Volume 18, No. 3 (September, 2017)

By | October 12, 2017

1. SHAUKAT ALI*, A. M. PATEL, SANGEETA SHARMA, B. L. YADAV AND JITENDRA SINGH [Management of cropping systems for resource conservation]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 401-408 (2017). Department of Agronomy S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : shaukatagro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soils of Agronomy Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) during the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 to study the management of cropping systems for resource conservation. Cotton-summer pearl millet cropping system was found significantly superior by recording higher pearl millet equivalent yield, gross returns, net returns, BCR and economic efficiency, while production efficiency was found the highest under greengram-mustard-summer pearl millet cropping system. Residue incorporation secured top position by recording significantly the highest pearl millet equivalent yield, gross returns, net returns, BCR, production efficiency and economic efficiency. The application of 75% RDN through inorganic fertilizer+25% RDN through FYM recorded significantly the highest pearl millet equivalent yield, gross returns, net returns, production efficiency and economic efficiency. In the case of BCR, 100% RDN through inorganic fertilizer was found significantly superior.

2. Alekh Sharma*, Shiv Vendra Singh, Avinash Patel and R. A. Yadav [Growth and yield of scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by integrated nutrient management practices]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 409-414 (2017). Department of Agronomy Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : alekhupc1991@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U. P.), India during kharif season of 2015-16 to evaluate the effect of different integrated nutrient management practices against organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments on growth and yield of scented rice. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with seven treatments of integrated nutrient managements viz., T1–50% recommended NPK+50% N as FYM+5 kg zinc/ha, T2–Recommended N each equivalent to 1/3rd of total N as FYM, vermicompost and neemcake, T3–100% N as FYM+5 kg Zn/ha, (T4) T2+hand weeding+Neem based biopesticide, T5–50% N as FYM+seed treatment with Azotobacter and PSB, T6–T2+grain treatment with Azotobacter and PSB and T7–100% NPK+5 kg Zn/ha, each treatment was replicated thrice. The growth parameters like plant height, leaf area index, number of tillers and dry matter accumulation were found highest under the T1 which was found to be at par with T3 and T7, while significantly superior over rest of the treatments. Grain yield (q/ha) was found maximum under T1 which was at par with T3, T6 and T7, while in case of straw yield (q/ha) it was only at par with T3 and T7 and significantly superior over rest of the treatments.

3. B. L. THAWARE*, S. S. KARANDE, J. S. DHAKALE, S. G. BHAVE AND M. M. BURONDKAR [Genotype × environment interaction in rabi season rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 415-419 (2017). Department of Agricultural Botany College of Agriculture, Dapoli-415 712, District Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : blthaware@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield and some related characters was studied in 54 genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications at three locations during rabi (dry) season 2013-14. Significant G x E interaction was observed for all the characters studied. The genotypes EC-723536, EC-723545, EC-723526 and EC-723512 were found to be well adapted to all the three environments under study.

4. WEIQIANG JIA, OK JAE WON, KEE WOONG PARK* AND JEUNG JU LEE** [Efficacy of glufosinate-ammonium to control annual and perennial weeds on the ridges of paddy fields]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 420-423 (2017). 1Department of Crop Science Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea *(e-mail : parkkw@cnu.ac.kr; ** jeunglee@gnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxicity of glufosinate-ammonium in controlling annual and perennial weeds on paddy ridges. Glufosinate-ammonium SL (900 g a. i./ha) and glufosinate-ammonium ME (600 g a. i./ha) mixed with fluthiacet-methyl (10 g a. i./ha) were tested in the field experiments. Five annual weed species, Glycine soja, Erigeron canadensis, Disitaria ciliaris, Poa annua and Echinochloa utilis, and four perennial weed species Elymus tsukushensis, Taraxacum platycarpum, Equisetum arvense and Artemisia princeps were identified on the paddy ridges. The results of this experiment indicated that these annual and perennial weeds could be effectively controlled by both the herbicides. Application of these herbicides did not negatively affect the number of tillers and plant height of rice grown near the treated paddy ridges. Therefore, it can be concluded that the non-selective glufosinate-ammonium can provide an effective control of weeds on the paddy ridges if application is properly made.

