Volume 15, No. 3 (September, 2014)

By | September 22, 2014

1. S. S. WALIA*, SATPAL SINGH, R. S. GILL, C. S. AULAKH AND NAVDEEP KAUR [Production potential and economic analysis of different rice-based cropping systems in north-west India]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 539-542 (2014). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : sohanwalia72@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in the Central Plain Zone Region of Punjab state during 2010-12 under All India Coordinated Research Project on Cropping Systems (cultivators’ fields). The productivity in terms of REY (167.3 q/ha) and system productivity (45.8 kg grain/ha/day) was highest for rice-green pea-summer moongbean as compared to rice-wheat and all other crop sequences. The rice-green pea-summer moongbean, rice-green pea and rice-green pea-summer mash sequences were found to be maximum stable having stability index of 0.99. On the other hand, the maximum net returns of Rs. 105426/ha, maximum profitability of Rs. 289/ha/day and maximum B : C ratio of 2.6 were obtained from rice-gobhi sarson-summer moongbean.

2. C. SUBHA LAKSHMI, A. PRATAP KUMAR REDDY AND G. JAYASREE [Nutrient uptake by hybrid rice KRH-2 at different stages of crop growth as influenced by organic sources and fertilizer levels]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 543-546 (2014). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted for two years at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of organic sources and fertilizer levels on nutrient uptake by hybrid rice at different stages of crop growth. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatments included organic sources (No organic manuring–control, subabul incorporation @ 5 t/ha, rice straw incorporation @ 2.5 t/ha) as main plot treatments and fertilizer levels comprising N : K2O kg/ha (150 : 75, 175 : 50, 175 : 25, 200 : 50, 200 : 25, 225 : 0) as sub-plot treatments. The results revealed that among the organic sources, subabul incorporation @ 5 t/ha recorded the highest nutrient uptake at all stages of crop growth, while 200 : 50 N : K2O kg/ha was the best fertilizer level. The interaction effect between organic sources and fertilizer levels was found significant. Subabul incorporation @ 5 t/ha coupled with 200 : 50 N : K2O kg/ha recorded the highest nitrogen and potassium uptake and remained on par with subabul incorporation @ 5 t/ha coupled with 200 : 25 N : K2O kg/ha.

3. TUSHAR RAMCHANDRA KHARE*, RAJVIR SHARMA AND V. SOBHANA [Control of complex weed flora in direct-seeded and transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) with early post-emergence herbicide]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 547-550 (2014). Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : tushar.khare88@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rainy season of 2010-11 at the Research Farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the efficiency of new low dose herbicide penoxsulam on growth and development of rice, their associated weeds and micro flora. The results of experiment revealed that penoxsulam 24 SC at 25 g/ha applied at 10 DAS/DAT significantly reduced the weed population, increased growth, yield (4.86 t/ha) and yield attributes of rice crop. Herbicidal treatments provided a yield advantage of 65.98 to 72.63% over weedy check. Herbicides exerted a significant detrimental effect on soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The counts of bacteria, fungus and actinomycetes recorded at 10 DAS/DAT revealed that soil microbes were more sensitive to penoxsulam 25 g/ha applied at 10 DAS/DAT and pre-emergence application of pretilachlor @ 750 g/ha as evident from significant reduction in their population, eventually microbial density started to recover slowly.

4. Jagvir Singh*, J. S. Mahal, G. S. Manes and M. S. Kahlon [Point injected nitrogen application in rice residue mulched wheat : An innovative technology for enhancing productivity and nitrogen uptake]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 551-557 (2014). Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : jagvirdixit@yahoo.com; dixit_skuast@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field study was conducted to determine the impact of point injected nitrogen (liquid urea) application on nitrogen uptake and crop productivity under straw mulched no-till wheat. The nitrogen application treatments consisted of broadcasting of granular urea as per recommendation of practice (½ nitrogen during sowing+1/4th nitrogen after 1st irrigation+1/4th nitrogen after 2nd irrigation), broadcasting of granular urea on soil surface general practice followed by farmers using ‘Happy Seeder’ (0+½ nitrogen before 1st irrigation+½ nitrogen before 2nd irrigation) and point-injected liquid urea placed between every second crop row at 250 mm intervals and 20-40 mm depth using self-propelled nitrogen applicator (0+½ nitrogen after 1st irrigation+½ nitrogen after 2nd irrigation). Nitrogen accumulation and decomposition of straw mulch were observed to be lower under point injected nitrogen application than broadcast methods. The plant density was similar under all treatments but plant nitrogen concentration and yield attributes were consistently higher with point-injected N compared with broadcast N. Lower plant nitrogen concentration was exhibited at high straw load compared to low straw load suggesting that straw mulch enhanced the nitrogen losses with broadcasting of nitrogen; which resulted in less availability of nitrogen to the plants. The point injected nitrogen increased the nitrogen uptake and yield about 20% over conventional practice (broadcasting) of nitrogen application.

5. Mehdi Sadeghi-Shoae*, Farzad Paknejad, Zeinab Fatemi Rika, Reza Nasri and Mohamad Reza Tookalloo [Selection for drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under climatic conditions of Karaj, Iran]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 558-563 (2014). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : Mehdi.SadeghiShoae@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was carried out in 2010 to evaluate the response of different genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to drought stress at the Agricultural Faculty of Azad University of Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Treatments were two levels of irrigation (normal and deficit irrigation) as main plots and barley varieties at 10 levels (Valfajr, Rayhan, Kavir, Zarjo, Goharjo, Karoon, Dasht, Turkmen, Nosrat and Yousef) as sub-plots. A correlation was found between grain yield with spike weight, harvest index, biomass, peduncle length and number of spikes per unit area (at the 0.01 level) under drought stress. Data analysis also revealed that there was a significant and positive correlation between grain yield with spike weight, harvest index, biomass, number of spikes per unit area and total dry weight (at the 0.01 level) under normal stress (at the 0.01 level). Five selection indices including mean productivity index (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) were determined based on grain yield under drought-stress and non-stress conditions. The results showed that MP, GMP and STI were the best indices in identifying high yielding cultivars in both drought-stressed and normal conditions. Genotypes Nosrat, Turkmen and Youseph were the most drought tolerant and Kavir, Karoon and Zarjo were the most sensitive genotypes to drought stress.

