off different herbicides on transplanted basmati rice in Typic Haplustept soils of Punjab during kharif season of 2015-16. The predominant weed species observed in experimental farm were Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis and Eclipta alba. The results showed that the grasses were the predominant weed species followed by broadleaf weeds and sedges. Significantly lower weed density (7.3/m2) and weed dry weight/m2 (5.4 g) were recorded in hand weeded plot which remained at par with pre-emergence herbicide bensulfuron methyl @ 55 g a. i./ha. The highest weed control efficiency (97%) was obtained with hand weeding followed by bispyribac sodium 10 SC @ 30 g a. i./ha (93.8%). The maximum plant height (143.9cm), number of tillers per plant (34.6), number of panicles per plant (48.3), number of filled grains per panicle (114.3), 1000-grain weight (32 g), grain yield (5964 kg/ha), straw yield (6327 kg/ha) and harvest index (20.4%) were recorded in HW plots followed by bensulfuron methyl @ 55 g a. i./ha with plant height (114.9 cm), number of tillers/plant (32.6), number of panicles/plant (46), number of filled grains per panicle (103.6), 1000-grain weight (29.2 g), grain yield (5714 kg/ha), straw yield (6280 kg/ha) and harvest index (18.4%).

3. Brijesh Kumar, Naleeni Ramawat, Vivek Yadav and Kuldeep Singh* [Effect of zinc application on yield, zinc biofortification of grain and use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 589-594 (2017). 1Amity Centre for Soil Sciences Amity University, Noida-201 303 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : ksingh6@amity.edu)

ABSTRACT

Micronutrient deficiencies or ‘hidden hunger’ particular for zinc (Zn) deficiency affect more than 270 million people worldwide and about one-third population of the world is residing in the developing countries. Globally, rice is a staple food of the population and grown approximately 90% in south, south-east and east-Asia, which is inadequate soil Zn level and ultimately causes dysfunctional food system and unbalanced diets. Therefore, the present field experiment was undertaken to study the effect of agronomic Zn fertilization on grain yield, grain Zn and efficiencies of five rice varieties viz., Pusa Basmati 1121, Pusa Basmati 1509, Sugandh 5, CSR 43 and CSR 30. A field study resulted that Pusa Basmati 1121 and Pusa Basmati 1509 were found better for improvement of grain Zn, while Pusa Basmati 1509 and Sugandh 5 for yield in response to Zn fertilization. The effect of 50 kg/ha soil Zn application on grain yield of Pusa Sugandh 5 was recorded highest during both the years of study during 2015 and 2016 and was significantly superior to other four varieties. For the human and animal nutrition points of view, zinc fertilization in rice cultivars is an important cost-effective approach, reduces Zn malnutrition and it can save the life of millions of people in Asian countries.

4. SEUNG KYU LEE1 AND TRUONG AN DANG** [Water requirement for rice crops in the context of changing climate : A case study in the Long Xuyen Quadrangle, Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 595-604 (2017). 1Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University 19, Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, Dist. 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *(e-mail : leeseungkyu@tdt.edu.vn ; **dtan@hcmus.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

This paper is focused on water use aspects with the aim of : (1) calculating reference and actual evapotranspiration; (2) determining crop water requirement (CWR) and crop irrigation requirement (CIR); and (3) constructing efficient irrigation schedule (EIS) for three main crops, including winter-spring, summer-autumn, and autumn-winter using the Cropwat model based on monthly meteorological data recorded from 1984 to 2015. The results showed that winter-spring and summer-autumn harvest needed irrigation water approximately 8186 and 5830 m3/ha, respectively, while autumn-winter harvest needed approximately 2204 m3/ha. The lowest value of the reference evapotranspiration (ETc) was approximately 607.8 mm/crop occurred in autumn-winter crop, while the highest value 709.9 mm/crop occurred in summer-autumn crop. The highest IR of the winter-spring, summer-autumn crops occurred on development stage with net irrigation approximately 499.5 and 397.1 mm, respectively. While the autumn-winter crop occurred on both growth, development, and late stage with average net irrigation approximately 307 mm. The results obtained confirmed that the Cropwat model with meteorological and soil data as input variables was successfully applied to define actual evapotranspiration (ETo), ETC, CWR and EIS for three major crop seasons of rice in LXQ areas, Vietnam with reasonable accuracy.

5. MALVIKA SRIVASTAVA AND SWATI SHAHI* [Biochemical response of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive wheat cultivars to salinity]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 605-611 (2017). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory Department of Botany, D. D. U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : swatishahi06@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties KRL 1-4 and UP 2338 were tested in pot culture under different salinity regimes for their biochemical response. Three different levels of salinity (100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl) were used. Untreated plants were kept as control. Samples were analyzed from 20 DAS till 60 DAS for various biochemical parameters viz., proline content, total reducing sugar content, total nitrogen content and total protein content. Protein profiling through SDS-PAGE for both the cultivars of wheat was performed. The amount of proline and reducing sugar increased with increasing salinity, the increase being more in tolerant than in sensitive cultivar. Total nitrogen and total protein content, however, decreased with increasing salt concentration and reduction being more in sensitive than in tolerant cultivar. The changes in protein synthesis were determined as new synthesis, complete loss, increase and decrease.