5. VINOD B. MOR*, A. M. PATEL AND A. N. CHAUDHARY [Yield and nutrient content influenced by nitrogen levels and its split application of bread wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) Emend. Fiori & Paol.]]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 424-432 (2017). Agronomy Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Banaskantha-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : vinu.pln@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) during the rabi season of the years 2013-14 and 2014-15. The experiment consisted of 14 treatment combinations comprising two levels of nitrogen and seven split applications of nitrogen, and conducted in RBD with factorial concept with three replications. The soil of the experimental field was loamy sand in texture, very low in organic carbon and available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus and potash. Significantly higher grain yield (4572 kg/ha) was recorded when crop was fertilized with 160 kg N/ha. Application of 160 kg N/ha recorded higher value in respect to nitrogen content in grain (2.021%) and in respect to only uptake of nitrogen (92.40 kg/ha), phosphorus (18.97 kg/ha) and potassium (69.89 kg/ha) by grain only nitrogen uptake by straw (28.42 kg/ha). Grain yield (4964 kg/ha) and straw yield (5792 kg/ha) was significantly higher when nitrogen was applied as 50% at sowing, 25% at CRI stage and 25% at 1st node stage. Nitrogen content in wheat grain (1.953%) and straw (0.550%) was significantly higher with treatment S7. Nitrogen uptake by grain (95.54 kg/ha), phosphorus uptake by grain (20.92 kg/ha) and straw (1.334 kg/ha) and potassium uptake by grain (75.97 kg/ha) and straw (24.90 kg/ha) were significantly higher when nitrogen was applied as 50% at sowing, 25% at CRI stage and 25% at 1st node stage. In case of nitrogen uptake by straw yield (30.90 kg/ha), it was higher under treatment S5. Significantly, the highest available nitrogen in soil after harvest of crop was recorded in treatment S7.

6. B. D. PATEL*, D. D. CHAUDHARI, V. J. PATEL, H. K. PATEL, AAKASH MISHRA AND D. J. PARMAR [Influence of broad spectrum herbicides on yield and complex weed flora of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 433-437 (2017). AICRP–Weed Management Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bdpatel62@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out during rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 on sandy loan soil at AICRP–WM farm, AAU, Anand to access the bio-efficacy and economics of premix broad spectrum herbicides for control of complex weed flora in wheat. Significantly lower weed density, dry biomass of weeds and higher grain and straw yields as well as net returns were achieved with application of pre-mix sulfosulfuron (75%)+metsulfuron methyl (5% WG) @ 32 g/ha POE, clodinafop (15%)+metsulfuron methyl (1% WP) @ 64 g/ha PoE and mesosulfuron (3%)+iodosulfuron methyl sodium (0.6% WDG) @ 14.4 g/ha PoE as compared to rest of the treatments. However, mesosulfuron (3%)+iodosulfuron methyl sodium (0.6% WDG) @ 14.4 g/ha PoE showed phytotoxic effect on wheat at seven days after application.

7. S. K. VERMA, S. K. PRASAD, SUSHIL KUMAR*, S. B. SINGH, RAVI PRAKASH SINGH AND Y. V. SINGH [Effect of mulching and herbicides on weeds, yield and economics of greengram (Vigna radiata L.) grown under eight-year old agri-horti system]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 438-443 (2017). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : sushilangrau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment with the objectives to understand the effect of mulching and herbicides on weed infestation and greengram yield involving two factors viz., mulching (no mulching, dust mulching and paddy straw mulching) and herbicidal treatments (weedy check, hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after sowing, pendimethalin pre-emergence @1000 g/ha, imazethapyr post-emergence @ 100 g/ha, and pendimethalin pre-emergence @ 1000 g/ha followed by imazethapyr post-emergence @ 100 g/ha) was undertaken in split-plot design with three replications at South Campus, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Results revealed that dust mulching and sequential application of pendimethalin followed by imazethapyr recorded lower weed density, weed dry weight, nutrients depletion by weed and maximum crop yield as well as net returns over rest of the mulching and herbicidal treatments. Therefore, it is suggested that the combination of mulching and herbicides may be used for effective weed management and optimal yield of greengram under agri-horti system.

8. Govind Kumar Nagar*, L. N. Dashora and Chandra Shekhar Suman [Response of soybean to microbial inoculation and sulphur on nutrient uptake, quality and economics]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 444-447 (2017). Department of Agronomy Rajasthan College of Agriculture (MPUA&T) Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : govindnagar1540@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during kharif 2015 to assess the response of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] to microbial inoculation and sulphur. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications and consisted treatments viz., microbial inoculation (Control, Rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Rhizobium+phosphate solubilizing bacteria) and four levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S/ha). The results revealed that microbial inoculation and sulphur significantly increased the nutrient content and uptake in N, P and K and quality viz., oil content and yield, protein content and yield over control.

