Volume 17, No. 3 (September, 2016)

By | October 14, 2016

1. SE JI JANG, YOUNG BEOM YUN, MI RAN JE, SANG SU KIM, OH DO KWON AND YONG IN KUK* [Physiological responses of resistant and susceptible rice cultivars to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 399-406 (2016). 1Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : yikuk@sunchon.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were to quantify resistance levels in different rice biotypes to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, benzobicyclon, mestrione, and tefuryltrione and determine mechanisms of resistance of benzobicyclon in different rice biotypes. In terms of shoot fresh weight, japonica-type, Ilmibyeo and Baekokchal were 17- and 53-73-fold more resistant to benzobicyclon and mestrione, respectively, than indica x japonica-type, Hyangmibyeo-1 and Dasanbyeo. However, responses of shoot fresh weight in rice cultivars of japonica-type to tefuryltrion were similar to those of indica x japonica-type. Carotenoids and chlorophylls contents of the japonica-type, Iilmibyeo and Baekokchal were also less affected by the benzobicyclon, than the indica x japonica-type, Hyangmibyeo-1 and Dasanbyeo. The levels of MDA and H2O2 in rice cultivars of indica x japonica-type after benzobicyclone treatment were much higher than those of rice cultivars of japonica-type. Thus, the resistance in rice cultivars of japonica-type may be caused by the result of less lipid peroxidation, less H2O2, higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents when exposed to HPPD-inhibitibg herbicide, benzobicyclon.

2. O. Kumara*, H. G. Sannathimmappa, Vijay S. Danaraddi, D. N. Basavarajappa and Akmal pasha [Resource conservation technology in different paddy ecosystems]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 407-414 (2016). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on IFS Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Kathalagere, District Davanagere-577 229 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : kumarabar@gmail.com; mccsrk@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

Different paddy cultivation methods were introduced to offset the heavy cost of traditional paddy cultivation by minimizing the use of fertilizers, pesticides and water utility by scientific management practices thereby increasing the profits of the farmers. As the agricultural land is shrinking and water availability for irrigation is declining with time. Rice consumes 3000-5000 litres of water for producing one kg of rice depending on different methods of cultivation. To find out efficient resource utilization methods, a long term investigation was carried out on conservation agriculture in paddy eco-systems at Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Tq. Channagiri, Davanagere District, Karnataka, India from 2009 to 2013. Among different methods of rice cultivation, system of rice intensification (SRI) paddy cultivation has recorded highest grain yield of (5471 kg/ha), water use efficiency (101.8 kg/ha-cm) and 40.15% water saving over normal/traditional method of rice cultivation. Similarly, it was recorded 14.29% higher grain yield and additional returns of Rs. 23431 over normal/traditional rice cultivation. Adoption of drum seeder has given 6.6% higher grain yield with an additional return of Rs. 20168 and 2.70% water saving over normal planting. Among different rice cultivation methods, highest water saving was recorded in Aerobic method of paddy cultivation (50.05%). Based on the above results, we conclude that adoption of system of rice intensification (SRI) showed higher water use efficiency, productivity and profitability and it was found to be the best method of effective utilization of available natural resource (water) in paddy cultivation.

3. MD. SHAHIDUL ISLAM, MD. MONJURUL ISLAM, MD. HABIBUR RAHMAN, MD. SHAHIDUL HAQUE BIR, JEUNG JOO LEE* AND KEE WOONG PARK** [Effect of herbicides on weed infestation and yield in boro rice]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 415-420 (2016). 1Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : jeunglee@gnu.ac.kr; **parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the agronomy field of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh, under wet land condition during December 2014 to May 2015. The aim was to see the effects of the weed control treatments on crop growth and yield in boro rice. Five selected herbicides (Metsulfuron-methyl 20 WG at 50 g/ha, pretilachlor 500 EC at 988 ml/ha, bensulfuran methyl 4%+acetachor 14% 18 WP at 800 g/ha, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10 WP at 125 g/ha and butachlor 5G at 25 kg/ha) were tested along with two hand weedings. Population density, fresh and dry weight of weed were taken. Eight weed species belonging to five families, namely, Echinochloa colonum, Paspalums crobiculatum, Monochoria vaginalis, Leersia hexandra L., Scirpus mucronatus L., Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus rotundus and Eclipta alba Hassk were found to grow in the experimental plots. Among the weed control treatments highest grain yield (5.73 t/ha) was produced with the treatment pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10 WP at 125 g/ha followed by two hand weedings (5.50 t/ha). The increased yield due to application of herbicide contributed mainly from increasing the number of total tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle and 1000-seed weight (g). Maximum benefit : cost ratio with pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10 WP at 125 g/ha suggested that this herbicidal treatment could be used as an alternative when labour was a limiting factor in producing transplant boro rice.

4. SHEEJA K. RAJ* AND ELIZABETH K. SYRIAC [A new herbicide mixture : bispyribac sodium+metamifop 14% SE for weed control in wet seeded rice]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 421-427 (2016). Department of Agronomy Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695 522 (Kerala), India *(e-mail : sheejakraj70@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In direct seeded rice (DSR), weeds are the major biotic constraint in improving the productivity of rice. Acute labour shortage and hike in wage rate force the farmers to rely more on herbicides for weed management in DSR. But the continuous use of same herbicide or herbicides with similar mode of action leads to shift in weed flora and resistance development in weeds. One of the ways to overcome these problems is the use of herbicide mixtures. Hence, field experiments were conducted for two seasons kharif 2014 and rabi 2014-15 to assess the bio-efficacy of bispyribac sodium+metamifop, a post-emergence herbicide mixture for broad spectrum weed control in DSR. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised four doses of bispyribac sodium+metamifop viz., 60, 70, 80 and 90 g/ha, bispyribac sodium @ 25 g/ha, hand weeding twice and weedy check.Schoenoplectus juncoides, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Fimbristylis miliacea, Isachne miliacea,Ludwigia perennis,Limnocharis flava,Sphenoclea zeylanica, Marsilea quadrifolia, Bergia capensis, Commelina diffussa and Monochoria vaginalis were the major weeds in the experimental field. Among the three morphological groups of weeds, sedges was the most predominant one in the experimental site. Results revealed that compared to bispyribac sodium @ 25 g/ha, bispyribac sodium+metamifop @ 70, 80 and 90 g/ha was found more effective in reducing the density and dry weight of weeds. Application of bispyribac sodium+metamifop @ 90 g/ha registered the highest weed control efficiency of 96.62%. Grain yield was also significantly influenced by the weed control treatments. The highest grain yield (8051 kg/ha) and net returns (Rs. 86238/ha) were recorded in bispyribac sodium+metamifop @ 90 g/ha and it was statistically comparable with the lower doses of 80 and 70 g/ha. Bispyribac sodium+metamifop @ 90, 80 and 70 g/ha was significantly superior to hand weeding twice and bispyribac sodium applied @ 25 g/ha in terms of net returns and B : C ratio.

