Volume 17, No. 2 (June, 2016)

By | July 7, 2016

1. UPINDER SHARMA*, S. K. SUBEHIA and S. S. RANA [Long term effect of integrated nutrient management on yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in north-western Himalaya]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 173-177 (2016). Department of Agronomy F & GM CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : upender.35@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to study the integrated effect of nutrient management on rice and wheat yield and its economics in an on-going long term fertilizer experiment initiated during kharif 1991 at CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur. Eight treatments comprising control, 100% NPK (inorganic) and conjoint use of 50 and 75% NPK with 50 and 25% N substitution either through FYM, wheat straw or green manure Sesbania aculeata to rice (June-October) followed by 100 and 75% NPK through inorganics to wheat (November-May), respectively, were imposed since the inception of the experiment. Grain and straw yields of both the crops were recorded after 20th and 21st cropping cycles (2010-11 and 2011-12). The omission of chemical fertilizers and organics for last 20 years (control) resulted in significantly lower yield in comparison to rest of the treatments. Continuous substitution of 50% N through green manure with 50% NPK produced maximum rice grain (7.37 t/ha) and straw (6.21 t/ha) yield which was 16.8 and 14.8% higher over 100% NPK alone. In case of wheat, highest grain yield (3.64 t/ha) was recorded in treatment where 50% N was substituted through FYM to rice crop every year. The data further revealed that application of (i) 50% NPK+50% N through FYM to rice followed by 100% NPK to wheat, (ii) 100% NPK to both the crops and (iii) 50% NPK+50% N through green manure to rice followed by 100% NPK to wheat gave significantly higher net returns (193, 170 and 163%, respectively) over control. The highest benefit : cost (B : C) ratio of 1.40 was recorded in treatment where 100% NPK was applied to both the crops followed by 1.22 in treatment where 50% NPK+50% N through FYM to rice followed by 100% NPK to wheat was applied.

2. S. JAFFAR BASHA*, R. BASAVARAJAPPA AND H. B. BABALAD [Influence of organic and inorganic nutrient management practices on yield, economics and quality parameters of aerobic rice]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 178-187 (2016). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : shaik.jaffarbasha@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient management practices on yield, economics and quality parameters of aerobic rice during kharif 2013 and 2014 at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. The experiment consisted of 24 treatment combinations comprising six main plots (manurial practices) and four sub-plots (liquid organic manures) which were replicated thrice. Integrated application of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) (100 : 50 : 50 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha)+farm yard manure (FYM) @ 5 t/ha+microbial consortium (Azospirillum+phosphate solubilizing bacteria) with soil application of biodigester @ 2500 l/ha at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) recorded significantly higher productive tillers/m2 (466.62), filled grains/panicle (92.97), grain yield (4262 kg/ha), straw yield (6033 kg/ha), protein (8.75%) and starch (22.70%). Among the treatment combinations, integrated application of RDF+FYM+microbial consortium and soil application of cow urine @ 500 l/ha at 30, 60 and 90 DAS recorded significantly higher net returns (Rs. 34,595/ha) and benefit : cost ratio of Rs. 2.17 over other treatments.

3. Md. Monjurul Islam, Md. Shahidul Islam, Md. Habibur Rahman, Mamata Saha, Md. Shahidul Haque Bir, Md. Mehedi Hasan Sohel, Jeung Joo Lee* and Kee Woong Park** [Effect of different transplanting dates on the yield and yield components of Binadhan-14 (Oryza sativa L.) under climatic conditions in Bangladesh]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 188-193 (2016). Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : jeunglee@gnu.ac.kr; **parkkw@cnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

Binadhan-14 (Oryza sativa L.) is a late transplanting rice variety with high yield potential, developed for boro season by BINA in 2013. Effects of different transplanting dates to yield of Binadhan-14 were assessed at three locations in Bangladesh during boro season in 2014-15. BRRI dhan 28 was used as a check variety. At each location, one month old seedlings were transplanted at five different dates with 15-day intervals between February 1 and April 1, 2015. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used to lay out plots in the experiment. Transplanting dates significantly influenced grain yield and yield contributing parameters, such as plant height, panicles per hill, panicle length and filled grains per panicle, except for 1000-grain weight. The highest grain yields were obtained when the rice was transplanted on February 1 and 15, 2015. The highest yield of Binadhan-14 was obtained at Rangpur (6.75 t/ha), followed by Mymensingh (6.25 t/ha) and Magura (5.90 t/ha). Results of this study suggest that February 1 to 15 would be the best time to transplant Binadhan-14 as a late transplanting boro variety under the climatic conditions in Bangladesh.

4. Rakesh Kumar*, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Bidyut C. Deka, Manoj Kumar, Rukuosietuo Kuotsu, Merasenla AO and S. V. Ngachan [Weed management practices in upland direct seeded jhum rice under the Eastern Himalayas]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 199-204 (2016). ICAR Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland-797 106, India *(e-mail : rakeshbhu08@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In upland direct seeded jhum rice, weed infestation is a serious problem, which results in drastically reduced the crop yield. Average yield of rice crop in North-Eastern Hilly region including the Nagaland is very low due to non-availability of adequate and suitable crop production technology. Among them, the principal factor associated with low yield in jhum rice is severe weed competition. Jhum farmers of this region traditionally apply common salt (NaCl) in upland rice as a post-emergence to manage broad leaf weeds. Keeping the above facts in view, an efforts have been made to study the validation of indigenous technical knowledge for weed management in upland jhum rice to evolve a feasible weed management practices for tribal community of the region. Therefore, a replicated field experiment with rice cv. Bhalum-3 was conducted during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 at farmers’ field in Medziphema village of Dimapur district in Nagaland. The following 12 treatments of common salt (2-20% or 20-200 kg/ha) including control and weed free check were imposed in completely randomized block design and replicated thrice. The common salt was applied as foliar spray through flat fan nozzle using water as a carrier @ 500-600 l/ha at 20 and 40 DAS to the rice. Results revealed that altogether 17 weed species were identified in upland jhum rice, among them the broad-leaved weeds viz. Borreria hispida, Urena lobota, Eupotorium odoratum and Biden pilosa noted the prominent weed flora. Application of increasing levels of common salt i.e. 2 to 20% NaCl increased weed control efficiency (WCE%) but highest values were recorded with application of 20% common salt at 20 DAS as compared to salt applied at 40 DAS. Among the levels of common salt, application of 10% NaCl gave significantly higher grain yield (2315.6 kg/ha) as compared to their preceding levels except weed free check (2517.7 kg/ha).