6. SELINA HASAN, CAI QINGHONG, TANG QIYUAN*, WANG KUN AND NEWTON KWAKU AMAGLO [Effects of plastic film mulching and plant growth regulators on maize yield and grain quality]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 564-570 (2014). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : cntqy@aliyun.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the response of plastic film mulch (MPF) and plant growth regulators (PGR) on maize yield and grain quality in spring and autumn seasons in the Hunan Province of southern China. The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were : no mulch (CK), plastic film mulch (MPF), plant growth regulators (PGR) and MPF x PGR. In both the seasons, MPF x PGR treated plots gave highest maize yields (spring : 10.832 t/ha; autumn : 6.262 t/ha) followed by MPF (spring : 9.714 t/ha; autumn : 5.883 t/ha), and PGR (spring : 9.380 t/ha; autumn : 5.177 t/ha), while the control (spring : 8.592 t/ha; autumn : 5.085 t/ha) was the lowest. The mulch, PGR and MPF x PGR treatments had a negative significant (P< 0.05) effect on spring starch content. Crude fiber content was significantly different among treatment means in spring maize. The PGR treatment in spring had the highest crude fibre content (2.270%) followed by MPF x PGR (2.037%). There were negative significant differences among treatment means with respect to amino acid content in most cases except in glutamic acid, lysine, proline, alanine and leucine. The PGR x MPF treatment significantly gave the highest protein content (9.027%) followed by PGR (9.006%) and MPF (8.543%) in spring season. This is a significant achievement where a higher protein and lysine content has been achieved simultaneously.

7. HUAN YANG, GUOQING CHEN, XIN WANG, YAXING SHI, JIURAN ZHAO, DALEI LU* AND WEIPING LU** [Effects of basic fertilizer ratio and nitrogen topdressing at jointing stage on flour thermal properties of waxy maize]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 571-577 (2014). Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province Yangzhou University, Yangzhou-225 009, China *(e-mail : dllu@yzu.edu.cn; **wplu@yzu.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

Clarifying the change dynamics of flour thermal properties among different fertilizer treatments could improve the grain quality. In the present study, the effects of basic fertilizer ratio (N, P2O5 and K2O 75 kg/ha single or mix applied) and N topdressing at jointing stage (0, 150 and 300 kg/ha) on the thermal properties of waxy maize flour were studied using Suyunuo5 and Yunuo7 as materials in 2011-13. The results indicated that the flour thermal characteristics were affected by single or interactions of planting year, variety, basic fertilizer ratio and N topdressing. Among different basic fertilizer ratio treatments, gelatinization temperatures were highest at N 75 kg/ha+P2O5 75 kg/ha+K2O 75 kg/ha treatment and lowest at N 75 kg/ha treatment. Gelatinization enthalpy (DHgel) was increased by basic fertilizer. Compared with blank, application of N 75 kg/ha+ K2O 75 kg/ha or P2O5 75 kg/ha had no effect on retrogradation enthalpy and retrogradation percentage (%R), and those two parameters decreased by other basic fertilizer treatments. Among different N topdressing treatments, higher gelatinization characteristics were present at N topdressing 150 kg/ha treatment and %R was gradually increased with N rate increase. The plants grown in 2012 had higher rainfall and low sunlight presented higher %R and lower DHgel, and plants grown in warm condition had higher gelatinization temperature. The results of correlation and principal component analysis indicated that the main estimation parameters on thermal properties were gelatinization temperature, followed by %R and DHgel.

8. Abhijit Debnath*, Subhas Chandra Kole and Joseph Mukhim [Evaluation of the efficacy of different sulphur amendments and sulphur oxidizing bacteria in relation to its transformation in soil and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 578-584 (2014). Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : adebnathbckv@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted with mustard (Brassica juncea, var. B-85) during rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the effect of sulphur (S) oxidizing strains of Thiobacillus thioxidans along with S, amendments on the yield parameters. Sulphur @ 20 kg/ha was applied through elemental S, gypsum and pyrite and three Thiobacillus strains RS 002, RS 004 and RS 005 were inoculated in soil. Mustard yield at maturity, S containing plant parts and soil sulphate at different intervals of growth period were evaluated. The seed yield on average was 14.5% higher in elemental S over control which further increased to 30.6% along with inoculated S oxidizers. The oil yield which was 25.7% higher in elemental S or gypsum over control after 2nd year increased up to 42% with S oxidizing inoculants RS 004. Sulphur content in seeds was highest in gypsum or elemental S and increased in the 2nd year of study. On an average, the seed S increased 19.1% with gypsum over control which increased further to 22.3% when S oxidizers were inoculated in soil. Sulphur in stover did not bear any significant difference with the year of study. For most yield parameters, the strain RS 004 was outclassing. The soil sulphate was found to increase with time in both the years; the values were higher for gypsum and elemental S than pyrite. Both elemental S and gypsum were equal in effect after two years. Soil sulphate increased by 6.99 mg/kg for gypsum addition after two years as against a mining of 0.52 mg/kg in the control.