5. Archana Sanyal* and Monika A. Joshi [Influence of seed characteristics on seedling vigour parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 428-432 (2016). Division of Seed Science and Technology ICAR–Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : archana0811bhu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Seeds of 61 extant rice varieties raised during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 were subjected to various seed quality tests; so to evaluate the intra- and inter-varietal correlation of seed length, width and weight to various parameters of plant and seedling vigour; and to determine the relative contribution of the seed traits to seedling vigour. The study revealed that seed length was positively correlated with leaf area of seedling and plant height thereby indicating that longer seed will produce long and deep penetrating seedling with larger leaf area. Hence, if length is to be criteria for vigour, then endosperm weight is more critical to seedling growth, since it was observed that seed length was highly correlated to endosperm weight as compared to embryo weight. Seed width was positively correlated with high germination percentage and plant height, thus emphasizing that small to medium-sized seed produced better germination and seedling vigour than those of bigger ones. Seed weight was significantly correlated with most of the seedling vigour characteristics examined under present study. Within single cultivars, the long, wide and heavy seed produced the tallest plants, had largest leaf area and heaviest seedling. There were not many differences in seedling growth between medium and low level of the seed traits studied. Selecting for heavy, long and wide seed within cultivars will, therefore, produce vigorous seedling taken as dry weight or as leaf area or as plant height. Thus, it was indicated in the present study that seed length and width could be used as selection traits for vigorous seedling between varieties. Hence, long seed with broader width can be a promising indicator of leaf area and plant height.

6. Geeta pandey*, M. K. Nautiyal, Priyamvada Chauhan and D. P. Pant [Evaluation of genotypes for fertility restoring and maintaining behaviour for development of potential rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrids in tarai region]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 433-438 (2016). Department of Seed Science & Technology G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : geetapandey.pandey@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Hybrid rice technology is aneffective way for increasing rice production to meet the future rice demands of growing population. Inadequate numbers of restorer and maintainer lines are the major constrains for the development of location-specific rice hybrids. Present investigation involves the identification of restorers and maintainers for tarai regions of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Under this study, three cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and 43 elite rice genotypes from diverse source of origin were crossed in line × tester fashion and test crosses were evaluated in order to identify potential restorers and maintainers. Genotypes were categorized as restorers (> 80% spikelet fertility), partial restorers (20 to 79% spikelet fertility), partial maintainers (10-20% spikelet fertility) and maintainers (< 10% spikelet fertility). The F1’s expressed different fertility reactions with different CMS lines of the same cytoplasmic source. Out of 45 male lines UPR 3764-5-1-3 and UPR 3744-7-1-1 behaved as maintainer with two CMS lines and IR 09N522 and CT 19533-3-4-2-2P-2P found restorer with all the CMS lines. The identified maintainers and restorers can play a pivotal role in hybrid rice development.

7. Munazah Mehraj*, H. R. Naik, Monica Reshi and Fozia Shafi [Physical, milling and chemical characteristics of rice (husked and unhusked) cultivars commonly grown in Kashmir valley, India]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 439-444 (2016). Division of Post-Harvest Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-Kashmir Shalimar, Srinagar-190 025 (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : munazah17@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Five different varieties of rice viz., Shalimar Rice-I, Jhelum, K-332, China-1039 and Pusa Sugandh grown under temperate climatic conditions of India were taken for the investigation. Physical characteristics of paddy including grain length, grain breadth, length-breadth ratio, 1000-kernel weight, hectoliter weight, density and moisture were measured and ranged from 7.19 to 11.75 mm, 2.49 to 3.18 mm, 2.35 to 4.45, 23.54 to 30.21 g, 45.58 to 58.82 kg/hl, 0.45 to 0.58 g/cc and 10.75 to 13.07, respectively. Husked rice ranged from 73.53 to 80.39%, milling recovery 68.44 to 72.77%, milling degree 79.69 to 93.20%, milling efficiency 69.34 to 79.71%, head rice 43.80 to 63.70%, broken rice 8.41 to 22.68%, bran 10.77 to 13.52% and husk 16.49 to 21.45%. The physical characteristics of rice ranged from 4.58 to 7.16 kernel length (mm), 1.41 to 2.34 kernel breadth (mm), 2.13 to 5.07 l/b ratio, 17.15 to 22.59 1000-kernel weight (g), 77.67 to 83.70 hectolitre weight (kg/hl), 0.77 to 0.83 density (g/cc) and 9.37 to 11.33 chalkiness (%). Moisture, ash, fat, protein, total sugars, starch, amylose and amylopectin of test varieties were found in the range of 10.40-11.92%, 0.36-0.51%, 0.22-0.51%, 7.29-8.72%, 0.72-0.78%, 68.44-72.54%, 17.87-26.79% and 41.65-54.55%. Minerals viz., calcium, phosphorus and iron ranged from 4.92-14.60 mg/100 g, 86.36-124.02 mg/100 g and 0.49-0.59, respectively.

8. Abbas Lateef Abdulrahman, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah*, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Razi Ismail and Mahdi Moradpour [Seed germination and seedling growth of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties as influenced by different levels of sodium chloride]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 445-453 (2016). 1Department of Agricultural Technology Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : snaa@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted in the laboratory of plantation crops/Faculty of Agriculture/University Putra Malaysia in 2015 to evaluate salinity effects on seed germination percentage and some seedling growth traits of eight bread wheat cultivars and genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Salinity treatments were measured (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM sodium chloride). Distilled water was added to control treatment for each cultivar for comparison. Data regarding germination percentage, water uptake (%), plumule and radicle length (cm), strong seed index and salt tolerance index were counted. Based on salt tolerance index, only one genotype (G8) fell in the tolerant class; three accessions (G1, G6 and G10) were moderately salt tolerant; one genotype (G2) was moderately salt susceptible and three accessions (Abo-Graib, Forat and Dijla) were salt susceptible. Results showed that increasing concentration of NaCl solution resulted in the gradual reduction in all studied parameters in all wheat varieties and genotypes. The G8 genotype showed significant superiority on the other genotypes and varieties in all traits above which can be used as an improved genotype against salt stress in breeding programmes, while the Abo-Graib gave the lowest rate under the probability level of significance of 0.05. These were positively and significantly (P£0.01) correlated between the traits studied under six concentrations (mM) of NaCl stress except the relationship between germination percentage and each of water uptake, plumule length, radicle length, while strong seed index was positively but not significantly correleted. Whereas the correlation was positive and significant (P£0.05) between water uptake and plumule length, radicle length and strong seed index.

9. Mahboube Shirani bidabadi and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Assessment of morphological traits as seed and protein yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 454-457 (2016). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Effect of different attributes on grain and protein yield of bread wheat was assessed using 20 genotypes. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Relationship among measured traits was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and factor analysis. Correlation analysis showed the significant relation of grain and protein yield with all the traits except correlation of grain filling duration and peduncle length with grain yield as well as spike yield and peduncle length with protein yield. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis method and varimax rotation indicated that four important factors accounted for about 98% of the total variation among traits studied. The first factor assigned 48% of total variation between traits and was significantly related with traits grain yield, biological yield, protein yield and protein percentage. This factor was regarded as quantitative and qualitative yield improvement factor. Other factors accounted for 20, 16 and 14% of variation between traits so were entitled as spike yield, grain filling ability and photosynthesis reservoir enhancement factors, respectively. In conclusion, results revealed effect of grain filling rate, biological yield, number of grains/spike, spike yield and protein percentage on grain and protein yield. Hence, these traits are recommended as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of grain yield especially in early generations.

