Volume 15, No. 4 (December, 2014)

By | January 5, 2015

1. THAKAR SINGH*, CHARANPREET SINGH AND JASHANJOT KAUR [Effect of different nitrogen levels on the growth, yield and quality of direct-seeded hybrid rice]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 733-737 (2014). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail: thakar1962@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen levels on the growth, yield and quality of direct-seeded hybrid rice during kharif 2012 and 2013 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Hybrids SVH 027, SVH 005 and variety PR 115 did not significantly influence the number of effective tillers/m2, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and straw yield during both the years. However, hybrid SVH 027 produced highest grain yield (51.0 and 50.7 q/ha) which was followed by hybrid SVH 005 (50.7 and 49.1 q/ha) and minimum grain yield was recorded in variety PR 115 (41.7 and 47.3 q/ha) during both the years. Hybrid SVH 005 recorded highest brown rice recovery, head rice recovery and amylose content as compared to hybrid SVH 027 and variety PR 115. Different N levels showed significant difference in plant height, effective tillers/m2, days taken to panicle emergence, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and nitrogen uptake. Application of N at 200 and 125 kg/ha produced significantly higher grain yield of 53.4 and 52.0 q/ha during 2012 and 2013, respectively, as compared to control and remained statistically at par with all other N levels. All the nitrogen levels recorded highest brown rice recovery, head rice recovery and amylose content as compared to control. It may be concluded that N level of 125 kg/ha was most suitable and economical dose than the other N levels.

2. UPINDER SHARMA, S. K. SUBEHIA*, S. S. RANA, S. K. SHARMA AND S. C. NEGI [Soil sulphur fractions and their relationship with soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield under long-term integrated nutrient management in an acid Alfisol]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 738-745 (2014). Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : subehia@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on rice yield and sulphur transformation in soil into its various chemical pools in an on-going long-term fertilizer experiment initiated during kharif 1991 at research farm of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur. Nine treatments comprising control, inorganics viz., 50 and 100% NPK and conjoint use of 50 and 75% NPK with 50 and 25% N substitution either through FYM, wheat straw or green manure, Sesbania aculeata (Dhaincha) to rice (June-October) followed by 100 and 75% NPK through inorganics to wheat (November-May), respectively, were imposed since the inception of the experiment. Different S fractions were estimated in surface soil samples after the harvest of wheat (June, 2011). Data in respect of grain and straw yield of rice and different soil properties were also recorded for two years (2010 and 2011). The results of surface soil samples (0-0.15 m) collected after the harvest of wheat showed that zero fertilization led to decline in the levels of all the S forms, while application of sulphur containing fertilizer and organics increased it over control. Organic sulphur was found to be the most dominant fraction (about 96%) followed by heat soluble sulphur. Integration of chemical fertilizers with organics proved better as compared to application of chemical fertilizers alone. Integrated use of inorganic fertilizers in conjunction with organics increased pH, organic carbon, CEC, rice grain and straw yields over inorganically treated plots. Highest grain and straw yield of rice was recorded when 50% N was substituted through FYM. Pre-transplant incorporation of 50% N through FYM produced 76.7 q/ha rice grain yield which was statistically at par with yield obtained under its 25% N substitution.

3. A. N. ANEESH MOHAMMED AND A. SIVA SANKAR [Root growth, malonyldialdehyde content and antioxidant enzyme activities in response to low phosphorus supply in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 746-753 (2014). Department of Plant Physiology Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : agepati_sivasankar1959@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Six genotypes of rice viz., IET 20710, IET 20894, IET 20716, MTU 1010, IET 20744 and Swarna, were examined in sand culture with two P levels in modified Hoagland solution (Low phosphorus–LP : 1.6 µM and Normal phosphorus–NP : 200 µM). Physiological and biochemical parameters of root and leaves were evaluated in response to P supply. Root length was significantly higher while root volume and dry weight were lower in plants with LP. Among rice genotypes viz., IET 20710, Swarna and IET 20716 exhibited higher length of roots with less reduction in root volume and dry weight and higher root : shoot ratio indicative of adaptation to low P conditions. These genotypes had higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, POD and CAT) and lower MDA content in leaves and roots under low P conditions indicative of less oxidative injury. In contrast, IET 20744 and IET 20894 genotypes with LP supply exhibited reduction in root traits, higher levels of MDA content and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities.

4. Nurul Farahidayu Jaafar, Abdul Shukor Juraimi*, Muhammad Saiful Ahmad-Hamdani, Md. Kamal Uddin and Azmi Man [Distribution of weedy rice escape variants in Clearfield Rice Production System]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 754-762 (2014). Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : ashukur@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

Weedy rice is made up of the undesirable biotypes of rice with early and easy shattering characteristics, which causes a major yield reduction in direct-seeded rice in Malaysia. Thus, a series of survey were conducted in the selected Clearfield rice fields in the four townships, namely, Kampung Sungai Manik, FELCRA Seberang Perak, Kampung Mampas and Kampung Sungai Mati in the Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 and April 2013 to study the dominance and abundance of weedy rice escaping Clearfield Production System (known as weedy rice escape). The survey was done according to the quantitative survey method by using standardized quadrat. A total of 1240 and 813 weedy rice escapes in dry/off season 2012 and main season 2012 were identified in all surveyed rice fields, respectively. Kampung Mampas indicated the highest dominance of weedy rice escapes, while FELCRA Seberang Perak recorded the lowest dominance in both the planting seasons. From the farmers’ complaint, poor rice management and weeding practices were the major factors that contributed to weedy rice escape in the fields.