5. ANNIE POONAM*, SANJOY SAHA AND SUSHMITA MUNDA [Weed management in rice under SRI method of crop establishment]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 205-209 (2016). Crop Production Division ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753 006 (Odisha), India *(e-mail : annie_poonam@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during dry seasons of 2011 and 2012 at the ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack to study the weed spectrum and efficacy of different weed management practices under system of rice intensification (SRI). Cyperus difformis (23.1%) was the predominant weed flora followed by Echinochloa colona (14.7%) at 45 days after transplanting (DAT) in weedy plots. Management of weeds by operating cono weeder at 15 and 30 DAT was found most effective practice (weed control efficiency 90.8% at 45 DAT) for controlling broad spectrum of weeds and realizing higher grain yield (5.79 t/ha). However, chemical weed control by applying azimsulfuron at 35 g a. i./ha applied 15 DAT was the most economic weed management option for getting higher net returns (Rs. 34,400/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (2.82). Application of azimsulfuron also showed least energy input (8.6 x 103 MJ/ha) compared with all other weed management treatments.

6. SHANTVEERAYYA*, C. P. MANSUR AND ANJHU GEORGE [Quality of malt barley genotypes as influenced by integrated nutrient management and in situ moisture conservation practices]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 210-218 (2016). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : shantuagricos@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014 -15 in farmers’ field at model watershed, Neeralkatti village, Dharwad district of Karnataka to study the quality of malt barley genotypes as influenced by integrated nutrient management and in situ moisture conservation practices in rainfed condition. The treatments comprised two main plots as land management practices viz., L1 : Broad bed and furrow (BBF) and L2 : Farmers’ practice (flat bed); two genotypes viz., G1 : DWRB-73 and G2 : BH-902 as sub-plots and sub-sub plots consisted of five integrated nutrient management practices viz., N1 : RDF (50 : 25 : 0 N : P2O5 : K2O kg/ha+7 t/ha FYM), N2 : 75% N through urea+25% N through FYM and recommended P through inorganic, N3 : 50% N through urea+50% N through FYM and recommended P through inorganic, N4 : 75% N through urea+25% N through vermicompost and recommended P through inorganic and N5 : 50% N through urea+50% N through vermicompost and recommended P through inorganic. Significantly higher protein content (10.4%), protein yield (220.4 kg/ha), higher malt recovery (88.5%), higher malt yield (1879 kg/ha) and higher reducing sugar content were observed from grains harvested with genotype DWRB-73 grown on broad bed and furrow along with application of RDF (50 : 25 : 0 N : P2O5 : K2O kg/ha+7 t/ha FYM) compared to rest of the treatments. However, genotype DWRB-73 raised on flat bed with the application of RDF (50 : 25 : 0 N : P2O5 : K2O kg/ha+7 t/ha FYM) recorded significantly higher total free phenol content (2.98 mg/g) compared to rest of the treatments.

7. H. R. PRIYA* AND G. B. SHASHIDHARA [Effect of crop residues as mulching on maize-based cropping systems in conservation agriculture]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 219-225 (2016). Division of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : priya.agron@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at MARS, Dharwad during kharif and rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15 to study the effect of mulching practices in maize-based cropping systems. The experiment comprising two main plot treatments like, maize grown on kharif mulch and without mulch in kharif with sub-plot treatment as rabi crops (wheat, safflower, chickpea and sorghum) and sub-sub plot treatments (rabi crops with mulch and rabi crops without mulch). The results of two years showed that maize grown with mulching practices recorded significantly higher grain yield (83.45 q/ha) of maize and yield parameters like test weight (40.83 g), cob length (21.09 cm) and grain weight per plant (172.5 g) as compared to without mulching practice (72.05 q/ha of grain yield). The per cent of grain yield increase with kharif residue mulching practice was to an extent of 15.82 and 19.32%, respectively, over without mulching practices. These were significantly higher WUE (water use effciency) (14.03 kg/ha.mm), gross returns (Rs.109316/ha) and net returns (Rs.74021/ha) as compared to without mulching practices. Mulching in both the seasons recorded significantly higher grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat (17.29 q/ha and 23.92 kg/ha.mm), safflower (18.55 q/ha and 26.89 kg/ha.mm), chickpea (18.79 q/ha and 27.05 kg/ha.mm) and sorghum (19.70 q/ha and 26.82 kg/ha.mm) as compared to without mulching practices. Application of kharif mulch to chickpea crop in rabi season recorded significantly higher the total system net returns (109652 Rs./ha) as compared to without mulched treatment. It was on par with the safflower crop with rabi mulch (Rs. 106337/ha).

8. GURVINDER SINGH*, V. K. JOSHI, SUBHASH CHANDRA, AMIT BHATNAGAR AND ANCHAL DASS [Spring maize (Zea mays L.) response to different crop establishment and moisture management practices in north-west plains of India]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 226-230 (2016). Department of Agronomy G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : guruagronomy@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Maize cultivation for green cobs during the spring season is a remunerative proposition for the farmers in the north Indian plains. However, high evapo-transpiration demand of spring maize exerts considerable pressure on already depleting water resources. Thus, a two-year field experiment was conducted at GBPUA & T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India to determine the effect of rice residue mulch, earthing-up, alternate furrow irrigation and crop establishment methods on productivity, profitability and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of spring maize. Results revealed that application of rice straw mulch (6 t/ha) enhanced plant height, number of green leaves, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index and yield attributes. Reproductive stage set in advance in mulch treated plots compared to plots under other treatments. Green cob yield from mulched plot was the highest that was 37 % higher over the flat planting alone. Broad bed planting and flat planting followed by earthing-up treatments produced the second and third highest cob yield, respectively. Planting on broad bed registered the highest IWUE (352.5 kg/ha-cm). Mulch treatment also earned higher net returns and B : C ratio than remaining treatments.