9. P. M. VAGHASIA* AND M. V. NADIYADHARA [Evaluation of post-emergence herbicides in kharif groundnut]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 585-589 (2014). Main Oilseeds Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : pmvjnd@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Main Oilseeds Research Station Farm of Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh for three consecutive years during 2007-08 to 2009-10 to evaluate post-emergence herbicides in rainy season groundnut. The experiment, comprising 11 weed control treatments of pre- and post-emergence herbicides, weedy check and weed free check, was conducted in randomised block design (RBD) with three replications on medium clay soils with pH 7.9. The experimental field was infested with Echinochloa spp., Dinebra retroflexa, Digitaria sanguinalis, Indigofera glandulosa, Commelina benghalensis, Phyllanthus niruri, Euphorbia hirta, Digera arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Tridax procumbens and Cyperus rotundus. Among the monocots, Echinochloa spp. was predominant and C. rotundus was predominant among sedges. Complete weed free condition recorded highest dry pod, haulm and kernel yield (2773, 3934 and 1997 kg/ha, respectively). Among the herbicidal treatments, pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha+post-emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 50.0 g/ha at 20 DAS recorded the lowest monocot (3.81/m2), dicot (3.63/m2), sedges (3.83/m2) weed density, dry weight of weeds (133 g/m2), weed control efficiency (84.2%) at 60 DAS and lower weed index (4.6%). The same treatment combination recorded significantly higher dry pod yield (2645 kg/ha), haulm yield (3424 kg/ha), kernel yield (1902 kg/ha), gross returns (Rs. 66360/ha), net returns (Rs. 42190/ha) and B : C ratio 2.75.

10. SHANKER LAL KHASWA, R. K. DUBEY, SHAILENDRA SINGH*, R. C. TIWARI AND INDU SINGH [Balance sheet of soil nitrogen and phosphorus vis-a-vis soybean productivity under different levels and sources of phosphorus and plant growth regulators in sub-humid Rajasthan]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 590-598 (2014). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001(Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : shailbhadawar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at Udaipur during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 on soybean crop involving 27 treatments i. e. three levels (20, 30 and 40 kg P2O5/ha) and three sources (single super phosphate or SSP, phosphorus rich organic manure or PROM and di-ammonium phosphate or DAP) of phosphorus in main plots and three plant growth regulators or PGRs (water spray, benzyl adenine 50 ppm and NAA 100 ppm) in sub-plots of a split plot design having three replications. Results revealed that 40 kg P2O5/ha, SSP and NAA recorded a pooled grain and stover yields of 25.95 and 37.37, 25.12 and 36.23, and 24.23 and 35.73 q/ha, respectively, which were not only maximum but also significantly superior to their respective counter treatments. Higher soybean productivity recorded in 40 kg P2O5/ha, SSP and NAA treatments linked with considerably higher mean uptake of nitrogen and P2O5 which were 243.96 and 24.79; 228.10 and 24.52 and 229.90 and 23.44 kg/ha, respectively. Data on actual soil nitrogen status after crop harvest or E values (kg/ha) showed that among different levels of phosphorus, mean N ranged from 269.52 at 20 kg P2O5 to 298.24 at 40 kg P2O5/ha, while mean P2O5 varied between 23.41 at 20 kg P2O5 and 25.99 at 40 kg P2O5/ha. Among different phosphorus sources, the order of mean E values (kg/ha) for N were PROM (294.93)>DAP (281.69)>SSP (275.98) but order for mean E P2O5 values was SSP (26.09)>PROM (24.33)>DAP (24.31). Among PGRs, the order for mean E values of N and P2O5 (kg/ha) was NAA (286.47 and 25.00)>benzyl adenine (284.64 and 24.79)>water spray (281.48 and 24.39). Data on actual mean gain or loss (G=E–initial soil nutrient status) of N showed that different levels and sources of phosphorus as well as PGRs recorded a negative balance ranging from -2.94 kg/ha at 40 kg P2O5/ha to -31.67 kg/ha at 20 kg P2O5/ha. Contrary to N, different levels and sources of phosphorus as well as PGRs recorded a positive balance in mean G values (kg/ha) that for various P2O5 levels ranged from 0.25 at 20 kg P2O5/ha to 2.83 at 40 kg P2O5/ha; for different phosphorus sources between 0.99 in DAP to 2.56 in SSP and between 1.63 in benzyl adenine to 1.84 in NAA among PGRs evaluated in this study.

11. BINOD KUMAR and G. R. SINGH [Effect of method of sowing, moisture regime and nutrient supply system on growth and yield of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 599-603 (2014). Department of Agronomy Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj-224 229, Faizabad (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Agronomy Research Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U. P.) to study the effect of method of sowing, moisture regimes and nutrient supply system on growth, yield and economics of rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Data revealed that raised bed sowing significantly increased the growth attributes viz., plant height, number of branches and dry matter accumulation per plant, yield attributes viz., number of pods per plant, pod length and number of seeds per pod, yield viz., seed and straw and economics viz., net returns and benefit : cost ratio as compared to flat bed method of sowing. Irrigation applied under IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 produced significantly higher growth attributes, yields and economics of rajmash. Combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients significantly improved growth attributes, yield and yield attributes and economics during respective years of study.

12. K. H. Kim, S. H. Shin, H. S. lEE, j. y. KIM, j. H. Son, C. S. Kang, J. C. Park and C. S. Park* [Relationship between pre-harvest sprouting and functional markers, TaVp-1A, TaSdrB1 and TaPHS1 in Korean wheat cultivars]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 604-612 (2014). Department of Crop Science and Biotechnology Chonbuk National University, Jeonju-561 756, Korea *(e-mail : pcs89@jbnu.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of Korean wheat cultivars was evaluated for five years and allelic variations of functional markers associated with seed dormancy and PHS, TaVp-1A, TaSdrB1 and TaPHS1, were also evaluated in this study to improve PHS resistance in Korean wheat breeding programmes. PHS resistance was evaluated using mist spray in humid chamber (PHS-MS) over five years. PHS-MS were significantly influenced by year, genotype and the interaction between year and genotype. PHS-MS ranged from 1.57 to 84.38%. Red-grained wheat cultivars showed lower PHS-MS (11.39%) than white-grained cultivars (62.24%). There was no significant difference in PHS value of Korean wheat cultivars carried different TaVp-1A alleles although five alleles were found in Korean wheat cultivars. The frequency of TaSdr-B1a and TaSdr-B1b allele in Korean wheat cultivars was 79.2 and 20.8%, respectively. TaSdr-B1a allele showed lower PHS value (16.50%) than TaSdr-B1b allele (52.99%). For TaPHS1 allele, there were two types of haplotypes I and II in Korean wheat cultivars. There was non-significant difference of PHS resistance in Korean wheat cultivars carried between haplotype I (27.19%) and haplotype II (20.45%).