10. S. SRAVANTHI*, A. V. RAMANA AND K. V. RAMANA MURTHY [Growth, yield and economics of zero till maize as influenced by nutrient management practices in north coastal zone of Andhra Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 458-461 (2016). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Naira-532 185 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : sravanthi0128@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2014-15 on sandy loam soils of Agricultural College, Naira to study the effect of N levels and micronutrient management practices on productivity and economics of maize under zero till conditions. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three nitrogen levels and seven micronutrient management practices, each replicated thrice. Application of 240 kg N/ha (S3) and supplemented withfoliar feeding of micronutrient mixture (F6) recorded the highest kernel yield,maximum net returns (Rs. 86773/ha) and B : C ratio (2.1), which, was, however, on a par with 180 kg N/ha and supplemented with foliar feeding of micronutrient mixture.

11. Akula Dinesh, Ayyanagouda Patil*, P. H. Zaidi, P. H. Kuchanur, M. T. Vinayan, K. Seetharam and Ameragouda [Dissection of heat tolerance mechanism in tropical maize]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 462-467 (2016). International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)- Asia c/o ICRISAT, Patancheru-502 324, India *(e-mail : ampatil123@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Identification of diverse inbred lines and selection of heat tolerant genotypes based on key secondary traits that influence the grain yield is of great importance. In the present study, correlation coefficient and path analysis were used to identify potential traits for heat tolerance. The results on correlation studies revealed that grain yield per plant had positive relationship with number of kernels per cob (0.833), shelling percentage (0.592), chlorophyll content (0.575), plant height, ear height, 100-seed weight, pollen shed duration and cob length. The traits like days to 50% tasseling (-0.383), days to 50% silking (-0.382), anthesis silk interval (-0.381), senescence and cell injury (%) were negatively associated with grain yield. Further, path analysis showed that the number of kernels per cob had highest positive direct (0.6689) and indirect effect via chlorophyll content and days to 50% tasseling on grain yield followed by shelling percentage through number of kernels per cob, days to 50 % tasseling and chlorophyll content. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic data showed presence of three main groups. The first group (GI) consisted of four inbred lines (5.1%) which were superior to mean of 75 inbred lines in respect of all the traits. The selection of genotypes based on number of kernels per cob, anthesis silk interval, shelling percentage, chlorophyll content, plant height and ear height will indirectly increase the maize yield under heat stress.

12. MANDUMBU RONALD*, MUTENGWA CHARLES, MABASA STANFORD AND MWENJE EDDIE [Existence of different physiological ‘strains’ of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze on sorghum species [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf] in Zimbabwe]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 468-478 (2016). 1Agronomy Department, University of Fort Hare P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa *(e-mail : rmandumbu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the stability of Sorghum spp. tolerance to two Striga strains. This was stimulated by the observation that sorghum tolerant to Striga asiatica in a particular area could still lack the same tolerance to a strain native to remote areas. Nine Sorghum bicolor genotypes and one Sorghum arundinaceaum (Wild sorghum) were subjected to two Striga asiatica strains sourced from Rushinga and Chiundura which are 500 km apart together with a control. A 3 × 10 factorial experiment was set up, arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications at two sites. The measured data were sorghum height, chlorophyll content, tiller number and dry matter. The results showed that sorghum genotype and Striga strain differed (P<0.05) in their response to the stunting effects of Striga strains at both the sites. The Chiundura strain was more virulent to Isifumbathe, Zambia, Wild sorghum and Mashava at Henderson Research Station, whilst at BUSE the Chiundura strain was more virulent on wild sorghum and Mashava. The two Striga strains were generally similar on their effects on chlorophyll content and were less than the control. However, different sorghum genotypes responded differently to the effects of various sorghum strains. At Henderson, the Chiundura strain reduced chlorophyll content of Chiredhi, Zambia, Tshwetha and SC Sila. At BUSE both strains were not significantly different (P<0.01) from each other at 10 weeks after crop emergence (WACE). The effects of the two strains were similar for head index, root index, stem index and leaf index at all sites. Chiundura strain reduced the total dry weight at BUSE but not at Henderson. Overally, the Chiundura strain had more deleterious effects on sorghum traits compared to Rushinga confirming the existence of physiological speciation on Striga asiatica.

13. LE THI HIEN, YUN JI PARK, JAE-BOK HWANG, SANG UN PARK* AND KEE WOONG PARK** [Investigation of appropriate phenolic compound extraction methods for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench shoot extracts from different cultivars]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 479-482 (2016). 1Department of Crop Science College of Agriculture and Life Science Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea *(e-mail : supark@cnu.ac.kr; **parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to examine total phenolic contents of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench shoot extracts in different cultivars andunder different extraction methods by HPLC analysis. In the first experiment, five cultivars of sorghum (Milyang-1ho, Milyang-5ho, Donganme, Hwanggumchal and Nampungchal) were extracted by soaking in distilled water for 24h at room temperature and boiling for 2 h, followed by filtering and evaporating. For the second experiment, focus was given to a known allelochemical, the phenolic compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Hwanggumchal, the cultivar with the highest 4-hydroxybenzoic acid content from the first experiment, was chosen for optimizing phenolic compound extraction under different conditions such as solvent (distilled water or ethanol), temperature (4o, 25o and 40oC), and time (24, 48 and 72 h). An HPLC system was used to quantitatively determine total phenolic contents of extracts. Results showed that,between the five cultivars, Donganme had the highest total phenolic compounds (402.6 mg/l), while Hwanggumchal had the highest amount of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (96.0 mg/l). In the second experiment, the highest amount of total phenolic compounds was obtained when the sorghum samples were extracted in ethanol by soaking for 72 h at 40oC, while the lowest amount was obtained by soaking 72 h at 4oC in distilled water. The study and application of the allelopathy phenomenon in weed control is essential for the protection of the environment. If adopted successfully, it could lead to significant accomplishments for sustainable agriculture.

14. V. Vijay Prabha, A. Senthil*, N. Sritharan and P. Boominathan [Effect of foliar application of plant growth regulators and nutrients on physiological traits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 483-488 (2016). Department of Crop Physiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : senthil.a@tnau.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

In an attempt to study the influence of nutrients and plant growth regulators on physiological traits of finger millet, field study was carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in randomized block design with three replications during rabi 2014. The experiment consisted of eight treatments with PGRs viz., Brassinosteroids (BRs) (0.5 ppm), Mepiquat chloride (200 ppm), Chlormequat chloride (200 ppm) and nutrients, Thiourea (1000 ppm), All 19 (19:19:19 NPK @1%), MgSO4 (0.5%), ZnSO4 (0.5%), Boron (0.2%) and nutrients + PGR as Consortia along with untreated control. The study revealed that the foliar application of nutrients and PGR as consortia, twice at 50 and 70 DAS was found better in manipulating the physiological traits of finger millet for obtaining higher yield and economic returns.

15. C. K. DESAI*, B. S. RATHORE AND A. M. PATEL [Effect of weed control treatment on weed dynamics and yield of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.]]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 489-492 (2016). Department of Agronomy Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : ck.roziya@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat during the rabi season of 2013 to study the effect of weed control treatment on weed dynamics and yield of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.]. Besides weed free condition, pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha and oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg/ha as PE were found equally effective in reducing the weed population (viz., grassy, broad-leaved and sedges), while oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg/ha as PE resulted in higher weed control efficiency, lower weed index and weed biomass. Among the herbicidal treatments, oxyfluorfen 0.15 kg/ha as PE gave significantly higher seed yield (2417 kg/ha) and stover yield (4886 kg/ha) over rest of herbicide treatments and weedy check.

