Volume 18, No. 2 (June) 2017

By | July 13, 2017

1.C. JEMILA*, B. BAKIYATHU SALIHA AND S. UDAYAKUMAR [Evaluating the performance of phosphatic fertilizers on plant nutrients (N, P and K) concentration and uptake by the rice crop]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 203-209 (2017). Department of Soils & Environment Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : pearlqueen237@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was taken up in the farmers’ field at Irumbadi village of Vadipatti block of Madurai district during rabi 2013 with rice (var. ADT 39) as test crop to evaluate the influence of P sources and forms (SSP and complex P with and without PSB) on soil nutrient status, uptake and crop yield. Among the P sources, 20 : 20 : 0 and PSB (T8) followed by 20 : 20 : 0 alone (T6) proved significantly superior to SSP and farmers’ fertilizer practice of DAP application. Also the concentration of plant nutrients and their uptake were higher in treatment T8 at tillering, flowering and harvest stages. Application of N and P through complex sources viz., 20 : 20 : 0 and K through MOP at recommended level or 15 : 15 : 15 with and without PSB favoured higher total N, P, K and micronutrient contents in grain and straw when compared to other fertilizer sources. The highest P uptake in rice grain (4.28 kg/ha) and straw (4.60 kg/ha) was observed with the application of N and P (150 : 50 kg/ha) through complex fertilizers and K through MOP (50 kg/ha) along with PSB (2 kg/ha) resulting in a total uptake of 8.88 kg/ha which was significantly higher over other treatment combinations. The highest concentration of K was recorded in T8 that received complex fertilizer source with PSB and recommended K application of 50 kg/ha during tillering (1.623%), flowering (1.55 2%) and subsequently in grain and straw (1.312 and 1.394%) of rice. It was noteworthy to observe that 100% and 50% of recommended P as SSP were on par in influencing the plant nutrient concentration and uptake indicating the scope for reducing 50% of P in soils of high P availability.

2. Hazem S. Hasan*, Khaldoun J. Al-Hadid and Saeid Abu-Romman [Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach aqueous extract inhibits seed germination and seedling growth of winter wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 210-215 (2017). 1Department of Plant Production and Protection Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : Hazem@bau.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

Aqueous extract of Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach was evaluated for phytotoxicity effect against winter wheat (Triticum durum) seed germination and seedling growth. Aqueous concentrations of 2, 4, 8 and 10% (w/v) of Sarcopoterium spinosum were used. The reduction in germination percentage was more than 40%, while the reduction in germination rate was almost 60%. The reduction in radicle length was more than 60%, while the reduction in radicle dry weight was almost 50%. The reduction in plumule length was more than 40%, while the reduction in plumule dry weight was more than 35%. The reduction of root dry weight was more than 60%, while the reduction of shoot dry weight was more than 35%. The reduction of chlorophyll content was more than 40% at the highest extract concentration compared with control. In conclusion, S. spinosum had strong phytotoxicity effect against winter wheat. Therefore, S. spinosum aqueous extract is a good candidate as a bio-herbicide against winter wheat.

3. Ahmad Reza Golparvar*, Mohammad Mehdi Gheisari, Amin Hadipanah and Davood Naderi [Relationship of morphological traits and yield components with seed and protein yields in Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 216-218 (2017). 1Department of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Correlation analysis showed the significant relation of seed and protein yield with all the traits except correlation of grain filling duration and peduncle length with seed yield as well as spike yield and peduncle length with protein yield. Factor analysis indicated that four important factors accounted for about 94.31% of the total variation among traits studied. The first factor assigned 34.99% of total variation between traits and was significantly related with traits seed yield, biological yield, protein yield and protein percentage. This factor was regarded as quantitative and qualitative yield improvement factor. Other factors accounted for 43.70, 27.90 and 22.40% of variation between traits so were entitled as spike yield, grain filling ability and photosynthesis reservoir enhancement factors, respectively. Overall, results revealed effect of grain filling rate, biological yield, number of seeds/spike, spike yield and protein percentage on seed and protein yield. Hence, these traits are recommended as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of seed yield especially in early generations.

4. N. N. Chaudhari* and D. D. Patel [Effect of integrated nitrogen management on productivity, quality of pearl millet and soil fertility of clay soils under south Gujarat conditions]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 219-224 (2017). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-386 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail: nareshchaudhari951@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out during summer 2015 to study the integrated nitrogen management in summer pearl millet under south Gujarat conditions. The results revealed that pearl millet GHB-558 performed better by combined application of 50% RDN from chemical fertilizers+25% nitrogen from vermicompost+25% nitrogen from neemcake recorded significantly higher value for plant height, dry matter accumulation per plant, total tillers per plant, earhead length, earhead girth, effective tillers, test weight, grain yield per earhead as well as grain and straw yield over rest of the treatments. Application of 50% RDN from chemical fertilizers+25% nitrogen from vermicompost+25% nitrogen from neemcake was found the most superior and effective treatments in terms of total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, protein content in grain, grain yield, net returns and B : C ratio. Significantly higher total uptake of nitrogen (99.62 kg/ha), phosphorus (16.37 kg/ha) and potassium (75.23 kg/ha), protein yield in grain (291.03 kg/ha), grain yield (2057 kg/ha), straw yield (5347 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 18773/ha) and B : C ratio (0.71) were observed. These applications proved most superior treatments for improvement in post-experiment soil fertility by increased soil organic carbon, N, P and K content.

