Volume 17, No. 4 (December, 2016)

By | January 21, 2017


1. 
OH DO KWON, SE JI JANG AND YONG IN KUK* [Control of sulfonylurea-resistant Diplachne fusca (DF) and reduction of rice yield by occurrence densities of DF in reclaimed paddy fields]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 641-646 (2016). Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon-540 742, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were to determine alternative herbicides for the control of Diplachne fusca in a greenhouse and quantify levels of yield reduction as affected by occurrence densities of Diplachne fusca in a reclaimed paddy field. An accession of D. fusca was 52-62 and 28-48% controlled even when treated with two times the recommended use rate of pyrazosulfuron+pyriminobac and methazosulfuron at two- or three-leaf stage of D. fusca, respectively. Other accessions were completely controlled by the above herbicides. The sulfonylurea-resistant D. fusca accession was controlled 100% with benzobicyclone+thiobencarb benzobicyclone+fentrazamide, fentrazamide+oxadiagyl, thoibencarb, and benzobicyclon when applied at 0 day after seeding and pyrimsulfan+ mefenacet, bensulfuron+mesotrione+pyriftalid+pretilachlor, imazosulfuron+ pyraclonil+ bromobutide, halosulfuron+indanofan+benfuresate, azimsulfuron+metamifop+ carfentrazon and bensulfuron+mefenacet+oxadiagyl when applied at 3-leaf stage, and cyhalofop-butyl and fenoxaprofop-P-ethyl when applied at 5-leaf stage. Rice yield was reduced 48 and 88% by densities of 10 and 30 plants per m2 in rice paddy fields, respectively. The rice yield loss was directly due to reduction of the number of panicle and spikelet.

2. XIAO-WEI LI, BING-SHENG LV, HAO-YU YANG, LI-XING WEI, HONG-YUAN MA, MING-MING WANG, RUI-FANG YANG, ZHONG-ZE PIAO, CHANG-JIE JIANG* AND ZHENG-WEI LIANG** [Exogenous application of cytokinins improves grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline-alkaline paddy field]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 647-651 (2016). North-east Institute of Geography and Agroecology Chinese Academy of Sciences-130102, Changchun, China *(e-mail : cjjiang@affrc.go.jp; **liangzw@iga.ac.cn)

ABSTRACT

Grain filling of rice is severely reduced under saline-alkaline conditions, resulting in loss of both grain yield and quality. Here we studied the potential improving effect of cytokinins (CKs) on grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline-alkaline paddy fields in the years of 2012 and 2013. The results showed that application of kinetin (KT, a synthetic CK; 10, 50 and 100 µM) to panicles significantly improved grain filling as shown by increase in 1,000-grain weight by 12.53% compared with the mock control treatment. Further, studies using opposite-paired primary rachis branches revealed that KT-application (50 µM) significantly accelerated the grain filling rate in both 2012 and 2013, and also increased the final 1,000-grain weight by 7.74% in 2013. These results demonstrate that CK-application can significantly improve grain filling, and thus may provide a new approach to increasing grain yield and quality of rice in saline alkaline paddy field.

3. MD. MONJURUL ISLAM, MD. HABIBUR RAHMAN, MD. SHAHIDUL ISLAM, MAMATA SAHA, MD. KAMRUZZAMAN, MD. SHAHIDUL HAQUE BIR SUG-WON ROH* AND KEE WOONG PARK** [Effect of different transplanting methods on yield of Binadhan-14 (Oryza sativa L.) at late boro season under climate change]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 652-656 (2016). 1Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : swroh98@korea.kr; **parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

To find out the suitable planting method under climate change on the yield and yield attributes of late boro rice in Bangladesh, an experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) farms at boro season of 2014-15. Three different sowing methods viz., direct seeding with sprouting seed & without sprouting seed and transplanting were practised to evaluate Binadhan-14 along with one check BRRI dhan 28. Due to climate change, water level goes downwards, government wants to replace boro areas as late boro to minimize irrigation water and keep the water level constant. In this study, Binadhan-14 showed higher grain yield than BRRI dhan 28. Comparative effect of transplanting method, the highest grain yield was produced in transplanting method. Direct seeding was seven days earlier than transplanted rice. However, considering crop duration direct seeding with sprouting seed will be effective by sacrificing grain yield.

4. TEJ PRATAP*, V. PRATAP SINGH, S. P. SINGH AND REKHA [Herbicides combination for control of complex weed flora in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 657-661 (2016). Department of Agronomy G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : drtpsingh2010@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G. B. P. U. A. & T., Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar, Uttarakhand during kharif seasons of 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides and their combinations to control the different weed flora in transplanted rice. The experimental site was silty clay loam in texture, medium in organic carbon (0.66%), available phosphorus (27.5 kg/ha) and potassium (243.5 kg/ha) with pH of 7.3. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 12 treatments replicated thrice. In the present study, Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis, Ammania baccifera , Caesulia axillaris , Cyperus iria and Cyperus difformis were found as major weeds in experimental field during both the years. The results revealed that among the herbicidal treatments penoxsulam+cyahalofop-butyl @ 135 g/ha recorded lowest total weed density which was statistically similiar to pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha fb ethoxysulfuron @ 18.75 g/ha, bispyribac-sodium+ethoxysulfuron @ 25+18.75 g/ha, pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha fb readymix of chlorimuron-ethyl +metsulfuron-methyl @ 4 g/ha and pendimethalin @ 1000 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g/ha. The total weed dry weight was significantly reduced with penoxsulam+cyahalofop-butyl @ 135 g/ha, pendimethalin @ 1000 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g/ha and pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha fb ethoxysulfuron @ 18.75 g/ha over rest of the herbicidal treatments. The highest weed control efficiency (98.2%) was also recorded with readymix of penoxsulam+cyahalofop-butyl @ 135 g/ha followed by pendimethalin @1000 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha, pretilachlor 750 g/ha fb ethoxysulfuron 18.75 g/ha, bispyribac-sodium+ethoxysulfuron @ 25+18.75 g/ha. The maximum grain yield (6.8 t/ha) was recorded with penoxsulam+cyahalofop-butyl @ 135 g/ha which was statistically at par with pendimethalin @ 1000 g/ha fb bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g/ha, twice hand weeding at 25 and 45 DAT, bispyribac-sodium+ethoxysulfuron @ 25+18.75 g/ha, pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha fb ethoxysulfuron @ 18.75 g/ha and readymix of triafamone+ethoxysulfuron @ 60 g/ha.