6. SUDESH KUMAR*, P. K. SHARMA, YOGENDRA KUMAR, K. C. GUPTA, RANI SAXENA AND ABHA PARASHAR [Production potential of barley varieties as affected by time of sowing under changing climatic conditions in semi-arid eastern plain zone of Rajasthan]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 612-617 (2017). Division of Agronomy Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKNAU, Jobner), Durgapura-302 018, Jaipur (Raj.), India *(e-mail : sharmask35@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted consecutively for three years from rabi 2012-13 to 2014-15 at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur to find out the effect of dates of sowing on two and six-rowed barley varieties under changing climatic conditions in semi-arid eastern plain zone of Rajasthan. The experiment was conducted with four dates of sowing i. e. 26th Oct.-5th Nov. (D1), 6th-15th Nov. (D2), 16th-25th Nov. (D3) and 26th Nov.-5th Dec. (D4) and four barley varieties i. e. BH 902 & RD 2552 (six-rowed) and DWRUB 52 & RD 2668 (two-rowed). These treatment combinations were tested under split plot design with three replications. The data indicated that significantly higher grain and straw yields were obtained with early planting date i. e. 6th to 15th Nov. (D2) followed by 26th Oct. to 5th Nov. (D1) than that of late planting dates for all genotypes during all the years. Effective tillers/sq. m, 1000-grain weight and grains/spike were also higher in early planting date i. e. 6th to 15 Nov. (D2) than that of late planting date during all the years. Amongst the varieties, BH 902 & RD 2552 (six-rowed barley) gave significantly higher grain and straw yields during all the years as compared to DWRUB 64 & RD 2668 (two-rowed barley). Effective tillers/sq. m and grains/spike were also higher, while 1000-grain weight was lower with six-rowed barley during all the years as compared to two-rowed barley.

7. Adebayo Abidemi Ruth*, Akanbi Wasiu Babatunde, Olaniyi Joel Oyekunle and Kutu Funso Rapheal [Growth and yield attributes of soybean (Glycine max L.) in response to cassava peel compost and inorganic fertilizer]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 618-626 (2017). 1Department of Crop Science North-West University, Mafikeng Campus Private Bag X046, Mmabatho, South Africa *(e-mail : adebayoruth101@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke, Akintola University of Technology in Nigeria for the evaluation of soybean performance on the soil amended separately or in combination with cassava peel compost (CPC) and inorganic fertilizer applied. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Soybean growth parameters and yield were examined. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means compared using New Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% probability level. Soybean growth parameters and crop physiological indices were significantly influenced by applied treatments. Combined application of NPK and CPC performed better than sole inorganic fertilizer application. The stem height and girth, number of leaves per plant and leaf area (46.08 cm2) were all significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatments. The highest leaf area was obtained with 50 kg NPK/ha+3.5 t/ha CPC, while the least (22.04 cm2) was observed from control. The physiological indices of soybean were significantly influenced by applied treatments. Application of 100 kg NPK/ha+2.5 t/ha CPC gave highest net assimilation rate. It was concluded that combined application of 100 kg NPK/ha+2.5 t/ha CPC was sufficient for optimum growth and yield of soybean based on the condition of the soil used in the Southern guinea Savannah of Nigeria.

8. SAFWAN SHIYAB* [Evaluation of four genotypes of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) to phytoremediation of zinc]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 627-633 (2017). Horticulture and Crop Science Department The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan *(e-mail : safwan@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Phytoremediation refers to the technologies that use plants to clean up heavy metals and other toxic chemicals from contaminated environments. The main objective of this study was to assay the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5 and 1.0 g/l) of (ZnCl2) on four cultivars of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and to determinate the Zn concentration in roots and shoots after 91 days. Significant differences were observed in cultivars and plant parts; this appeared in fresh weight dry weight and plant height. Plant accumulates and antioxidative enzymes under zinc stress were evaluated. Indian mustard effectively generated an antioxidant enzymes defense system at higher zinc rates. Catalase–CAT, peroxidase–POD and superoxide dismutase–SOD were the most indices of zinc-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. The highest accumulation amount of zinc was found in the roots and low in shoots in all cultivars. The highest accumulation (805 mg/kg) of Zn was found in green cultivars. Zinc caused significant change in water content and cell structure in shoots and reduced the maximum cell density and a reduction in the number of spongy cells. All cultivars were able to accumulate and uptake significant amounts of Zn without severe symptoms of phytotoxicity when the metal concentrations were relatively moderate or low.