5. CAI Chengzhi*, LI Rongrong, DU Shujie, LIU Tianqi and CAO Wenfang [A model to correlate leaf and tiller formation in rice]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 763-767 (2014). 1Institute of Economic Research Guizhou University of Finance & Economics, Guiyang-550 025, China *(e-mail : caichengzhi@263.net)

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a unified tillering model Ni=Cin-2i-1 for rice and evaluates its application in tiller production by rice cultivars. This is modelled on the basis of separate formulae N1=n-3, N2=C2n-5, N3=C3n-7 …for rice, which correlates tiller formation and leaf occurrence on the main stem under optimum growing conditions. N is the number of tillers, while n is the number of leaves on main stem. T1, T2 and T3 …were designed for primary tillers, while T11, T21 and T31… for secondary tillers, and so on. Primary tillers occur on main stem, while secondary tillers occur on primary ones, and so on. The numbers of primary, secondary and tertiary tillers are named as N1, N2 and N3, respectively. However, rice usually does not tiller in the rigid pattern in reality. Tillering depends on rice’s genetic trait and environmental stress. Therefore, the ratio of tillers observed to simulated ones could be considered as an index to judge rice’s tillering ability and growing condition. This unified tillering model offers a wide scope of application with its versatility. The observations from field trials showed the unified model’s good performance to discover rice’s tillering ability and resistance to environmental stress.

6. Olalekan kazeem kolapo, M. K. A. Wahab, Md. Aktar Hossain, Adegeye O. Adebola and Nor Aini Ab. Shukor* [Effects of Albizia saman (Jacq. Mull) leaf mulch on vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and soil chemical properties through biomass transfer]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 768-774 (2014). Faculty of Forestry Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : anishukor@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The study presents the effects of Albizia saman (Jacq. Mull) leaves in a biomass transfer as a source of organic fertilizer on the soil chemical properties and vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays) compared with NPK (15-15-15) in greenhouse condition. Albizia saman leaves and NPK (15-15-15) were applied at the rate of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 t/ha or 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha respectively, separately or in combination. The findings revealed that application of 2.5 t/ha A. saman leaves produced the maximum values for mean leaf number, leaf area and stem height (7.77, 212.24 cm2 and 49.67 cm, respectively) among the leaf much treatments but were not significantly different from those obtained by applying 90 kg/ha NPK fertilizer (7.86, 225.55 cm2 and 48.78 cm, respectively). However, the maximum number of leaf (8.4), leaf area (240.5 cm2), plant height (54.64 cm) and biomass (16.17 g) were obtained from the combination of 2.5 t/ha leaves with 90 kg/ha NPK. There was significant improvement in the soil chemical status with the application of 2.5 or 5.0 t/ha A. saman leaves whereas the application of 5.0 t/ha A. saman leaves experienced the highest value for organic carbon (3.56%), total nitrogen (0.23%) and potassium (0.16 mg/kg) and 2.5 t/ha leaves gave the highest value for available phosphorus (22.30 mg/kg). It can, therefore, be inferred that the application of 2.5 t/ha A. saman leaves as source of organic fertilizer will give a better growth of maize and the combination of this quantity with 90 kg/ha of NPK would give better results in crop yield and maintenance of soil fertility.

7. P. Shanthi, M. Subba Rao and B. Sahadeva Reddy [Development and identification of high grain and fodder yielding pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] hybrids suitable for scarce rainfall regions]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 775-784 (2014). Agricultural Research Station (Dry Land Agriculture) Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, DCMS Buildings, Kamalanagar, Ananthapuram-515 001 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