5. OK JAE WO, WEIQIANG JIA, HYUN TAK SIN, SUG-WON ROH* and KEE WOONG PARK** [Efficacy of the HPPD inhibitors benzobicyclon and tefuryltrione in rice fields planted using automated transplanters]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 662-665 (2016). Department of Crop Science Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea *(e-mail : swroh98@korea.kr; **parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide mixtures in controlling annual and perennial weeds in paddy fields where rice seedlings were transplanted using automated transplanters. The herbicide mixtures were benzobicyclon+pyrimisulfan SC (BP SC), tefuryltrione+ipfencarbazone SC (TI SC) and benzobicyclon+imazosulfuron+pyriminobac-methyl SC (BIP SC). The annual weeds Monochoria vaginalis, Murdannia keisak, Aeschynomene indica and Echinochloa crus-galli and perennial weeds Sagittaria trifolia, Eleocharis kuroguwai and Scirpus juncoides were identified in the experimental sites. Experimental results showed that both annual and perennial weeds were effectively controlled by the application of these herbicide mixtures. On the other hand, these herbicides did not have any effect on rice height, number of tillers, and culm and panicle length. The yield in herbicide treatments was similar to that in hand-weeded control. The results of this study indicated that HPPD inhibiting herbicides mixtures could be used to provide an effective weed control in paddy fields of Korea.

6. GURVINDER SINGH*, SUBHASH CHANDRA, S. K. GURU, VIMAL RAJ YADAV, TANUMAY MANDAL AND SAMARTH [Late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to crop establishment methods, chemical sprays and post-flowering irrigation in tarai belt of Uttarakhand]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 666-672 (2016). Department of Agronomy G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : guruagronomy@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, GBPUA & T Pantnagar, Uttarakhand to improve the late sown wheat productivity, profitability and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) through crop establishment methods, irrigation levels and chemical sprays. The experiment comprising two crop establishment methods (dry bed and wet bed), two irrigation levels (irrigation till flowering and irrigation till grain filling) and four foliar sprays [control (water spray), urea @ 2%, cytokinin @ 25 ppm and KNO3 @ 1%] was set in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The wheat grain yield and its yield attributes did not improve significantly due to crop establishment methods and irrigation levels. Foliar feeding of urea @ 2% at anthesis stage produced the maximum number of ears, grain weight/ear and 1000-grain weight. It also recorded significantly higher mean grain yield than control (water spray) by a margin of 13.9%. Besides, it also registered the maximum irrigation WUE. In terms of monetary advantage, foliar feeding of urea @ 2% and KNO3 @1% treatments fetched the maximum net returns (Rs. 33,809) and B : C ratio (1.29), respectively.

7. Dona Scaria*, G. Rajasree and B. Sudha [Effect of varieties and spacing on growth, yield and economics of cultivation of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as intercrop in coconut garden]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 673-678 (2016). College of Agriculture Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695 522, Thrissur (Kerala), India *(e-mail : donascaria16@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An investigation was conducted at the Coconut Research Station, Balaramapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala under Kerala Agricultural University during kharif season of 2015 to study the feasibility of cultivating baby corn as an intercrop in coconut garden, to assess the effect of varieties and spacing on the growth and productivity of baby corn and to work out the economics of cultivation. The field experiments were laid out in randomized block design with nine treatments replicated thrice during summer (March to May) and kharif season (August to October) in 2015. The treatments comprised combinations of three varieties of maize as baby corn and three spacings. The three varieties were : Rasi-4212 (V1), G-5414 (V2) and CO-6 (V3) and the three spacings were 30 x 20 cm (S1), 45 x 20 cm (S2) and 60 x 20 cm (S3). The plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index, dry matter content and green fodder production were, in general, significantly higher for the variety V3 (CO-6). Among the varieties, the V2 (G-5414) produced significantly higher cob yield with husk, marketable cob yield, net income and benefit : cost ratio during both the seasons which indicated the suitability of this variety especially bred for baby corn. Generally, wider spacing (60 x 20 cm) produced significantly higher plant height and number of leaves, while S2 (45 x 20 cm) resulted in significantly higher cob yield with husk, marketable cob yield, net income and benefit : cost ratio during both the seasons. In general, the baby corn variety G-5414 and a spacing of 45 x 20 cm were found to be superior for intercropping in coconut garden. In terms of yield and economic returns, maize hybrid CO-6 also performed well when cultivated as intercrop in coconut garden.

8. ATINDERPAL SINGH, J. S. KANG* AND HARMEET SINGH [Growth and development of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by non-leguminous forage cover crops and their spell of chopping under conservation agriculture]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 679-684 (2016). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : kangjs@pau.edu)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Students’ Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during kharif 2014 and 2015. The experiment was laid in split plot design with four replications and nine treatment combinations having three cover crops i. e. bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in main plots and three different times of chopping of cover crops i. e. 25, 35 and 45 days after sowing in sub-plots. Chopping had significant effect on the chlorophyll index, LAI and plant height of baby corn. The plots in which chopping of 45 days old cover crops was done recorded highest values of chlorophyll index, LAI and plant height of baby corn but they were statistically at par with values obtained from plots in which 35 days older cover crops were chopped. Different cover crops did not have any effect on fodder yield. Yield of baby corn was significantly affected by cover crops. The highest baby corn yield was observed after bajra, which was at par after maize but significantly higher than sorghum cover crop. Various phenological stages were also influenced by time of chopping of cover crops.