9. Nur Syuhadah Abdul Rahman, Nur Sakinah Ghazali and Zetty Norhana Balia Yusof* [Changes in the expressions of thiamine biosynthesis genes (THIC and THI1/THI4) in oil palm (Elaies guineensis) as response to salinity stress]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 634-641 (2017). Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : zettynorhana@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

Thiamine or also known as vitamin B1, it is the first water soluble B-complex vitamin to be identified which plays an important role as both cofactor and non-cofactor. Its active form, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is important as a cofactor for various types of enzymes involved in central metabolism. Besides that, thiamine has been shown to have a role in plant protection against stress. In this study, we investigated the expressions of the first two enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis pathway, THIC and THI1/THI4 when subjected to salinity stress induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) at various concentrations, namely, 0, 50, 150 and 200 mM. RT-PCR was conducted to amplify both gene transcripts and the intensities of the bands were analyzed by using the ImageJ software. Overall, there was an increase in expression for both THIC and THI1/THI4 gene transcripts upon stress application. For THIC, the highest level of expression was observed on day 7 for 50 mM NaCl treated oil palm seedling with an increase of up to 331%, while for THI1/THI4, the highest level of expression was 723% on day 3 when 200 mM NaCl was applied to the oil palm seedlings. These results obtained are in agreement with suggestions that thiamine plays an additional role in plant protection against stress as it may lead to an overexpression of thiamine in general.

10. Endang Dewi Murrinie*, Prapto Yudono, Azis Purwantoro and Endang Sulistyaningsih [Determination of physiological maturity of wood-apple [Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle] seed]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 642-649 (2017). Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University Flora Street Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia *(e-mail : dewi.murinie@umk.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

Wood-apple [Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle] is a fruit plant in the Rutaceae family with many uses. Wood-apple is usually propagated by using its seeds, but information about wood-apple seed quality is hardly available. One of the factors that determine the quality of the seeds is seed maturity. The maximum vigour of seed was achieved when the seeds reached physiological maturity. There was no information of wood-apple fruit harvest time related to seed physiological maturity. Therefore, the research on seed physiological maturity of wood-apple based on fruit age was conducted. Wood-apple fruits used for this study were taken from the village Dasun, district Lasem, Rembang, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of eight fruit age of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 months after anthesis and mature fruit exactly detached from the tree, hereinafter called the fallen mature fruit.The results showed that wood-apple seeds reached their physiological maturity when mature fruits exactly detached from the tree, or called the fallen mature fruit at the age of 8.25 to 8.75 months after anthesis. Physiological maturity of wood-apple seed was chracterized by the seed dry weight, germination percentage and seedling emergence percentage which had reached the maximum i. e. 0.0306 g, 97.71% and 96.67%, respectively. Conversely seed moisture content and electrical conductivity had reached the minimum 13.01% and 1.16 mS, respectively.

11. Pooja Bansal, Pawan Kaur, Surekha, Anil Kumar and Joginder Singh Duhan* [Microwave assisted quick synthesis method of silver nanoparticles using citrus hybrid “Kinnow” and its potential against early blight of tomato]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 650-655 (2017). Department of Biotechnology Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125 055 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : duhanjs68@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In present research work, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized using quick, economical method and possibilities of using nanoparticles against phytopathogens were evaluated. Silver NPs were synthesized by simple and quick, microwave assisted method using fruit peel extract of citrus hybrid “Kinnow”. Synthesized NPs were characterized using UV visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscope. Small sized, stable silver nanoparticles in the size range of 18-55 nm were synthesized. Antimicrobial activity against three phytopathogens i. e. Alternaria solani, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Botryodiplodia theobromae were studied and showed effective potential against all the fungal pathogens under in vitro conditions. Efficient control against early blight was observed during pot study preventing outbreak of disease in tomato plants.

12. Baninder Kaur Bains, Madhu Sharma and Shailesh Kumar Singh* [Quality regulation in banana through post-harvest treatment with ethylene and ethylene inhibitors]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 656-661 (2017). 1Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144 411 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : shailesh.19105@lpu.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Banana (Musa spp.) is a climacteric and perishable horticultural produce so post-harvest treatment with suitable chemicals like potassium permanganate and gibberellic acid is suitable for enhancing shelf-life, while ethylene treatment is done to bring uniform ripening. Post-harvest treatment of banana fingers with different concentrations of potassium permanganate, gibberellic acid and ethylene and analysis of shelf-life of treated fruits through titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and TSS content of fruit has been carried out during storage. The analysis revealed superiority of gibberellic acid and potassium permanganate as ethylene inhibitor and absorbent to improve storage life of banana fruits up to 18 days without loss of nutrient content below significant value.

13. Debashis Mandal*, E. Lalrinawmi, T. K. Hazarika and A. C. Shukla [Bilayer edible coating with chitosan and wax extended shelf life and maintained quality of tomatoes at ambient storage]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 662-667 (2017). Department of Horticulture Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University, Aizawl-796 004 (Mizoram), India *(e-mail : debashismandal1982@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Tomato, a widely consumed fruit vegetable rich in neutraceuticals, faced significant loss during ambient storage and chilling injury in refrigerated storage, which resulted in poor shelf life. Thus, the present experiment was conducted with red ripe tomato cv. Samrudhi to study the influence of chitosan (2%), wax and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC 3%), single or bilayer coating on shelf life and quality at ambient storage. Results showed that tomatoes coated with chitosan 2%+wax had minimum weight loss (4.57%) and fruit decay (9.58%), whereas TSS : acid ratio (13.66), ascorbic acid (15.28 mg/100 g), and lycopene (24.76 µg/g) contents were found reasonably high at 15 DAS compared to other treatments and caused average shelf life of 28.67 days. However, fruits coated with chitosan 2%+CMC 3% also had high shelf life (24.46 days) compared to control (15.25 days).