9. Brijesh Kumar, Vivek Yadav, Naleeni Ramawat and Kuldeep Singh* [Mitigating zinc deficiency through integration of agronomic biofortification for achieving high zinc wheat grain in northern states of India]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 448-456 (2017) *(e-mail : ksingh6@amity.edu)

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five field experiments on wheat as test crop were conducted across four northern states of India viz., Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to investigate the effect of soil and foliar applications of zinc (Zn) on wheat grain yield and grain Zn concentration. Experimental design was complete randomized block design with three replicates. Wheat crop was grown under three different Zn application rates as follows : (i) Control (no Zn application), (ii) Soil Zn application, and (iii) Foliar Zn application. The soil Zn treatment consisted of 50 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha applied to the soil before sowing of wheat. The foliar Zn treatment, a 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of ZnSO4.7H2O was realized two times i. e. first at anthesis or heading and the second one at early milk stage of wheat crop. Results showed that the application of Zn fertilizer in soil increased grain yield of wheat significantly over control at 23 locations during both the years. However, the effect of foliar Zn fertilizer on grain yield was quite less effective. The foliar Zn application resulted in significant increment in grain Zn concentration over control at all locations. In particular, soil Zn application markedly increased grain yield and slightly less content of grain Zn over foliar Zn application. However, foliar application of Zn at specific stages was an important agronomic practice for the farmers to enhance wheat grains with zinc to mitigate hidden hunger. In conclusion, agronomic biofortification was found to be most suitable for both optimum grain yield and grain biofortification of wheat to combat Zn deficiency.

10. Valentina G. Chernenok*, Akhylbek K. Kurishbayev, Arseniy B. Kudashev and Erbol T. Nurmanov [Diagnostics and optimization of crops’ nitrogen nutrition in dryland conditions of northern Kazakhstan]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 457-461 (2017). Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry S. Seifullin Kazakh AgroTechnical University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan *(e-mail : chernenok2@mail.ru)

ABSTRACT

Northern Kazakhstan is the main grain-producing region in the Republic of Kazakhstan. This paper presents a brief characteristic of soil climatic conditions and the results of long-term studies (n=600) on the diagnostics and optimization of the conditions of crops’ nitrogen nutrition under insufficient and unstable moistening, which is typical for dryland Northern Kazakhstan. The methodological approach to the evaluation of the soil nitrogen state and the supply of nitrogen to crops were explicated. A new method of determining the need for nitrogen fertilizers and calculating their dose calculation was offered. The method was based on identification of the main factors of soil fertility that determine the efficiency of crops and the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers. On the basis of the correlation analysis, the quantitative correlation between the factors and the efficiency of crops was determined. The optimal parameters of nitrogen content in the soil, which provide for the maximum efficiency of crops, and ways of achieving such parameters were presented. The developed method allowed purposefully managing the soil nitrogen regime, with a view to optimizing nutrition and realizing the full potential of crops.

11. S. G. Bharad*, P. K. Nagre, V. S. Kale, S. V. Gholap, U. A. Raut and Kuntal Satkar [Effect of planting densities on growth, yield and quality of guava cv. L-49 under semi-arid climatic conditions of Vidarbha, Maharashtra, India]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 462-467 (2017). Department of Horticulture, Post Graduate Institute Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : sg.bharad@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Population growth and consequent demand for more food have encouraged the search for innovative methods of production that can obtain higher sustainable yields. One of such method is high density planting which has been well appreciated in guava as there is scope for doubling the crop from the unit area. Keeping this scenario in view, an investigation on optimization of plant density in guava was conducted at Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during 2011-15 to evaluate the effect of different planting densities on growth, yield and quality of guava under Vidarbha conditions. The rooted layers of commercial cultivar of guava L-49 were planted according to different spacings at the distance 2.0 × 1.0, 3.0 × 1.5, 3.0 × 2.0, 4.0 × 2.0, 4.0 × 3.0, 4.0 × 4.0, 5.0 × 5.0 and 6.0 × 6.0 m in 2009 in a randomized block design in three replications. From the four years pooled mean, significant variations were observed on the plant growth. Maximum plant volume (21.47 m3) was recorded at planting distance (6 x 6 m). The maximum canopy spread (3.73 m) was observed at planting distance of 5 x 5 m. Yield per plant was highest (17.56 kg/plant) also recorded from the tree planted at distance 5 x 5 m, while fruit yield per unit area was maximum (26.19 t/ha) from the planting distance of 3 x 1.5 m. Similarly, fruit physio-chemical properties were significantly influenced by different planting densities.