9. Tapas Ranjan Sahoo*, Milan Kumar Lal, U. K. Hulihalli and R. K. Paikaray [Effect of sequential application of herbicides on microbial activities and yield of maize]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 685-690 (2016). 3Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : tapas4237@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), Agriculture College, Dharwad to study the effect of sequential application of herbicides on microbial activities and yield of maize. Six herbicides, namely, glyphosate, paraquat, glufosinate ammonium, saflufenacil, halosulfuron and imazathapyr were tried as post-emergence in addition to pre-emergence application of atrazine. Totally nine treatments were tested using randomized block design having three replications with three controls [Weedy check, weed free check and standard recommended package of practices (RPP)]. Weed free check was recorded higher weed control index (WCI) than rest of the weed control methods at all the growth stages of maize. However, the treatment, pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 1 kg/ha fb post-emergence application of glyphosate @ 2.5 kg/ha recorded WCI of 92.12% next to weed free check. Weed free check recorded significantly higher grain yield (84.59 q/ha), stover yield (114.10 q/ha) and harvest index (42.57%). At different growth stages of maize, both pre- and post-emergence applications of herbicides, all the enzymatic activities in the soil were reduced as compared to untreated plots.

10. E. Rabiei, Nasser Majnoun Hoseini*, A. Maleki and M. R. Chaichi [Effect of uranium on seed germination and seedlings of sunflower and sorghum]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 691-697 (2016). 1Department of Agronomy Tehran University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mhoseini@ut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

The presence of heavy metals is one of the most important environmental stresses. Uranium is the heaviest trace element in nature. To investigate the effects of uranium on the germination and growth of sunflower and sorghum seeds, laboratory testing was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Various concentrations of uranium were 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that levels of uranium on all traits had a significant effect (1%). The results of analysis of variance for all traits except germination rate and germination percentage showed that sunflower and sorghum were significant at 1%. Seedling length, shoot length and seedling vigour index had the largest decrease with increasing concentrations of uranium. The comparison means showed that the sunflower was more tolerable on various levels of uranium especially at higher levels. A significant correlation was observed between germination percentage and rate of germination. Also a significant correlation was observed between vigour and seedling.

11. C. Vennila*, V. M. Sankaran and R. Parvez [Influence of sources of nutrients on leaf morpho-physiological and anatomical parameters of bajra napier hybrid grass]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 698-701 (2016). Department of Agronomy, Madras Veterinary College Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Chennai-600 007 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : vennilac@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The research work was carried out at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram during 2014 to evaluate the nitrogenous fertilization on leaf anatomical parameters of bajra napier hybrid grass. The experiment was carried out in sandy soil with treatments T1 : Organic alone, T2 : 100% recommended dose of fertilizer along with organic nutrients, T3 : 50% of recommended dose of fertilizers along with organic, T4 : 100% of recommended dose of fertilizer alone and T5 : Control. The design was completely randomized with four replications. Leaf parameters such as leaf width, length, leaf area and specific leaf area were computed. The anatomical parameters calculated were epidermis, vascular tissues, mesophyll, schlerenchyma and parenchymatous bundle sheath cells. The results showed that application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer along with organic nutrients was found to have higher leaf parameters and anatomical structures which indicate the necessity of nitrogen application for better productivity of bajra napier hybrid grass.

12. SURAJYOTI PRADHAN*, J. S. BOHRA, SHIV BAHADUR, M. K. SINGH, LALA RAM AND RAJANI [Effect of fertility levels and cow urine application on the growth and uptake of nutrients of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss]]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 702-705 (2016). Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Research Farm Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : surajyotipradhan.18@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2013 under irrigated condition at Varanasi to study the effect of fertility levels and cow urine application on growth and N, P, K content of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss]. Application of 100% fertility level and 900 litre cow urine significantly increased the dry matter accumulation, physiological growth and N, P, K uptake of mustard in comparison to 50% RDF and control, respectively. Application of 100% RDF produced 12.1 and 31.2% higher seed yield than 75 and 50% RDF, respectively. Regarding the urine application, the increasing levels of urine application up to 900 l cow urine/ha enhanced the yield attributes as well as seed and stover yield. The investigation clearly indicated that under irrigated ecosystem of Varanasi no reduction in the recommended fertilizer dose to mustard was possible. Increasing levels of cow urine application up to 900 l/ha as basal dose markedly improved growth parameters, yield attributes as well assessed and stover yield and nutrient uptake of mustard. Fertilizer application at 120 kg N+60 kg P2O5+60 kg K2O+40 kg S/ha and 900 l cow urine/ha produced maximum yield and proved most remunerative.

13. S. B. Pandey, D. D. Tiwari* and Ranvir Singh [Status of available sulphur and micronutrients and their relationship with soil properties in alluvial soils of district Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 706-709 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : ddtiwari2014@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

GPS based 337 random surface (0-15 cm) soil samples were collected from all 19 blocks of district Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh during May and June 2014. The collected soil samples were analyzed for available S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B. The analytical results showed that the deficiencies of these nutrients were to the extent of S 40.95%, Zn 38.29%, B 16.91%, Fe 8.90%, Cu 6.82% and Mn 6.23% in the soil samples. Significant positive correlations were found between O. C. and nutrients in the question of district Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh. Considering critical nutrient index as 1.5, none of the analyzed nutrients came in low category. Negative correlations were also observed between nutrients with pH and CaCO3 except boron which were positively correlated with CaCO3.