14. D. D. CHAUDHARI, V. J. PATEL, H. K. PATEL, AAKASH MISHRA, B. D. PATEL* AND D. J. PARMAR [Integrated control of complex weed flora in garlic]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 668-674 (2017). AICRP Weed Management Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bdpatel62@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to control the weeds in garlic, field experiment was carried out to study the integrated approaches to control the complex weed flora in garlic during rabi season of 2015. Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha PE and oxyfluorfen 0.223 kg/ha PE along with paddy straw mulch 5 t/ha were found effective in reducing density and dry biomass of monocot, dicot and total weeds and also registered higher bulb yield, net returns as well as B : C ratio as compared to other weed management practices.

15. F. R. Kutu* and S. M. Magongwa [Effect of pre-treatment and preservation methods on the nutritional quality of bitter gourd leaves from two different sources]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 675-682 (2017). 1Food Security and Safety Niche Area Research Group Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North West University (Mafikeng Campus), P/Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa *(e-mail : Funso.Kutu@nwu.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

The effects of pre-treatment and preservation methods on the mineral composition and nutritional quality of bitter gourd leaves harvested from the wild and around homestead were investigated. The pre-treatments consisted of 30 sec, 2 and 5 min immersion of leaves in boiling water followed by one of oven, sun or air-drying as preservation methods. Dried materials were subsequently milled and analyzed for mineral and nutritional values. Results revealed that the fat contents in both the samples were low and comparable. The mean fibre content in leaf samples from the wild was 11.63±2.11%, while that from the homestead was 8.81±1.64%. Elevated levels of protein content were obtained from both the sources; being significantly higher in the wild (29.01±3.81%) than from the homestead (24.73±1.84%) samples. The mineral composition of the samples showed highly marked variation across the different pre-treatment methods; with elevated level of iron and zinc. Immersion of leaf samples in boiling water for 30 sec, followed by oven drying as a preservation method resulted in a marginal increase in the mineral composition. These results underpin the relevance of indigenous knowledge practices by rural dwellers in the preservation of inherent nutritional values of important traditional vegetables for improved nutrition. There is an urgent need to ensure the conservation of this important indigenous vegetable crop through promoting increase cultivation at the level of small-scale farmers as a priority medicinal plant for nutritional security, income generation and the prevention of its extinction.

16. S. R. Kadam* and B. Fakrudin** [Marker assisted pyramiding of root volume QTLs to improve drought tolerance in rabi sorghum]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 683-692 (2017). Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-500 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sandepkadam15@gmail.com; **bfakrudin@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Root traits were targeted for improvement of drought tolerance in rabi sorghum through marker assisted backcrossing. Two stable QTLs, qRV3 and qRV10 for root volume from sorghum landrace, Basavanapada were chosen to pyramid into three recurrent backgrounds that were previously introgressed with three stay-green QTLs and one water use efficiency QTL viz., SPV86 qSTG + CID, SPV570 qSTG + CID and M35-1 qSTG + CID and two genotypes that were introgressed with three charcoal rot QTLs viz; M35-1qCR and SPV86qCR. The parental lines were surveyed for polymorphism assessment with 109 SSR markers. However, 12 markers that accounted for 11%, were polymorphic among the parents. The parental lines were crossed with Basavanapada as male parent and resulting F1s were subjected to hybridity confirmation by using SSR markers that were polymorphic among parents. At first level, the target markers conditioning the QTLs were screened among the backcross progenies to achieve the foreground selection, and at second level, selecting backcross progeny with the tightly-linked flanking markers to target QTLs (non-QTL region) was done, in order to minimize linkage drag – ‘recombinant selection’.

17. Maen Hasan* [SNP discovery in candidate genes for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and genotyping using high-resolution melting analysis]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 693-704 (2017). Department of Plant Production and Protection Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : maen_hasan@bau.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Drought is one of the major environmental factors negatively affecting cultivated crop species. Thirty-one candidate genes for drought tolerance in barley were selected using a literature survey. SNP discovery was performed by aligning the corresponding nucleotide sequences of each candidate gene and SNPs with a base change from A/T to C/G or vice versa were selected. Primer pairs were designed to flank the selected SNPs. Using HRM analysis, all these markers showed polymorphism among 10 examined cultivars. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value of SNP markers ranged from 0.164 to 0.5, with a mean value of 0.307. Genetic diversity analysis of the HRM-SNPs data using UPGMA clustering grouped the studied barley cultivars into two clusters according to their drought tolerance. The first cluster encompassed the seven drought-tolerant cultivars and the second cluster contained drought-susceptible cultivars. In conclusion, HRM analysis is an effective method for SNPs genotyping and gene-based SNPs are particularly attractive for candidate gene-based association analyses, QTL mapping and functional diversity.