12. Pritikana Basumatary*, B. D. Narzary, Deepa B. Phookan and Anjali Basumatary [Combined effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron on yield and quality of broccoli [Brassica oleraceae (L.) var. italica]]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 468-471 (2017). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : pritikona39@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm and in the laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron on yield and quality of broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) var. italica]. A total of 15 treatment combinations, including three levels of fertilizers i. e. NPK (100% recommended dose of NPK, 75% recommended dose of NPK and 50% recommended dose of NPK) and four levels of boron (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kg B/ha) were laid out in a split plot design with four replications. Experiment revealed that plant yield and quality characters were significantly influenced by NPK, boron and their interaction. It was observed that out of the three fertilizer effects i. e. F1, F2 and F3, the highest head diameter, head weight, total yield (19.29 t/ha), protein, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, leaf and soil NPK and boron were obtained in F1 (100% Recommended dose of NPK). Regarding the boron effect, B4 (2.0 kg B/ha) exhibited the highest head diameter, head weight, total yield (20.73 t/ha), protein, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, leaf and soil NPK. Among the interaction effects of NPK and boron, the yield and quality characters like the highest head diameter, head weight, total yield (25.37 t/ha), protein, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, leaf and soil NPK and boron were recorded in fertilizer F1 with boron (B4) combination. Thus, it can be suggested that the application of 200 kg N, 80 kg P2O5, 60 kg K2O and 2 kg B/ha was found to be suitable for profitable cultivation of broccoli with optimum quality under the agro-climatic conditions of Assam.

13. Alireza Bahadorani, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh* and Nematallah Etemadi [Effects of post-harvest treatments of eucalyptus and lemon extracts on qualitative characteristics of gerbera cut flowers]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 472-476 (2017). 1Department of Horticulture Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : h.asadi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) is one of the most important cut flowers in the world because it has unique shapes and beautiful colours. Quality and vase life of gerbera cut flowers as one of the best-selling cut flowers in the world are really important. In order to evaluate the effects of post-harvest treatments on qualitative specifics of gerbera cut flowers (Stanza cv.), this research was carried out in research greenhouses of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments and four replications. Treatments included control, lemon extract (6, 12 and 18 ppm), eucalyptus extract (25, 50 and 75 ppm) and nanosilver (0.5, 1 and 2 ppm). Results showed that the lowest stem length and water content belonged to control group. The highest water content, fresh weight, vase life and anthocyanin amount were obtained by 75 ppm of eucalyptus extract and 2 ppm of nanosilver. Also, the largest flowers were observed in all amounts of nanosilver and 50 and 750 ppm concentrations of eucalyptus extract. On the whole, application of nanosilver and eucalyptus extracts improved the quality and stability of gerbera cut flowers.

14. PADMA LAY* AND A. K. RAZDAN [Genetic divergence in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 477-480 (2017). Division of Genetics & Plant Breeding Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST-J) Chatha-180 009, Jammu (J & K), India *(e-mail : tu_amie2005@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken during kharif 2014 to investigate the genetic diversity among germplasm of maize and to screen out diversified parent to develop hybrids with high yield potential. Genetic divergences among 50 genotypes of maize inbred lines were estimated by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. The genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Cluster I had maximum number of genotypes (16) indicating genetic similarity among them followed by cluster V (9 genotypes), cluster VI (7 genotypes), cluster IV (6 genotypes), cluster II (5 genotypes), cluster VII (4 genotypes), cluster VIII (2 genotypes) and cluster III comprised only one genotype. The inter-cluster distances were larger than the intra-cluster distances suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups. The highest inter-cluster distance of 1072.856 between clusters I and VIII, followed by clusters III and VI (789.875) suggesting more variability in genetic makeup of the genotypes included in these clusters. The mean maximum grain yield of cluster II was (91.69 g) followed by cluster VII (88.79). The maximum intra-cluster distance was for cluster VI (186.660), followed by cluster VII (161.349), cluster 1 (139.75), cluster VIII (123.457), cluster IV (120.979) and cluster V (120.492).

15. MASUM BILLAH, M. A. LATIF, NEELIMA HOSSAIN AND M. SHALIM UDDIN* [Evaluation and selection of salt tolerant hybrid maize under hydroponics culture]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 481-489 (2017). 1Molecular Breeding Lab, Plant Breeding Division Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh *(e-mail : shalimuddin@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Salinity is one of the principal challenges that hinders agricultural productivity in salt affected zones of the world including the southern part of Bangladesh. Recently, hybrid maize has been introduced in the cropping systems of the southern part of Bangladesh to increase cropping intensity and productivity. However, the aim of the study to find out tolerant genotypes for that reason, a study with 29 commercial maize hybrids was screened against salinity in a hydroponic culture using Hoagland solution via a split-plot design with two salinity levels (Control and 12 dS/m) and three replications. Ten days old maize seedlings were transplanted to hydroponic pots where they received salinity treatment for 18 days and the data were collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant of all genotypes and highly significant of treatment for maximum root and shoot length, leaf area, shoot dry weight and total dry matter. Genotype by traits biplot indicated that SPAD values, number of green leaves, maximum shoot length, leaf area, shoot dry weight and total dry matter were the respectable factors for selection of superior germplasm. All parameters using under study of seedling decreased under salt treatment except chlorophyll content of some genotypes showed higher SPAD value over control. Cluster analysis placed the 29 hybrids into five main groups among those clusters, group three showed the highest number of relative mean values for number of green leaves, maximum shoot length, leaf area, shoot dry weight and total dry matter. Based on the analysis, proline was the most tolerant hybrid after that 9120-paloan, kaveri-25 KCO and very susceptible genotypes were Heera, Raza and Karehi-50.