5. M. A. BASAVANNEPPA*, ASHOK KUMAR GADDI, B. M. CHITTAPUR, D. P. BIRADAR AND R. BASAVARAJAPPA [Yield maximization through resource conservation technologies under maize-chickpea cropping system in vertisols of Tunga Bhadra Command Project Area of Karnataka]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 225-231 (2017). All India Coordinated Research Project on IFS, Main Centre Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Siruguppa-583 121, Raichur (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : basavanneppa6@gamil.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of tillage, crop residue and fertilizer management on maize-chickpea cropping system from 2007-08 to 2013-14 at Agricultural Research Station, Siruguppa, Karnataka, India. The experiment was conducted in deep black soil with split-split plot design and treatments were replicated thrice. The experiment included 24 treatment combinations of four tillage practices viz., Conventional tillage (M1), Reduced tillage (M2), Zero tillage (M3) and Bed planting (M4) were assigned to main plots, three crop residue managements viz., Burning (S1), Retention (S2) and Retrieval (S3) were to sub-plots and three fertilizer managements viz.,T1 : Recommended N, P2O5, K2O (150 : 75 : 37.5 kg/ha for maize and 25 : 50 : 00 kg/ha for chickpea), T2 : T1+25% RDN and T3 : T2+micronutrients (S–50 kg/ha and ZnSO4–20 kg/ha) for sub-sub plots. The hybrid maize (NK 6240) was sown in the first fortnight of July and after harvest of the maize crop, chickpea (JG 11) was sown during the fourth week of November or first week of December in each year. The pooled yield of maize and chickpea over six years was significantly influenced by tillage and fertilizer management practices. Among the different practices, the higher maize and chickpea grain yield of 6434 and 1236 kg/ha was recorded in bed planting in tillage practices and 6388 and 1192 kg/ha in 100% RDF+25% RDN+S+ZnSO4 application in fertilizer management practices, respectively, when compared to other management practices. Similarly, the significantly higher pooled total maize equivalent yield (TMEY, 8887 kg/ha) and system productivity (24.4 kg/ha/day) were recorded with bed planting compared to other tillage practices and it was at par with conventional tillage. Retrieval method of residue management practice recorded significantly superior TMEY (8590 kg/ha) and system productivity (23.5 kg/ha/day) compared to retention of residue on land. Application of 100% RDF+25% RDN+S+ZnSO4 produced significantly higher TMEY (8779 kg/ha) and system productivity (24.1 kg/ha/day) as compared to application of 100% RDF. Similar trend in N and K uptake by the system was noticed in bed planting (178 and 144 kg/ha/year), retrieval (173 and 141 kg/ha/year) and application of 100% RDF+25% RDN+S+ZnSO4 (177 and 145 kg/ha/year).

6. SAVITI, ALKA SAINI, MONIKA, SARITA DEVI, SUNDER S. ARYA*, ISHU SINGAL AND SUNIL KUMAR [Effect of cadmium chloride on seedling growth of Vigna radiata L. genotypes]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 232-236 (2017). 1Department of Botany & Plant Physiology Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : aryasunder.hau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to study the influence of cadmium on growth and development of seedling mungbean genotypes (i. e. Basanti, Satya and MH 421). Results revealed that fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW) (mg) of shoot significantly decreased from 297.9 to 237.3 and 28.9 to 17.4, respectively. Similarly, the FW and DW of root also showed same trend, the values varied from 17.2 to 9.1 and 2.7 to 1.2, respectively upon cadmium chloride application. Decline in RWC (%) was noticed. The ratio of chl a : chl b and chlorophyll : carotenoid also showed declining trend i. e. from 2.67 to 2.48 and 2.78 to 2.37, respectively. Whereas increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content was observed and magnitude of increase varied from 0.93 to 1.53 mM MDA/g FW and 7.57 to 16.36 mM/g FW on imposition of cadmium chloride. However, total soluble carbohydrate and protein content showed reverse trend and maximum per cent decline was observed in Basanti (15.32 and 19.61%) and minimum in MH 421 (2.23 and 1.15%) genotype. The genotype MH 421 showed relatively better tolerance to cadmium chloride stress than other genotypes and can be a potential alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils.

7. Khosrow Azizi*, Aminollah Mousavi Boogar, Mohammad Reza Jahansuz and Mohammad Feizian [Evaluating the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 237-243 (2017). 1Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran *(e-mail : Azizi_kh44@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was done to evaluate the effect of different tillage methods on chickpea yield and physical properties of the soil. The experiment was conducted during 2013-15 at farm of the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Faculty, Tehran University. The experiment was set up as a split plot, randomized complete block design with four replications. Three tillage methods (conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage) and three chickpea cultivars (ILC 482, Hashem and Arman) were allocated to the main and sub-plots, respectively. Land on the test site had 60% coverage of maize residue on the soil surface. Results from comparisons of averages showed that the no-tillage treatment had higher bulk density and lower soil porosity than the other tillage treatments. The highest evaluations for germination percentage, seed yield and harvest index were observed in chickpea cultivars in the conventional tillage treatment. Higher evaluations for chickpea seed yield in the first year were observed in cultivars ILC 482 (2594.9 kg/ha) and Hashem (2434.8 kg/ha) and in the second year in cultivar ILC 482 (2496.2 kg) under conventional tillage. Traits of germination percentage, seed yield and harvest index were higher in the second year of the experiment compared to the first year in minimum tillage and no-tillage treatments. This indicated a long-term positive effect of conservation tillage on plant growth and yield.

8. ISHU SINGAL*, K. D. SHARMA, SARITA DEVI AND S. S. ARYA [Relative efficacy of different herbicides on Echinochloa accessions]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 244-248 (2017). Department of Botany & Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : ishu.singal@yahoo.in)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in pots to study the effect of five herbicides on different Echinochloa accessions during the year 2014. Six ecotypes viz., E. glabrescens (HAU Farm), E. colona/crusgalli (Ahrewan, Fatehabad), E. crusgalli (Majden, Sirsa), E. colona/crusgalli (Beri Akbarpur, Uklana), E. colona/crusgalli (Chamarkhera, Uklana) and E. glabrescens (Mundhal, Hansi) were sprayed at different days after sowing. Butachlor (1500 g/ha) and pretilachlor (1000 g/ha) were sprayed at three days after sowing (DAS). Recommended doses of herbicides i. e. bispyribac sodium (25 g/ha), penoxsulam (22.5 g/ha) and cyhalofop-butyl (120 g/ha) were sprayed at 25 DAS. Sampling was made after 30 DAS. Hebicides butachlor (1500 g/ha) and pretilachlor (1000 g/ha) were used as pre-emergence and no germination was observed 30 DAS except control. Mortality increased with increasing doses of different herbicides. Except E. glabrescens (HAU Farm-79.5%) and E. colona/crusgalli (Ahrewan, Fatehabad–80.9%), 100% mortality was noticed in all the accessions at RD of penoxulum, whereas 45-95% mortality was seen in all the ecotypes at RD of bispyribac sodium but 100% mortality was observed in all the accessions of Echinochloa at RD of cyhalofop butyl. Reversibly, dry matter decreased with increasing doses of herbicides (RD of penoxsulam–22.5 g/ha, bispyribac sodium–25 g/ha and cyhalofop butyl–120 g/ha) in all the accessions. Maximum per cent decline was noticed in E. colona/crusgalli (15.1%) (Ahrewan, Fatehabad), E. colona/crusgalli (6.1%) (Ahrewan, Fatehabad) and E. colona/crusgalli (Beri Akbarpur, Uklana) at recommended doses of penoxsulam, bispyribac sodium and cyhalofop butyl, respectively, over their respective control. Conclusively, maximum efficacy was shown by cyhalofob butyl on the basis of per cent mortality and dry matter accumulation in different accessions.