An attempt is made to develop and identify the best pearl millet hybrid for grain yield and fodder yield suitable to grow under low rainfall situations of scarce rainfall regions when compared with the best existing cultivars at AICPMIP, ARS, ANGRAU, Ananthapuram Center. The material for the experiment was developed during rabi 2011-12. A total of 67 single cross hybrids of pearl millet were developed in three sets. In the first set, 18 crosses were developed by using single female parent (ICMA 96444) and 18 different restorer lines derived from segregating populations of ICRISAT provided material. In the second set, 16 crosses were developed by using 16 different female parents (A lines) of ICRISAT origin and single restorer line (i. e. ARL-1) developed at Agricultural Research Station, Ananthapuram. Further in third set, a total of 33 crosses were developed by using 21 female parents (A lines) of ICRISAT origin and 16 different male parents derived from segregating populations of ICRISAT provided material. The total experimental materials (67 newly developed single crosses along with nine popular hybrids as checks) were planted in completely randomized block design in four replications during kharif 2012 at two locations i. e. in Field No. 3 and Field No. 12 at AICPMIP, ARS, ANGRAU, Ananthapuram Center. Data were recorded on 10 different morphological characters viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), productive tillers per plant, panicle length (cm), panicle diameter (cm), days to maturity, seed set under bagging (%), 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield per plot (kg) and fodder yield per plot (kg). Results revealed the higher values of GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance for characters grain yield and fodder yield. Based on association studies, the characters plant height, panicle diameter, panicle length, seed set under bagging and 1000-grain weight were identified as prime important characters, while going for selecting high grain and fodder yielding genotypes as they expressed significant positive association with grain yield and it was in turn positively related with fodder yield. From this study, it was found that the restorer line i. e. ARL-1 could be better utilized as good restorer parent on wide range of female parents based on the observation i. e. among three sets of top crosses, highest mean values for five characters (days to 50% flowering, plant height, days to maturity, 1000-grain weight and grain yield) were recorded in the second set of crosses and along with the better performance in maximum number of cross combinations for maximum number of characters studied where the common male parent (ARL-1) was used on different female parents of ICRISAT origin. Based on per se performance, out of the 67 single crosses evaluated, the two hybrids ICMA 96111 x ARL-1 and ICMA 96444 x 245 are identified as best dual purpose medium maturing and late maturing single cross hybrids, respectively, which are suitable to grow under scarce rainfall region with more than 40% yield superiority over the best check 86 M 64. For further evaluation, these two hybrids can be recommended for multi-location testing.

8. C. H. RAVAL, A. M. PATEL, B. S. RATHORE, K. G. VYAS AND R. D. BEDSE [Productivity, quality and soil fertility status as well as economics of multi-cut summer forage pearl millet as influenced by varying levels of irrigation and nitrogen]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 785-789 (2014). Directorate of Research Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 on sandy loam soil at Sardarkrushinagar to study the effect of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels on multi-cut summer forage pearl millet. The results showed that of 2011 and 2012 as well as in pooled irrigation at 1.2 IW : CPE ratio producing significantly higher green fodder yield (1108.2 q/ha), dry matter yield (248.3 q/ha), crude protein content (9.7%) and yield (26.98 q/ha), available nitrogen (204.99 kg/ha) and phosphorus (38.64 kg/ha) over 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 ratios. However, water use efficiency (86.07 kg/ha) was higher with 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. The green fodder yield (1045.1 q/ha), dry matter yield (249.7 q/ha), crude protein content (10.6%), crude protein yield (26.77 q/ha), water use efficiency (87.66 kg/ha), available nitrogen (214.53 kg/ha) and phosphorus (41.23 kg/ha) were maximum at 200 kg N/ha compared to other levels (100 and 150 kg N/ha). The treatment combination of I4N3 (1.2 IW : CPE ratio+200 kg N/ha) registered the highest net realization of (Rs. 99499/ha with B : C ratio (3.56). Consequently for higher productivity and profitability of multi-cut summer forage pearl millet, it should be grown with irrigation at 1.2 IW : CPE ratio and fertilized with 200 kg N/ha.

9. UMESH SINGH*, BHAGWAN SINGH, SHATRUGHNA KUMAR SINGH and DILEEP KUMAR MAURYA [Growth analysis and yield of rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under soil and foliar application of diammonium phosphate in conjunction with phosphate solubilizing bacteria]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 790-796 (2014). Department of Agronomy Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad-224 229 (Uttar Pradesh), India (e-mail : usdrdo@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive, winter (rabi) seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the effect of diammonium phosphate application through soil and foliage in cognizance with phosphate solubilizing bacteria on morpho-physiological growth indices, yield attributes and yield, nutrient content and seed protein yield of chickpea in silt loam textured reclaimed salt affected (usar) soil under rainfed conditions. The split application of 100 kg DAP/ha (½ through soil+½ through foliage in two splits at 45 and 60 DAS) in conjunction with PSB significantly improved the morpho-physiological growth parameters (plant height, leaf area/plant, number and dry weight of nodules/plant, root and shoot dry weight/plant, leaf area index, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, days taken to 50% flowering, pod formation and maturity), yield attributes (seed weight/plant) and yield, N and P content in seed and straw and seed protein yield except initial and final plant stand, number of primary branches/plant and relative growth rate, whereas leaf area ratio and root : shoot ratio were significantly reduced. Maximum seed (1486 kg/ha) and protein (336 kg/ha) yield was recorded with the application of 100 kg DAP/ha (½ as basal+½ as foliar in two splits at 45 and 60 DAS)+PSB, followed by 1319 kg seed/ha and 292 kg protein/ha with 100 kg DAP/ha (½ as basal+½ as foliar in two splits at 45 and 60 DAS) and 1318 kg seed/ha and 292 kg protein/ha with 100 kg DAP/ha (¾ as basal+¼ as foliar at 45 DAS)+PSB.