14. P. Raghavendra* and Shailaja Hittalmani [Progress in partitioning of rice germplasm into restorers and maintainers for utilization in hybrid rice technology : A review]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 710-708 (2016). Marker Assisted Selection Laboratory Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : raghavendra9078@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The use of cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system (CMS) in developing hybrids in rice is possible only when effective maintainers and restorers are identified. This could be achieved by either pollen and spikelet fertility test or molecular markers or in combination of both. In the present review, authors have made an effort to assess the earlier studies regarding classification of rice germplasm into restorers/maintainers and provided in nutshell. Abundant works have been done by scholars in the past. In most of the studies, the proportion of restorer was less than partial restorer, maintainer and partial maintainer. We came to know that the fertility restoration was genotype specific. In other way, the genotype which is behaving as restorer for one CMS line may behave as maintainer for other CMS line. The variation in the behaviour of fertility restoration indicated that either the fertility restoring genes were different or that their penetrance and expressivity varied with the genotypes of the parents or modifiers of female background. The identified effective restorers could be used for exploitation of heterosis through hybrids. Whereas effective maintainers could be used for development of new CMS lines through successive backcross breeding thereby converting fertile line into sterile line.

15. Elham Mirjani and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Correlation coefficients, stepwise regression and path analysis of grain yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 719-722 (2016). Department of Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Indirect selection in early generations through traits having heritability higher than yield as well as correlated significantly with seed yield is one of the most important breeding procedures. Production of new cultivars adaptable to different environments also has importance for wheat breeders. Cross among new cultivars and selection of superior genotypes among their progenies based on suitable traits is efficient breeding procedure. Therefore, in order to determine the most yielding bread wheat genotypes, identification of the traits effective on seed and protein yield as well as parents of the best crosses, an experiment was conducted during 2014-15. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Bread wheat genotypes comprised Parsi and Sivand cultivars along with 18 lines entitled M-90-3 to M-90-20. Correlation, stepwise regression and path analysis designated that grain filling rate and number of spikes/m2 were the efficient indirect selection criteria to increase seed yield. Increasingly, peduncle length, number of seeds/spike and number of spikelets/spike were recommended to improve spike yield, while peduncle diameter, days to flowering, days to maturity and plant height for photosynthetic reservoir.

16. Preeti Sharma*, M. S. Punia and M. C. Kamboj [Gene effects and combining ability for yield and quality traits in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 723-728 (2016). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : sharmapreeti.genetics@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Combining ability analysis was done using 63 F1 hybrids and their parents obtained from Line x Tester mating design for six quantitative traits including yield and quality traits. Both general and specific combining ability variances were highly significant for almost all the characters studied. The variance due to sca was more pronounced than variance due to gca for all the characters indicating the importance of non-additive genetic effects in the material studied which favours the production of hybrid cultivars. Based on gca effects among the lines, HKI 288-2, HKI 1126, HKI 536YN, HKI 1040-4 and HKI 323 contributed maximum favourable genes for yield and quality traits. Among the testers, HKI 163 and HKI 161 were desirable for both grain yield and QPM traits. Also HKI 170 (1+2) being good QPM inbred lines were found good pollinators mainly for lysine content. HKI 288-2 x HKI 5072-BT(1-2)-2 possessed significant sca effects for starch content and lysine content and cross HKI 488 x HKI 170 (1+2) and HKI 659-3 x HKI 193-2 were best for QPM characters. For quality traits, cross HKI 323 x HKI 170 (1+2) was promising for lysine content, tryptophan content, oil content and starch content. Best cross combinations could be advanced further for isolation of transgressive segregants and also to develop good inbred lines.

17. Shivani Balouria, R. K. Mittal, V. K. Sood and Shayla Bindra* [Combining ability studies for seed yield and its component traits in urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 729-734 (2016). Department of Crop Improvement CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : bindrashayla@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Study on combining ability was carried out using line x tester analysis involving 12 lines and three testers of urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]. The relative estimates of variance due to specific combining ability (sca) were found to be higher than general combining ability (gca) variances indicating predominance of non-additive gene action. The gca estimates suggested that if the yield traits are to be improved through hybridization and selection then priority should be given to the male parent Palampur-93 and female parents KU-553, TU-‘17-4, HPBU-126 and IPU-05-13. On the basis of specific combining ability (sca), KU-553 x Him Mash-1 and DU-1 x Palampur-93 were found to be potential cross combinations involving good general combiner as one of the parents; possessing resistance to anthracnose leaf spot disease. KUG-216 x Palampur-93 involved both the parents as good general combiners exhibiting superior per se performance. Thus, breeding procedures like biparental matings and/or diallel selective matings followed by pedigree method or reciprocal recurrent selections can be utilized for breaking undesirable linkages followed by the isolation of superior transgressive segregants from KU-553 x Him Mash-1, DU-1 x Palampur-93 and KUG-216 x Palampur-93.