13. Kwang-Soo Cho, Young-Ho Yoon, Su-Young Hong, Bong-Kyoung Yun, Hong-Sik Won and Mekapogu Manjulatha* [Mining of microsatellite markers using next generation sequencing data and its application in genetic relationship analysis of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 613-620 (2014). Highland Agriculture Research Center National Institute of Crop Science Rural Development Administration, Pyeongchang-232 955, Gangwon, Korea *(e-mail : manjubio7@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fagopyrum genus is composed of about 20 species and among them two major species, common buckwheat (F. esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum). SSR markers are only reported in common buckwheat with lower numbers based on enriched repeat libraries and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a cost-effective alternative. Here we report the development of new cDNA SSR (cSSR) markers characterized from transcriptome sequence data of F. esculentum and F. tataricum using NGS and these cSSR markers were applied for the validation of buckwheat germplasm. From the transcriptome sequences, a total of 8,360 and 6,518 putative cSSR markers were identified in common and tartary buckwheat, respectively, using SSR Locator. Among the cSSR markers, tetra-mer repeats are most abundant and occurred in rates of 54.9 and 37.3% in common and tartary buckwheat, respectively. To test the usefulness of newly developed cSSR markers with previously developed SSR markers based on the SSR motif enrichment library, in analysis of genetic relationship in tartary buckwheat, we selected five representative cSSR markers and applied to investigate the polymorphism of tartary buckwheat germplasm and found these markers can be applied in genetic diversity of germplasm with high polymorphism.

14. M. Rastgari, H. Ahmadi* and A. R. Zebarjadi [Combining ability analysis and gene effects in maize (Zea mays L.) using line × tester crosses]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 621-625 (2014). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran *(e-mail : ahmadifirouzabadi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Determination of gene effects and combining abilities is a critical stage in maize hybrid breeding. In the present study, eight lines as female and two inbred lines (K3615.2 and A679) as tester were crossed and the resulting test cross progenies were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2011. During the growing period, several agronomic characters including grain yield were measured. Effects of lines and testers were significant on all the characters except for the grain yield, grains per row and days to maturity. This indicated the importance of additive gene effect in controlling most of the traits under investigation. Inbred lines L5, L10 and L14 were identified as good general combiners for grain yield because they showed significant positive GCA for this trait. L14 was superior compared with L1 and L5 because of significant positive GCA for most of the agronomic characters. These lines, especially L14, have potential additive gene effects to be utilized in the breeding programmes. T3 tester showed favourable additive gene effects for forage yield, its components, early maturity and shorter stature. Promising crosses were selected based on per se performance, standard heterosis and sca effects. The highest grain yield (107.313) belonged to L6 × A679 combination. The superiority of L6 × A679 hybrid can be attributed to its days to physiological maturity and more ears per plant. Higher grain yield and sca for forage yield were also observed in L7 × A679 and L14 × K3615.2. The cross L14 × K3615.2 had also large positive sca for grain rows per cob. Furthermore, negative sca of ear height, number of leaves above ear and grains per row were observed for L6 × A679, while positive sca of these characters was determined for L7 × A679. However, none of the scas for these combinations was significant. On the basis of grain yield, the genotypes L6 × A679, L7 × A679 and L14 × K3615.2 may be regarded as promising hybrids and should be evaluated further for grain yield and other desirable characters.

15. G. N. THIPPESHAPPA, C. S. RAVI AND Y. S. RAMESHA [Influence of soil and foliar application of silicon on vegetative characters, fruit yield and nutrients content of sapota leaf]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 626-630 (2014). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry College of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132, Chikmagalur (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted on crop nutrition to study the influence of soil and foliar application of silicon on vegetative characters, fruit yield and nutrients content of sapota leaf at Regional Horticultural Research and Extension Centre, Mudigere, Karnataka during the years 2010 and 2011. Silicon sources like potassium silicate as foliar spray and calcium silicate as soil application were tried in RCBD design with three replicates. The results revealed that foliar spray of potassium silicate @ 4 ml/l+half dose of pesticide significantly increased the number of leaves/shoot (135.87), shoots/m2 (26.83), flowers/m2 (298.33), fruit length (5.584 cm), fruit diameter (5.85 cm), volume (102.38 ml), fruit weight (100.67 g), highest number of fruits (1147) per tree, fruit yield per tree (144.75 kg), fruit yield per hectare (14.47 t/ha) and minimum number of mummified fruits (27.67) compared to soil application of calcium silicate @ 2.5 kg/tree. Foliar spray of potassium silicate alone increased the shelf life period and TSS content of sapota. Sapota leaf recorded significantly higher content of N (1.60%), P (0.19%), K (2.42%), Fe (169.40 ppm), Cu (6.38 ppm), Zn (24.63 ppm) and Si (1.37%) and lesser content of Mn (74.06 ppm) and B (40.85 ppm) due to foliar spray of potassium silicate @ 4 ml/l+half dose of pesticide. But soil application of calcium silicate @ 2.5 kg/tree recorded significantly higher Ca (1.41%), Mg (0.45%), Mn (81.60 ppm) and B (43.34 ppm) content in the sapota leaf.