16. P. V. Matti*, Shekharappa, R. A. Balikai and V. B. Naragund [Development of forewarning models for shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani and its validation based on abiotic factors in resistant variety M-35-1 in rabi sorghum]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 490-496 (2017). 1Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : poornimamatti@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Forewarn studies were undertaken on the weather based relationship of sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata during rabi 2011-12 and 2012-13 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad in early, normal and late sown conditions. Resistant variety M-35-1 was selected and attempt was made to determine the relationship of egg load with weather factors. Seasonal incidence of shoot fly eggs per plant in case of M-35-1 was noticed from 44th standard week, it attained maximum level (1.95±0.37) eggs per plant during 46th standard week. Maximum per cent deadheart (31.75±1.03) was noticed in late planting in M-35-1 followed by normal and least in early sown crop. The analysis comprised correlations between the deadheart with prevailing weekly meteorological parameters during 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks lead time (prior) and same week of the observations. Results indicated that increase in 1 day rainfall would lead to decrease mean number of shoot fly eggs per plant in early own crop. Forecast models for M-35-1 in all the aforesaid correlated weeks, evening RH (4 weeks before) was consistently significant and negative association with deadhearts with 64.40% in early sown crop. However, in M-35-1, per cent deadheart could be forewarned to the extent of 71.60% accuracy as minimum temperature was highly significant and positively correlated in late sown crop. No significant influence was observed in normal sown crop.

17. Thanh M. Nguyen*, Senaratne L. Ranamukhaarachchi AND Phuc D. A. Nguyen [Pesticide use and health hazards among small-scale commercial vegetable growers in the central highland region of Vietnam]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 497-507 (2017). 1Faculty of Applied Sciences Ton Duc Thang University, No. 19, Nguyen Huu Tho Street Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *(e-mail : nguyenmaithanh@tdt.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Pesticides are widely used to control insect-pests and diseases in vegetable production in Vietnam. There is increasing concern on the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. This study, a questionnaire-based survey, was conducted to investigate pesticide use and pest management practices in vegetable production, and related socio-economic status and health issues. Results revealed that vegetable production in Vietnam was male-dominated, and its economy encouraged use of pesticides (78%). Pesticides were extensively used with insecticides (35%), fungicides (32%) and herbicides (33%). Frequently pesticides were mixed and applied (90%) to synergize the effect. The frequency of pesticide applications was high and the highlighted pre-harvest interval appeared not respected. Many types of pesticides used belonged to highly toxic pesticides (WHO class II) such as cypermethrin, permethrin, cartap, imidacloprid, copper hydroxide and paraquat. Inadequate safety measures and knowledge were key weaknesses. Various health problems, such as headache, eye and nose irritations, dizziness, and nausea were common among the growers. In order to alleviate issues connected with pesticides, farmer education on pesticide based and non-pesticide based as well as the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices for reducing pesticide-use needs to be swiftly strengthened.

18. P. W. Mashela* and K. M. Pofu [Degree of nematode resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in Artemisia afra ethnomedicinal plant]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 508-512 (2017). 1Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : phatu.mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Attempts are underway to cultivate Artemisia afra as an alternative crop due to its medicinal properties which span all 10 international medicinal systems. However, most crop-related developmental projects had not been successful due to the widespread distribution of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes, which had a wide host range. The objective of this study was to determine the host-status and host-sensitivity of A. afra to M. incognita race 2 was determined at six levels of inoculation in a pot trial. At 56 days after inoculation, treatments were highly significant on reproductive factor (RF) and root galls, contributing 87 and 89% in total treatment variation of the respective variables. At lower inoculation (Pi75 eggs and second-stage juveniles), RF values were above unity, whereas at moderate (Pi 250-500) and high (Pi1125) inoculation levels, RF values were less than unity. Gall rating at all inoculation levels ranged from 1 to 2 on the North Carolina Differential Scale, whereas M. incognita race 2 infection had no significant effects on growth of A. afra. In conclusion, A. afra had attributes of plant tolerance to infection by population of M. incognita race 2.