9. K. M. SELLAMUTHU*, R. SANTHI, S. MARAGATHAM and P. DEY [Soil test and yield target based balanced fertilizer prescription for rainfed maize on an alfisol]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 231-239 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : kmsella75@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on a Typic Ustropept (Irugur soil series) soil of Western Zone of Tamil Nadu to refine the existing fertilizer prescription equation for rainfed maize adopting the inductive-cum-targeted yield model, and fertilizer requirements were quantified for rainfed maize based on soil test and yield target. The basic parameters viz., nutrient requirement (NR) and contributions of nutrients from soil (Cs), fertilizer (Cf) and farm yard manure (Cfym) were computed from the field experimental data. Using the basic parameters, fertilizer prescription equations were developed based on integrated plant nutrition system (IPNS), and nomograms were formulated for the desired yield target of rainfed maize for the given soil test values. The extent of saving of inorganic fertilizers for rainfed maize was computed using the fertilizer prescription equations under IPNS with the application of FYM @ 12.5 t/ha (32% moisture and 0.50, 0.21 and 0.49% of N, P and K, respectively, was 22, 17 and 20 kg of fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively, when applied along with the N, P and K fertilizers as per soil test and desired yield target. To validate the fertilizer prescription equations developed for rainfed maize under IPNS, field experiments were carried out during 2013-15 in three locations. The per cent achievement of the targeted yield of all the three verification trials was within ±10% variation proving the validity of the equations for prescribing integrated fertilizer doses for rainfed maize.

10. A. K. GUGGARI* AND B. MALLAPPA [Nutrient management through organic and inorganic sources for macro and trace elements in rainfed pearl millet]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 240-243 (2016). AICRP on Pearl Millet, Regional Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Vijayapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : guggariak@uasd.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Vijayapur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad for three seasons during kharif 2012, 2013 and 2014 to study the effect of nutrient management through organic and inorganic sources for macro and trace elements in rainfed pearl millet. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design having three replications. There were 18 treatment combinations consisting of three organic manure levels (no FYM, FYM @ 5 t/ha and FYM @ 2.5 t/ha) and six inorganic nutrient levels viz., recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), RDF+ZnSO4 @ 20 kg/ha, RDF+FeSO4 @ 20 kg/ha, RDF+Borax @ 10 kg/ha, RDF+Gypsum @ 250 kg/ha and control. The mean results of three years (2012, 2013 and 2014) showed that application of FYM @ 5 t/ ha recorded significantly higher grain yield (2409 kg/ha) compared to no FYM application (2093 kg/ha), however, it was on par with application of FYM @ 2.5 t/ha (2334 kg/ha). Stover yield was significantly superior with FYM at 5 t/ha (3.38 t/ha) compared to no FYM and FYM at 2.5 t/ha (2.90 and 3.12 t/ha, respectively). In case of inorganic nutrient treatments, application of RDF+Borax @ 10 kg/ha recorded significantly higher grain yield (2560 kg/ha) compared to absolute control (1680 kg/ha), RDF alone (2238 kg/ha) and RDF+ZnSO4 @ 20 kg/ha (2346 kg/ha); however, it was on par with RDF+FeSO4 @ 20 kg/ha (2473 kg/ha). Stover yield was significantly higher with RDF+FeSO4 @ 20 kg /ha (3.31 t/ha) compared to absolute control (2.54 t/ha), but it was on par with RDF+Borax @ 10 kg/ha and other treatments.

11. MEHDI ABDESHARIF ESFAHANI, HAMIDREZA JAVANMARD* AND AHMADREZA GOLPARVAR [Assessment of growth physiological indices, seed and oil yield of two spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars under different tillage methods in Isfahan province of Iran]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 244-247 (2016). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : javanmard@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

To evaluate growth physiological indices in spring cultivation of safflower in Isfahan region, an experiment was achieved in research and educational station of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch during 2014 farming season. The strip plot with four replications was used as experimental design so three tillage methods as horizontal, whereas safflower cultivars as vertical. Total dry weight, leaf area index, net assimilation rate, crop growth rate and relative growth rate were measured as growth physiological indices. Moreover, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and oil yield per plant were recorded. Analysis of variance showed the significant difference among tillage methods and safflower cultivars for 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant. Interaction effect between tillage methods and cultivar was significant only for 100-seed weight. The findings revealed that low tillage method had the highest growth physiological indices, whereas no tillage had the lowest. Also, Soffeh cultivar showed the maximum amount of indices before heading so Goldasht cultivar had the maximum after heading stage. Therefore, conventional tillage method showed the best results for cultivation as well as improving sustainable agriculture in safflower. Goldasht cultivar had more potential than Soffeh so Goldasht was suggested to cultivate in Isfahan province.

12. Rakes, S., Ganesh Chandra Banik*, Arunava Ghosh and Deepranjan Sarkar [Effect of sulphur fertilization on different forms of sulphur under mustard cultivation in an acid soil of terai region of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 248-252 (2016). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari-736 165, Cooch Behar (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : gcbanik79@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted growing Indian mustard with added doses of sulphur in the form of bentonite-S and single super phosphate (SSP) to evaluate effect of S addition on different forms of S in an acid soil under mustard cultivation during 2013-14. The preponderance of S in initial soil followed the order : total sulphur> organic sulphur> non-sulphatesulphur> heat soluble sulphur> adsorbed sulphur> water soluble sulphur>sulphate sulphur. The analysis of soil after harvest showed that all S forms decreased in the control plot. The total S content was increased with addition of S but organic S content decreased in all treatments. Although, this decrement was lower down with addition of S. The status of the SO4-2-S in the soil at harvest had no much variation across the treatments. The bentonite S showed the better S use efficiency by the plant.

13. Sourav Gupta*, S. S. Kushwah, Jyotimala Sahu, R. N. Sharma, B. S. Kasana, Rajendra Mandloi, Manisha Shyam and Sushil Yadav [Bio-efficacy of propaquizafop herbicide against weeds in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 253-261 (2016). Department of Agronomy Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior-474 002 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : souravgupta654@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field investigation was carried out for two consecutive kharif seasons during 2013 and 2014 at the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh to study the bio-efficacy of propaquizafop for the control of narrow-leaved weeds in sesame. Experiment consisted of eight treatments viz.,T1 (Propaquizafop 10% EC @ 50 g a.i./ha PoE), T2 (Propaquizafop 10% EC @ 62.5 g a. i./ha PoE), T3 (Propaquizafop 10% EC @ 100 g a. i./ha PoE), T4 (Propaquizafop 10% EC @ 125 g a. i./ha PoE), T5 (Quizalofop-p-ethyl 5% EC @ 50 g a. i./ha PoE), T6 (Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9% w/w EC @ 100 g a. i./ha PoE), T7 (Two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS) and T8 (Weedy check). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (R. B. D.) with three replications. Propaquizafop and other two herbicides viz., quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethylwere applied at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds. Among the herbicidal treatments, propaquizafop @ 125 g a. i./ha gave lowest narrow-leaved weed density as well as their dry weight at 75 DAS stage on pooled basis, however, these herbicides were not found effective against broad-leaved weeds. These were observed statistically at par with all the doses of propaquizafop tried under investigation. The highest sesame grain yield (718 kg/ha), oil yield (348 kg/ha),harvest index (18.11%) and net income ($ 47339) were recorded with execution of two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS (T7) over rest of the weed control treatments followed by propaquizafop application @ 50 g a. i./ha (T1). Propaquizafop applied at its higher dose (@125 g a. i./ha) gave excellent control of narrow-leaved weeds but this could not turn into yield due to phytotoxicity caused by it on the crop.