9. S. G. Rajput, D. D. Tiwari, Nirmal Kumar Katiyar*, Anil Kumar, R. K. Pathak and Varsha Srivastava [Effect of industrial effluent on soil properties, essential nutrient and pollutant element status of soils and plants in a vegetable growing near Jajmau industrial area of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 249-255 (2017). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : nirmalkatiyar83@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Effect of continuous irrigation with industrial effluent for more than three decades on soil physical, physico-chemical properties; and major, secondary and micronutrient with pollutant element status of soils and plants in Jajmau area of Kanpur city of Uttar Pradesh was ascertained. Long term alone use of industrial effluent for growing crops, particularly vegetables, may result in the uptake of toxic metals by crop plants, with the chance of their access into the food chain. While the use of industrial effluent with alternate irrigated with well water, the physical properties of soils were observed to be improved. An appreciable increase in organic carbon; available N, P, K and micronutrients were recorded in the alternate with industrial effluent and well water irrigated soils over that of the alone Industrial effluent irrigated soils. Electrical conductivity of alternate irrigated soils was much below the threshold limit of salinity. Long-term application of industrial effluent water resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in surface soil; the concentration of these elements is approaching the maximum permissible limits suggested. The mean content of total Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb in the soils irrigated with industrial effluent water was 1.53, 1.09, 1.12, 1.14, 1.01, 1.23 and 1.01 times as compared to their content in the alternate irrigated soils, and the concentration of these metals in sugar beet grown on industrial effluent-fed soils was higher by 1.34, 1.16, 1.32, 1.51, 1.34, 1.65 and 1.26 times, respectively. The relative availability of the metals was recorded in the order of Pb > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Ni > Fe. The concentration of heavy metals in sugar beet plant grown on industrial effluent was higher as compared to their tolerance level indicating their accumulation in plants. The results suggest that industrial effluent irrigation improves soil physical properties and fertility status indicating its potential for use in agriculture. However, accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant necessitates its safer use of alternate industrial effluent with well water to safeguard soil health and reduce the risk of animal and human health hazard. Sugar beet was found more suitable in comparison to other vegetables under study and can be used for phytoremediation purposes to minimize the concentration of heavy metals in soil.

10. ARUN KISHOR*, S. K. VERMA, MANOJ BRIJWAL, RAJ NARAYAN, ANIL KUMAR, SOVAN DEBNATH AND M. S. MER [Yield and physico-chemical performance of different kiwifruit cultivars in Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 256-259 (2017). 1ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station, Mukteshwar-263 138, District Nainital (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : aruniari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield and physico-chemical performance of five kiwifruit cultivars viz., Monty, Hayward, Allison, Bruno and Abbott in the year 2016. The highest fruit yield (70.28 kg/tree), fruit length (71.73 mm), fruit weight (61.66 g) and fruit volume (60.41 cc) were recorded in cultivar Allison. The lowest fruit yield (25.12 kg/tree) and fruit length (52.20 mm) were recorded in Hayward, while lowest fruit weight (53.84 g) and fruit volume (52.70 cc) were estimated under Monty. The fruit firmness was found highest (7.53 lb/in2) in Hayward, while the lowest (2.37 lb/in2) in Monty. The highest T. S. S. (13.50 °B) was found in Allison, while lowest (11.67 °B) in Abbott, whereas highest acidity (2.39%) was recorded in Monty and lowest (1.89%) in Abbott. The highest ascorbic acid (110.47 mg/100 g), carotene content (354.33 µg/100 g) and total anti-oxidant activity (37.04 mMTE/L) was recorded in Bruno, while lowest ascorbic acid (89.52 mg/100 g) and total anti-oxidant activity (31.14 mMTE/L) were recorded in Hayward. The lowest carotene content (218.56 µg/100 g) was recorded in Monty. The highest reducing (7.04%) and total sugars (8.31%) were found in Monty, while lowest reducing (4.56%) and total sugars (5.10%) in Hayward. Therefore, Allison followed by Bruno cultivar of kiwifruit needs to be popularize in the region in view of yield and physico-chemical performance.

11. Suman Bala*, Jitender Kumar and Savita Duhan [Biochemical changes in pulp and peel of sapota (Manilkara zapota L.) at different stages of ripening]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 260-263 (2017). Department of Botany & Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : sumanmalika14@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Peel and pulp fruits at three ripening stages were analyzed for total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, acidity and phenol content. TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar increased process of ripening, whereas acidity content decreased with process of ripening both in peel and pulp. Pulp of fruits had higher content of TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars in all the three maturity stages, whereas acidity and phenol were high in peel of fruits in all the three stages.