16. Mehdi Abdesharif Esfahani, Hamid Reza Javanmard* and Ahmad Reza Golparvar [Effect of tillage methods on growth period of spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown in Isfahan province of Iran]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 493-495 (2016). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hjavanmard@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

In order to assess the effect of different tillage methods on growth period of two safflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted using strip plot design in the layout randomized complete block design with four replications in the research field of Isfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University during 2014. The horizontal factors were three tillage methods comprising conventional, low tillage and no tillage, whereas the vertical were two spring safflower cultivars, namely, Soffeh and Goldasht. Data were analyzed using SAS software. Mean comparison was conducted based on Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed significant effect of tillage methods on days to greening, days to stem elongation, days to maturity and capitulum development. So no tillage and conventional had the lowest and the highest amount of these traits. The effect of cultivar was significant on days to capitulum development, heading and maturity with the maximum amount in Soffeh cultivar. The interaction effect of cultivar and tillage method on days to heading and maturity was significant revealing necessity of interpretation of the results based on these effects.

17. S. L. Yadav, Arvind Verma and V. Nepalia [Effect of phosphorus, sulphur and seaweed sap on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 496-502 (2016). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : yadav.agro@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted during two consecutive rabi seasons in India in 2012-13 and 2013-14 to assess the response of different seaweed saps (prepared from Kappaphycus alvarezzi and Gracilaria sp.), phosphorus and sulphur levels on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea. The results revealed that P fertilization at 40 and 60 kg/ha significantly increased the yield components viz., pods/plant, grains/pod, grains/plant, grain yield/plant 100-grain weight, grain yield, haulm yield and biological yield. The application of sulphur at 20 and 40 kg/ha significantly influenced the yield parameters. Seaweed sap sprays at 10% significantly enhanced the yield attributes and yield of chickpea.

18. S. N. O. SADASHIVANAGOWDA*, S. C. ALAGUNDAGI AND B. T. NADAGOUDA [Effect of spacing and organics on growth and yield of mothbean genotypes]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 503-507 (2016). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : sadayogikrishi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Bijapur in Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka to study the effect of spacing and organics on growth and yield of mothbean genotypes during kharif 2013. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial concept and replicated thrice. There were 14 treatments including 12 treatment combinations involving three mothbean genotypes (MBS-27, BJMB-1 and Local), two spacings (30 x 10 cm and 45 x 10 cm) and two organics (2.5 t/ha FYM and 1 t/ha vermicompost) along with two controls (local variety at 30 x 10 cm spacing with 10 : 20 kg NP/ha and local variety at 30 x 10 cm spacing with 10 : 20 : 10 kg NPK/ha). The local mothbean genotype gave significantly higher seed yield (796 kg/ha) at wider row spacing of 45 x 10 cm compared to 30 x 10 cm. Application of 1 t/ha vermicompost recorded significantly higher seed yield (714 kg/ha) compared to 2.5 t/ha FYM. The interaction of mothbean local variety at spacing of 45 x 10 cm with application of 2.5 t/ha FYM produced significantly higher seed yield (983 kg/ha), seeds per pod (7.36), pods per plant (78.73), total dry matter at 30, 50 and 70 DAS (2.25, 12.00 and 30.45 g/plant, respectively), branches per plant (8.73), plant height (90.8 cm) compared to other treatment combinations. It can be concluded that for dry land situation, local mothbean genotype can be recommended at a spacing of 45 x 10 cm with 2.5 t/ha FYM application.

19. ANUREET KAUR* [Comparative response of Bt cotton to water under drip and check-basin methods of irrigation in semi-arid conditions of Punjab]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 508-511 (2016). PAU Regional Station, Dabwali Road, Bathinda-151 001 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : anureet_1@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted for two years to investigate the effect of various methods of planting and irrigation water levels on yield and water use efficiency in cotton irrigated through surface drip irrigation in semi-arid region of Punjab. The treatments comprised three methods of planting under drip irrigation (lateral in each row, lateral in between pair of rows and lateral in between pair of rows but third row missing) and one check-basin method of irrigation at three levels of irrigation (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 Etc). The pooled results revealed that drip lateral along each row, irrespective of irrigation water levels, produced significantly higher (20.2%) seed cotton yield as compared with check basin method. The increase in irrigation water level, irrespective of methods of irrigation, failed to cause any significant effect on seed cotton yield but stick yield increased significantly with increase in quantity of irrigation water. Drip irrigation with laterals along each row, irrespective of levels of irrigation water, resulted in significant increase (49%) in water use efficiency as compared to check basin method of irrigation. Water use efficiency, irrespective of method of planting, spectaculary decreased with increase in irrigation water. The results of the present study revealed that drip irrigation with lateral along each row at the lowest level of water (0.6 Etc) resulted in highest water use efficiency (22.0 kg/ha/mm) accompanied by 25% higher seed cotton yield and 18% of saving in irrigation water as compared with check basin method of irrigation.

20. Purnima Pathak*, Kartik Baruah and Bhupen Kumar Baishya [Influence of bunch covers on appearance and maturity of banana cv. Jahaji under high density planting system]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 512-516 (2016). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Borbheta, Jorhat-785 001 (Assam), India *(e-mail : purnimapathak1991@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

External appearance and routine availability of fruits are the prime criteria for good marketability of bananas. In Assam, high density planting (HDP) is considered as a profitable practice in banana cultivation. However, the days taken to maturity and pest infestation are two of the most important factors hampering the production and market value of bananas. In addition to it, fall of temperature during the winter months hampers the crop cycle of banana to a greater extent in HDP. Considering the above sited problems, an investigation was carried out in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Jorhat during 2013-14 in order to find out the best bunch cover material among white non-woven polypropylene bag, blue non-woven polypropylene bag, transparent polyethylene bag, leno bag, gunny bag, dry banana leaves and control (no cover) in banana cv. Jahaji (AAA) under the HDP to overcome delay in maturity and improvement of bunch appearance. It was observed that all bunch covers, irrespective of colour and material, significantly improved the fruit appearance. The highest numbers of scars and highest percentage of affected fingers were obtained in uncovered bunch (16 and 51.67%). Bunch covers protected the bunch from insect infestation and reduced the number of scars by 60% over control. However, the lowest number of scars and lowest percentage of affected fingers were obtained in T1 (6.56 and 7.67%). The experiment inferred that bunch covers also positively influenced the crop duration. White non-woven polypropylene bag recorded the shortest shooting-harvest interval (98.56 days) and days taken to harvest (422.33 days), while control recorded the longest shooting-harvest interval (120.44 days) and days taken to harvest (448.83 days). Variation in temperature within the covers was considered responsible for such change.