14. N. S. Renukaswamy*, B. R. Megha, B. A. Kiran and M. B. Chetti [Effect of moisture stress and fungicide on biochemical traits and yield of soybean]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 262-267 (2016). Department of Crop Physiology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : jimmyrns@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif 2012 and 2013 under rainout shelterto study the influence of fungicide (Opera 18.3% SE) in improving yield by recovering biochemical traitsin moisture stressed soybean. The results revealed that in all the four moisture stress treatments viz., withholding water for 0, 5, 10 and 15 days imposed on 40 DAS, application of fungicide opera recorded high chlorophyll, soluble protein and less proline content withreduced membrane injury over their respective counterparts without fungicide application. Further the yield in moisture stress for 5, 10 and 15 days without fungicide treatment (3902, 3614 and 3902 kg/ha, respectively) was significantly reduced compared to their respective counterparts with fungicide treatment (3910, 4075 and 4224 kg/ha, respectively).

15. L. K. Baishya*, M. A. Ansari, Dibyendu Sarkar, M. Ghosh, Sudhir Kumar and N. Prakash [Productivity enhancement in shifting cultivated lands through biofertilizer and micro-dosing of NPK in Eastern Himalayan Region]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 268-275 (2016). ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat-795 004 (Manipur), India *(e-mail : lkbaishya@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted in the jhum/shifting cultivated lands of Chandel (Lambong village), Churachandpur (Henkot village), Tamenglong (Noney village) and Ukhrul (Ramva village) districts of Manipur during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014.The first experiment was done by taking four crops (rice, maize, groundnut and soybean)with two treatment combinations i. e. improved jhum management practices (seed biopriming with Azotobacter+PSB and micro-dosing of NPK and traditional jhum practices (without application of any plant nutrient). The second experiment consisted of diversified cropping systems (sole cropping of rice, maize, soybean and groundnut and strip intercropping of rice+soybean, rice+groundnut, maize+soybean and maize+groundnut) under improved jhum management practices compared with traditional jhum practices. The results showed that improved jhum management practices recorded better growth and produced higher yield of different crops as compared to those of traditional jhum practices. Among the sole and strip cropping systems, maximum rice equivalent yield was recorded in sole groundnut (6.99 t/ha) followed by maize+groundnut (4.82 t/ha), rice+groundnut (4.64 t/ha) and sole soybean (3.64 t/ha) with the improved jhum management. Sole groundnut with improved jhum management also recorded maximum gross returns ($ 1526.67/ha), net returns ($ 1116.67/ha), returns per rupee invested ($ 3.72) and crop profitability ($ 10.90/ha/day). Incorporating legumes in cropping systems also considerably improved the fertility status of the jhum lands.

16. MUKESH CHANDRA DUBEY*, RAJESH KUMAR, JITENDRA KUMAR AND ANKIT KUMAR [Morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of guava genotypes]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 276-282 (2016). Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture Govind Vallabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : mukesh45673@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation deals with the morphological and physico-chemical characterization of eight guava genotypes. Significant variations were present with reference to various morphological and biochemical characteristics among the genotypes. Different plant characters ranged as; tree height from 2.04 m in RCGH-11 to 3.52 m in RCGH-1, tree spread from 2.88 m in RCGH-11 to 6.13 m in RCGH-1, stem girth from 22.67 cm in MPUAT-Sel-2 to 33.65 cm in RCGH-1, cross sectional trunk area from 34.49 cm2 in MPUAT Sel-2 to 71.25 cm2 in RCGH-1, number of petals per flower from 4.2 in Arka Kiran to 10.20 in RCGH-1, number of stamens per flower from 440.4 in MPUAT Sel-2 to 536.60 in RCGH-7, leaf length from 10.75 cm in RCGH-11 to 13.96 cm in MPUAT Sel-1, leaf width from 4.36 cm in CISH-G-25 to 7.08 cm in MPUAT Sel-2, length : width from 1.87 in RCGH-11 to 2.73 in RCGH-1, leaf area from 65.1 cm2 in CISH-G-35 to 95.71 cm2 in MPUAT Sel-2, number of veins from 19.60 in MPUAT Sel-2 to 26.60 in RCGH-11, leaf fresh weight from 1.10 g in MPUAT Sel-1 to 1.99 g in MPUAT Sel-2, leaf dry weight from 0.66 g in MPUAT Sel-1 to 1.02 g in MPUAT Sel-2, chlorophyll from 0.005 mg/g in Arka Kiran to 0.010 mg/g in CISH-G-35, nitrogen from 0.134% in Allahabad Safeda to 0.329% in MPUAT Sel-2, phosphorus from 0.119% in RCGH-7 to 0.179% in MPUAT Sel- 2, potassium from 0.202% in RCGH-11 to 0.812% in CISH-G-35, boron from 49.90 ppm in Arka Kiran to 76.67 ppm in RCGH-7, zinc from 140.24 ppm in Allahabad Safeda to 279.55 ppm in Arka Kiran, iron from 645.67 ppm in Allahabad Safeda to 1382.23 ppm in Arka Kiran, leaf colour from light green in MPUAT Sel-1 and RCGH-1 and dark green in CISH-G-35 and RCGH-11 to green in rest. However, petiole length did not vary significantly. Leaf shape varied from lanceolate in MPUAT Sel-1, oblanceolate in Arka Kiran and RCGH-1 to oblong in rest, leaf apex from acute in MPUAT Sel-1, rounded in CISH-G-35 to obtuse in rest, leaf base from obtuse in MPUAT Sel-1 to rounded in rest, colour of young leaves from light green in Allahabad Safeda, dark green in RCGH-11 to green in rest, tree growth habit from spreading in MPUAT Sel-1, MPUAT Sel-2 and Arka Kiran to upright in rest and flower colour remained white among different genotypes.