18. V. K. Nirmalkar*, K. R. Sahu AND V. V. Pashte [Evaluation of pheromone trap and different insecticides against rice stem borer]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 735-739 (2016). Krishi Vigyan Kendra (IGKV) Sarkanda Farm, Bilaspur-495 006 (Chhatisgarh), India *(e-mail : vinod198782@yahoo.in)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted in rice crop during kharif season of 2013-14 at Nawgaon and Pendarwa Block-Bilha, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh (India). Pheromone trap and some insecticides i. e. fipronil, chlorantraniliprole, cartap hydrochoride and neem seed kernel extract were tested against rice stem borer. Least damage was noted in the treatment (Application of chlorotraniprol 0.5 GR @ 10 kg/ha after 25 days after transplanting+spay chlorotranipro l18.5 SC @ 60 ml/acre at booting stage) which recorded lowest percentage of DH (1.16%), WE (0.52%) and highest grain yield of 47.45 q/ha. This was followed by the treatment with application of cartap hydrochoride 4 GR @ 25 kg/ha after 25 days after transplanting+spray of cartap hydrochoride 50 SP @ 400 g/acre at booting stage. All the tested insecticides were found very effective against yellow stem borer (YSB). In case of farmers’ practice, the lowest grain yield was recorded i. e. 30.80 q/ha. Over the season the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 2.57) in the treatment (Application of cartap hydrochoride 4 GR @ 25 kg/ha after 25 days after transplanting+spray of cartap hydrochoride 50 SP @ 400 g/acre at booting stage) followed by application of pheromone trap @ 25 kg/ha at tillering stage after 25 days of transplanting.

19. R. K. Verma, K. Kumari, T. Saha* and S. N. Singh [Studies on the biology and evaluation of different plant-based powders as grain protectant against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) on maize grains]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 740-744 (2016). Department of Entomology Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813 210 (Bihar), India *(e-mail : tamoghnasaha1984@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To understand the biology and the response due to application of different powders as grain protectant against Sitotroga cereallela in stored maize, a trial was conducted at laboratory conditions for two consecutive years 2013-14 and 2014-15. Based on experimental findings, the biological events of S. cereallela indicated that the incubation period ranged from 4.33 to 5.50 days with mean duration of 5.05±0.30 days. The larval period recorded in the range from 18.33 to 20.47 days with mean duration of 19.26 ± 0.50 days. Similarly, the mean duration of pupal period was recorded 8.00±0.16 days with a range of 7.66 to 8.33 days. The adult longevity was 3.68±0.30 days with the range from 3.06 to 4.33 days. Thus, the total life cycle varied from 30.99 to 34.13 days with mean duration of 32.31±0.77 days. Effectiveness of different powders @ 8 g/kg grain against S. cerealella on maize grain revealed that kaolinite was found to be the most effective in reducing per cent damaged grain (7.57%) followed by neem leaf powder which recorded 12.70% damage. Similarly, weight loss of maize grain was found to be lowest with kaolinite (5.92%) followed by neem leaf powder (9.44%). In our findings, the information on biology of S. cerealella will be helpful for management in this zone of Bihar. Kaolinite and neem leaf powder can be incorporated in pest management because they are safe and environment-friendly instead of using synthetic chemical pesticides.

20. P. Suneeta*, K. Eraivan Arutkani Aiyanathan and S. Nakkeeran [Efficacy of Bacillus spp. in the management of collar rot of Gerbera under protected cultivation]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 745-752 (2016). Department of Plant Pathology Centre for Plant Protection Studies Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : suneeag16@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The incidence of collar rot of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook (Sclerotium rolfsii) was recorded in a survey during 2013-14 in Ooty and Yercaud, Tamil Nadu, India. The mean value of rot incidence was 6.95% in various varieties. In vitro screening was done with 26 isolates of Bacillus spp. against collar rot pathogen. Among them, five strains of Bacillus spp. showed highest antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii. Also the crude antibiotics were extracted from these strains and tested against the pathogen in vitro. An extensive study of antimicrobial compounds was done by subjecting the strain BSD 1 to GC/MS analysis. The effective strains were applied through root dipping and soil drenching @ 5 ml/l either individually or in consortia in polyhouse and their efficacy was tested in relation to disease incidence and growth parameters of Gerbera.

21. L. Khonglah*, B. N. Hazarika, L. Wangchu, Barun Singh, S. K. Pattanaik and Siddhartha Singh [Effect of stockosorb and mulching on growth and yield of Assam lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.]]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 753-757 (2016). Department of Fruit Science Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102 (Arunachal Pradesh), India *(e-mail : lakidonkhonglah@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The effects of stockosorb and mulching on the growth, yield and quality of Assam lemon were investigated in this study. This experiment was carried out at the Fruit Research Farm of College of Horticulture and Forestry, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh in the year 2014-15. The experiment was carried out in factorial randomized block design with 12 treatments which were replicated three times. The treatments included, S0M0=No stockosorb with no mulch, S0M1=No stockosorb with black polythene mulch, S0M2=No stockosorb with sawdust mulch, S0M3=No stockosorb with rice husk mulch, S1M0=50 g stockosorb with no mulch, S1M1=50 g stockosorb with black polythene mulch, S1M2=50 g stockosorb with sawdust mulch, S1M3=50 g stockosorb with rice husk mulch, S2M0=100 g stockosorb with no mulch, S2M1=100 g stockosorb with black polythene mulch, S2M2=100 g stockosorb with sawdust mulch and S2M3=100 g stockosorb with rice husk mulch. Experimental results showed that the incorporation of the different stockosorb concentrations and mulching regimes had a positive effect on growth parameters. Highest increase in plant height (8.85%) and canopy spread (12.84%) was recorded by S1M1, i. e. 50 g stockosorb with black polythene mulch. The treatment combinations also had a significant influence on yield parameters where S1M1 recorded the highest number of fruits per plant (68.16) and fruit yield per plant (7.99 kg). S1M1 also recorded significantly higher soil moisture content (27.93%). Thus, it was concluded that although some of the treatment combinations showed significant results, S1M1 (50 g stockosorb+black polythene mulch) is considered as the ideal treatment combination for significant production.