21. Roshni Samarth*, Pallavi Bhosale, Anupa T., Pushpa Deore and Swati Gaikwad [Morphological and molecular characterization of different grape varieties]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 517-523 (2016). ICAR- National Research Center for Grapes Manjri Farm, P.O. Box No. 3, Solapur Road, Pune-412 307 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : sroshnir@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation, 17 accessions of Vitis sp. were characterized based on morphological traits and microsatellite markers at ICAR-National Research Center for Grapes, Manjri Farm, Pune during the year 2014-15. Total 21 phenological characters were considered for morphological characterization. Among these, all quantitative traits such as : bunch weight, bunch length, pedicel length, berry length, berry diameter, berry weight, seed weight, titrable acidity, pH and total soluble solids (TSS) showed significant differences among varieties. Red Globe scored highest in terms of yield related parameters such as bunch weight, berry length, berry diameter and 10-berry weight. The molecular data collected from five microsatellite markers produced total 25 DNA fragments. Highest polymorphism was shown by the microsatellite marker VVMD 7 with polymorhic information content (PIC) value 0.80 followed by the VrZag 79 (PIC value : 0.71). Highest allelic diversity (0.82) was observed in VVMD 7. Significant differences were recorded among the accessions with respect to individual microsatellite marker.

22. Subhash Chander*, S. Kumar, M. Kavino and Lokesh Bora [Effect of seasonal variation on softwood grafting under different environmental conditions in jamun (Syzygium cumini Skeels.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 524-528 (2016). Department of Fruit Crops Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : Subhash.Chander8@icar.gov.in)

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to standardize the season and propagation environment for softwood grafting in jamun under open and mist chamber conditions during 2014-15 at monthly interval of September 2014-February 2015. Among the different months undertaken, grafting performed during September recorded highest graft success (75.24%), graft survival (71.45%), minimum number of days (23.28) for sprouting, maximum leaf area (32.45 cm2), graft diameter (0.48 cm) and graft height (33.13 cm). However, growth parameters viz., number of sprouts (2.54), sprout length (3.68 cm) and number of leaves (9.70) were found to be better in grafts performed in the month of February. Results on the influence of propagation environment on success of softwood grafting showed that grafts kept under mist chamber recorded minimum number of days (17.17) for sprouting, highest graft success (92.36%), graft survival (89.51%) and all other growth parameters (number of sprouts, sprout length, number of leaves, leaf area, graft height and graft diameter). Thus, the study clearly revealed that grafts performed during September under mist chamber gave maximum graft success and graft growth.

23. Kirandeep Kaur*, Sukhjit Kaur Jawandha and Manpreet Kaur Grewal [Effect of pre-cooling treatments on storage life and quality of peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 529-533 (2016). Department of Horticulture Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : drkirankang@pau.edu)

ABSTRACT

Various pre-cooling treatments were applied to freshly harvested peach (Prunus avium L.) fruits cv. ‘Shan-i-Punjab’ for prolonging the freshness and quality. Peaches treated with hydro-cooling and forced air cooling treatments were stored at 0ºC and 95% RH for 35 days and were observed for physiological loss in weight (%), firmness, palatability rating, rotting percentage, total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days to determine the shelf life of peaches. Results indicated that hydro-cooling combined with calcium chloride @ 2% and chlorine solution (100 ppm) delayed the deterioration and senescence of peach fruit, maintaining a higher quality, as indicated by organoleptic score. In particular, these fruits showed considerably less spoilage and surface shrivelling. Other quality attributes, such as acidity and soluble solids content were also significantly affected with the pre-cooling treatments. Overall, the present study showed that peach fruits subjected to hydro-cooling with calcium chloride @ 2% and chlorine solution (100 ppm) followed by cold storage at 0°C and 95% R. H. retained excellent quality for 28 days as compared to other pre-cooling treatments. Furthermore, the storage of peaches without pre-cooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

24. Rajbir Singh and Harsimrat K. Bons* [Standardization of propagation techniques in sapota [Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg] under north Indian conditions]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 534-537 (2016). PAU Regional Fruit Research Station, Bahadurgarh-147 021, Patiala (Punjab), India *(e-mail : harsimratpau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This experiment was carried out at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Fruit Research Station, Bahadurgarh in district Patiala, Punjab during the years 2013-14 and 2014-15 with the objectives to standardize propagation techniques and time of propagation in sapodilla under north Indian conditions. In this experiment, different propagation techniques used were side grafting, veneer grafting and wedge grafting in the months of February, March, July and August. The highest average graft survival (68.7%) was recorded in side grafting followed by veneer grafting. The success rate during different months of grafting ranged from 51.7 to 62.8%. The maximum graft survival (62.8%) was recorded in the month of July. In all treatments, minimum average survival (51.7%) was recorded in the month of February. The earliest bud stick sprouting was recorded in side grafting. The maximum number of days (15.4) required for sprouting of buds was recorded in veneer grafting followed by wedge grafting i. e. 14.9 days. The average graft girth during different months ranged from 5.6 to 6.2 mm. The graft girth did not differ significantly in February and March, whereas the graft girth differed significantly in March as compared to July and August. The maximum graft height was recorded in side grafting which may be due to early sprouting of the bud stick; however, maximum graft height (56.1 cm) was recorded in the month of March.

25. Gurteg Singh*, Pushpinder Singh Aulakh and Harinder Singh Rattanpal [Genetic divergence of indigenous and exotic mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) accessions based on fruit morphological and physiological traits]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 538-544 (2016). Department of Fruit Science Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : gurteg-hort@pau.edu)

ABSTRACT

Studies on genetic diversity based on IPGRI descriptors of 14 indigenous and five exotic mandarin genotypes introduced from different parts of India and USA were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using SAS (9.3 version) software and the data were also subjected to UPGMA analysis by using DARwin software. Statistically significant differences were observed in quantitative fruit morphological and physiological traits, whereas less variation was recorded in qualitative fruit traits. The cluster analysis divided mandarin genotypes into four major clusters. All the 19 mandarin genotypes were divided into three major clusters. Cluster-I was further consisted of two sub-clusters, namely, cluster IA and cluster IB. In cluster IA, 13 genotypes (mostly indigenous selections) viz., Nagpur, Nagpur Seedless, N-4, Clone-11, CRS-4, N-43, Khasi, Coorg, Mudhkhed Seedless, Darjeeling, N-51, Nova and N-28 were grouped. In cluster IB, two genotypes, namely, N-38 and Fremont were present. Cluster-II included W. Murcott, N-34 and Kinnow genotypes. However, highly distinct genotype, namely, Daisy was present in cluster-III. It was observed that all the hybrids except Nova were clearly differentiated from the indigenous selections because of their higher heterozygosity level. The genotypes from the different geographical regions were clustered across the sub-groups without clear evidence of separation into sub-groups by regions. The study revealed the existence of diverse accessions in mandarin germplasm in spite of accessions exhibiting similar fruit morphological qualitative characters.

26. ANURADHA*, S. K. SEHRAWAT, ANIL K. POONIA, SUBHASH KAJLA AND SANDHYA BHAT [Production of strawberry plant by in vitro propagation]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 545-549 (2016). Centre of Plant Biotechnology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : anuradha2917@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to develop an efficient in vitro protocol for production of healthy quality planting material of strawberry. Nodal segment of strawberry gave rise to multiple shoots when cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentration of kinetin and BAP with IAA and NAA. The highest response of shoot multiplication was obtained in MS medium containing 2.5 mg/l kinetin+0.1 mg/l IAA. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium with IBA, IAA, NAA and control (without growth regulators). The highest number of roots was produced in half strength MS medium 1.0 mg/l NAA, however, maximum root length and rooting percentage were obtained in medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. The plantlets, thus developed, were hardened and successfully established in mixture of coco peat, vermiculite and perlite in ratio of 3 : 1 : 1. The plants raised through this technique exhibited normal growth and fruit setting.