17. M. BRIJWAL*, D. C. DIMRI, D. S. MISHRA AND A. NARAYAN [Flowering and pollen morphological studies in some litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 283-290 (2016). Department of Horticulture G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : manoj.brijwal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in tarai region of Uttarakhand, India to study the flowering and pollen morphological attributes in four commercial litchi cultivars i. e. Rose Scented, Calcuttia, Early Seedless and Late Seedless during two successive years 2013 and 2014, respectively. The results indicated that the cultivar Rose Scentedand Early Seedlessshowed very early initiation of flowering and full bloom. However, it was late in Late Seedless and Calcuttia. The maximum duration of flowering was noticed in Rose Scented (21.87 days), while the minimum duration of flowering was noticed in Late Seedless (20.00 days). Total number of flowers ranged between 782.50 in Late Seedless to 864.87 in Rose Scented. The maximum number of imperfect hermaphrodite female flowers (299.50) and imperfect hermaphrodite male flowers (294.62) was recorded in Rose Scented, while the maximum number of male flowers was observed in Calcuttia (277.87). The polar length and equatorial diameter of pollen grains in male flowers varied from 24.43 to 28.62 µm and 14.59 to 17.16 µm, while in imperfect hermaphrodite male flowers it varied from 26.90 to 28.87 µm and 14.59 to 16.06 µm, respectively, in the examined cultivars. The viability of litchi pollen grains varied with cultivar and ranged from 56.77 to 66.90% in male and 72.74 to 81.96% in imperfect hermaphrodite male flowers.

18. M. BRIJWAL*, D. C. DIMRI and D. S. MISHRA [Effect of different pollination methods on physical and chemical characteristics of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 291-297 (2016). Department of Horticulture G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : manoj.brijwal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of pollen source in four litchi cultivars i. e. ‘Rose Scented’, ‘Calcuttia’, ‘Early Seedless’ and ‘Late Seedless’ as a result of self, cross and open pollination methods during two successive years 2013 and 2014. The two years’ pooled data showed that the cross pollination methods significantly improved the physical and chemical characteristics of fruit such as fruit weight (24.33 g) in Late Seedless × Early Seedless, fruit volume (23.75 ml) in Late Seedless × Early Seedless, total soluble solids (21.91 oBrix)in Rose Scented × Early Seedless and minimum titratable acidity (0.45%) in Late Seedless × Rose Scented, while the maximum aril seed ratio (22.41) in Late Seedless × Late Seedless and titratable acidity (0.59%) in Calcuttia were estimated in self and open pollination methods, respectively, during both the years. The minimum fruit weight (18.39 g) in Calcuttia × Calcuttia, fruit volume (17.65 ml) in Calcuttia × Calcuttia and total soluble solids (18.40 oBrix) in Early Seedless × Early Seedless were recorded in self pollination methods during both the years. The total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar content did not differ significantly among the different pollination methods. Overall, increased fruit physical and chemical characteristics under the cross pollination suggest that the inclusion of cross-pollinators in litchi orchards may be beneficial for improving the fruit quality characteristics.

19. V. P. JOSHI* AND P. M. CHAUHAN [Combating climate change through off-seasonally raising seedling of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in protected environment]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 298-309 (2016). Department of Renewable Energy and Rural Engineering Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : viraljoshi2088@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Major difficulty of raising papaya seedling is mortality of seedling, among abiotic factors of environment like unfavourable microclimate; especially temperature restricts raising off-season fruit nursery under open field condition in arid region. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is widely grown fruit crop in tropics and India is the largest producer in the world. Papaya seedlings are fetching very high price during off-season availability. In this study, a low tunnel greenhouse (S1) and black shade net house (S2) were taken as protected structures for growing of papaya seedlings. The variety of papaya seedlings was Madhubindu and soil+FYM was taken as growing media for this study. Survival and growth of seedlings were monitored for 30-60 days. The environmental and morphological data were recorded and computed and response of papaya seedling growth was evaluated in terms of germination percentage, seedling height, collar diameter, number of leaves, diameter of shoot, fresh and dry weight of aboveground and underground biomass, sturdiness, root : shoot ratio, vigour index length andvigour index mass in root media. The results of this study revealed that the environmental factor during the entire study period was found significant in black shade net structure compared to greenhouse. Variation in seedling growth in different microclimatic conditions may be due to the differences in growth behaviour under given set of environmental conditions. The minimum time taken for days of germination, germination percentage, seedling height, collar and shoot diameter was found highest in black shade net house (S2) with variety i. e. Madhubindu and soil+FYM as growing media. Economically black shade net house with net profit 513.27 Rs./m2, BCR 3.94 and payback period 0.59 was found highly suitable for raising seedling of papaya off-seasonally and mitigating climate change in arid region.

20. Chandrakant Awachare*, N. V. Singh, D. M. Mundewadikar, H. B. Shilpa, R. K. Pal, P. K. Nimbolkar1 and B. N. S. Murthy [Biochemical profiling in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivar ‘Bhagawa’]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 310-315 (2016). ICAR-National Research Centre on Pomegranate NH-65, Kegaon Solapur-413255 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : chandrakant.iari@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The investigation on biochemical profiling in pomegranate cultivar ‘Bhagawa’ was carried out at experimental orchards located at ICAR-NRCP, Solapur. Fruit size, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolics, total and reducing sugars, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents were measured at various fruit developmental stages. Significant increase in total soluble solids, sugar content, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid was observed, however, there was significant decrease in total phenolic content and titratable acidityas the fruits advanced to maturity (MS1 to MS5 stage).The ratio of TSS/TA is an important factor for deciding fruit maturity. Moreover, the significant increase in TSS/TA ratio from second to third and fourth to fifth maturity stages (MS2 to MS3 and MS4 to MS5) was observed due to increment in TSS and decrement in titratable acidity. A correlation matrix revealed significantly (P<0.05) strong relationships among almost all the parameters assessed. TSS showed positive correlationwith pH (0.682) and strong negative correlation (r = -0.882) with TA. TSS was also found to be strongly correlated with total sugars, reducing sugars and anthocyanins. Though, total phenolic contentwas negatively correlated with other variables except titratable acidity. Therefore, right proportions of these biochemical constituents could serve as reliable maturity markers to determine optimum fruit quality and fruit readiness for harvest.