10. M. A. MALEK*, M. Y. RAFII**, M. A. SAMAD AND M. K. KHATUN [M8 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) mutants : Evaluation for earliness with higher seed yield]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 797-801 (2014). Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh (e-mail : *malekbina@gmail.com; **mrafii@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted with four rapeseed mutants, their mother variety Binasarisha-4 and early maturing variety Tori-7 during November 2012 to February 2013 at four different rapeseed growing areas of Bangladesh to study their agronomic performances and to select early maturing and high yielding mutants. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters among the mutants and checks in both of individual location and combined over locations. All the mutants showed shorter plant height and produced higher number of seeds/siliqua than the mother variety. Two mutants, MM-51 and MM-64 produced statistically similar seed yield (1667 and 1644 kg/ha, respectively) with Binasarisha-4 (1663 kg/ha) and matured one week earlier than Binasarisha-4. These two mutants also had non-significantly different maturing period (88 and 87 days, respectively) with the early maturing variety, Tori-7 (86 days). Both mutants (MM-51 and MM-64), because of their higher number of seeds/siliqua and higher seed yield potential along with early maturity can be selected for further trials both at research station and farmers’ field. These results suggest that gamma rays irradiation can be fruitfully applied for improved agronomic traits like shorter plant height and early maturity in oleiferous Brassica without compromising seed yield.

11. Somayeh Karimi*, Ahmad Arzani and Ghodratollah Saeidi [Differential response of ion and osmolyte accumulation to salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive seedlings of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 802-809 (2014). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran *(e-mail : s.karimi@ag.iut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

The response of four salt-tolerant and four salt-sensitive safflower genotypes to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl treatments was evaluated using leaf dry weight, free proline, total carbohydrates, and concentration of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the leaf and root. The results of analysis of variance showed significant effects of genotype, salinity and genotype × salinity interaction for all the traits. The inverse relationships between dry weight and Na+ concentration as well as their positive correlations with K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios were obtained by linear regression analysis in 200 Mm NaCl treatment. Leaf K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios have been able to distinguish salt tolerant from salt sensitive genotypes, where the higher ratios were observed in salt tolerant genotypes particularly at the 200 Mm NaCl treatment level. It may, therefore, be concluded that maintenance and acquisition of both K+ and Ca2+ are important determinants of salinity tolerance in safflower.

12. P. A. PANDYA AND H. D. RANK [Summer sesame response to irrigation methods and mulching]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 810-815 (2014). College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), India by adopting split plot design with 12 treatment combinations comprising irrigation method as a main factor with six levels viz., border irrigation (control), four high discharge drip irrigation with online drippers of 4, 8, 14, 20 lph discharge having various dripper and lateral spacing and sub-surface porous pipe irrigation system. Mulching was used as a sub-factor with two levels viz., 5 t/ha wheat straw and no mulch. Irrigation was scheduled based on surface wetting front movement study for high discharge drip irrigation systems. The response of sesame was evaluated in terms of yield parameters, weed intensity, water use efficiency and economics. Porous pipe irrigation system and 4 lph drip irrigations gave significantly higher grain yield of 1623 and 1554 kg/ha i. e. 35 and 29% higher than control, respectively. Mulching resulted in 11.2% higher yield and 39% less weed intensity than no mulch. Increase in dripper discharge resulted in decrease in sesame yield, all the drip irrigation treatments resulted in higher yield than border irrigation. Cost of irrigation reduced as dripper discharge increased; the highest benefit : cost ratio of 4.0 was found under the treatment with 14 lph dripper discharge. Drip irrigation treatment with dripper discharge × dripper spacing × lateral spacing as 14 lph x 0.8 x 2.1 m with 5 t/ha wheat straw mulch proved to be the best irrigation treatment for sesame cultivation considering yield parameters, weed intensity and cost economics.

13. D. D. PATEL*, J. D. THANKI, V. P. USDADIYA, M. K. ARVADIA, B. B. TANDEL AND P. A. PATIL [Effect of critical period of crop-weed competition on nutrient content and uptake by weed and rabi castor (Ricinus communis L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 816-823 (2014). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : drpatel_76@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during rabi season in two consecutive years during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the effect of critical period of crop-weed competition on nutrient content and uptake by weed and rabi castor (Ricinus communis L.). The 12 treatments viz., weed free up to 30 DAS, weed free up to 60 DAS, weed free up to 90 DAS, weed free up to 120 DAS, weed free up to harvest, weedy up to 30 DAS, weedy up to 60 DAS, weedy up to 90 DAS, weedy up to 120 DAS, weedy up to harvest, two hand weedings and interculturing at 30 and 60 DAS and pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha (as pre-emergence)+ one hand weeding and interculturing at 60 DAS were evaluated with three replications in a randomized block design (RBD). The results revealed that treatment weed free up to harvest recorded significantly lowest weed density, dry weight of weeds, nutrient uptake by weed and maximum in castor seed yield and nutrient uptake by plant followed by the treatment weed free up to 120 DAS and weed free up to 90 DAS. However, highest net monetary returns (Rs. 46.6 x 103/ha) and B : C ratio (3.02) were obtained with the treatment weed free up to 90 DAS which was found more critical period for crop weed competition.