19. P. W. Mashela* and K. M. Pofu [Nematode resistance to tropical Meloidogyne species in Moringa oleifera]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 513-517 (2017). 1Green Biotechnologies Research Centre, University of Limpopo Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : phatu.mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Attempts are underway to cultivate Moringa oleifera Lam. in tropical areas as a developmental crop due to its nutritional, pharmacological and industrial applications. However, the success of developmental-plant-related projects depends on the degree of nematode resistance in the introduced plants to the tropical root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of nematode resistance in M. oleifera seedlings to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica under greenhouse conditions. Two parallel experiments were conducted, with seedlings in each inoculated with a series of different nematode species. At 56 days after inoculation, the M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica reproductive factor (RF) values ranged from 0-0.34 and 0.01-0.42, respectively. Nematode infection did not have any effect on plant growth variables. In conclusion, M. oleifera was resistant to population densities of tropical Moloidogyne species in South Africa.

20. R. V. Mathabatha*, P. W. Mashela and M. N. Mokgalong [Non-phytotoxic concentration of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and the overall sensitivities to Swingle citrumelo seedling rootstock]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 518-522 (2017). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre, University of Limpopo Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, Republic of South Africa *(e-mail : raesibevivyat@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides contain cucurbitacins A and B active ingredients, respectively. The major drawback of the two products had been their phytotoxicity to various crops, which was resolved using the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) computer-based model, which also provided overall sensitivities (k) of the plant to the test phytonematicides. Two of the seven biological indices were adapted to provide the non-phytotoxic concentration, technically referred to as the Mean Concentration Stimulation Point (MCSP) – which is product-specific and crop-specific. The objective of this study was to determine MCSP of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on Swingle citrumelo seedling rootstock and the related k of the rootstock to the phytonematicides. Six-months-old seedlings were subjected on weekly basis to 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64% for each phytonematicide. At 84 days after the treatments, MCSP values for Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides on seedlings were 2.97 and 5.6%, with k values of 3 and 2 units, respectively. In conclusion, both phytonematicides had MCSP and k values which suggested that the two products would be suitable for use on Swingle citrumelo seedling rootstock as a supplement for managing nematode population densities in citrus production.

21. Phatu W. Mashela*, Kgabo M. Pofu and Jacqueline T. Madaure [Responses of the citrus nematode population densities post-application of Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide and aldicarb synthetic nematicide]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 523-527 (2017). 1University of Limpopo Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, Republic of South Africa *(e-mail : phatu.mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Density-dependent growth patterns suggested that under phytonematicides population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes could either be stimulated, neutral or inhibited, thereby resulting in ‘inconsistent results’ concept. The objective of this study was to determine whether post-application sampling of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb) population densities under untreated control, Nemarioc-AG phytonematicide and aldicarb on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) seedlings could provide quantitative evidence of ‘inconsistent results’. Uniform three-month old C. jambhiri seedlings in plastic pots containing 2700 ml growing mixture were each inoculated with 10000 T. semipenetrans eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2). A week after inoculation, seedlings were split into three groups of seventy each and subjected to once-off treatment of untreated control, 2 g Nemarioc-AG phytonematicide and 2 g aldicarb. Five seedlings from each group were randomly placed on greenhouse benches to serve as a sampling block, with a total of 14 blocks. The entire block was sampled on a weekly basis and assessed for final nematode population density (Pf). After the final assessment, Pf under untreated control over increasing sampling intervals exhibited positive quadratic relations, with the model explaining 90% associations, with optimum Pf of 13804 eggs and J2 at six weeks post-application. In contrast, Pf over increasing sampling intervals under phytonematicide and aldicarb exhibited negative quadratic relations, with the model explaining 95 and 92% associations, respectively. The two had minimum Pf at 974 eggs and J2 and 2205 eggs and J2, respectively, each at approximately six weeks. In conclusion, opposite temporal cyclic nematode population growth patterns post-application of nematicidal products and untreated control provided empirically-based evidence of ‘inconsistent results’ in nematode management under phytonematicides.

22. RUPINDER SINGH*, A. MAHMOUDPOUR, M. RAJKUMAR AND R. NARAYANA [A review on stripe rust of wheat, its spread, identification and management at field level]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 528-533 (2017). 1Department of Agriculture Government of Jammu & Kashmir, India *(e-mail : roop0071@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Wheat is the major staple food of India and is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%. India was the second largest wheat producing country in the world after China with production level of 95.85 m during the year 2014. India’s share in global wheat production was recorded at 11.78% in the year 2015-16. The production can further be enhanced from the current levels by minimizing the yield losses owing to diseases. In recent years, stripe rust has emerged as a major threat to wheat crop due to emergence of new pathogen variants. Stripe rust also known as yellow rust of wheat is caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide as well as amongst the most studied of the plant diseases. This review describes its spread, identification and management in wheat crop. In the recent years, new races of stripe rust have been emerged and its incidence has increased to such an extent that many high yielding varieties which were found to be susceptible to yellow rust have been replaced by new resistant varieties. Although stripe rust has mainly been endemic only in cool climate regions but lately it has also spread to areas previously unaffected. Efforts have been carried out worldwide to minimize the losses and to develop new varieties that can confer resistance to yellow rust.