21. Lalit Nagar*, M. L. Kushwaha, Akshay Chittora and Ashish Kaushal [Economic heterosis in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 316-319 (2016). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : dhaker88@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out at Vegetable Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand in RBD with four replications during kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013. Nine brinjal F1 hybrids were evaluated under this investigation to know the per se performance and to estimate the magnitude of economic heterosis (over two standard checks Pant Rituraj and Pant Samrat) for yield and yield attributing characters. For fruit yield per hectare, the F1 hybrid Pusa Abhinav x DBL-02 showed highest economic heterosis (120.16% over Pant Rituraj and 29.22% over Pant Samrat) followed by PB-71 x BB-85 (110.71% over Pant Rituraj and 23.67% over Pant Samrat). The results indicated that Pusa Abhinav x DBL-02, PB-71 x BB-85 and BARI x Pant Rituraj could be exploited as commercial F1 hybrids as they exhibited high economic heterosis over standard parents.

22. A. CHANDINI RAJ*, K. HOLEBASAPPA, J. K. HORE** AND S. DAS [Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 320-323 (2016). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : chandua91@gmail.com; **jkhore31@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out at HRS, Mondouri, BCKV during 2012-14 to find out the effect of growth regulators on growth and yield of chilli cv. Beldanga. Three concentrations of four growth regulators, namely, NAA (25, 50 and 75 ppm), GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm), 2, 4-D (5, 7.5 and 10 ppm) and ethrel (300, 400 and 500 ppm) were included in this investigation. The regulators were applied as foliar spray at 30 and 60 days after transplanting. There were altogether 13 treatments including control (water spray).In both the years, the seedlings were transplanted during middle of November in 2 x 1.6 m plot at 50 x 40 cm spacing accommodating 16 plants per plot. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications. The NPK dose was 150 : 80 : 80 kg/ha. Among different treatments, maximum number of both primary (4.43) and secondary branches (17.97), 1000-seed weight (3.74 g), yield per plant (182.31 g) and projected yield per hectare (6.37 t) were observed in plants raised from application of NAA 75 ppm. Maximum plant height (60.67cm), plant spread in (E-W) (36.00 cm) and maximum weight of 20 dry fruit (9.39 g) were recorded in GA3 60 ppm and GA3 20 ppm treated plants, respectively. The plant spread in (N-S) (36.97 cm) and maximum number of seeds per fruit (60.47) were recorded in 2,4-D 7.5 ppm treated plants. The projected yield under untreated control was 4.34 t/ha. From yield maximization point of view, the most effective treatment was NAA 75 ppm followed by NAA 50 ppm and GA3 60 ppm under alluvial plains of West Bengal for production of chilli.

23. MAMTA BOHRA*, SANTOSH KUMAR, C. P. SINGH AND AMIT VISEN [Studies on effect of mulching materials on floral attributes of rose (Rosa spp.) cv. Lahar under tarai condition of Uttarakhand state, India]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 324-330 (2016). Department of Horticulture G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : mbohragbptu@mail.com)

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to accessthe impact of mulching materials on improving the floral attributes of rosecv. Lahar. The experiment was conducted at Modal Floriculture Centre, G. B. P. U. A. & T., Pantnagar during winter and spring seasons of the years 2011-12 and 2012-13. The treatments comprised 50, 100 and 200 µ thickness black and transparent polyethylene films, paddy straw and control. Each treatment was replicated thrice in a completely randomized block design. The results obtained from the investigation showed that during both the seasons i. e. winter and spring, minimum days taken to flowering (32.14 and 31.64 days, respectively) were observed of plants grown under the plots covered with 100 µ thick black polyethylene mulch which were statistically at par with 200 µ thick black polyethylene film (33.46 and 32.50 days). In both the seasons, maximum duration of flowering (5.49 and 5.01 days, respectively), flower longevity (11.55 and 10.73 days, respectively), flower diameter (8.62 and 6.54 cm), stem length (30.45 and 29.55 cm, respectively), number of flowers per plant (25.90 and 36.20, respectively), vase life (8.59 and 8.55 days, respectively) and water uptake (22.45 and 21.15 ml, respectively) were recorded from the plants grown under the plots mulched with 100 µ thick black polyethylene film. The results also revealed that plants grown under the plots covered with 200 µ thick black polyethene mulch also significantly improved the floral characters of the plants.

24. S. RAMESH BABU*, M. K. MAHLA, O. P. AMETA AND MADANLAL MEGHWAL [Bioefficacy of a new diamide molecule, tetraniliprole 200 SC (W/V) against semiloopers in soybean]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 331-335 (2016). Agriculture Research Station (MPUA&T) Borwat Farm, Banswara-327 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : babuento@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in kharif season during 2013 and 2014 to find out the bioefficacy of newer diamide class molecule against semiloopers (Chrysodeixis acuta and Gesonia gemma) in soybean. The present study was undertaken to find out the bioefficacy of tetraniliprole SC 200 (w/v) (BCS CL 73507 SC 200) of different doses along with chloranthraniliprole 18.5 SC and triazophos 40 EC against semiloopers in soybean. The results revealed that tetraniliprole @ 50 g a. i./ha or 60 g a. i./ha was the most effective dose in reducing the semilooper larval population in soybean. It was followed by tetraniliprole @ 40 g a. i./ha or chloranthraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 30 g a. i./ha which was significantly superior over triazophos 40 EC @ 250 g a. i./ha and untreated control. The pooled mean data of both the years on seed yield also proved similar results and showed an incremental yield of 11.2 and 13.8 q/ha for tetraniliprole @ 50 and 60 g a. i./ha, respectively, over untreated control, then followed by treatments tetraniliprole @ 40 g a. i./ha, chlorantraniliprole @ 30 g a. i./ha and triazophos @ 250 g a. i./ha with a mean seed yield of 11.5 to 20.2 q/ha and an incremental yield of 2.5 to 11.2 q/ha over untreated control. This diamide class molecule, tetraniliprole has a unique mode of action and is effective against devastating pests of soybean which can be new tool for integrated pest management programmes.