14. M. SHIVANNA, S. SHEELARANI AND ANITHA E. KONDI [Potassium release kinetics of some Western Ghats acid soils of Karnataka under paddy land use cover]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 824-832 (2014). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry College of Horticulture, Kolar-563 102 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Potassium (K) release characteristics (PRC) of soil play a significant role in supplying available K. Information about PRC in the Western Ghats acid soils is limited. The objective of this research was to study the PRC in 20 soils collected from the western Ghats area of Karnataka under paddy land use cover by successive extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 over a period of 24 to 336 h. The physico-chemical properties, nutrients status and desorption of potassium were also studied. The release of K was initially rapid, more than 60% of the total K released during the first 120 h. The amount of cumulative potassium release of the soils under study ranged from 368 to 475 mg K/kg. The total Step-K and constant rate-K (CR-K) contents in soils of hilly zone ranged from 292 to 461 mg K/kg and 1 to 8 mg K/kg, respectively. However, the cumulative desorption varied from 155.30 to 355.40 mg K/kg during the interval of 24 to 336 h time. The potassium desorption rate coefficient (kd) for exchangeable-K release was more in the initial stage (up to 120 h). The kd values ranged from 1.07 x 10-2 to 9.80 x 10-3. The potassium desorption rate coefficient values (kd) for non-exchangeable-K release (120-336 h) varied from 1.29 x 10-3 to 9.17 x 10-4. The result of this research showed that information obtained from K release study in laboratory and kinetic equation parameters could help to estimate the K supplying power of soil.

15. S. R. Singh*, B. C. Banik and M. A. Hasan [Effect of water regulation in bearing period for yield and quality in mango cv. Amrapali]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 833-838 (2014). Department of Fruit Science Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102 (Arunachal Pradesh), India *(e-mail : romensenjam@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted from 2009-11 to study the effects of water regulation along with organic mulching on yield and quality parameters in mango cv. Amrapali at Horticultural Research Station, Mohanpur, BCKV, West Bengal. Eight treatments were imposed. Over the three years, yield and quality parameters were found to be significant among the treatments. Its application along with organic mulching significantly increased the yield and quality parameters over the control. Among the treatments, the best treatment was (T4) irrigation at 10 days interval with 30 l of water in the bearing period supplemented with organic mulching recorded the maximum number of fruits/tree (504.86) and yield (136.77 kg/tree) as compared to control (264.20 fruits/tree and 56.51 kg/tree), respectively. Quality parameters also recorded maximum in T4 and lowest in control. However, highest acidity in fruit and better storage self-life were observed in non-irrigated fruit tree as compared to irrigated fruit tree.

16. Mahesh Choudhary*, B. S. Beniwal and Anop Kumari [Characterization of marigold genotypes using morphological characters]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 839-845 (2014). Department of Horticulture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : balodamahesh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during two winter seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13. Thirty genotypes of marigold were selected and their different morphological characters both at vegetative and flowering stages were determined and categorized on the basis of their plant characters. All the genotypes showed significant variations for different growth, flowering and yield parameters. The maximum plant height (103.75 cm) was recorded in genotype MGH-09-303 and minimum (32.40 cm) in Hisar Beauty. The maximum number of branches per plant (24.50) was recorded in genotype Hisar Jaffri-2. The highest fresh weight of plant (1122.42 g) was found in genotype MGH-148-3-3, which was statistically at par with Hisar Jaffri-2 (1115.59 g) and significant to all other genotypes, whereas it was lowest (78.76 g) in Hisar Beauty. Among these genotypes, Hisar Beauty took minimum days to first flower opening (37.90 days), whereas the maximum days to first flower opening (64.60 days) were recorded in Hisar Jaffri-2. The maximum fresh weight of flower (15.57 g) was recorded in genotype MGH-09-271, whereas it was the minimum in Hisar Beauty (2.32 g). The genotype Hisar Jaffri-2 exhibited better performance in terms of number of flowers per plant (189.00) and flower yield per plant (874.37 g).

17. Sindhu Sareen*, Pradeep Sharma, V. Tiwari and I. Sharma [Identifying wheat landraces as genetic resources for drought and heat tolerance]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 846-851 (2014). Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : sareen9@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

IPCC has predicted increase in drought and heat affected areas under wheat. To combat this challenge, development of heat and drought tolerant wheat genotypes is on priority. Landraces are unexploited genetic resources for various agronomic traits contributing tolerance to abiotic stress. Twenty-one wheat genotypes were evaluated in irrigated timely, rainfed timely and irrigated late field conditions for two years for their response to drought and heat stress. Genotypes differed significantly in their response to 1000-grain weight under stress conditions. Stress susceptibility index (SSI) was used to identify drought and heat tolerant genotypes. Nine genotypes were tolerant to drought stress and 11 to heat stress. Six of these genotypes were tolerant to both the stresses. SSR and allele specific markers were used to validate the results. Allelic variation for heat tolerance was observed in two genotypes IC 36761A and IC 41504 with gwm 63. Similarly, SNP marker for distinguishing drought tolerance in bread wheat was used and bi-allelic variation with this primer was observed in genotypes IC 57586, IC 30276A, IC 36761A and IC 31405B. IC 36761A was tolerant to both the stresses and was differentiated using molecular markers also. This genotype can be used for breeding drought and heat tolerant cultivars.