27. S. L. Meena*, H. L. Bairwa, L. N. MahawEr, M. S. Meena, Akshay Chittora and Somendra Meena [Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of onion cv. N-53]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 550-554 (2016). Department of Horticulture Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : meenashankarlal91@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2014-15 at Horticulture Farm of Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan). Thirteen treatments were applied with three replications and laid out under randomized block design (RBD). The application of 60% recommended dose of NPKS+neem cake 6 q/ha+vermicompost 20 q/ha+Azotobacter 2 kg/ha+PSB 2 kg/ha (T12) resulted in significantly maximum growth, yield and quality parameters giving the highest yield of 27.17 t/ha. Maximum cost : benefit ratio (1 : 3.97) was also achieved by combined application of 60% recommended dose of fertilizer of NPKS+neem cake 6 q/ha+vermicompost 20 q/ha+Azotobacter 2 kg/ha+PSB 2 kg/ha (T12).

28. R. K. GANGWAR*, N. K. AGARWAL, T. P. SINGH AND R. K. SHARMA [Effect of surfactant on the efficacy of fungicides against purple blotch of onion caused by Alternaria porri]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 555-561 (2016). Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chomu, Jaipur-303 702 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : gangwarrakesh@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Purple blotch of onion caused by Alternaria porri is an economically important disease. The field trials were conducted during three crop seasons in order to study the effect of surfactant on the efficacy of fungicides because the use of fungicides for the control of purple blotch of onion is less promising due to the waxy and smooth leaf surface, which does not allow the fungicides to spread and adhere properly on the leaves. Chlorothalonil 75 WP (1.5 g/l) and mancozeb 75 (2.0 g/l) when sprayed along with surfactant (0.5 ml/l) showed minimum per cent disease index (5.38 and 7.96%, respectively) and disease incidence (11.80 and 15.47%, respectively) at 15 days after third spray in comparison to chlorothalonil and mancozeb alone where the disease index was 8.93 and 11.52%, respectively, and disease incidence was 15.92 and 20.38%, respectively. The results also indicated that the efficacy of fungicides was significantly increased by adding surfactant from 23.69 to 39.75 and 19.87 to 25.88% in minimizing disease index and disease incidence, respectively, in different treatments when compared with the fungicides without surfactant. Both chlorothalonil and mancozeb along with surfactant showed minimum disease severity (9.72 and 12.36%, respectively) at 15 days after third spray and highest bulb yield (237.70 and 231.96 q/ha, respectively) as compared to both the fungicides sprayed alone. The per cent increase in bulb yield over control ranged from 5.57 to 27.60 in different treatments. The fungicides along with surfactant reduced the per cent disease severity (16.15-24.12) and increased the bulb yield (5.31-9.81%) in different treatments when compared with the fungicides without surfactant. The study clearly demonstrated the potential of surfactant to improve the efficacy of fungicides against purple blotch of onion.

29. MOHITA SINGH GARIYA, LALIT BHATT*, S. P. UNIYAL AND S. K. MAURYA [Optimization of planting geometry and water requirement through drip irrigation in sprouting broccoli]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 562-567 (2016). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : drbhattlalit@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Investigation was carried out to standardize spacing and drip irrigation levels in sprouting broccoli, planted in paired row system at Vegetable Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) during October to February of 2013-14 and 2014-15. The experiments were laid out in three replications using two factorial randomized block design. The first factor was consisted of three spacings (60 × 30 cm, 60 × 40 cm and 60 × 50 cm), while the second one was of four drip irrigation levels (120, 100, 80 and 60% of crop water requirement) along with surface irrigation. The results indicated significant influence of spacings and irrigation levels on broccoli performance. Increase in spacing and drip irrigation levels favoured the plant growth, whereas reduced crop spacing with increased irrigation levels significantly enhanced the head yield. The highest head yield (167.84 q/ha), net returns (Rs. 1,77,512.30) and benefit : cost ratio (3.38) in respect of plant spacings were obtained with crop spacing of 60 × 30 cm. Whereas amongst four irrigation levels, irrigation at 100% crop water requirement was proved the best for head yield (149.83 q/ha), net returns (Rs. 1,42,362.30) and B : C ratio (2.91). Out of 15 treatment combinations, crop spaced at 60 × 30 cm with irrigation at 100% crop water requirement (I2S1) showed the highest head yield (181.75 q/ha), besides maximum net returns and benefit : cost ratio of Rs. 1,97,767.80/ha and 3.64, respectively.

30. Rukundo Placide*, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing and Gahakwa Daphrose [Greenhouse and in vitro screening of sweetpotato genotypes for drought tolerance]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 568-578 (2016). African Centre for Crop Improvement of University of KwaZulu-Natal Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa *(e-mail : rukundoplacide@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Breeding sweetpotato [Ipomoea babatas (L.) Lam] for drought tolerance requires inexpensive, reproducible and high throughput screening systems. The objective of this study was to apply greenhouse and in vitro techniques to select drought tolerant sweetpotato genotypes. Greenhouse and in vitro experiments were established at Rubona Research Station of the Rwandan Agricultural Board using 54 sweetpotato genotypes. Genotypes were evaluated in the greenhouse using four levels of water regime [control, drought stress imposed by withholding water for one, two or three month(s)], while in vitro tests were carried out using four treatment solutions [control or basic culture medium (0 M), control supplemented with 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 M sorbitol]. In the greenhouse study, data collected included : soil water potential (yw), weights of storage root, biggest storage root and vines, dry matter content (DMC) of storage root and vine and water content (WC) of vines. Whereas yw of culture media, fresh weight gain (FWG), DMC and WC were recorded during the in vitro experiment. In the greenhouse test, yw of drought stressed treatments varied from -1.94 to -0.05 MPa and showed an increased trend with prolonged drought stress. The control treatment showed yw ranging between -0.02 to 0 MPa. During the in vitro experiment, the mean yw were – 0.07, -0.81, -1.35 and -1.73 MPa for control, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 M sorbitol treatments, respectively. Under greenhouse condition, genotype by water regime, genotype and water regime had significant effects (P£0.01) on yield and yield related traits. Genotypes showed significant differences between the control and drought stress imposed for one month. Under in vitro test, the control and 0.2 M sorbitol treatments were not significantly different in the FWG. However, the control treatment was significantly different from 0.4 and 0.6 M sorbitol concentrations. Positive correlations were observed between vine yield and FWG; and between total biomass and FWG, during greenhouse and in vitro studies, respectively. Overall, genotypes 2005-146, 4-160, 8-1038, Kemb 37, Kwezikumwe, Purple 4419, NASPOT 9, Nsasagatebo, Karebe, 440037, Mwanakumi, 97-062 and Matembere were selected with comparatively high drought tolerance using the two screening procedures. The selected genotypes are useful genetic resources to breed sweetpotatoes for drought tolerance.