23. Mehdi Sadeghi-Shoae*, Dariush Fathollah Taleghani and Davood Habibi [Feasibility study of winter sowing of sugar beet genotypes in Moghan region]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 534-540 (2017). 1Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : m.sadeghishoae@areeo.ac.ir ; Mehdi.sadeghi-shoae@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed in order to find out the feasibility of winter sowing and identifying resistant genotypes to bolting in Moghan during 2011-12. In this study, 25 genotypes were evaluated as a completely randomized block design with four replications in Moghan region, Iran. The measured characters were flowering stem percentage, root yield, sucrose content, sodium, potassium, harmful nitrogen content, basicity coefficient, molasses sugar, gross sugar yield, extractable white sugar, white sugar yield and extraction coefficient. There were significant differences between genotypes in the measured traits. Bolting phenomenon was not observed in Superma, Azba, Luante, Giada, HI 1114, ST 12038, Chimne and Munatono cultivars but HI 1059 and (FC607*474)*Pool-PC.F2-HSF60-P.3 genotypes showed the highest bolting percentage (61.73 and 66.44, respectively). Javaher, HI 0549, HI 0541, Nexus, HI 0826 and Antek cultivars were in a group for root yield (with an average of 84.35 t/ha). Also, (FC607*474)*Pool-PC.F2-HSF60-P.3 genotype with 37.60 t/ha had the lowest root yield. Since low sugar content of root is the problem of Moghan sugar factory, results showed that winter sowing showed that HI 1059 cultivar had 18.46 % sugar and the average of yield in all of the genotypes was 15.45%.

24. Mohammadreza Naderidarbaghshahi*, Alireza Jalalizand and Hamidreza Javanmard [Effects of summer irrigation and weed control methods on morphological characteristics and yield of saffron in Iran’s climate]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 541-545 (2017). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

The present study intended to investigate the effect of summer irrigation (on two dates of July 06 and August 06) and weed control methods (through managing the application of three Sencor herbicide, Treflan herbicide and mechanical control methods) on the growth and yield of saffron in a five-year old saffron farm in the Educational Research Station of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran in the crop year of 2014-15. Based on the results, summer irrigation of August significantly increased the yield of dry stigmas of saffron by 80% in saffron farm, while the summer irrigation of July did not have a significant effect on increasing the saffron yield. The results of the present study showed that saffron summer irrigation of August increased the shoot dry weight and yield of saffron crocus through faster and stronger stimulation of saffron corms and subsequently increased the total number of corms per unit area as well as the number of large corms. Furthermore, the application of both sencor and treflan herbicides could significantly control saffron weeds, respectively, by 1 kg/ha and 2.5 l/ha within twice summer irrigation in the first and second summer irrigation dates and increased the total number of produced corms and large saffron corms per unit area, which would play a significant role on increasing the saffron yield in the subsequent years. In finale, it can generally be concluded that single summer irrigation in August and twice application of sencor herbicide by 1 kg/ha within the first and second irrigation in the saffron farm can have a significant effect on increasing the saffron yield in the same year and subsequent years through increasing the total number of corms and number of large saffron corms. This method is recommended for the current study area and other areas with similar conditions.

25. JUN SU SEO, YOUNG BEOM YUN, SE JI JANG, SANG SOO KIM, BYOUNG-MAN KANG, DONG YOUNG SHIN, KYU HWAN HYUN AND YONG IN KUK* [Differences in growth characteristics and antioxidant activities of the genus Artemisia under different transplanting methods]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 546-553 (2017). 1Division of Traditional Korean Medicine Resource National Development Institute of Korean Medicine, Jangheung 59338, South Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine growth characteristics and total phenol, total flavonoid and DPPH radical scavenging activity of five species of the genus Artemisia under different transplanting methods. The order of shoot fresh weight in five species of the genus Artemisia among different transplanting methods was roots with 1 cm stem transplanting = root transplanting > whole plant transplanting at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) or cutting (DAC). The shoot fresh weight at 90 DAT was highest in A. princeps Pamp., whereas shoot fresh weight of regrowth at 90 DAC was highest in A. princeps Pamp. cv. Sajuarissuk. The shoot fresh weight of A. princeps Pamp. cv. Sajuarissuk was two times higher at 90 DAC than at 90 DAT. There were no differences in total phenol and total flavonoid contents or DPPH radical scavenging activities of the five species at 90 DAT or DAC among transplanting methods. However, the total phenol and total flavonoid contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities at 90 DAT were higher than at 90 DAC. In addition, the total phenol and total flavonoid contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities of A. princeps Pamp. cv. Sajabalssuk were significantly higher than those of the other four Artemisia species at 90 DAT or DAC. However, yield in Sajabalssuk was lower than that of the other four Artemisia species. Thus, Sajuarissuk can be recommended for cultivation because it showed high yield as well as relatively high antioxidant activity.