18. Rahul K. Verma, S. K. Chetia, P. C. Dey, Vinay Sharma, A. R. Baruah and M. K. Modi* [Development of advanced breeding lines for high grain yield under drought stress in elite rice genetic background]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 705-710 (2017). Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : mkmodi@aau.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

The traditional drought tolerant cultivar ARC 10372 was crossed with a high yielding, drought susceptible elite rice variety Ranjit for the development of advanced breeding lines under drought stress. A total of 36 F2 plants carrying tolerant parent allele for the major grain yield QTL under drought stress (qDTY1.1) were identified using SSR marker RM 431 and RM 11943. These plants were selected to raise F2:3 population and evaluated for root and yield traits. The maximum root length ranged from 9 to 44 cm and 6 deep rooted F2:3 lines were selected under drought stress. Whereas only 4 F2:3 lines were selected on the basis of various yield traits under rainfed conditions. A total of 10 F2:4 lines consisting of 217 F4 plants were evaluated for yield traits under drought stress and irrigated condition. Higher broad-sense heritability for grain yield and its component traits was observed under drought stress conditions, therefore, used as a selection criterion. One F2:4 line (A-78) was selected on the basis of improved yield and grain quality traits under drought stress and may be used in the development of drought tolerant rice variety in elite genetic background.

19. T. S. Sreethy*, G. Roopa Lavanya, P. Arya and J. E. Jahagirdar [Genetic variability, trait association and path analysis of yield and yield components in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 711-717 (2017). 1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : shreethyps@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to study the extent of variability, interrelationship and direct and indirect effects of component characters on seed yield in greengram during the kharif 2016 for 12 quantitative characters. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all the characters studied, indicating sufficient variation among genotypes. The magnitude of genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation was high for primary branches per plant and clusters per plant, indicating the presence of sufficient variation in these traits. Clusters per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod, seed yield per plant, pod length, primary branches per plant, seed index, plant height, biological yield per plant and harvest index showed high heritability accompanied by high genetic advance, indicating that the heritability was due to additive gene effects and selection may be effective. Seed yield per plant exhibited significant positive correlation with pods per plant (0.982**), clusters per plant (0.977**), primary branches per plant (0.795**), harvest index (0.749**), seeds per pod (0.417**) and biological yield (0.315*) at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. The characters harvest index (0.748), biological yield (0.649), pods per plant (0.133), seeds per pod (0.095) and primary branches per plant (0.016) exhibited positive direct effect with seed yield. Harvest index and biological yield per plant exhibited high positive direct effect accompanied by significant positive correlation with seed yield. So, these characters can be used as selection criteria for yield improvement in greengram.

20. Mohammad Rafiq Wani* [High yielding mutants in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 718-721 (2017). Department of Botany Abdul Ahad Azad Memorial Degree College Bemina-Cluster University, Srinagar-190 018 (J. & K.), India *(e-mail : botanyrafiq@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of genetic variability for quantitative traits in M4 mutants of chickpea following mutagenesis with EMS and SA. A considerable increase in mean values for pod bearing branches per plant, pods per plant and yield per plant (g) was noticed among the isolated mutant lines. Increased pod bearing branches and pods significantly boosted the seed yield among the mutants. Estimates of genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance for yield and yield components were also recorded to be higher in the treated population. Increase in mean values coupled with an increase in genetic variability for yield contributing traits of these mutants suggests further possibilities of selecting more promising lines with high yield potential.

21. D. GAAD*, M. LAOUAR, S. M. UDUPA, K. McPHEE, F. HENKRAR and A. ABDELGUERFI [Diversity study of Algerian accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) by using microsatellite markers]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 722-727 (2017). 1Department of Phytotechnie National Height School of Agriculture, Algiers, Algeria *(e-mail : d.gaad@crbt.dz)

ABSTRACT

Lentil is one of the important pulse crops in Algeria. The narrow genetic base of local cultivars and the disappearance of many local accessions contribute to the loss of lentil biodiversity. Therefore, the study of genetic diversity is essential for preservation of existing local accessions of lentils. Twenty-seven accessions collected across different agro-ecological zones of Algeria, and three improved lines from ICARDA were evaluated using 14 simple sequence repeat markers (SSR). Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection for SSR analysis. The total number of alleles was 52, averaging 5.2 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 3 (SSR90, SSR83) to 9 (SSR202) and the polymorphic information content value varied from 0.40 to 0.85 with an average of 0.64. The frequency of the most common allele at each locus ranged from 17% (SSR202) to 71% (SSR28, SSR183). On the basis of the genetic similarity coefficients, cluster analysis revealed significant diversity among the genotypes and separated the accessions into four groups. Some Algerian accessions shared similar genetic backgrounds with the lines from ICARDA.