18. S. Y. PARK, H. S. lEE, C. S. Kang and C. S. Park* [Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for spike length and kernel number in recombinant inbred lines (RILS) population derived from wheat line with large kernel number]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 852-862 (2014). Department of Crop Science and Biotechnology Chonbuk National University, Jeonju-561 756, Korea *(e-mail : pcs89@jbnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spike length and kernel number by analysis of 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Korean wheat cultivar and Iksan 370, which large kernel number line carried with the longer spike length and higher kernel number/spike than Korean wheat cultivars. Spike length, kernel number/spike and spike density were investigated from replicated field trials in 2013-14 at upland condition in Iksan, Korea. A genetic map was constructed with 92 microsatellite marker loci and a total of nine QTL were identified on six chromosomes for spike length and kernel number. The three QTL, Xwmc 44, Xbarc 205 and Xgwm 292 were detected on chromosomes 1B and 5D, and explained 9.7-16.5% of phenotypic variation for spike length. Among these QTL, Xwmc 44 and Xgwm 292 also explained 8.2 and 10.8% of phenotypic variation for spike density and kernel number/spike, respectively. Xgwm 135, located on chromosomes 1A, was accounted for 10.9% of phenotypic variation for kernel number/spike. Other two QTL for spike density, Xgwm 495 and Xwmc 285, were mapped on chromosome 4B and 4D, respectively. These QTL explained 6.9-7.9% of phenotypic variation for spike density. Three QTL, Xwmc 44, Xgwm 292 and Xgwm 135 for spike length, kernel number/spike and spike density were applied to validate relationship between genotypes of QTL and 29 Korean wheat cultivars grown for four years on upland conditions. Korean wheat cultivars carried aaa and bbb genotypes based on the order of these three QTL, higher and lower kernel number/spike and spike density than other genotypes, although there was not a significant difference in spike length. These QTL could be used in marker assisted selection wheat lines with higher kernel numbers in Korean wheat breeding programmes.

19. V. RAM REDDY, FARZANA JABEEN AND M. R. SUDARSHAN [Combining ability studies for grain yield and other traits in maize (Zea mays L.) over locations]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 863-870 (2014). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in maize was performed with 10 parents and the resulting 45 hybrids using diallel cross analysis (excluding reciprocals) in three locations. The results of combining ability analysis revealed significant mean squares due to general and specific combining ability indicating that both additive and non-additive gene actions were important in the inheritance of characters studied. Variances due to specific combining ability (sca) were larger than general combining ability (gca) for all the characters indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action in the expression of various traits. The parents BML-6, BML-7 and BML-5233-5 were good general combiners for yield and majority of the traits over the locations. Hence, these parents can be used in crossing and further exploited for improvement of traits in the population. BML-5233-5 and BML-2 are good general combiners among the parents for earliness i. e. days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking and days to maturity. Whereas the hybrids BML-15 × BML-2910, BML-6 × BML-3044, BML-2782 × BML-7, BML-7 × BML-3044 and BML-2486 × BML-3044 were identified as potential ones for yield and yield components based on high sca effects along with high per se performance. These hybrids may be exploited for commercial cultivation by testing them over locations and years for their yield stability.

20. Vishnu Kumar*, Abhishek Rathore, A. S. Kharub, Dinesh Kumar and Indu Sharma [GGE biplot analysis of multi-locational yield trials and identification of representative environments for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in India]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 871-875 (2014). Directorate of Wheat Research, P. O. Box-158, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : vishnupbg@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to ascertain the genotype × environment crossovers, stable genotypes and to select the discriminating and representative environments using GGE biplot in barley. The pooled per se grain yield ranged from 22.77 to 50.16 q/ha, across the locations. Nine locations were grouped into four mega environments and the genotypes viz., RD 2830, RD 2552, BH 902 and PL 751, etc. which were exhibited as vertex genotypes. The locations Tabiji and Kanpur (-0.67) followed by Navgaon and Kanpur (-0.58), Faizabad and Ranchi (-0.35), etc. were found negatively correlated. The locations, namely, S. K. Nagar, Navgaon, Tabiji and Faizabad were most discriminating and representative over the environments.

21. Paramita Bhowmik*, Dipak Mandal and M. L. Chatterjee [Melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) infestation and management on bottle gourd in West Bengal, India]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 876-883 (2014). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : paramita.bhowmik2@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Seasonal trends in infestation level of Bactrocera cucurbitae were analyzed to determine the factors that influence the infestation by melon fruit fly in the field and adoption of suitable insecticidal management on bottle gourd. The experiment was conducted during pre-kharif and kharif seasons in 2012 and 2013. Percentage of infestation was recorded on the basis of infested and total fruits. The highest fruit infestation i. e. 56.56 and 49% was recorded during 25th (17th June) and 24th (9th June) standard weeks during respective years. The correlation coefficient between per cent infestation by melon fly with weather parameters exhibited a significant positive correlation with maximum temperature and negative correlation with RH-I and RH-II. In case of management chlorphenapyr, acephate, spinosad and deltamethrin were most effective bio-rational insecticide for managing melon fly and provided higher yield.