25. S. K. CHETIA, MONALISA KALITA, M. S. ALI, B. C. DAS AND T. AHMED [Variability of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and introgression of BLB resistance in the popular rice varieties–Ranjit and Shraboni of Assam]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 336-341 (2016). A. A. U. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Titabar-785 630 (Assam), India

ABSTRACT

One of the major constraints in rice cultivation in most of the states of our country is the infection of bacterial leaf blight (BLB) causing a reduction of up to 60% in grain yield. In its greatest severity, it can cause a yield loss of about 80% in susceptible cultivars. The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is responsible for this disease. BLB was not a major constrain in our state up to 20th century. However, with higher adaptation of high yielding and hybrid varieties along with higher application of nitrogenous fertilizers, BLB is also causing a serious concern of our state. Earlier studies made on standard differentials revealed the presence of Pathovar Ia. From the study it was found that in Assam the prevalent pathotypes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae are III, V, VIII and IX.The most popular rice variety of our region – Ranjit has also become highly infested by the disease. Therefore, to combat this disease and increase the productivity of the rice cultivation, the introgression of resistance genes of BLB in the popular rice varieties of Assam is of utmost importance. A number of rice genes have been identified along with their closely linked molecular markers that confer resistance against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Out of the resistant genes, Xa4, xa5, xa13 and Xa21 have been introgressed in different combinations in the background of popular rice varieties of our country and exhibiting resistance by the introgressed varieties. For the introgression of the resistant gene, identification of parental polymorphism between the recipient variety and the donor is the first and foremost importance. For introgression of xa5, xa13 and Xa21, polymorphic molecular markers have been identified between the donor Improved Sambha Mahsuri and Ranjit, Shraboni; RM122 for xa5, xa13 for xa13 and pTa248 for Xa21. However, it was observed that in the popular varieties–Ranjit and Shraboni, the resistance gene xa5 is already present. However, xa5 alone could not confer the resistance to the available pathovar of BLB in Assam. Therefore, introgression of other resistance gene is very important.

26. D. Sravani*, V. Ravindra Babu, M. Rajendar Reddy, T. Dayakar reddy, Y. Sharat Kumar Reddy and P. Madhubabu [Studies on genetic relation between grain yield and protein content under different agro-climatic locations of Telangana in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 342-346 (2016). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (Telangana), India *(e-mail : dsravanireddy@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted in three locations representing three agro-climatic zones of Telangana state involving 28 cross combinations generated by mating eight parents by diallel fashion as per Griffing’s Method II (excluding reciprocals) to know the association among grain yield, its attributes, protein content and kernel characters as well as the direct and indirect contribution of these characters in grain yield. This study revealed that the attributes viz., number of productive tillers per plant, plant height, kernel breadth and kernel length possessed both positive association and high positive direct effects in grain yield suggesting that selection of these traits will be useful for the improvement of grain yield. However, protein content showed significant negative association along with negative direct effect on grain yield.

27. Hasan Hosseini Pozveh and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Assessment of genetic diversity for drought tolerance and determination of the best resistance indices for some common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 347-350 (2016). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate genetic diversity of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to identify the most drought resistant genotypes and also finding the best drought tolerance indices, an experiment was carried out in research center of Kabotarbad, Isfahan, Iran, using randomized complete block design in three replications. Twenty wheat genotypes were selected for this study. The experiment was done under normal (Yp) and water stress (Ys) conditions. The stress was applied after heading stage. The results showed that stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP) indices had the most correlation with the yield, therefore, they were used for screening drought tolerant varieties. Biplot analysis also showed that genotypes 10, 18, 19 and 20 had the highest grain yield under both the conditions. Genotypes 3, 6, 14 and 15 were also suitable for the stress condition. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that two first components accounted for 99.945% of the variance for the observed genotypes. The first component had the most positive coefficients in both irrigated and stress conditions and also the highest GMP and STI values, therefore, it can be named as the yield potential component under drought condition and also the tolerance index. The second one had the most positive and highest correlation with tolerance index (TOL) and SSI and it can be referred as the drought susceptibility component.

28. ZAHRA SAREMI AND AHMADREZA GOLPARVAR* [Regression and path analysis of seed and oil yields in soybean (Glycine max L.) lines]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 351-353 (2016). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box : 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(email : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to identify genetic diversity of soybean lines, to determine the best parents for crossing to improve the yield and to find out more effective genetic characteristics in Khoramabad, Lorestan province, Iran. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Our present results implied that the lines had significant effects for all the studied traits except days taken to physiological maturity, days taken to full maturity and oil percentage. The results of correlation coefficients showed that grain yield positively correlated with number of grains per pod, harvest index and seed filling rate at the 1% possibility level and oil percentage at the 5% possibility level. The step-wise regression results illustrated that grain filling rate, grain filling duration and days taken to physiological maturity had significant effects on the grain yield variations. Grain filling rate and grain filling duration also justified variations of oil yield. On the base of the regression analysis, grain filling rate and period and days taken to physiological maturity were the most important traits for improving the seed and oil yields of soybean lines. Path analysis indicated that grain filling rate and period had a significant positive effect on seed yield. Moreover, grain filling rate also had a significant positive effect on oil yield. The results of path analysis and regression analysis suggested that grain filling rate was the effective trait to improve the seed and oil yields of soybean lines.

29. F. MALEKPOOR, A. GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI* AND A. SALIMI [Effect of foliar application of chitosan on morphological and physiological characteristics of basil under reduced irrigation]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 354-359 (2016). Department of Plant Biology Faculty of Biology Science, Kharazmi University, 15719-14911, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : ghasemi@iaushk.ac.ir ; ghasemi955@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Plants show morphological and physiological responses to microbial, physical or chemical factors which are known as elicitors. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer modified from chitin, which is the main structural component of squid pens, cell walls of some fungi and crab shells. Water deficit stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that affects plant physiological and morphological traits. To evaluate the effect of chitosan on morphology and physiology characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted at Shahrekord, south-western Iran. Treatments comprised control, 0.0, 0.2 and 0.4 g/l chitosan applied to plants under normal irrigation, and slight and mild drought stress. Drought stress decreased the content of photosynthetic pigments and growth parameters. Foliar-applied chitosan, in particular 0.4 g/l increased plant growth under stressed or non-stressed conditions compared withuntreated plants. In conclusion, it is suggested that chitosan could be used to reduce the harmful effect of water deficit on the growth of basil plants.