22. Ndirigwe Jean*, Rubaihayo Patrick, Tukamuhabwa Phinehas, Rukundo Placide, Agaba Rolland, Mwanga Robert, Bettina Heider, Grüneberg Wolfgang and Tumwegamire Silver [Genetic analysis of earliness and its components in yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 728-738 (2017). 1Department of Agricultural Production College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda *(e-mail : ndrick3@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp.) comprises three closely related cultivated species: P. ahipa grown locally in the Andean highlands, P. tuberosus grown throughout the Amazon Basin and P. erosus grown in Central America and Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine gene actions, combining ability and genetic parameters for earliness in F1 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus) hybrids under Rwandan East African highland conditions. Three P. ahipa accessions (early maturing, tropical highlands) as females and three accessions of P. tuberosus (late maturing and high yields) as males were crossed using a North Carolina II mating design. Evaluation of F1 progeny and their parents revealed highly significant differences among crosses. Significant (P<0.01) mean squares were recorded for female, male and interactions (female × male) for nearly all observed traits (the exception was number of roots, NR) : storage root yield (SRY), plant height (PH), number of clusters (NC), seed yield (SYP), days to emergence (DE), days to start flowering (BF), days to flowering 50% (DtF) and days to maturity (DM). The P. hybrids were observed for all earliness traits (i. e. DE, BF, DtF and DM). There were high and positive correlation coefficients between BF and NR (0.89), and BF and DtF (0.81). However, there were low to moderate positive correlations between SRY and BF (0.39); NR and PH (0.32); NC (0.59), SYP (0.36), and DtF (0.64); SYP and BF (0.61), DtF (0.64) and DM (0.63); DE and BF (0.34) and DM (0.49) and BF and DM (0.51). No strong negative correlations were observed. Low to medium negative correlations were observed between SRY and NC (-0.37), PH and DE (-0.39), and PH and DM (–0.37). Thus, it should be possible to recombine the earliness attribute from P. ahipa with SRY and SYP attributes of P. tuberosus in new F1 hybrid lines from which segregating populations will be developed in further studies.

23. J. T. MADAURE*, P. W. MASHELA AND D. DE WAELE [Responses of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae to cucurbitacin-containing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 739-744 (2017). Green Biotechnologies Research Center of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : jacquelinemadaure@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides have potent nematicidal effects on plant-parasitic nematodes, but their effects on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of cucurbitacin-containing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide on the viability (survival and mortality) of the EPN Steinernema feltiae. Infective juveniles (IJ) of S. feltiae were exposed to dilutions of the phytonematicide at 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0% for 24, 48 and 72 h. Survival and mortality of IJ over increasing concentrations of the test phytonematicide exhibited negative and positive quadratic relations, respectively. Since y-intercepts in mortality curves were higher than zero, observations were adjusted for corrected mortality and subjected to lines of the best fit. Corrected IJ mortality over increasing phytonematicide concentrations exhibited positive quadratic relations, with y-intercept being equivalent to zero. Infective juvenile survival and corrected mortality over increasing Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentrations exhibited quadratic relations, with survival relations explained by 93, 93 and 90% COD at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure durations, respectively. The optimum concentration for corrected IJ mortality and minimum concentration for IJ survival were almost equivalent. In conclusion, within the tested concentration ranges, the sensitivity of S. feltiae IJ to the phytonematicides was low as shown by the gradual increase in corrected IJ mortality and the gradual decrease in IJ survival, without intersection of the two curves.

24. Bakhytzhan Duisembekov*, Aizhan Chadinova and Ruslan Rakhimov [Technology of mass multiplication of cereal aphids (Schizaphis graminum) using an aeroponic plant and dilution of the bioagent aphidius (Aphidius matricariae)]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 745-750 (2017). 1Deputy Director for Science The Kazakh Research Institute for Plant Protection and Quarantine Kazybek bi 1 st., 050070, Almaty, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : a_sagitov@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

The results of research on the cultivation of fodder plants of barley and infection of plants with cereal aphids in the conditions of an aeroponics installation are given. The germination parameters are determined depending on the periodicity of the water supply of its volume and the mass of the seeds grown in the plant. In the conditions of the aeroponic plant, the reproduction of aphids is considered optimal if 5 individuals of phytophagous are released per barley plant. After seven days, the number of aphids increased to 42.5 individuals, while its high concentration was noted. When carrying out the infection of aphids propagated under the conditions of the aphids, the optimal parasite ratio : host = 1 : 60. The degree of infection of aphids (mummified) was 84.2% on this variant.