22. SUKANYA GOGOI*, UTPAL KOTOKY AND KAUSHIK DAS [Effect of GA3 and NAA on reproductive growth and yield development of Assam lemon (Citrus limon L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 758-762 (2016). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : sukanyagogoi21@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The use of plant growth regulators has become a widespread practice in the citrus producing countries of the world to control fruit drop at various stages during fruit growth and development. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two plant growth regulators on reproductive growth and yield development of Assam lemon (Citrus limon L.). Foliar applications of different concentrations of GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm) and NAA (10, 20 and 30 ppm) at pre- and post-flowering stages significantly altered reproductive physiology of the crop. GA3 appreciably reduced the time taken for flower initiation compared to control. The duration from flowering to harvest also decreased significantly by GA3. Yield and yield attributing characters like number of flowers per shoot, highest fruit set, fruit retention and number of fruits per plant were also positively influenced by GA3 treatment. The highest yield (55.92 t/ha) was recorded in GA3 (60 ppm) treated plants.

23. ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA*, R. CHOUDHARY, K. KUMARI and I. S. SOLANKI [Management options for control of damping off and root rot diseases in papaya]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 763-768 (2016). 1ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute Regional Station Pusa, Samastipur-848 125 (Bihar), India *(e-mail : ashish.pathology@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Papaya seedlings and trees are commonly affected by damping off disease in nursery bed and root rot disease in field, respectively. The investigations were carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute Regional Station, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar (India) during the years 2014-15 and 2015-16. In the first experiment, fungicides were screened to evaluate their effectiveness for the management of damping off disease in nursery bed and in second experiment, application of macro and micronutrients and soil drenching with fungicides were evaluated for their effectiveness against root rot disease and bumpiness disorder in papaya. The seed treatment with copper oxychloride resulted in 63.65% seed germination along with 96% control of seedling damping off disease, followed by metalaxyl + mancozeb with 59.13% seed germination and 94% control of seedling damping off disease in papaya. Soil drenching with metalaxyl+mancozeb resulted in 93% control of root rot disease and 48% increase in fruit yield over control, indicating their effectiveness in root rot management in papaya. Balanced fertilization with macro and micronutrients (N : P : K : Zn : B : S @ 100 : 100 : 100 : 10 : 5 : 30 g/plant) reduced the level of root rot disease and completely controlled the bumpiness disorder in papaya fruit. These approaches can be combined together in a unified way for the holistic management of seedling damping off in nursery bed, root rot disease in field and bumpiness in papaya fruits. The data generated will be important for the management of damping off, root rot and bumpiness disorder in papaya on resource poor farms of eastern Gangetic plains of India.

24. CAI Cheng-Zhi*, MO Hong-Lan and LIANG Ying [Chinese potato yield projected on ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) model basis]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 769-776 (2016). 1Guizhou University of Finance and Economics Huayan Rd, Huaxi District, Guiyang City, dell-pc 550025, China *(e-mail : caichengzhi@263.net)

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the potentials of Chinese potato yield per unit are estimated by light use efficiency (LUE) and agricultural ecological zoning (AEZ) model, and projected by ARIMA model. The results showed that maximum potential of Chinese potato yield in the future estimated by AEZ model was 43 500 kg/ha, while its yields in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020, projected on ARIMA model basis, were 16,575 kg/ha, 16,942 kg/ha, 17,129 kg/ha, 17,318 kg/ha, 17,509 kg/ha and 17,702 kg/ha, respectively. The longer the time projected, the less reliable the result. And the potential of Chinese potato yield will become increasingly difficult to rise in the future. The results are of reference significance to the potato production in China and even similar places else in the world.

25. Sheng Chen, Xianzhi Zhou*, Yufen Wu**, Yang Chen, Li Zhang and Weiguang Zhang [Impact of Cucurbita and Cucumis melo rootstocks on aroma volatile compounds in Oriental melon fruits]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 777-783 (2016). Agricultural Bio-resources Research Institute Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou-350 003, China *(e-mail : xianzhizhou@126.com; **yifenwu1965@163.com)

ABSTRACT

Few studies were associated with the influence of rootstock on Oriental melon volatile aroma compounds. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether Cucurbita and Cucumis melo rootstocks could influence the aroma volatile compounds of Oriental melon fruits. The effects of grafting two rootstock genotypes, Cucurbita moschata × Cucurbita moschata hybrid [Nanzhen No. 1 (NZ1)] and Oriental pickling melo (OPM, Cucumis melo L. var. conomon Makino), on the volatile compounds of Oriental melon ‘Liyu’ fruits were studied. Relatively low levels of the volatiles responsible for sweet notes were observed in fruits from grafted plants. However, the levels of key aroma esters ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and phenyl methyl acetate were similar in grafted and non-grafted samples. Grafted samples were tasted similar to non-grafted samples. Grafting to Cucurbita rootstock NZ1 and C. melo rootstock OPM resulted in ‘Liyu’ of acceptable quality.

26. Shubhashree Priyadarshinee Das, A. R. Mandal, Eslavath Rambabu and Tarique Aslam [Studies on fruit yield of different varieties of tomato under new alluvial zone of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 784-787 (2016). Department of Vegetable Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : shubhashree23@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out during rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia (West Bengal), India. The experiment consisted of four tomato varieties, namely, Pusa 120, Pant T 3, Arka Vikash and Pathar kuchi and five flower flushes of each variety. The experiment was laid out in two-factor randomized block design with three replications. Most of the characters were found to be statistically significant with respect to variety, flower flush and their interaction. The variety Pusa 120 under its third flush recorded highest fruit yield (4.23 kg/plant) followed by Pant T 3 variety.