12. Haninderpreet Singh*, Sukhwinder Singh, Prince Kumar and J. S. Minhas [Feasibility studies for two consecutive crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under aeroponic system in north-western plains of India]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 264-269 (2017). ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Jalandhar-144 003 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : haninderpreet@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

There is huge demand for high quality potato seed in India, however, availability is limited due to low multiplication rate. Aeroponics technology is used for fast multiplication of basic seed stocks from in vitro plantlets. To make better use of expensive aeroponics facility, two production cycles of consecutive crops per year were tried. Experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Jalandhar, Punjab, on three varieties and two hardening mediums before planting to aeroponic system for two consecutive crops. Observations were recorded on per cent survival, days taken to tuber initiation, plant height at final harvest, number of minitubers, minitubers weight, haulm fresh and dry weight and root fresh and dry weight on per plant basis. All the three varieties performed well during main season but Kufri Surya emerged as the best performing variety under aeroponics during second consecutive season. Liquid hardening is better for improved plant establishment as well as early initiation of tubers. Therefore, two crops of potato minitubers production are possible with selection of suitable hardening medium and variety.

13. K. M. Pofu and P. W. Mashela* [Host-status of selected South African commercial potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 270-273 (2017). 2Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : phatu.mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

The use of root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode resistance in most crops remains the most preferred option, but there are no known genotypes with nematode resistance in wild and cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants. As part of concerted efforts to search for nematode resistance, the objective of this study was to determine the host-status of high yielding commercial potato cultivars in South Africa to M. incognita and M. javanica populations. Potato cultivars Sifra, Lanorma, Innovator, Uptodate and FL2108.2006.1 were each inoculated with 5000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) in separate trials over two seasons. Fifty-six days after inoculation, the reproductive potential (RP = eggs and J2/g roots) of nematodes on each cultivar was assessed. In M. incognita, RP values ranged from 79.28 to 197.11 in Experiment 1 and from 47.31 to 1327 in Experiment 2 on potato cultivars. Similarly, in M. javanica trial, RP values ranged from 6.13 to 327.02 and from 16.88 to 237.42 in the respective experiments. In conclusion, all tested high yielding commercial potato cultivars in South Africa were excellent hosts to M. incognita and M. javanica population.

14. JONG HEE SHIN AND SANG KUK KIM* [Changes of endogenous gibberellins in corm of kohlrabi during corm development]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 274-278 (2017). Division of Crop Breeding Gyeongsangbuk-do Provincial Agricultural Research & Extension Services Daegu 41404, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : sk2@korea.kr)

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were first to investigate the possible gibberellins biosynthetic pathway operated in corm of kohlrabi at early corm formation, enlargement and harvest. Ten gibberellins (GAs) were identified and quantified in extracts of corm of the different skin colour of kohlrabi, Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L. by GC-MS-SIM and Kovats retention indices. Five of these gibberellins were members of the early-C13-hydroxylation pathway (GA53, GA19, GA20, GA8 and GA1), and five were members of the non-C13-hydroxylation pathway (GA12, GA24, GA9, GA7 and GA4). Of these 10 gibberellins, GA7 and GA24 were commonly the most abundant in corm of two different skin colours of kohlrabi, whereas GA12 was lowest during growth. Bioactive endogenous GA4 was dominant and always higher than that of GA1 in corm of kohlrabi during growth. In consequently, major gibberellins biosynthetic pathway operated in corm of kohlrabi was an early C-13 hydroxylation route.

15. Meisam Zargar*, Tamara S. Astarkhanova, Elena N. Pakina, Ibrahim R. Astarkhanov, Aliskender A. Rimikhanov, Shamsiyat A. Gyul’magomedova, Zamira M. Ramazanova and Nazih Y. Rebouh [Survey of biological components efficiency on safety and productivity of different tomato cultivars]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 279-288 (2017). 1Department of Agro-Biotechnology Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : zargar_m@pfur.ru)

ABSTRACT

Biological agents play an outstanding and effective role in agricultural systems with the reduction of chemical components’ applications. This study carried out during 2013 to 2015 investigated the efficiency of some bio-growth regulators, with anti-stress activity and plant resistance against diseases, on productivity and safety of four tomato cultivars with the goal of sustainable agriculture. Biological active substances were Epin extra, Zirkon, Tekamin max and Immunotsitofit that were performed as the following levels : soaking in 0.2% solution for 6 h, soaking in a 0.2% solution for 6 h and one time foliar treatment, soaking in a 0.2% solution for 6 h and two times foliar treatments, one time foliar treatment, two times foliar treatments and control as a water treatment, respectively. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars in this study were Sultan F1, Lodzheyn, Dar Zavolzhja and Beta. Results of this study revealed that Epin extra caused the highest germination of Sultan F1 and Dar Zavoljia significantly; germination of Beta was improved when Tekamin max [(TM3) soaking in a 0.2% solution for 6 h and two times foliar treatment] was used. Bio-agent Tekamin max in all cases had favourable improvement on tomato morphology of all tomato cultivars. Three records of observation on blight spread on tomato cultivar Dar Zavoljia concluded that blight disease was significantly diminished when Tekamin max [(TM3) soaking in a 0.2% solution for 6 h and two times foliar treatment] was performed. Overall, Tekain max as a biological growth regulator was distinguished as the most efficient on growth and development of tomato, and also the lowest blight infection was observed when Tekamin max was applied.

16. P. E. Tseke* and P. W. Mashela [Efficacy of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide from fresh Cucumis africanus fruit on suppression of root-knot nematodes and growth of tomato plants]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 289-293 (2017). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : tsekepe@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides are prepared from fruits dried at 52ºC in air-forced ovens, which could not be available for use by resource-poor farmers to prepare the products. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide prepared using fermented crude extracts of fresh fruit from wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) on growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. Seedlings of tomato cultivar ‘Floradade’ were inoculated with 3000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) M. incognita race 2 in pot trials, with treatments comprising a series of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide concentrations. Fifty-six days after inoculation, the phytonematicide had reduced eggs and J2 in roots by 84-97%, J2 in soil by 49-96% and total nematodes by 70-97%. Plant variables and log22-transformed concentrations of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide exhibited quadratic relations, with the model being explained by 74-98% associations. In conclusion, fresh fruit of C. africanus could be used for the preparation of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide.