25. P. E. TSEKE* AND P. W. MASHELA [Sensitivities of nematode-inoculated tomato plants to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide from fresh Cucumis myriocarpus fruit]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 751-757 (2017). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : tsekepe@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Costs related to temperature-dependent drying and grinding equipment of Cucumis myriocarpus fruit for preparation of Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide could inherently restrict on-farm preparation of this product, particularly in resource-poor smallholder farming systems. The objective of this study was to determine the overall sensitivities of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants and nematodes to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide produced using fermented crude extracts of C. myriocarpus fresh fruit thereby establishing the feasibility of producing this product on-farm. Uniform five-week-old tomato cv. ‘Floradade’ seedlings were transplanted into plastic pots containing a growing mixture, with treatments 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64% Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide applied weekly on plants inoculated with 3000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2). At 56 days after initiating the treatments, plant and nematode variables were subjected to analysis of variance. Nematode variables over increasing log2 2-transformed concentrations were subjected to lines of the best fit. Nematodes versus increasing concentrations of phytonematicide exhibited negative quadratic relations, with the model for eggs and J2 in roots and soil being explained by 90 and 95% relations, respectively. Plant variables were subjected to the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) computer-based model to generate biological indices. The mean concentration stimulation point (MCSP = Dm + Rh/2) was computed 2.79%, with the overall sensitivity (k) of four units. In conclusion, Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide from fermented fresh fruit of C. myriocarpus could be used in managing population densities of Meloidogyne species in tomato production without inducing phytotoxity.

26. A. Ronil Kumar, B. K. Singh, A. K. Singh, D. P. Moharana* and R. P. Singh [Bioefficacy studies of new fungicidal formulations against Cercospora leaf spot and powdery mildew of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Punjab Guchhedar]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 758-761 (2017). Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : dpmhort03@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present experiment was conducted at the Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi during the Rabi season of 2016-17 to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides against Cercospora leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases of chilli cv. Punjab Guchhedar. A variant with no application of fungicides was used as a control. All fungicidal treatments reduced the disease severity as compared to the untreated control with a corresponding increase in yield. Application of Tebuconazole 430 SC (500 ml/ha) significantly reduced the diseases and ultimately recorded the highest yield (139.00 q/ha) followed by Tebuconazole 430 SC (440 ml/ha) with yield 137.39 q/ha. The overall results revealed that Tebuconazole 430 SC at both the concentrations (500 and 440 ml/ha) effectively reduced the disease severity and increased the yield as compared to untreated control.

27. Z. P. Dube* and K. G. Maleka [Efficacy of four botanicals (Tagetes minuta, Artemisia absinthium, Allium sativum and Carica papaya) against aphids in rape production]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 762-767 (2017). Department of Plant Production, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : zakheleni_dube@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Efficacy of Tagetes minuta, Artemisia absinthium, Allium sativum, Carica papaya was assessed against rape aphid, Bervicorye brassicae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Dimethoate (40 g/l) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. A completely randomized design was used for laboratory experiment and a randomized complete block design was used for field experiment. Relative to distilled water control, all botanicals reduced the aphid populations throughout the exposure periods, even though they had a lower impact compared to dimethoate, both under laboratory and field conditions. The aphid population reduction for T. minuta, A. absinthium, A. sativum and C. papaya was 50-56, 40-60, 33-40 and 10-20%, respectively, for laboratory experiments, whereas for field experiments there was 46-63, 66-72, 44-61 and 32-38% reduction, respectively. Dimethoate had significantly the highest aphid population reduction of 80-90% in the laboratory, whereas in the field it was not significantly different from T. minuta, A. absinthium and A. sativum. In conclusion, T. minuta, A. absinthium and A. sativa had the potential for serving as a phytoinsecticide against B. brassicae.

28. Zahra Javari and Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh* [Investigation of mineral nutrition of some basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) landraces grown in greenhouse condition]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 768-772 (2017). Department of Horticulture Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : h.asadi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an annual herb and one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants that are widely used in many fields. Basil is not only considered as a medicinal plant in all around the world, but also used in many countries as a leafy vegetable due to their dietary minerals. In this experiment, mineral nutrients of 14 different Ocimum basilicum landraces were investigated. Results of analysis of variance indicated that there were highly significant differences (P<0.01) among landraces for all measured mineral elements. The highest amount of phosphorous, iron and zinc was measured in ‘Dastgerd’, ‘Afghani’ and ‘Ardestan’ landraces, respectively. Meanwhile ‘Mashhad 1’ landraces had the lowest concentrations of potassium and manganese. The relative order of mineral nutrient in basil leaves was K > P > Fe > Zn > Mn. According to average concentration of P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn in studied landraces, it was estimated that consumption of basil landraces could provide about 3.35, 32.38, 17, 16.4 and 4.5% of the total RDA of these nutrients. Cluster analysis upon similarities and dissimilarities separated landraces in three groups. The clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 7, 4 and 3 landraces, respectively. In general, data obtained in this study emphasized that the basil could be a good source of mineral and supply mineral nutrient to the body. Also this variation can be used in breeding programme for improvement of quality traits of basil.