16. Sanjay Rawal*, Neeraj Sharma, Parveen Kumar, M. S. Kadian, S. K. Luthra, B. P. Singh, S. V. Singh and Rajeev Kumar [Performance of advanced potato genotypes under varied soil moisture availability in west central plains]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 631-637 (2014). Central Potato Research Institute Campus, Modipuram (U. P.), India *(e-mail : srawalcpri@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The current global climate change scenario requires development and evaluation of suitable abiotic and biotic stress tolerant potato genotypes for sustenance of its productivity. Among all stresses, drought is more pertinent for India and major potato growing regions are likely to face this challenge in future. Potato like other crops also possesses variations in drought tolerance capability in its genotypes. Sixteen advanced potato clones of International Potato Centre (CIP) were screened against Kufri Bahar under field conditions for varied water stress regime during 2009-10. From these, promising five genotypes (397036.7, 381381.13, 381381.26, 392797.22 and 393708.31) were further evaluated for confirming their performance during 2010-11. Genotype 397036.7 was found superior based on mean total (25.0-38.3 t/ha) and marketable (23.5-37.2 t/ha) tuber yield and also maintained highest drought tolerant index (1.170-0.775) under severe water deficit regime.

17. SAJEDA AKHTER1, MD. MONIRUL ISLAM1, LAILA NAHER*, M. SHAMSHUL ALAM1, M. MAJIDA KHATUN1 AND UMI KALSOM YUSUF** [Storage behaviour of exotic potato genotypes and hybrid clones under natural condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 638-643 (2014). 1Tuber Crops Research Centre Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh *(e-mail : lailanaher@umk.edu.my; ** umikay@upm.edu.my)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the storability of hybrid clones and exotic genotypes at room temperature during April to August 2011 and April to August 2012. Fourteen hybrid clones and 14 exotic genotypes were stored for five months at ambient temperature. Hybrid clones 7.33 and 7.12 showed better performance in respect of storage behaviour (minimum weight and rottage loss) at ambient temperature. The maximum storability was found in Labadia, Liseta, Albaata, Lambada and Amanda exotic genotypes. Moreover, hybrid clones 7.33 and 7.12 exhibited minimum weight and rottage loss in both the hybrid clones and the exotic genotypes. Based on their storage behaviour at ambient temperature, it may be concluded that hybrid clones 7.33 and 7.12 are found to be suitable for storage under ordinary room temperature conditions for a period of 90 to 120 days and slow release to market for avoiding distress sale.

18. Vimla Singh*, Shrvan Kumar, Madan Lal and K. S. Hooda [Cultural and morphological variability among Rhizoctonia solani isolates from trans-gangetic plains of India]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 644-650 (2014). Directorate of Maize Research Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : vimlatalan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Banded leaf and sheath blight incited by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii Khunn. (Teleomorph : Thanatephorus cucumeris) is gaining devastating potentials in India. The pathogen is reported to show variation in expression of symptoms on the same genotypes grown in different locations. Fifteen isolates from trans-gangetic plains of India were collected to examine the cultural and morphological variability and pathogenic behaviour on host Zea mays. The isolates were from maize and rice host origins. Considerable variability was found among the isolates. The isolates of maize origin were poor sclerotia producing in culture, formed compact dense/fluffy, pale white to yellowish growth on PDA, producing irregular to organized, smooth surfaced sclerotia, faster radial growth in culture, acute branching of hyphae and high pathogenicity. The rice isolates showed a contrasting behaviour in forming sub-central to scattered, pitted sclerotia lighter in weight than maize counterparts, compact sparse colony, slow to medium radial growth, light brown to dark brown colony. Aerial bearing was not recorded in most of these isolates. All the rice isolates were fast sclerotia initiating in culture; however, higher incubation period was recorded in pathogenicity tests. The lesions were also scattered and disease score ranged from 2.6-3.1. The cultural and morphological parameters used in this investigation may be used to examine the biology of R. solani isolates from other agro-climatic regions also.

19. ASHOK KUMAR SINGH*, VIKAS SHARMA, A. K. SINGH AND VAIBHAV K. SINGH [Effect of leaf extracts, fungicides and bio-agents against root rot of pea (Pisum sativum L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 651-654 (2014). Regional Agricultural Research Station S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-J, Rajouri-185 131 (J & K), India (*e-mail : ashoks286@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation, efforts were made on the evaluation of different chemicals, leaf extracts and bio-agents against root rot disease of pea under natural conditions, at research farm of Regional Agricultural Research Station, SKUAST-J, Rajouri (J & K) in two consecutive years 2010-11 and 2011-12 in rabi season. Among these treatments, Ridomil mz was found most effective (8.56% DI with 117.31 q/ha pod yield). It was followed by carbendazim (9.55% DI with 103.65 q/ha pod yield). Whereas maximum disease incidence and lowest yield (38.96% DI and 78.80 q/ha) were recorded in control plot. Highest plant height was recorded in drek leaf extract (38.58 cm) followed by T. harzianum (36.21 cm). Maximum number of branches and maximum pod weight/plant were in carbendazim treatment (15.25 and 80.62 g, respectively). Maximum pod girth was in treatment T. harzianum followed by drek leaf extract (1.63 and 1.55), maximum shelling percentage was in Redomil mz followed by carbendazim (40.81 and 40.8). However, all treatments were significantly effective in controlling the disease and plant growth as well as yield in comparison to control.