27. S. K. Sharma*, A. K. Naidu and S. P. Mishra [Productivity, quality and storability of onion (Allium cepa) as influenced by different levels of nitrogen and sulphur]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 788-792 (2016). Department of Crop Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna-485 780 (M. P.), India *(e-mail : santks05@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at medium black soil of Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh to study the productivity, quality and storability of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by different levels of nitrogen and sulphur. The experiment was conducted with five levels of nitrogen (0, 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg/ha) and four levels of sulphur (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg/ha) and their all possible combinations in factorial randomized block design with three replications in onion variety ‘Agrifound Light Red’. Among different levels of nitrogen, the highest level under consideration (N4 : 140 kg N/ha) recorded significantly highest bulb yield (313.69 kg/ha) besides the significantly superior quality and storability parameters over remains. In case of sulphur levels, the second highest level under consideration (S2 : 30 kg S/ha) proved superior over S2 : 45 kg S/ha in terms of productivity (313.97 kg/ha) and quality (TSS 11.20%). However, storability parameters recorded significantly superior with control (S0 : 0 kg S/ha) which recorded minimum physiological weight loss (4.57 and 5.98% at 30 and 60 DAH, respectively) and lowest rotting per cent (3.60 and 10.66 at 30 and 60 DAH, respectively).

28. A. M. Shruthi*, G. Raviraja Shetty, M. Ganapathi and B. A. Vaishnavi [Standardization of seed and vegetative propagation techniques in Embelia ribes Burm f. : An endangered medicinal plant]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 793-799 (2016). Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops College of Horticulture (UAHS), Mudigere-577 132 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : shruthimarkanja@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Embelia ribes Burm f. is a threatened species found in Western Ghats, which is an important medicinal plant, fruits of which are used in variety of ayurvedic formulations. Natural regeneration through seeds is very difficult due to small embryo and abortive nature. Propagation through cuttings is also very difficult due to very poor rooting. Therefore, the work was initiated during 2015-16 to standardize seed and vegetative propagation of this medicinal plant. Among the different germination inducing treatments, the seed treated with GA3 750 ppm recorded early germination (30 days), highest germination rate (2.07%), seedling vigour (2258.13), seedling height (44.57 cm), number of leaves (23.33), etc. In case of vegetative propagation, hard wood cuttings were used and treated with IBA, NAA and combination of IBA and NAA. Among the treatments, IBA and combination of IBA and NAA had a significant positive effect on the percentage of rooting. Hardwood cuttings with two or three leaves, treated with IBA in 3000 mg/l concentration appeared to be a successful method for vegetative propagation (36% rooting) for producing sufficient number of propagules of this species. Significant increase in number of new root, leaves and shoots and length of roots were recorded in stem cuttings treated with 3000 mg/l IBA.

29. Tanuja Tiwari* and Preeti Chaturvedi [Efficient in vitro establishment and multiplication of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth through in vitro raised seedlings]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 800-807 (2016). Department of Biological Sciences G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : tanuja.tiwari9@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The aim of present investigation was to develop a highly reproducible and well documented protocol for in vitro germination and multiplication of highly valuable medicinal herb, Picrorhiza kurroa via callus mediated organogenesis using the axenic epicotyls originated from in vitro germinated seedlings. Highest germination percentage (88.6) was observed in stratified seeds (40C for 5 days) treated with 100 mg/l GA3 and maintained at 25 ±10C under continuous light conditions. Out of different combinations of plant growth regulators tested, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)+0.75 mg/l kinetin (Kn)+0.75 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BAP) was found best for callus induction and further proliferation. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 1.0 mg/l concentration in hormonal combination of 2.0 mg/l Kn and 0.75 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was found to be optimum to produce highest shooting response (95%) with an average number of 11.40 shoots per calli. The rooting was optimized using 0.5 mg/l IAA with 85% response. The plantlets with well-developed roots were hardened and were successfully acclimatized in field conditions. This protocol may offer the potential to substantially reduce the pressure of commercial need of this valuable herb on wild stock.

30. Sumit Deswal*, S. K. Tehlan and V. S. Mor [Rhizobium inoculation and leaf cutting management impact assessment on seed quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 808-811 (2016). Department of Vegetable Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : deswal.sumit07@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2013-14 at Vegetable Research Farm and laboratories of Department of Seed Science & Technology, CCSHAU, Hisar. The factorial experiment laid out in randomized block design (RBD) as well as in completely randomized design (CRD) was conducted for field and laboratory parameters, respectively. The fenugreek genotypes (HM-257, HM-273, HM-291, HM-293, HM-346, HM-348, HM-355, HM-444, Hisar Suvarana and Hisar Sonali) were sown with two sets of treatments (Rhizobium inoculation and without Rhizobium) and three levels of leaf cuttings (no cutting, one cutting at 30 days, two cuttings at 30 and 40 days after sowing). Test weight appeared slightly better in no cutting than one and two cuttings in both the treatments irrespective of the genotypes. Seed inoculation with Rhizobium culture influenced the seed test weight and the maximum test weight was observed with genotype HM-348 (13.83 g) with Rhizobium treatment. The maximum standard germination observed at HM-355 (97.99%) with Rhizobium treatment at no cutting and without Rhizobium treatment maximum standard germination was recorded by genotype HM-355 (96.90%) with no cutting. The maximum seedling vigour was observed for genotype HM-291 (2524.47) with Rhizobium treatment in no cutting and without Rhizobium treatment maximum seedling vigour was recorded by genotype HM-348 (2314.07) no cutting. The genotypes HM-348, HM-291 and HM-355 were observed superior for the seed quality parameters. Seed inoculation with Rhizobium culture influenced the test weight and germination percentage. In successive leaf cutting treatments irrespective of genotypes, there was decrease in seed quality parameters. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for almost all seed quality parameters.