31. Kishalayee Gogoi*, Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar and Pranab Talukdar [Morphological characterization and extent of genetic variation in rose (Rosa hybrida L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 579-583 (2016). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : kishalayee@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications to evaluate 10 genotypes of rose for various vegetative and floral traits to ascertain genetic parameters such as variability, heritability, genetic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variations and genetic advance. Morphological characterization was done for different morphological traits and genetic diversity of rose species based on morphological characters. The mean performance of cultivars for quantitative traits revealed that cv. First Red exhibited maximum for most of the growth, flower as well as physiological characters viz., plant height (137.38 cm), internodal length (7.31 cm), stem girth (1.03 cm), bud length (3.59 cm), stalk length (42.00 cm), flower diameter (9.18 cm), number of petals per flower (43.33), self life (17.33 days), vase life (12.33 days), number of flowers per plant per year (168.50). It also took minimum days to bud sprouting from bud visibility (13.83 days) and half bloom (14.83 days) which was desirable. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed in the character number of flowers per plant per year which indicated that apparently this character was more governed by additive gene effect.

32. Shameen Iqbal, M. A. A. Siddique, Nasir Masoodi, Muzain Masoodi, Muneeb Ahmad Wani* and Ambreena Din [Differential cultivar response to chemical preservative treatment for better shelf life in Narcissus (daffodil)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 584-589 (2016). Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-Kashmir Shalimar-190 001, Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : wanimuneeb05@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Optimum level of chemical preservatives for maintaining better water relations and longevity of three different daffodil cultivars, California, Pheasants eye and Acetea was evaluated. Chemical preservatives citric acid, aluminium sulphate, silver thiosulphate and calcium chloride each at three different levels 0, 100 and 200 ppm along with carbohydrate source sucrose 4% were applied under completely randomized design. It was observed that sucrose 4%+aluminium sulphate 200 ppm helped the scape to maintain favourable water relation evaluated in terms of water uptake, water loss, water balance, fresh weight changes and improved vase life. Data available were also indicative of the fact that California outnumbered the other two cultivars in maintaining favourable water relation and longevity of cut scapes.

33. Narendra Singh Bhandari*, Ranjan Srivastava, S. P. Kantiya and S. K. Guru [Dynamic interventions for programmed lilium (Lilium longiflorum L.) production in container system]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 590-594 (2016). Department of Horticulture G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : narendra.bhandari@icar.gov.in)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of dynamic interventions for programmed Lilium (Lilium longiflorum L.) production in container system at Model Floriculture Centre, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India during 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design ensuring uniformity to all the treatments. The effects of the substrates on flowering and bulbous attributes were examined during course of investigation. Enriched cocopeat substrate (T2) demonstrated significant effect in flowering attributes like plant height (108.66 cm), stem diameter (8.77 mm), number of flower buds (7.26), flower bud length (10.46 cm), flower bud diameter (31.52 mm), flower diameter (14.29 cm) and vase life (10.73 days). However, number of days to bud appearance (35.40) and number of days to first flower opening (66.53) were maximum with soil enriched substrate (T1). Among bulbous characteristics, bulb diameter (52.07 mm), bulb weight (56.24 g), number of bulblets (3.46), stem roots (15.26 cm) and basal roots length (25.12 cm) were found maximum with T2 treated plants. Among the potting media, 100% cocopeat (T2) showed overall positive influence on growth, flowering and bulbous attributes as compared to control (T1) and other treatments. Findings of this study recommended that substrate enriched with cocopeat (100%) was best suitable for programmed lilium production in container system.

34. Punam Saikia*, Madhumita Choudhury Talukdar and Priyanka Das [Response of Rhynchostylis retusa L. to mineral nutrients in different growing supports]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 595-598 (2016). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : punamsaikia91@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out during 2013-14 and 2014-2015. The experiment was laid out in factorial CRD with two factors, mineral nutrients viz., M1 (RDF+Zn 250 ppm), M2 (RDF+Zn 500 ppm), M3 (RDF+Zn 750 ppm), M4 (RDF+Mg 250 ppm), M5 (RDF+Mg 500 ppm), M6 (RDF+Mg 1000 ppm), M7 (RDF+Ca 250 ppm), M8 (RDF+Ca 500 ppm), M9 (RDF+Ca 1000 ppm) and M10 (control) and growing supports viz., G1 (side perforated earthen pot), G2 (bamboo basket), G3 (coco husk block) andG4 (wooden log). M8was found superior in respect of growth characters viz., plant height (41.14 cm), number of leaves per plant (8.33) and M3 in respect of flower characters viz., minimum days to full bloom (84.83), highest spike length (41.65 cm), number of florets per spike (88.79), number of spikes per plant (3.58), self life (16.50 days) and vase life (11.17 days). However, the highest plant height (38.72 cm) and number of leaves per plant (7.13) were recorded in G1 as well as minimum days for full bloom (87.38), the highest spike length (36.97 cm), number of florets per spike (79.23), number of spikes per plant (2.70), self life (13.33 days) and vase life (9.25 days) were recorded in G2. M8G1 and M3G2 considered as the suitable combinations for growth and flowering parameters, respectively.

35. Gazala Hassan Khan, Asif Bashir Shikari*, R. Vaishnavi, S. Najeeb, G. A. Parray, S. Z. Hussain, Z. A. Dar, Shahida Iqbal1 and Shafiq A. Wani1 [Breeding value, parent offspring regression and trait association for agronomic and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 599-604 (2016). 1Centre for Plant Biotechnology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir Shalimar, Srinagar-191 121 (Jammu & Kashmir), India *(e-mail : asifshikari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

To estimate breeding value, correlation and heritability in rice, two parental lines of rice, Mushk Budji and DHMAS 70Q 164-1b were crossed to generate F1 plant that was subsequently backcrossed to raise 29 BC1F1 plants. The best performing single BC1F1 plant was selected and selfed to raise BC1F2 population. The selected 14 BC1F2 plants were advanced to raise 104 BC1F2:3 individuals. The observations were recorded on parents, BC1F1, BC1F2, BC1F2:3 individuals for 13 agronomic and quality traits. The line SKUA-485-27-47 recorded high breeding values for all the traits. This line is expected to yield progenies having high grain yield and contributing traits. The parent offspring regression (rOP) is a direct measure of heritability in broad sense and was worked out using BC1F2 and BC1F2:3 progenies and PH recorded high positive b-value of 0.75. The grain shape as measured by kernel length : breadth ratio showed high h2 (0.58). The highest correlation was recorded between traits grain yield and effective tillers per plant (r=0.760). Milled rice length recorded significant positive correlation with kernel length : breadth ratio and kernel length after cooking, while it showed negative but significant correlation with elongation ratio. Backcross generations particularly from genotype SKUA-485-27-47 were expected to recover progenies with more number of effective tillers per plant, high grain yield and short bold grain type.