20. Aly A. Aly, Abd El-Rahim M. A. El-Samawaty and Mohamed A. Yassin* [Non-differential interaction between isolates of Rhizoctonia solani and Egyptian cotton cultivars]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 655-661 (2014). Plant Pathology Research Institute Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt *(e-mail : mohamdyassin@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The pathogenicity of eight isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from different anastomosis groups was evaluated on five cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Damping-off, plant height and fresh weight were used as criteria to evaluate pathogenicity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the cultivar and cultivar x isolate interaction were always non-significant sources of variation in all the tested parameters. The isolate was always a highly significant (P=0.000) source of variation in all the tested parameters. The results of the ANOVA in the present study suggest that physiologic specialization did not occur within R. solani isolates pathogenic on cotton. They also imply that resistance of the tested cultivars was only horizontal, and there were no significant differences among cultivars in this type of resistance. Similarly, pathogenicity of the tested isolates was only aggressiveness, and the isolates significantly differed in this type of pathogenicity. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted in order to group the isolates according to disease variables measured on the tested cultivars. Cluster analysis divided the isolates into groups; however, grouping the isolates was not related to their AGs.

21. K. Karmakar*, Pranab Debnath and Sandip Patra [Etoxazole : A new novel acaricide molecule for effective management of tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 662-669 (2014). All India Network Project on Agricultural Acarology, Directorate of Research Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741 235, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : acarikarmakar@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the bio-efficacy of new acaricide molecule, etoxazole 10% SC (w/w) was tested against tea red spider mite. The experiment was conducted at Kamalpur Tea Estate, Darjeeling, West Bengal during pre-kharif and post-kharif seasons of 2011-12. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications for each of the treatment on standing tea bushes of 10 years old. Four doses each of etoxazole 10% SC (w/w) (10, 25, 40 and 55 g a. i./ha) along with single dose of fenpropathrin 30% EC (60 g a. i./ha), hexithiazox 5.45% EC (25 g a. i./ha) and propergite 57% EC (570 g a.i./ha) were sprayed with an untreated check to work out their efficacy against the mite. To find out the phytotoxic effects of the above insecticides, a higher dose of etoxazole 10% SC (w/w) at 80 g a. i./ha was included. Two rounds of spraying were done at an interval of 45 days during both the seasons. Observations were taken before spraying as pre-treatment count on mean mite population/cm2 leaf area and thereafter mite population was counted at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days after each spraying. The treatments etoxazole 10% SC (w/w) @ 40, 55 and 80 g a. i./ha were at par with each other and were very effective especially in controlling eggs and immature stages of tea red spider mites and recorded higher yield of tea than rest of the treatments. In addition, no phytotoxic effect was observed even at the highest doses of etoxazole 10% SC (w/w) @ 80 g a. i./ha. No detrimental effect was noticed for application of different doses of etoxazole on the prevalent predatory mite species, Typhlodromips syzygii, whereas high mortality was recorded from propergite and fenpropathrin treated plots.

22. Arezou Ghadi and Soleiman Mahjoub* [Selection of optimum Trichoderma species for cellulase activity and glucose production from wheat crust]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 670-675 (2014). Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran *(e-mail : smahjoub20@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Cellulase enzyme and glucose are important industrial bioproducts which can be obtained from cheap agrowastes. The aim of the present study was to select optimum Trichoderma species for cellulase activity and production of glucose from wheat crust. Three different strains of this fungus i. e. T. koningi 5139, T. longibrachiatum 5140 and T. reesei 5142 were selected. The conditions were optimized by using wheat crust and culturing Trichoderma species with solid state fermentation method. Different incubation times (3-8 days), temperatures (26, 28, 30, 32 and 34°C) and pHs (3.0-9.0) were experimented for the production of cellulase and glucose. Cellulase activity, glucose and protein were measured using standard filter paper activity, enzymatic and Lowry methods in raw enzymatic solution of the cultures, respectively. Cellulase activity and produced glucose were higher in T. reesei compared with two other strains in the same condition (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that T. reesei was the optimum strain. Also, best culture conditions were 96 h of incubation at 30°C and pH 6.0 for giving highest cellulase activity and produced glucose.

23. Haixue Liu*, Yang Liu , Haifeng Wang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Junbin Wang and Fangdi Cong [Adventitious bud regeneration from cotyledonary node, hypocotyl, cotyledon and euphylla of various genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 676-682 (2014). Center for Agricultural Analysis and Measurement Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin-300 384, China *(e-mail : Liuhaixue715@126.com)

ABSTRACT

Isolated culture of sunflower is significantly important in seeking new species of sunflowers with plenty of essential oil by modern biotechnologies. Thus, the callus development and adventitious bud regeneration from various explants of sunflower were studied by in vitro tissue cultures. It was found that the callus were readily formed on six genotype explants cultured in media with IAA and 6-BA, but adventitious bud regeneration from these callus was relatively weak. The adventitious bud regeneration inductivities of four tissue explants from different genotype sunflowers were ordered as followed : cotyledonary nodes > hypocotyls > cotyledons > euphyllas. The desired concentrations of 6-BA inducing adventitious bud regeneration were at 1.2-1.8 mg/l for cotyledonary nodes, 1.8 mg/l for hypocotyls and 0.6 mg/l for cotyledons, respectively. But no adventitious buds were differentiated from euphyllas only by 6-BA. The best medium for organogenesis was composed of MS+0.03 mg/l IAA+1.2-1.5 mg/ 6-BA by which euphyllas also were induced to regenerate adventitious buds with an averagely 20.83% inductivity. Among several genotype sunflowers, PR29 had the highest regeneration frequency and the regenerated plantlet has been successfully cultured.