31. SE JI JANG, YOUNG BEOM YUN, SANG SU KIM AND YONG IN KUK* [Changes in soil chemical characteristics and yield of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) by treatments of agricultural by-products for long periods]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 812-816 (2016). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon-540 742, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of agricultural by-products such as rice bran and barley bran on growth promotion of Chinese chive and taro and changes of soil chemical characteristics in organic cultivations. Shoot fresh weight of Chinese chive was significantly increased in rice bran and compost treatments in a three-year experiment but not in other materials. The shoot fresh weight of Chinese chive was increased 22-116% by rice bran and compost treatments compared with untreated control. In the second year, tuber fresh weight of taro was increased 46% by a barley bran treatment compared with untreated control. However, in the third year, shoot fresh weight of taro was increased 30% by a barley bran treatment compared with untreated control. pH in Chinese chive fields was significantly increased by treatments of agricultural by-products compared with untreated control. However, pH in taro fields was significantly reduced by treatments of agricultural by-products compared with untreated control. Generally, the amount of available P2O5, K, Ca and Mg in Chinese chive fields was significantly higher in agricultural by-products and compost treatments than in untreated control. In addition, the amount of organic matter and available P2O5 in taro fields was higher in barley bran, burned barley bran and compost treatments than in other agricultural by-products and untreated control. Thus, some agricultural by-products can be used for yield increase in Chinese chive and taro organic cultivation.

32. T. V. JYOTHI* AND N. S. HEBSUR [Response of graded levels of soil and foliar applied potassium fertilizers on growth and yield of Bt cotton in Vertisol]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 817-822 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : veeranna.jyothi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Effect of potassium on yield and nitrogen on vegetative growth tends to be more critical when deficiency is expected in a field. Foliar applications of potassium may be used to supplement soil applications to maximize yields and improve quality of cotton. A cotton hybrid MRC-7351 was sown at Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad in Vertisol under rainfed condition with protective irrigation to check the effect of potassium on growth and yield of Bt cotton during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The crop was sown in a randomized complete block design and was replicated thrice. Pooled data of two years indicated that the best results were found when cotton plants were treated with 100 : 50 : 75 (RDNP+150% RDK)+2% KNO3 foliar spray at 70, 90 and 110 DAS (T8). Moreover, this treatment also produced significantly higher yield (2689 kg/ha).

33. Kamla K. Choudhary, Rita Dahiya* and V. K. Phogat [Effect of drip and furrow irrigation methods on yield and water use efficiency in cotton]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 823-828 (2016). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : ritajbd@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Adoption of drip irrigation method offers opportunity for efficient use of water and higher economic yield of cotton under irrigated conditions in arid and semi-arid regions. A field experiment was carried out at the Soil Research Farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2014 for evaluating the different methods of irrigation for enhancing water use efficiency in cotton. The experiment was consisted of three methods of irrigation (drip, furrow and flood irrigation) and four cultivars of cotton viz., Bt (MRC-7017), Bt (RCH-134), American (H-1236) and Desi (HD-123). The results indicated that drip irrigation significantly increased plant height, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, and number of monopods and sympods per plant. The application of irrigation with drip and furrow methods resulted in increase in seed cotton yield over flood method. The seed cotton yield was recorded highest of 2671 kg/ha of American (H-1236) followed by 2510 kg/ha of Bt (MRC-7017), 2287 kg/ha of Desi (HD-123) and 2151 kg/ha of Bt (RCH-134) in drip irrigation. The water use efficiency (WUE) was found highest in drip irrigation as compared to other methods in all the four cotton cultivars. The highest WUE of 0.58 kg/m3 was found in American (H-1236), followed by Bt (MRC-7017), Desi (HD-123) and lowest in Bt (RCH-134). The results conclude that drip irrigation has potential to increase the seed cotton yield and water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid region of the state.

34. Subhashree Dihingia* and Bijit Kr. Saud [Effect of type and time of pruning on flowering behaviour of Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) in sub-tropical landscape]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 829-833 (2016). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : subhashreedihingia@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of type and time of pruning on flowering behaviour of Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) in sub-tropical landscape during 2013-15. The experiment was laid out in two-factor randomized block design comprising four different levels of pruning viz., P0 (unpruned), P1 (45 cm height from ground level), P2 (60 cm height from ground level), P3 (75 cm height from ground level) and five different times of pruning viz., T1 (15th October 2013), T2 (15th November 2013), T3 (15th December 2013), T4 (15th January 2014) and T5 (15th February 2014). Among the levels of pruning, pruning at height of 75 cm from ground level was found to be best for increasing flowering period, quantity and quality. It induced early flowering (bud visibility at 151.53 days, bud opening at 165.33 days, full bloom at 177.87 days), greater flower number 699.33/plant and longer flowering duration 109.73 days. Among the months, February (2014) month responded best in terms of flower earliness (bud visibility at 102.25 days, bud opening at 117.58 days, full bloom at 132.50 days), more number of flowers per plant i. e. 676.33/plant and longer flowering duration 105.92 days compared to other pruning levels and time. The treatment combination pruning at 75 cm from ground levels in February month was the best for good quality flower production.

35. M. HAJONG*, P. C. ATRAM AND S. S. MANE [Green Stem Syndrome of soybean in Akola district of Maharashtra]. Res. on Crops 17 (4) : 834-835 (2016). School of Crop Protection Department of Plant Pathology, College of PG Studies Central Agricultural University, Ribhoi-793 103 (Meghalaya), India *(e-mail : monikahajong@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Green Stem Syndrome (GSS) is a soybean disorder in which stems remain green after pods and seeds are fully mature and ready-to-harvest. The causes of soybean GSS are not actually known. During the field survey 2013-14, GSS in soybean was found in most warm and dry season in Akola. Green stem syndrome causes several problems, including tough combining or delayed harvest due to reduced seed quality. This can also result in yield loss due to moisture and shattering. Plants affected by GSS may be distributed randomly or clustered in patches in the field. Green stem disorder directly and indirectly affects the harvesting and quality of seeds.

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