30. V. K. Sharma*, C. Chandel, R. Kumar, R. D. Meena and M. Mawliya [Influence of planting time and fruit maturity stage on antioxidant activity, phenols and anthocyanin contents in sweet pepper]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 360-368 (2016). Regional Station Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Katrain-175 129, Kullu Valley (H. P.), India *(e-mail : vkmodgil@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of planting time and fruit maturity stage of antioxidant activity. The results show that the fruit maturity stage and planting time significantly (P<0.005) influenced the antioxidant activity in sweet pepper. Each planting time presented significant differences in antioxidant compounds depending on the maturity stage, but we could recommend 2nd week of May as the optimal planting time if fruits are to be harvested for greater antioxidant activity for CUPRAC, phenols and anthocyanin, while FRAP contents were recorded second highest during this period. From the nutritional point of view, the red state was the most appropriate state of maturation, since red peppers had the highest levels CUPRAC, FRAP and anthocyanin. The concentration of these phytochemicals except total phenolic contents increased as the peppers reached at mature red stage. These results will definitely be prove useful to sweet pepper growers, especially in their selection of planting time and stage of fruit maturity with high antioxidant activity so as to meet the increasing consumer demand for healthy food.

31. R. Anitha*, P. Christy Nirmala Mary and R. S. Purushothaman [Morpho-physiological responses of sugarcane crop under waterlogging condition]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 369-374 (2016). Sugarcane Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cuddalore-607 401 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : anithasrs2014@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of waterlogging on morphological and physiological traits of sugarcane variety CoC 24. Various morphological attributes were recorded under waterlogged and normal condition. Morphological parameters viz., plant height, number of internodes, number of tillers, stalk diameter, number of nodes and nodes carrying roots increasedby 18.46, 34.6, 45.65, 48.14, 3 2.14 and 52.63%, respectively, over control. The initiation of new nodal root was noted in this variety, whereas the ability to maintain root surface area by increase in longest root length and nodal root development near soil surface was also found in CoC (SC) 24. CoC (SC) 24 under flood condition at different stress periods produced more number of green leaf of 37.97%, number of dry leaf of 50% and higher growth rate than in control condition. This was possible due to the presence of constitutive aerenchyma in this variety. Hence, under stress conditions, it can easily survive by using oxygen which is preserved by aerenchyma cell,which provides a continuous system of interconnected aerial spaces of lower resistance for oxygen transport from aerial shoots to submerged roots, allowing root growth and soil exploration under anaerobic conditions. Root characters viz., number of roots, root length, root volume, root fresh and dry weight had increase over control by 64.9, 10.3, 22.07, 12.6 and 37.17%. Thus, CoC (SC) 24 variety has adventitious roots, which have high porosity, help plants to continue with water and nutrient uptake under flooding conditions, replacing in some way the functions of older root system. Under waterlogged condition, the relative water content (RWC) showedonly 1.08% increase over control condition,but water retention capacity showed 20% increase over control condition. Leaf area index and specific leaf area showed 19.04 and 41.38% decrease over control but specific leaf weight, whole plant fresh weight and dry weight had 41.49, 20.65 and 9.5% increase over control condition. The juice quality viz., brix percentage, purity percentage and pol percentage showed decrease over control condition by 4.9, 1.08 and 5.97, respectively. Yield parameters viz., single cane weight, tiller production, millable cane and cane yield were higher in CoC (SC) 24 plant crop (13.35, 3.28, 3.06 and 1.3%, respectively) under waterlogged than control condition. Based on the results, it was suggested that CoC (SC) 24 could tolerate waterlogged condition. This study also indicates that plant crops need certain post-waterlogging crop management.

32. Himadri Kaushik* and Pranab Dutta** [Establishment of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogen as endophyte for biological control in tea]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 375-387 (2016). Department of Plant Pathology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : himadrikaushik18@gmail.com; **pranabdutta74@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Metarhizium anisopliae is among the ubiquitous members of the soil rhizosphere which also survives as an endophyte in a wide range of plants. The extent of colonization depends on the plant part evaluated and inoculation method used. Current research reveals that foliar spray favours leaf colonization, whereas soil drenching favours root colonization. Besides M. anisopliae, many other fungal isolates were recovered as endophyte which was found to be endosymbiont with each other. Infestation of aphid, Toxoptera aurantii; tea mosquito bug,  Helopeltis theivora; termite, Odontotermes obesus; red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae and carpenter worm, Prionoxystus robiniae was found less in the treated plot as compared to the untreated control. System season long endophytic colonization with the plants suggests a novel approach of biological control of these pests via foliar spray with M. anisopliae for aerial pests and soil drench for soil arthropods.The same entomopathogen was also further confirmed by light and electron microscopic techniques inside the host plant. Molecular study showed that the original culture and endophytic reisolated culture of M. anisopliae were 100% identical to each other.

33. MD. SHAFIQUL ISLAM* AND HISASHI KATO-NOGUCHI [Allelopathic potential of the weed Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) on four dicotyledonous and four monocotyledonous test plant species]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 388-394 (2016). Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa-761 0795, Japan *(e-mail : shafiqagron@bau.edu.bd)

ABSTRACT

Weed plants having strong allelopathic potential provide themselves with a competitive advantage in crop fields through the release of allelochemicals. Fimbristylis dichotoma, a well-known weed, was taken in the present study to evaluate its allelopathic potentiality under laboratory condition. Aqueous methanol extracts of dried F. dichotoma were applied on the seedling growth of four dicotyledonous [cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)], and four monocotyledonous [Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and sand fescue (Festuca megalura Nutt.)] at four concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 g dry weight (DW) equivalent extract/ml. The seedling growth of all test plant species experienced an inhibition in all concentrations by the extracts of F. dichotoma and the inhibition was concentration-dependent. A complete inhibition of lettuce seedling was found at 0.1 g DW equivalent extract/ml and also the seedling growth of cress, lettuce, alfalfa and sand fescue was inhibited completely at the concentration of 0.3 g DW equivalent extract/ml. Considering concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition shoot of alfalfa and root of lettuce showed most sensitivity to the extract of F. dichotoma. These results imply that Fimbristylis dichotoma may have allelopathic properties and may contain allelochemicals which may exert deleterious effect to its surrounding environment.

34. Karishma Das*, Purnima Das, Surajit Kalita, Shimantini Borkataki and Somar Hazarika [Study on duration of instars and morphomatrics of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton)]. Res. on Crops 17 (2) : 395-397 (2016). Department of Entomology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : karishmadas17@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Developmental durations as well as morphometrics of Corcyra cephalonica larvae were carried out in the Physiology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2014-15. There were six larval instars of C. cephalonica, the mean body length and breadth of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th instars larvae were found to be 0.63, 2.26, 3.23, 5.03, 13.0, 15.6 and 0.26, 0.53, 1.00, 1.46, 2.73, 3.1 mm, respectively, while the mean larval duration was 1.66, 2.66, 4.26, 5.33, 6.00 and 7.66 days computing entire larval development in 27.57 days.

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