24. Gurjeet Singh Bedi, S. Maheshwari and Manjinder Kaur Bedi [Effect of intermittent feeding of peptone and sucrose on production of inulinase from dahlia tubers using yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus)]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 683-686 (2014). Department of Biotechnology IFTM University, Moradabad-244 102, Delhi Road (Uttar Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

Inulinase production and cell growth of Kluyveromyces marxianus MTCC 3995 were studied under different conditions during our research work. Cichorium roots and Dahlia tubers were used as inulin source. The substrates prepared by different extraction methods showed that Dahlia extract prepared at 15 kg/cm2 pressure was the most favourable inducers of inulinase with maximum activity of 9.8 IU/ml. Inulinase activity was strongly influenced by intermittent feeding of solution containing carbon and nitrogen source. The best condition to cellular growth and inulinase activity was observed with solution containing 0.25% (w/v) peptone and 1.0% (w/v) sucrose. There was 22% increase in enzyme activity with intermittent feeding as compared to inulinase activity without intermittent feeding. Inulinase activity was also influenced by media with peptone as nitrogen source. However, nitrogen sources ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride were found inhibitory for inulinase production. Incubation temperature as 27ºC was observed in our study as most favourable for cell growth and maximum inulinase activity (IU/ml).

25. XIAORONG SHUI, SHAOHU TANG AND WEI LEI* [Bioinformatic analysis of transcription factor MYB 1 and its targeted-regulatory microRNAs]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 687-696 (2014). 1Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524 001, China 2Laboratory of Vascular Surgery, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524 001, China *(e-mail : thdmast@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

MYB1 transcription factor plays significant role in regulating plant secondary metabolisms. microRNA is a class of endogenous small non-coding RNA and negatively regulates gene expression by inhibiting translation of the target mRNA. In this study, MYB1 from four plant species including Morella rubra, Orobanche ramosa, Leucaena leucocephala and Epimedium sagittatum, was investigated via bioinformatic tools and methods. We analyzed their chemical formulas, physico-chemical properties, subcellular localization, transit peptides, transmembrane domains, hydrophobicity, molecular phylogenetic tree, protein structures and predicted the upstream target regulatory miRNA. The results showed that MYB1 genes contained a 5′, 3′ untranslated region and an ORF, respectively. MYB1 proteins were hydrophobic, localized in cytoplasmic matrix with no transit peptides, and their secondary structures were mainly comprised of random coil and a-helix. 3-D models of the four MYB 1 were constructed and four upstream target regulatory miRNAs, miR159, miR5658, miR5021 and miR828, were predicted using the latest miRBase database.

26. Mitra Aeini and Mojtaba Yousefirad* [Effect of bacterial bio-fertilizers on growth traits and quantity and quality of aloe (Aloe vera) gel]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 697-700 (2014). 1Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : m.yousefirad@iau-saveh.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

In this research, the effect of bacterial inoculation was investigated on growth traits, yield and gel qualitative traits of Aloe vera. Experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in 2011-12 using a completely randomized block design including eight treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments included plants inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 12 (A), Pseudomonas florescens strain 41 (P), Azospirillum brasilense (AZ), the dual combination of bacteria A+P, A+AZ and P+AZ, and also a combination of all three bacteria studied (A+P+AZ), and finally the control, which did not use any bio-fertilizer. The findings suggested that use of bio-fertilizers (A, P, A+P+AZ) led a significant increase in gel weight of leaves, plant weight, root length, aloenin and barbaloin of gel in comparison with the control. Of course, they had any significant effect on leaves number in comparison to control. Generally, the research showed that use of bio-fertilizers A, P, A+P+AZ could have a beneficial and effective role in promoting the qualitative and quantitative traits of Aloe vera.

27. M. CHANCHAN* AND J. K. Hore [Studies on the effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of garlic]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 701-704 (2014). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : chanchan.meinam17@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during 2009-11 to assess the efficacy of some micronutrients, namely, zinc sulphate (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50%), borax (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%), manganese sulphate (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50%) and ferrous sulphate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%). They were applied as foliar spray with the sticker at 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. There were 13 treatments including control. The design was randomised block design with three replications. Maximum plant height, leaf number, weight of bulb, number of cloves per bulb and yield were recorded with borax @ 0.2%. Both length and weight of large clove, weight of medium cloves, root number and breadth of bulb were observed with zinc sulphate @ 0.25%. Maximum length of bulb and length of roots were recorded in borax @ 0.1%. Borax @ 0.2% was found most effective for yield improvement of garlic followed by zinc sulphate 0.25%.

28. SHARDA CHOUDHARY*, GEETIKA JETHRA AND R. S. MEENA [In-silico scrutiny of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) protein structure-GQ 33]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 705-709 (2014). National Research Centre on Seed Spices (ICAR) Tabiji, Ajmer-305 206 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : shardaajmer@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) belongs to Apiaceae family, is an important seed spice and one of the earliest spices used by mankind for its aromatic and medicinal properties. Cumin seeds are very commonly used to give flavour and texture to the food. In addition, it also acts as preservative and provides nutritional and health benefits. The typical aroma of the cumin seeds is due to their volatile oil content, the principal constituent of which is cuminol (cumin aldehyde). Studies have been done on properties of the essential oil content of cumin and other aspects. Only few studies are available citing the nucleotides sequences present in cumin but no reports are available on in-silico studies of proteins structure supposed to be present in cumin. In the present study, a high quality 3D structure and function of cumin protein (GQ 33) have been predicted for the hypothetical amino acid sequence obtained from reported nucleotides of cumin. The physiochemical properties for GQ 33 cumin protein were identified using Protparam. The instability index 39.52, isoelectric point (pI) 9.97 and grand average hydropathicity (GRAVY) -0.245 determined from primary and secondary structural analysis illustrate the stability of GQ 33 protein. Stability of 3D structure of protein was confirmed using Ramachandran plot having 95.7% residues or empirically distributed data-points present in the structure lie in most favoured region. For the prediction of secondary structure of protein FASTA sequences were used and prediction was performed using PSIPRED, JPRED, Protein Predict and SOPMA. SAVES server was used for further validation of protein structure.