17. Ibrahim M. Makhadmeh, Abdelrazzaq Al-Tawaha*, Puteri Edaroyati, Ghazi Al-Karaki,  Abdel Rahman Al Tawaha and Siti Aishah Hassan [Effects of different growth media and planting densities on growth of lettuce grown in a closed soilless system]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 294-298 (2017). 1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 3030, Jordan *(e-mail : abdelrazzaqaltawaha@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at determining the effects of growth medium and planting density on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production under a closed soilless system. Soilless lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2012-13, that were tested under three different growth media and  two planting densities (16 and 33 plants/m2). The highest head mass and marketable head mass (0.640 and 609 kg) were obtained at planting density (16 plants/m2). When analyzed for interaction between the growth medium and planting density, the higher head mass (691 and 697 g) was obtained between the interactions Tuff br : peatmoss and Tuff br with planting density of 16 plants/m2. The results showed that planting density and growth medium exhibited significant effects on stem weight (g), weight of leaves (outer+inner) (g), number of non-consumable leaves, number of outer leaves, number of inner leaves, total number of leaves, marketable head mass (g), head mass (g) and plant height (cm). In conclusion, the substrates interference with the development of lettuce plants, it was Tuffbr : Peatmoss and Tuff brown which provided the best plant growth.

18. Renu Gulia, B. S. BeniwaL*, Sonu Sheoran and J. K. Sandooja [Evaluation of marigold genotypes for growth, flowering, yield and essential oil content]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 299-304 (2017). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : beniwalbs@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Ten genotypes of marigold (both African and French types) were evaluated for their morphological characters as well as essential oil content at experimental orchard of Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India. The experimental results revealed that maximum plant height (117.67 cm) was recorded in MGH 160-9-2 African genotype and maximum plant spread (69.87 cm) was observed in MGH 8-2 French genotype, while maximum number of primary branches (37.83) was observed in MGH 109-1-2 genotype. Among flowering and yield parameters, flower size (9.03 cm), fresh weight (12.69 g), dry weight of flowers (2.390 g), flower yield per plant (568.5 g), flower yield per plot (9.09 kg) and flower yield per acre (14.21 t) were recorded maximum in MGH 160-9-2 and significantly superior over other genotypes, while maximum number of flowers per plant (122.92) was recorded in MGH 109-1-2 genotype. In case of essential oils extracted from hydro distillation method, maximum oil content (0.800 ml/kg) was obtained in MGH 8-2 followed by MGH 17-1 (0.717 ml/kg), both French types.

19. PRATIKSHA KUMARI*, KISHAN SWAROOP AND T. JANAKIRAM [In vivo propagation of difficult-to-root bougainvillea cultivars by air-layering]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 305-310 (2017). Division of Floriculture and Landscaping ICAR–Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : pratti1311@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An air layering experiment was conducted at the Division of Floriculture & Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during June 2013 to May 2014. Six bougainvillea cultivars which were difficult- to- root along with check as easy-to-root cultivars were used in this study with three replications. The difficult-to-root cultivars used were : Dr. H. B. Singh, Red September, Sweet Heart, Refulgens, Thimma, Mahatma Gandhi, whereas Chitra was used as easy-to-root check. The results revealed that almost all cultivars had shown significant differences in rooting percentage, survival percentage, growth, flowering, total carbohydrate and nitrogen concentration percentage. Maximum rooting (92.01) and survival of plants (100.00) were recorded in Chitra, which was easy-to-root, whereas good rooting percentage was observed in difficult-to-root cultivars such as Sweet Heart (59.33%), Red September (59.02%), Dr. H. B. Singh (53.66%), Mahatma Gandhi (50.66%) and Refulgens (47.98%). The biochemical investigation of these cultivars showed that the easy-to-root cultivars had higher carbohydrate content (40.58%) and lower nitrogen content (2.24%) compared to the difficult-to-root ones i. e. Refulgens (20.85 and 3.76%) and Mahatma Gandhi (19.25 and 3.88%), respectively. The air layering technique is a good solution for rooting of difficult-to-root cultivars, and is expected to help people/nurserymen who take up on multiplication of bougainvillea.

20. Tulasi Guru*, V. Padma, D. V. V. Reddy, P. R. Rao, D. Sanjeeva Rao, T. Ramesh and K. V. Radhakrishna [Genetic diversity analysis for yield attributing traits in rice genotypes]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 311-315 (2017). Department of Crop Physiology PJT State Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (Telangana), India *(e-mail : gurutulasiagrico@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted with 58 rice genotypes at ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research Farm, Hyderabad during kharif 2014 season and evaluated for 10 yield attributing characters using D2 analysis in order to study the diversity pattern among the genotypes. The genotypes were grouped into 13 clusters, of which clusters VII and XII (36.93) followed by clusters II and VI (33.48) and clusters XI and XIII (33.35) recorded maximum inter-cluster distance. Hence, the genotypes in cluster VII viz., E-2940, E-3118, TJP-5, TJP-198, TJP-9, E-3138 and TJP-142 had wider diversity with RPHR-1005 in cluster XII, and the genotypes in cluster II viz., TJP-2, TJP-221, TJP-81, TJP-138, TJP-186, TJP-224, E-2875, TJP-229, TJP-60, TJP-58, TJP-99, TJP-6, TJP-191 and E-2710 had wider diversity with IBL-57 in cluster XIII and these lines may be utilized in further breeding programme for the exploitation of hybrid vigour. The intra-cluster distance was maximum in cluster VII (9.54) followed by cluster V (8.91) and cluster IV (8.28) indicating hybridization involving genotypes within the same clusters may result in good cross combinations. The traits viz., panicle weight, test weight and total grain number per panicle together contributed 94.37% towards total divergence. Therefore, these characters may be given importance during hybridization programmes.