29. FARHANA ZAMAN* AND HISASHI KATO-NOGUCHI [Evaluation of allelopathic potentiality of Cyanotis axillaris (L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 773-778 (2017). Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan *(e-mail : fzamanbau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Cyanotis axillaris, an annual succulent weed in the family Commelinaceae, was taken in this experiment to explore its allelopathic potential as plant allelopathy is considered as a biological option to control weeds. The aqueous methanol extracts of C. axillaris were applied on the growth of four dicotyledonous (cress, lettuce, alfalfa and rapeseed), and four monocotyledonous (barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, timothy and foxtail fescue) test plant species at six different concentrations. The C. axillaris extracts inhibited the shoot and root growth of all test plant species, and such inhibition increased with increasing extract concentrations. Cress and lettuce showed complete growth inhibition at the concentration of 0.1 g dry weight equivalent extract/ml, whereas alfalfa, rapeseed, barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, timothy and foxtail fescue showed growth inhibition greater than 50% of the control growth. At a concentration of 0.3 g dry weight equivalent extract/ml of C. axillaris extracts, cress, lettuce, alfalfa and rapeseed showed complete growth inhibition and that inhibition was greater than 30% of the control growth for barnyard grass, Italian ryegrass, timothy and foxtail fescue. Comparing the required concentration for 50% growth inhibition, lettuce was more susceptible and timothy was less susceptible with the extracts. Results indicate that C. axillaris may have allelopathic activity and may contain growth inhibitory substances. Therefore, C. axillaris could be a potential candidate to develop environment-friendly bio-herbicides for weed control.

30. A. S. HALIMATUL*, N. M. KHAIRUN, H. H. MARDHATI and A. M. SYAFINIE [Growth performance and nitrogen uptake of Hibiscus cannabinus as influenced by controlled-release urea fertilizers on BRIS (Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales) soil]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 779-782 (2017). 1Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : halimatul81@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field trial was conducted to oversee the effects of controlled release urea (CRU) fertilizers on kenaf grown on the BRIS soil. Three types of formulated CRU were tested : (1) Meister-20, (2) CRU Duration Type V and (3) Uber-10 along with typical granular urea which acts as control set. Two rates of fertilizer at 300 and 600 kg N/ha were applied accordingly. Results demonstrated that the 300 kg N/ha fertilization was sufficient to ensure sufficient growth for sustainable kenaf production. The best CRU fertilizers, which were able to support the growth and nitrogen uptake of tested crop on the BRIS soil were : Meister-20> Duration Type V> Uber-10, respectively.

31. Chang Hoon Han, Seo-Yeon Hong, Heon-Hak Lee, Jong Seong Kang and Min-Ho Yoon* [Enhancement of 1-deoxynojirimycin content in leaf extracts of Morus alba L. by lactic acid bacteria fermentation]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 783-788 (2017). 1Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 31431, Korea *(e-mail : mhyoon@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The -glucosidase inhibitor plays a key role to control postprandial blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is the main -glucosidase inhibitor in mulberry (Morus alba L.). Mulberry leaf was extracted with 30% ethanol and the extracts were fermented using seven kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) in order to increase the contents of DNJ in the leaf extracts. The DNJ content of Lactobacillus acidophilus among LABs examined in this study was the highest to 21.77 µg/ml and appeared to be about 2.5 times higher than 8.38 µg/ml of non-fermented control. All of the fermented mulberry leaf extracts appeared to enhance a certain degree of -glucosidase inhibitory activity and the IC50 values against -glucosidase, compared to the non-fermented extract. Among LABs, L. casei KCTC 3109 (Inhibition = 43.83% ± 0.98%, IC50=290.06 µg/ml) showed more remarkable inhibitory effects than the non-fermented control (30.78%±1.89%, IC50=429.80 µg/ml). Furthermore, dose-dependent inhibition of the extract showed a significant level of inhibitory effects within only the range of 1 mg/ml concentration. The results suggest that the fermentation method with LABs can enhance the increase of the contents of hypoglycemic constituents such as DNJ on ethanol extracts of mulberry leaves.

32. Shishir Kumar* and Wilson Kispotta [Impact of frontline demonstrations on Indian mustard through improved technology]. Res. on Crops 18 (4) : 789-793 (2017). Directorate of Extension Sam Higginbottom University of Agricultural Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211 007 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : shishir.agro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is a major oilseed crop of Uttar Pradesh. It is also one of the important oilseed crops of eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, its productivity is very low in the district of eastern Uttar Pradesh compared to other districts of Uttar Pradesh. The Directorate of Extension, SHUATS, Allahabad carried out 21 frontline demonstrations on Indian mustard covering an area of 7 ha of farmers’ field in seven districts (Allahabad, Kaushambi, Fatehpur, Pratapgarh, Mirzapur, Sonebhadra and Bhadohi) in 2015 and 2016 to exhibit latest production technologies and compared it with farmers’ practice. An attempt was also made to know the productivity of frontline demonstrations and the adoption of latest production technologies by the 21 FLD farmers and 21 non-FLD farmers. FLD farmers and non-FLD farmers were randomly selected from FLD villages. The results were compared between FLD plots and control plots. The results revealed that improved technologies of mustard enhanced yield from 14.32 to 18.62 q/ha in frontline demonstrations. The percentage of increase in yield ranged from 17.77 to 31.14. The extension and technology gaps were recorded ranging between 2.68-3.77 and 1.38-5.68 q/ha, respectively. The technology index ranged from 6.90 to 22.40%. The results indicated that the FLD was effective in changing attitude, knowledge and adoption of improved technologies of mustard and ultimately in obtaining sustained income.

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