22. Ali H. Bahkali, Mohamed Elsheshtawi, Ramadan A. Mousa, Abdallah M. Elgorban* and Areej Abdullah Alzarqaa [Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in beans with antagonistic microorganisms under greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 884-892 (2014). Department of Botany and Microbiology College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia *(e-mail : aelgorban@ksu.edu.sa)

ABSTRACT

The effects of the mycoparasites Coniothyrium minitans and Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma hamatum, Gliocladium virens, Gliocladium roseum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptomyces griseoviridis and Bacillus subtilis on the suppression of bean white rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were evaluated in vivo during 2013. Results showed that soil drenching with C. minitans, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly suppressed the white rot disease incidence with 90% survival plants. In case of mixture, antagonistic fungi and antagonistic bacteria, the mixtures of T. hamatum+S. griseoviridis and C. minitans+S. griseoviridis completely inhibited the disease incidence that produced 100% survival plants when compared to controls.

23. CHOKRI BAYOUDH*, RAHMA LABIDI, AFIFA MAJDOUB AND MESSAOUD MARS [Fig mosaic disease (FMD) incidence in some regions of Center-east of Tunisia]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 893-901 (2014). Regional Research Centre on Horticulture and Organic Agriculture IRESA-University of Sousse, B. P. 57, 4042, Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia *(e-mail : chokribayoudh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a virus disease that spreads rapidly in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. The incidence of FMD was evaluated in five major production regions of Center-East of Tunisia. Prospections at three dates (D1 : Beginning of vegetation, D2 : Mid-season and D3 : Fig maturation) were repeated in fig orchards at regions of Ouardanine (R1), Bekalta (R2), Mahdia (R3), Khemara (R4) and Kerkennah (R5) during 2009 and 2010. The study was performed on 180 trees located in five regions and disease index (D. I.) and the severity degrees (S1 to S6) were recorded. Within-tree distribution of FMD was detailed for the varieties Bither Abiadh (BA) and Kahli (KA). Results showed that in all regions, the D. I. and the severity degrees S1 and S3 on leaves varied according to prospection dates for the two years. The highest D. I. was 14.9 and 9.7, respectively, in 2009 and 2010. The D. I. and the severities of attack on young leaves were more important than those on old ones of the two varieties BA and KA in all the regions. On the shaded leaves, D. I. and severities were higher than those on illuminated ones. FMD on fruits was accentuated during the second prospection period D2 in the regions R2, R3, R4 and R5 and during D3 in the region R1. In all the regions, FMD symptoms on the fruits of some varieties disappeared during D3 (fruit maturity).

24. Mehmet Emin Erkan*, Aydin Vural, Murat Sedat Baran, Hüsnü Sahan Güran and Halil Durmusoglu [Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of manna (gezo) samples collected from retailers in south-east of Turkey]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 902-906 (2014). Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Dicle, Diyarbakir 21280, Turkey *(e-mail : eminerkan@dicle.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

Manna (gezo) is a traditional sweet, which is commonly consumed in south-east of Turkey. However, there is a myth about the sweet that it is strongly believed by the people within the region that manna is treated as a magical substance that rains down from the sky and it was thought that it could cure some diseases. In this study, totally 30 manna samples were analyzed. The contamination rate of total mesophilic aerob bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bacillus cereus, mold, yeast, osmophilic yeast and sulfite reducing anaerobe bacteria were found 100, 26.66, 23.33, 23.33, 76.66, 96.66 and 36.66%, respectively. Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus-Micrococcus and Escherichia coli could not be determined in any of the samples. Mean value of pH and moisture, dry matter, ash, protein, fat and crude cellulose of the manna samples were found 5.86, 3.49, 96.51, 13.77, 0.39, 0.79 and 8.99%, respectively. As a result, important pathogens were not determined in the manna samples. However, some indicator bacteria of hygiene such as coliform were detected. It was concluded that during the production of the manna samples might be contaminated with some microorganisms from different sources and these contaminations caused health risks.

25. Enhai Liu, Xiaobo Hu and Shengyong Liu* [Experimental study on effect of vacuum pre-cooling for post-harvest leaf lettuce]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 907-911 (2014). Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy of Ministry of Agriculture Henan Agricultural University, Nongye Road 63, Zhengzhou-450 002, China *(e-mail : ndshyliu@163.com)

ABSTRACT

According to the physical properties of leaf lettuce and its heat and mass transfer mechanism in vacuum pre-cooling process, the pre-cooling temperature, pressure and volume of spray-applied water were verified throughout the experiment. The key factors affecting the water removal and storage quality of leaf lettuce during vacuum pre-cooling were the water volume and pre-cooling pressure. The quantities of water tested were equal to 4.21-5.98% of the total sample mass and the mass loss of the sample was 1.99-2.87%. Under pre-cooling pressure of 600, 1000 and 1500 Pa, the mass loss was 2.76, 2.70 and 1.93%, respectively. The optimum quantity of the spray-applied water was 5% of the total sample mass.