26. Jayanta Mandal* and P. Chakraborti [Improved nature of cowpea seedling and germination accompanying alpha-amylase in seed treatment of cow-excreta]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 554-558 (2017). Department of Seed Science & Technology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, District Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : mandaljay81091@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Seedling nature and enzyme action liable to enhancement of seedling vigour are crucial to ensure the seed quality. Recently, the beneficial effect of seed invigoration treatment with organics has been well established to maintain vigour and viability of seed. The experiment considered two years (2013-14 and 2014-15) observations where the extracted solutions of cow dung and cow urine were used as seed treatments (symbolized as T0 to T9) in alone or in combination considering its various concentrations with control (water). The stored seed (six months) under ambient condition was capable in leading through application of T9 (2% cow dung solution+75% cow urine) followed by T5 (2% cow dung solution) where the treatments like T4 (1% cow dung solution), T8 (1% cow dung solution+100% cow urine) quantified greater enactment in a few cases. The treatments showed significant influence for various seedling parameters like speed of germination, dry weight and vigour index in two succeeding years. There was a non-significant variation in year and interaction of treatment-year combinations. Normally, the enzyme alpha amylase was enhanced to motivate the progression of germination. The treatment effect sustained a variable action for the enzyme where T9 and T5 were greatest. Therefore, the advantageous nature of cow dung in definite combinations viz., T5, T9 or more specifically T9 may be considered as technical tool for seed or crop production of cowpea.

27. SAVITA DUHAN*, ANITA KUMARI AND SUNITA SHEOKAND [Effect of waterlogging and salinity on antioxidative system in pigeonpea plant leaves at different stages of development]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 559-568 (2017). Department of Botany & Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : savitaduhan53@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Effect of waterlogging, salinity and combined stress on pigeonpea genotypes was studied in the present investigation. Four pigeonpea genotypes (ICPH-2431, PARAS, UPAS-120, HO 933) were raised in polythene bags filled with half kg soil+FYM manure mixture. Waterlogging, salinity and waterlogging+salinity treatments were given for 12 days and observations were recorded 1 and 8 days after removal from treatment in 20 and 40-day old plant leaves. A significant increase in superoxide radical and H2O2 content was observed with all the three treatments both 1 and 8 days after removal from treatment. However, increase was comparatively less 8-day after removal from salinity treatment. Among both the treatments, salinity alone was found least deleterious. Increase in antioxidative enzyme activity and antioxidative metabolite content was also observed with both the treatments. Maximum increase was observed in ICPH 2431 followed by PARAS, HO 933 and minimum was observed in UPAS 120.

28. K. G. SHADUNG*, P. W. MASHELA AND V. L. MULAUDZI [Responses of cucurbitacin A and B concentrations from fruits of Cucumis myriocarpus and Cucumis africanus to drying method]. Res. on Crops 18 (3) : 569-573 (2017). 1Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : kagiso.shadung@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides, developed from fruits of wild cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus Naude) and wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus LF.), respectively, are highly effective in suppressing root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes in various crops. Fruits of C. myriocarpus and C. africanus contain cucurbitacin A and B, respectively, as active ingredients in the two phytonematicides. Due to the high incidence of post-harvest decays, chopped fresh fruits have to be dried soon after harvest, but there is scant information on the appropriate drying method. The objective of this study was to determine the comparative effects of four drying methods on concentration of cucurbitacins from fruits of the C. myriocarpus and C. africanus in order to allow for the selection of an appropriate method in initial preparation of inputs for the two phytonematicides. Chopped fresh fruits were subjected to oven-, sun-, freeze- and shade-drying methods. Relative to 52°C oven-drying method, other drying methods reduced the concentration of cucurbitacin A (46 to 81%) and cucurbitacin B (44 to 85%). In conclusion, oven-drying method at 52°C had the highest concentration of both the cucurbitacins in fruits of both plant species and should, therefore, be viewed as the preferred drying method in initial processing stages of inputs for the two phytonematicides.

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