21. BRIJESH KUMAR SINGH, MONOJ SUTRADHAR*, AMIT KUMAR SINGH AND SANJAY KUMAR SINGH [Evaluation of genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients analysis for yield attributing traits in field pea [Pisum sativum (L.) var. arvense]]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 316-321 (2017). 1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : monoj.gene.enggnr@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block with 12 field pea genotypes to study the genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation among the yield contributing traits and their effect on number of seeds per pod of field pea. The phenotypic correlation coefficient (PCV) values were marginally bigger than genotypic correlation coefficient (GCV), revealing tiny sway of environment in character expression. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance and high GCV were observed for length of branch from main axis, number of seeds/plant and weight of 100 seeds indicating the multitude of additive gene action. Selection stranded on these characters will be worthwhile. Results of genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed significant positive correlation of stem circumference, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant, weight of 100 seeds, number of seeds/pod with each other and other yield attributes. The component characters and path-coefficient analysis revealed positive direct effect of plant height at maturity and number of leaves/plant on the number of seeds/pod. The analysis suggests that the above mentioned parameters were sufficient for direct selection of genotypes for yield attributing characters. However, the high residual effect and relatively moderate level of genetic parameters revealed the requirement of more number of yield attributing parameters under consideration for improvising in crop breeding pipeline of field pea.

22. K. S. SANGEETHA*, J. SURESH AND V. MARTHANDAN [Effect of fertigation of N and K on growth and yield of turmeric transplants (Curcuma longa L.) var. Co 2]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 322-326 (2017). 1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur-680 656 (Kerala), India *(e-mail : sangy.666@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at college orchard, Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore from 2014 to 2016 to study the effect of fertigation of N and K on growth and yield of turmeric transplants. The experiment consisted of nine treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. The results showed that the fertigation treatment with 125% levels of N and K through water soluble fertilizers recorded significantly superior growth parameters viz., plant height (142.39 cm), number of leaves (14.79), number of tillers (9.19) and leaf length (31.25 cm) at 210 days after planting and yield characters viz., yield per plant (406.27 g), yield per plot (109.76 kg/25 m2), estimated yield (43.90 t/ha) and estimated cured rhizome yield (7.96 t/ha) of turmeric transplants. On the basis of good performance on yield, fertigation with 125% levels of N and K through water soluble fertilizers can be employed for turmeric transplants.

23. K. G. Shadung* and P. W. Mashela [Influence of storage period on concentration of cucurbitacin B from dried Cucumis africanus fruit]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 327-331 (2017). 1Limpopo Agro-Food Technology Station University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : kagiso.shadung@ul.ac.za) 2Green Technologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa

ABSTRACT

In agro-processing, inputs prior to processing the final products had been associated with product losses, which could be traced to degradation of various active chemical compounds. Since most plants produce is highly perishable, storage in various forms prior to processing is necessary. In the production of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, dried Cucumis africanus fruits were stored in powdered form, with scant information on how storage affected concentrations of cucurbitacin B and therefore, quality of the final product. Mealed fruits were stored for five months in hermetically sealed and unsealed containers at room temperature. Sub-samples were collected monthly to quantify the concentration of cucurbitacin B using HPLC. Storage over five months resulted in quadratic increase in cucurbitacin B. The model explained the total treatment variation of cucurbitacins in sealed and unsealed containers by 98 and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, storage of mealed C. africanus fruit would improve the quality of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and other products from dried fruit of this plant species.

24. Suraj Kala [Effect of NaCl stress on chlorophyll content of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 332-334 (2017). Department of Botany & Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : surajkala1986@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Chlorophyll content in leaves of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) genotypes viz., GI-2, HI-96, PB-80 and HI-5 was studied under salt stress at different EC levels viz., control (without salt), 5 and 10 d/Sm of nutrient supplemented NaCl salt solutions in sand filled polythene bags. The results revealed a significant decrease in chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ contents with increasing EC levels. Reduction in chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ contents was maximum in the genotype PB-80 and minimum in the genotype GI-2 indicating the higher tolerance of genotype GI-2 and higher sensitivity of the genotype PB-80 to salt stress among all genotypes studied.

25. Nisha* and P. B. Rao [Analysis of variability in physical-biochemical properties of different varieties in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) during different growth stages]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 335-339 (2017). Department of Biological Sciences G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : nishaarya24@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A pot experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2015 at Vegetable Research Centre, Pantnagar to examine seed germination, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area in eight different varieties of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). It was observed that the morpho-physio and biochemical parameters changed significantly with the advancement of age. Fresh weight was found highest in Fgk-67 at 60 DAS and lowest in AM-2 at 30 DAS, the dry weight was maximum in Fgk-67 at 60 DAS and minimum in Fgk-70 at 45 DAS. The leaf area was maximum in Fgk-67 and found low in AM-2, the total chlorophyll was high in Afg-4 at 60 DAS and lowest in Fgk-70 at 30 DAS. The leaf area, plant height, fresh weight and dry weight increased significantly with the age.

26. Amir Houshang Ahmadi, Forough Mortazaei nezhad and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Effect of physical and chemical treatments on seed germination of Salvia nemarosa]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 340-342 (2017). 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to assess the impact of physical and chemical treatments on dormancy and germination ability of medicinal species Salvia nemarosa, two separate experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design in five replications in laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture of Azad University of Isfahan. The treatments included : control 1 (without laser light), red laser light for 15 min, control 2 (without gibberellic acid), gibberellic acid for 24 h. After 21 days, germinated and green seeds were counted and some traits such as germination per cent, fresh weight of rootlet and plumule, dry weight of rootlet and plumule, rootlet and plumule length, the number of germinated and green seeds in 21 days were measured. The results showed that exerted treatments had significant effects on the germination per cent and measuring traits compared to control and treatment of 500 ppm gibberellic acid had the greatest impact on most of the traits. In general, it could be concluded that the impact of chemical treatments was more than physical treatment, but in terms of health and improving agricultural crops, physical treatments were more affordable and were a proper alternative for chemical treatments.