29. PAYAM NAJAFI, JAHANGIR SHAMS* AND AZITA SHAMS [Evaluation of urban treated wastewater and irrigation method on growth indices of landscaping plants in arid and semi-arid regions]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 710-714 (2014). Department of Water Engineering Agricultural Faculty, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : shams.jahangir@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Today water scarcity in the agriculture has become a major problem. Sousing wastewater in the agricultural farms, gardens and landscapes has attracted much attention. In this research, the effects of irrigation with the urban treated wastewater were studied on the Laurus nobilis L. and the Buxus sempervirens L. plants.The irrigation treatments were : T1–Furrow irrigation with normal water, T2 : DI system with treated wastewater (drip irrigation), T3–SDI system with treated wastewater (sub-surface drip irrigation) at depth of 15 cm, T4–SDI system with treated wastewater at 30 cm depth and T5 : Furrow irrigation with treated wastewater. The experiment was conducted in the research field of Isfahan wastewater refinery with the three replications and five irrigation treatments during two years, 2010-2012. Results expressed that the irrigation with wastewater had the positive effects on the growth of both the plants. In the Laurus nobilis L., the greatest number of auxiliary shoots was observed in the surface drip irrigation with the treated wastewater. The height of main stem was increased in the furrow irrigation treatment with the treated wastewater. The analysis of B. sempervirens L. demonstrated that the SDI system with the treated wastewater at the depth of 15 cm had the highest number of branches and plant height. Accordingly the plant growth in the irrigation with wastewater was better than the normal water. In B. sempervirens L., T3 treatment had positive effects on the plant growth in both the stages. Therefore, using of sub-surface drip irrigation at the depth of 15 cm is recommended because of the reduction of the surface soil pollution.

30. SUSHIL DHIMAN*, S. P. DIXIT AND SWAPANA SEPEHYA [Effect of amendments on different forms of soil aluminum and acidity in an acid alfisol of western Himalayas]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 715-721 (2014). Department of Soil Science CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : sushildhimanhpau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of integrated nutrient supply on forms of aluminum and acidity at the Experimental Farm of Department of Soil Science, COA, CSK HPKV, Palampur in a randomized block design with 13 treatments replicated three times. The soil of the experimental site was silty clay loam and classified taxonomically as ‘Typic Hapludalf’ with acidic reaction, medium in organic carbon, low in available N, medium in P and K at the initiation of the experiment. Thirteen treatment combinations of lime, NPK doses and vermicompost were imposed in pea-okra cropping system from winter 2008-09 to summer 2011. Results revealed that application of chemical fertilizers alone or in conjunction with lime or vermicompost decreased all the forms of aluminum and soil acidity over chemical fertilizers alone. Maximum reduction in all the forms of aluminum and soil acidities was recorded with lime application along with 125% NPK which was statistically similar to 75% NPK+lime and 100% NPK+lime. Among the rates of vermicompost application, extent of reduction was more under the treatment getting 10 t/ha vermicompost as compared to 5 t/ha.

31. Priyanka Singh*, Rani Devi, R. S. Hooda and M. S. Grewal [Soil desurfacing : A potential threat to soil health, productivity and fertility]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 722-729 (2014). Department of Energy and Environment Science Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125 055 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : priyanka 201222@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Fot the objective of detailed study of desurfacing of soil due to brick kilns, two highly affected districts Rohtak and Jhajjar of Haryana state (India) were chosen to assess the extent of damage caused to soil health. These districts fall in national capital region (NCR) where requirement of bricks is enormous due to ongoing infrastructural development and new construction activities. Satellite Imageries (2007 and 2012) have clearly evidenced the mushrooming of brick kilns in this region resulting in formation of desurfaced soils at large scale. In 2007, desurfaced soils were about 1575 acres in Rohtak district, area further increased by 41.3% in 2012 after five years gap reached to 2025 acres. In Jhajjar intensity was even higher, in 2007 it was 7220 acres and in 2012 it increased to 10,220 acres by 42% increase. Physico-chemical analysis of desurfaced soil and adjoining normal soils revealed that desurfaced soils were invariably poor in organic carbon content ranging between 0.15-0.25% as compared to top soils ranging between 0.39-0.49%. Available P2O5 and K2O in desurfaced soils ranged between 11-20 and 115-259 kg/ha, respectively. Whereas in normal soils, it was 17-27 kg/ha P2O5 and 272-565 kg/ha K2O. As a result of low organic carbon, low P and K, higher bulk density and low hydraulic conductivity, collectively resulted in poor wheat plant growth in desurfaced soils.

32. A. Snehalatharani*, N. B. V. Chalapathi Rao, B. Pushpa Rajyam and G. Ramanandam [First report of Erwinia carotovora causing bacterial pod rot/stripe of cocoa in India]. Res. on Crops 15 (3) : 730-732 (2014). Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University Horticultural Research Station, Ambajipeta (A. P.), India *(e-mail : snehalatharani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Theobroma cacao is one of the promising intercrops of coconut in India. A new disease characterized by orange to brown coloured, prematurely ripened and in some cases, shrivelled cocoa pods were observed in cocoa gardens of East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh from September 2011. Per cent incidence of such diseased pods varied from 3.9 to 5.0 in surveyed villages. Symptomatology of the disease on cocoa pods was recorded and Koch postulates were confirmed. The isolated bacterium showed the biochemical characteristics of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was Gram negative, rod shaped, facultative anaerobe and showed negative reaction to oxidase test and positive reaction to catalase test. The bacterium was identified as Erwinia carotovora. The temperature and pH studies showed that the bacterium could survive at a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and at temperature between 20o to 40oC. As the commercial cultivation of cocoa in India is rapidly increasing with its success as inter crop in coconut and as the E. carotovora prefers the climatic conditions existing in Godavari delta regions of Andhra Pradesh, the disease can be a threat to future cocoa production in the state.