36. Preeti, V. Singh*, S. Yashveer, I. S. Panwar and D. Phougat [Evaluation of phenotypic and molecular diversity in wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines of wheat in India]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 605-612 (2016). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : vskaliramna@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation evaluated genetic diversity of 42 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers (ISSRs). The clustering pattern based on phenotypic data using WARD method assigned the wheat genotypes into seven groups. The 17 ISSR primers amplified a total of 114 alleles of which 95 alleles (83.34%) were polymorphic. The majority of the primers showed PIC value close to the average (0.68-0.74), while EMR feature varied from 2 to 14 with a mean value of 4.8. The MI values ranged between 1.36 and 12.64. The primers that showed higher polymorphism had higher EMR and MI values. The estimates of RP ranged from 0.90 to 6.67 with an average of 2.55. The genotyping data of the ISSR markers were used to assess genetic variation in the wheat accessions by UPGMA-based dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Both of the methods classified the 42 wheat accessions in seven groups and presented similar grouping of the genotypes with some minor deviations.

37. Amin Ghanbarzadeh and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Multivariate regression and path analysis of seed yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under normal irrigation condition]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 613-615 (2016). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of suitable and efficient selection indices in early generations through traits having heritability higher than yield as well as correlated significantly with seed yield is one of the most important breeding procedures. In order to determine the most yielding bread wheat genotypes and identify the traits effective on seed and protein yield as well as parents of the best crosses, an experiment was conducted during 2013-14. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Bread wheat genotypes comprised Sepahan and Roshan cultivars as controls along with 18 lines entitled M-92-3 to M-92-20. Correlation analysis showed significant and positive reltionship among seed yield and other traits. Moreover, step-wise regression and path analysis designated that grain filling rate, grain filling duration and number of spikes/m2 were the best indirect selection criteria to increase seed yield in common wheat. Increasingly, peduncle length, number of seeds/spike and number of spikelets/spike were recommended to improve spike yield, while peduncle diameter, days to flowering, days to maturity and plant height for photosynthetic reservoir improvement.

38. P. Christy Nirmala Mary*, P. Jeyaseelan and R. Anitha [Best suited fertigation schedule and its effect on growth, yield, quality and uptake of nutrients of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative method]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 616-621 (2016). T. N. A. U. Sugarcane Research Station, Cuddalore-607 001 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : chrismary@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at experimental farm, Sugarcane Research Station, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu during 2013 to 2014 in sugarcane cv. CoC (SC) 24 plant crop to standardize the fertilizer schedule with 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended NPK through surface and sub-surface drip fertigation on growth characters, yield and yield attributing characters, plant nutrient content and uptake pattern of nutrients by sugarcane under Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) method. The results of the experiment revealed that sub-surface drip irrigation system increased the cane yield and uptake of nutrients than surface drip irrigation method. Maximum tiller population of 176520/ha was recorded with sub-surface drip irrigation with 150% recommended dose of fertilizers followed by sub-surface fertigation with 125% recommended dose of fertilizers (163320/ha). Application of 150% recommended levels of NPK produced maximum cane yield (132.69 t/ha) followed by 125% recommended NPK (129.69 t/ha) and on a par with each other. Irrigation and fertilizer did not significantly influence the CCS content. Fertigation of 125% recommended dose of NPK recorded higher sugar yield of 16.62 t/ha. The higher benefit : cost ratio of 3.01 per rupee invested was observed in treatment received 125% recommended NPK under sub-surface drip fertigation system. The highest NPK uptake of 193.92, 91.57 and 375.89 kg/ha was noticed by the 150% recommended NPK. The 125% recommended NPK @ 375 : 125 : 250 kg/ha was the suitable type and level of fertilizer for obtaining high yield and quality of sugarcane under SSI system of sugarcane planting. SSI is the first step towards standardization of sugarcane cultivation focusing on improving productivity while reducing the agriculture foot print on planet earth.

39. Sunita Kumari*, L. K. Sharma, G. U. Kulkarni and Jyoti Sondarva [Association studies in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) under irrigated and limited irrigation conditions]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 622-627 (2016). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : sunitabhu7@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted by using 25 diverse genotypes of coriander during the rabi seasons of 2012-13 at Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. Seed yield per plant showed significant and positive correlation with umbels per plant, harvest index, seeds per umbel, longest basal leaf length, umbellets per umbel, number of fruit bearing branches, plant height and 100-seed weight in irrigated conditions, whereas with harvest index, umbels per plant, number of fruit bearing branches and number of umbellets per umbel, under limited irrigation conditions. Path analysis revealed that the maximum direct and positive effect was due to umbels per plant, number of fruit bearing branches, seeds per umbel, harvest index, plant height, days to maturity and longest basal leaf length under irrigated condition, whereas days to 50% flowering, number of fruit bearing branches, umbellets per umbel, plant height, harvest index and longest basal leaf length in limited irrigation conditions.

40. N. S. VITHLANI*, H. D. RANK AND G. V. PRAJAPATI [Warming trend analysis for the Aji river basin of Rajkot]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 628-632 (2016). Department of Soil and Water Engineering Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : vithlaninipa@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The historical records of temperature for Aji river basin (Dist. Rajkot) were collected and the monthly seasonal and annual average of daily maximum, minimum and mean temperature were computed for 32 years (1978-2009). The each time series data of temperature were analyzed for the warming trend analysis and based on that the future scenario of climate was projected. Monthly average of maximum temperature was found decreasing, increasing and no significant during 3, 3 and 6 months, respectively, in a year. While that of minimum temperature indicated significantly decreasing trend in 12 months in a year. In fact, the monthly average of daily mean temperature was found decreased in 11 months and insignificant decreasing trend in 1 month. The seasonal average of maximum temperature showed decreasing trend during monsoon and winter and increasing trend in summer season. However, the highly significant decreasing trend in seasonal average minimum temperature was observed during all of three seasons of the year. Seasonal average of dailymean temperature was found in decreasing trend during winter, summer and monsoon. Annual average of daily minimum and meantemperature could be found significantly decreasing by 0.28oC and 0.15oC per year, whereas maximum temperature was found stable. This indicates that there will not be climate change in this region due to warming if the same temperature trend will continue.

41. S. B. Fakayode*, A. Falola, D. Obakeye and A. Adeyemo [Socio-economic and flood precautions of flood affected households in lower Niger basin areas of Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 17 (3) : 633-639 (2016). 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria *(e-mail : segun.fakayode@fuoye.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

Flood is a tropical climate change challenge in Nigeria. Its occurrence is always associated with heavy loss of life and property, misery, hardship, disease and at times famine. This study specifically examined socio-economic predicaments of flood affected households, factors predisposing farmers and their livelihood to flood and mitigation practices adopted in the Niger basins of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 120 respondents with the use of questionnaire. About 389.6 hectares were affected by flood constituting 92.08% of the total farm area. About 446150 kg (N 35,692,000) of rice were lost to the flood accounting for 94.83% of the total loss, while maize of about 22800 kg (N 1,368,000) and sorghum of about 1500 kg (N 90,000) were also lost to the flood accounting for 4.85 and 0.32% of the total loss, respectively. Factors such as farmland proximity to river, lack of levee/dyke along the river channel, lack of insurance on flood, inadequate access to flood resistant crop varieties, inadequate assistance from the Government and other financial institutions predisposed respondents to flooding. Furrow channeling and use of cement blocks were the most adopted flood mitigation practices in the study area, while the use of sandbags, woods and heavy grasses were adopted. Study, therefore, calls for government and the private sectors participation in construction of embankments and complete dredging of the river as well as provision of flood resistant crop varieties, loans and enlightenment of farmers on insuring their properties.

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