27. SE JI JANG, YOUNG BEOM YUN, SANG SOO KIM, HAN GYEOL OH, KYU HYUN LIM AND YONG IN KUK* [Differences in suppression rates of crop pathogens and antioxidant activity at different harvesting times of Taraxacum mongolicum]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 343-348 (2017). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540 742, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the suppression rates of extracts of the aerial parts of T. mongolicum collected at different harvesting times and prepared using different extract methods (water, boiled water and ethanol) on Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Colletotrichum coccodes. Additionally, the aerial parts of plants collected at different harvesting times were analyzed for phenol and flavonoid contents, DPPH scavenging activities and growth differences. Although the suppression rates of P. oryzae, Phytophthora capsici and Colletotrichum acutatum increased with increasing concentrations of water or boiled water extracts of T. mongolicum, the levels of suppression were low. In addition, the levels of suppression of the above three pathogens differed with harvesting time. P. oryzae, C. acutatum and P. capsici were 20-65, 10-60 and 5-95% suppressed by 5% ethanol extracts of T. mongolicum collected at different harvesting times, respectively. Generally, the order of suppression rates against the above three pathogens by T. mongolicum extract was July > June > May > April. Total phenol and flavonoid contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities of T. mongolicum extracts did not differ significantly among harvesting times. However, plant height and shoot dry weight of T. mongolicum sampled in July were much higher than those of plants collected in April, May and June. Thus, growth of T. mongolicum harvested at different times may be related to the higher suppression rates of ethanol extracts of T. mongolicum harvested in July.

28. BYOUNG-MAN KANG, WON-SEOK JUNG, BYUNG-KWAN AHN, JUN-HWAN YEO, HYUN-WOO CHO, YOUNG BEOM YUN, SE JI JANG AND YONG IN KUK* [Differences in growth characteristics and tricin contents of Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. at different harvesting times]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 349-353 (2017). 1Division of Traditional Korean Medicine Resource National Development Institute of Korean Medicine, Jangheung 59338, South Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. has long been known as an effective treatment for systemic edema, chicken pox, abdominal pain and diarrhea. However, studies of functional materials using A. aequalis have been very limited. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the growth characteristics and tricin content of A. aequalis at different harvesting times. Growth characteristics, yield and tricin content of A. aequalis were measured at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after seeding (DAS). Plant height, root length, leaf number, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight were significantly increased with increasing seeding stand period until 75 DAS, but decreased after 90 DAS. Yield of A. aequalis was also increased until 75 DAS, after which (90 DAS) it decreased. The highest yield was 9,300 kg/ha at 75 DAS. In addition, tricin content increased significantly until 75 DAS (0.231 mg/g), then decreased at 90 DAS. These findings suggest that proper harvesting time for A. aequalis was at 75 DAS because both yield and tricin contents were high at this time.

29. Ahmad Zatimeh* [Genetic diversity analysis of Ditirichia viscose populations in Jordan]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 354-358 (2017). Applied Science, Ajlaun University College Al-Balqa Applied University, Ajlaun, Jordan *(e-mail : zatimeh@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Ditirichia viscose is a wild growing medicinal plant in Jordan. It has been used for years in folk medicine in the Mediterranean area and its leaves were prescribed to treat many diseases. The plant leaves contain numerous sesquiterpene acids. As the majority of medicinal plants in Jordan have not been intensivly studied, there is a need to investigate the medicinal and economic values of some native species. Locally, no research was conducted at the DNA level to characterize genetic diversity of D. viscose. This study covered 23 populations collected from six governorates (Irbid, Ajloun, Jarash, Zarqa, Al-Balqaa and Amman) in northern and central part of Jordan. Genetic diversity among wild populations was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Results showed that the mean genetic similarity percentage of D. viscose among populations was 73%. Clustering patterns distinguished the populations into four clusters. Clusters 1 and 2 separated populations collected from the northern part of Jordan from the populations collected from the central part of Jordan. However, there is still a need to conduct intra-population analysis to determine the superior plant(s) from the best locations to be the bases for establishing local breeding programme.

30. Jugabrata Das*, Sunil Bora and Ashok MB Baruah [Quality planting material for large scale production of Aloe vera leaves]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 359-363 (2017). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : jugabratadas642@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An efficient protocol of micropropagation of Aloe vera L. has been developed by using axillary shoot as explant from healthy matured plants. This protocol involves induction, proliferation and in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots and their acclimation under in vivo conditions. Axillary shoot gave the best response on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA+20.0 mg/l AdSO4, where greater number of explants (60%) were established in minimum duration (10 days). Multiple shoot proliferation and elongation were found to be the best on the medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/l BAP+0.2 mg/l NAA+20.0 mg/l AdSO4 in terms of maximum shoots per explant (12.8) with highest shoot length (3.6 cm). Highest rooting response (90%) with maximum roots per explant (10.8) having longest root length (6.8 cm) was found to be the best on medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l IBA and 0.5 mg/l NAA. Plantlets with developed shoot and roots were then transferred for hardening and acclimatized under the greenhouse polytunnels where 90% of survival rate was achieved.

31. G. CHAKRABORTY, DEBASHIS ROY* AND S. MONDAL (GHOSH) [Ready-mix formulation of buprofezin 23.1%+fipronil 3.85% SC for eco-friendly and economic management of brown plant hopper in rice]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 364-369 (2017). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, District Nadia (W. B.), India *(e-mail : debashisroy915@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the field effectiveness vis.-a-vis. non-target toxicity of ready mix formulation of an insect growth regulator buprofezin and one phenylpyrazole fipronil against brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) of rice during rabi 2014-15 and kharif 2015. The results revealed that buprofezin 23.1% + fipronil 3.85% SC at higher dosages effectively reduced the brown plant hopper population during the first and second season (0.00-21.33 and 0.00-24.33 number of nymphs and adults per 3 hills) as compared to standard check molecules (9.00-26.26 and 10.00-34.08 number of nymphs and adults per 3 hills), respectively. Highest mean per cent reduction of brown plant hopper population was encountered in buprofezin 23.1%+fipronil 3.85% SC @ 875 (75.4 and 81.38% during first and second season) and 750 (72.5 and 76.34% during first and second season) ml/ha, respectively, during both the seasons. The test chemistry at lower to medium dosages found very soft against the predatory fauna viz., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Oxyopes spp. and Lycosa spp. with mean per cent mortality of less than 5% during both the seasons. Highest yield was obtained from the higher dosages of buprofezin 23.1%+fipronil 3.85% SC (48.85 and 50.88 q/ha) as compared to standard checks (36.04-39.61 q/ha), whereas highest benefit was registered by the test chemistry at 750 ml/ ha (1: 5.79) which was considered as the recommended dose for the farming community from pest management, eco-toxicology and economic point of view.