26. S. Das*, M. Chanchan and J. K. Hore** [Effect of inorganic and biofertilizer on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 912-915 (2014). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : das.suddhasuchi@gmail.com; **jkhore31@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during the years 2011-12 and 2012-13. The cloves were planted during middle of the October in 2.0 x 1.5 m plot at 20 x 15 cm spacing with three replications. Two nitrogen fixing biofertilizers (Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum) and two phosphatic biofertilizers [vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus fasciculatum) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus polymixa)] and one potassic solubilizer (Fraturia aurantea) were included. Biofertilizers were applied @ 6 g per plot with 250 g well rotten farm yard manure. Three levels of recommended dose of NPK i. e. 100, 75 and 50% were included. Two-way combinations of both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers were followed with each level of inorganic fertilizers which results in 12 treatment combinations having potassic solubilizer common to all treatments. Full dose of recommended fertilizer was applied alone i. e. altogether 13 treatments. The maximum plant height (75.42 cm) and longest root (7.92 cm) were observed in NPK (100%)+Azotobacter+PSB+KS. The maximum leaf number (11.45), number of roots (98.46), bulb weight (29.16 g), plot yield (2.85 kg/3 m2) and projected yield (7.12 t/ha) were noticed in NPK (100%)+Azospirillum+PSB+KS. The next best treatment in respect of projected yield was NPK (100%)+Azotobacter+PSB+KS (6.64 t/ha) followed by NPK (75%)+ Azospirillum+PSB+KS (6.28 t/ha). The results also indicated the chance of reduction of 25% of inorganic fertilizer through inoculations of biofertilizers.

27. G. S. Chouhan, Rashmi Jindal, A. Joshi, H. K. Sumeriya and N. K. Padiwal [Response of Chandrasur (Lepidium sativum L.) to FYM, nitrogen levels and nitrogen scheduling under southern Rajasthan conditions]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 916-921 (2014). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was undertaken at Udaipur (Rajasthan) to study the effect of FYM, nitrogen level and its scheduling of application on Chandrasur (Lepidium sativum L.) during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12. Two FYM levels (5 and 10 t FYM/ha), three nitrogen levels (20, 40 and 60 kg N/ha) and three applications of scheduling [½ at sowing+½ at 25 DAS (at 1st irrigation), ½ at sowing+¼ at 25 DAS+¼ at 45 DAS (at 2nd irrigation) and 1/3 each at sowing, 25 DAS and at 45 DAS] were compared in a factorial randomized block design. Results showed that application of 10 t FYM/ha provided significantly higher plant height at harvest, dry matter accumulation at 40, 60 and 80 DAS, CGR at 40-60 DAS, branches/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed, straw and biological yields, and net returns over that 5 t FYM/ha. Application of 10 t FYM/ha recorded 10.11, 6.85, 7.54 and 7.64% higher seed, straw, biological yield and net monetary returns than 5 t FYM/ha. Application of 60 kg N/ha recorded significantly higher plant height at harvest, dry matter accumulation at 40, 60 and 80 DAS, branches/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed straw, biological yield, harvest index and net returns over 20 kg N/ha. On pooled basis, magnitude of increase was 33.79, 13.61, 17.52, 46.91 and 44.04% higher in seed, straw, biological yields, net returns and B/C ratio over 20 kg N/ha. Among the N scheduling, 1/3 level of N each at sowing, 25 DAS and 45 DAS recorded significantly highest of these parameters over ½ at sowing+½ at 25 DAS and registering 32.04, 11.28 and 15.37% higher seed, straw and biological yield over two equal splittings.

28. Ifeanyi A. Ojiako*, R. U. Okechukwu, G. Tarawali, A. O. Idowu and B. Akwarandu [Influence of agronomic and climatic factors on root crop’s production : An econometric estimation of cassava supply response in Nigeria, 1961-2008]. Res. on Crops 15 (4) : 922-935 (2014). 1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria *(e-mail : iojiako2000@yahoo.co.uk)

ABSTRACT

The linkages between cassava production and the key agronomic and climatic factors were investigated with a view to estimating the supply response for cassava in Nigeria. Time series data from FAO and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 1961-2008, were used for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, co-integration and ordinary least square analytical techniques. Growth rates were calculated as 4.3% (production), 4.0% (area), 0.3% (yield) and <0.1% (rainfall and temperature). With ADF-values of -6.3 (P<0.01) and -7.7 (P<0.01) at first differences, production and area were found to be I (1) and non-stationary as against yield, rainfall and temperature each of which was I (0) and white noise. The co-integration test revealed that production and area were co-integrated with Trace-statistic of 20.9 (P<0.01). The estimated supply response indicated that the current and immediate past area sizes, and immediate past production volumes were individually significant (P<0.01) and together accounted for over 99% of the variations in production. The resultant model had good fit (R2=0.992; F-value=1797.8; DW=1.89). However, the elasticity coefficients revealed that a unit change in each of the variables elicited a less than proportionate change in production output. Area, rather than yield, continued to drive production, which was worrisome given the unprecedented technological successes so far achieved. High production cost, price instability, unpredictable markets and hostile land tenure system were other causes of apprehension and frustration for the farmer. There was need for direct intervention in land acquisition and management, and provision of input-credit to drive down cost and increase impact. Also, policies and programmes that would facilitate farmers’ access to land were desired to instigate productivity and promote development of the rural economy.

*******************************