32. Amal Al-Abbadi* [Effects of different honeybee races on morphological and reproduction characters of honeybee queens grown under Jordan apiaries conditions]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 370-378 (2017). Department of Plant Production and Protection Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117, Jordan *(e-mail : a.abbadi@bau.edu.jo; Honeyqueen25@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted during the period of February 2011 to October 2014 at the apiary of the Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Balqa Applied University in Jordan. Honeybee queens of Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera syriaca were raised to investigate some morphological and reproductive characteristics and to determine the most suitable race and hybrid to be reared under Jordan apiaries conditions. Honeybee races and the hybrid between them affected the queens’ weight, pre-oviposition period, volume of spermatheca, number of ovarioles in both ovaries, the length of ovary, beside the lasting of the colony (oviposition period) and the honey production. The hybrid bee race gave the largest queen cell size, the longest queen abdomen, the largest number of ovarioles of both ovaries, and the longest right ovariole, the long lasting colonies with the highest honey production for both the first and second year.

33. Z. P. Dube* and P. W. Mashela [In vitro characterization of Meloidogyne incognita juvenile egress and mortality under Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 379-383 (2017). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : zakheleni_dube@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Pure (98%) cucurbitacin A, which is active ingredient of Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, reduced egress and increased mortality of Meloidoygne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). However, in vitro information on how J2 egress and mortality would respond to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine in vitro the response of M. incognita J2 egress and mortality to increasing concentrations of Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, maximum inhibition concentration and possible reversibility of J2 egress inhibition and mortality when the phytonematicide was diluted. Eggs and freshly hatched J2 of M. incognita were exposed to phytonematicide concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0% in distilled water. Three independent experiments with three replications each were conducted in an incubator set at 25±3°C and counts were made at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure periods. Relative to untreated control, J2 egress inhibition and mortality increased with increase in phytonematicide concentration. Relative impact values of J2 egress inhibition and mortality when plotted against increasing phytonematicide concentrations exhibited density-dependent growth (DDG) patterns with the inhibition effects being irreversible. Maximum inhibition concentration for J2 egress could not be established, whereas for J2 mortality it was 3.49%. In conclusion, the irreversible suppressiveness of the product on both nematode developmental stages makes it an ideal alternative in nematode management.

34. K. Prasad*, Pallavi Neha and Milan Kumar Lal [Cultivation and post-harvest handling techniques of potential future crop ‘longan’ (Dimocarpus longan Lour) in Asia pacific region–A review]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 384-392 (2017). Division of Postharvest Technology ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : kprasadiari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour) is well known for its immense valued fruits and derived products having pharmaceutical and nutritive properties. It is cultivated in various countries of the world from more than 2200 years. FAO report and horticulture database of Asia pacific countries up to the year 2015 show that China and Australia contribute to the major share of its production and trade. This crop when managed properly serves as a source of farmer income in these countries. Know-how of production management of this crop based on their locality and climatic conditions can really help farmers to carry out its commercial cultivation. Whereas, on the other hand, horticulture status of countries like India reflects the scope to establish and explore production management of this crop. The upsurge in its production in last few years in Asia pacific region by the contribution of China, Vietnam and Australia sat an example to the countries like India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, etc. for carrying out its commercial cultivation. There are few geographical areas among these countries which have similar climatic conditions to that of longan producing countries among Asia pacific region. But for commercial cultivation information of all aspects of production and postharvest management is mandatory, which has been explored and compiled in this review. Furthermore, the short shelf life of fruits with a wide range of postharvest use gives the opportunity to explore new postharvest processing and preservation methods which have been covered in this review. This review emphasizes all important cultivation and postharvest practices followed in the Asia pacific region right from the selection of varieties, cultivation practices, special cultural operations and postharvest management. This review also puts light on remedies for challenges and problems which occur at the various levels of cultivation, harvesting, postharvest handling and processing. The management practices at both pre- and post-harvest handling stage holistically play an important role for farmers/growers returns of this possible future crop.

35. SUDESHNA BARUAH*, UTPAL KOTOKY AND KAUSHIK DAS [Macro-propagation of dwarf Cavendish banana]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 393-396 (2017). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : sudeshnabaruah17@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Effect of growing media on macro-propagation of dwarf Cavendish banana was studied in an experiment conducted during 2012 to 2014 at the Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three replications under ploy house condition. Evaluation of macro-propagation practice using sawdust as initiation media, supplemented with various biofertilizers resulted in highest number of uniform sized tertiary bud production when the decorticated corm cavity was poured with 40 ppm BAP (4 ml) and the media was supplemented with Bacillus subtilis alone and along with VAM. This treatment also performed better regarding shortest time requirement for production of first primary bud and total number of tertiary suckers, and other vegetative growth characters.

36. Sudeshna Chakraborty*, N. Sasidharan, Kalyanrao and M. N. Wawge [Molecular marker analysis for differentiating viable seeds in maize]. Res. on Crops 18 (2) : 397-399 (2017). Department of Seed Science & Technology Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : schakraborty.bio@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present work was to establish a true cause and effect relationship under controlled ageing and to check genetic changes in surviving and dead seeds. Six different maize genotypes were evaluated through 30 SSR primers. During the investigation, six primers showed four different types of variability viz., Type I, II, III and IV, among live and dead seeds. The results suggested that at least part of the variability could actually be explained to the degradation of DNA under ageing. However, to identify the genes related to germination, more number of SSR primers should be employed so that the whole spectrum of genes covering all the 10 chromosomes can be obtained. Therefore, to identify the genes responsible for germination, expression profiles of genes which are upregulated or downregulated during germination need to be investigated.

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