Volume 15, No. 2 (June 2014)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :info@cropresearch.org

1.   M. S. Islam, M. A. R. Sarkar, M. J. Alam, M. A. Kashem, M. Y. Rafii and M. A. Latif* [Effect of fertilizer management on growth and yield of fragrant fine rice varieties in rainfed condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 287-297 (2014). Institute of Tropical Agriculture University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : alatif1965@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at the Banglasesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) farm, Mymensingh during July to December 2010, to find out optimum variety and optimum fertility management of aromatic fine rice grown in transplant rainfed condition. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications assigning the variety in the main plot and different fertilizer management in the sub-plot. Results indicated that the effect of aromatic fine rice varieties and fertilizer management showed significant variation in respect of yield contributing characters and yield. At harvest, maximum number of effective tillers/hill (12.7 and 12.5), number of grains/panicle (105.6 and 115.2), 1000-grain weight (13.25 and 19.97 g), grain yield (3.29 and 3.30 t/ha) and straw yield (5.0 and 5.7 t/ha) were obtained from the application of T6(NPKSZn; RD BARC, 2005) @ 126.9, 19.81, 65, 43.3 and 1.8 kg/ha+Cow dung at 5.0 t/ha) and T9(Urea super granules (USG) @ 1 (1.8 g) granules/spot)+PKSZn; (RD BARC, 2005 @19.81, 65, 43.3 and 1.8 kg/ha). The fertilizer management T6 (NPKSZn; RD BARC, 2005) @ 126.9, 19.81, 65, 43.3 and 1.8 kg/ha+Cow dung at 5.0 t/ha) and T9 (Urea super granules (USG) @ 1 (1.8 g) granules/spot)+PKSZn; (RD BARC,2005 @ 19.81, 65, 43.3 and 1.8 kg/ha) produced the highest grain yield of Ukunimadhu (2.95 t/ha) and Kataribhog (3.96 t/ha).

 

2.   JING ZHANG, MIN HUANG, QIUMEI JI, SHIHONG XU, DEWEI CHEN, GUOFU DENG AND LIGENG JIANG* [Yield comparison between dry seeded and transplanted rice in southern China]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 298-304 (2014). Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System Guangxi University, Nanning-530 004, China *(e-mail : jiang@gxu.edu.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Guangxi University, Guangxi province, southern China in early and late rice-growing seasons in 2012 to compare grain yield and yield attributes between dry seeded and transplanted rice. A hybrid rice cultivar Guiliangyou 2 was grown under dry seeding (DS) and dry transplanting (DT) in each season. Grain yield, yield components, tillering process, biomass production, growth duration, crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were determined for each establishment method. DS produced higher and equal grain yield than DT in early and late seasons, respectively. The higher grain yield under DS in early season was attributed to improvement in both sink and source. For source, DS had significantly higher panicles/m2 than DT, which resulted in larger sink size (spikelets/m2). High tillering capacity was responsible for high panicles/m2 under DS. For the source, DS produced significantly higher biomass than DT during reproductive and grain-filling phases. High CGR was responsible for high biomass production under DS. High CGR under DS was attributed to high LAI, LAD and NAR during reproductive phase and to high LAI and LAD during grain-filling stage. No yield superiority observed under DS in late season might be associated with temperature. Mean temperature was lower in late season than in early season by 5.8°C during grain-filling phase. Our results suggest that multi-year and multi-location field experiments should be conducted in future to determine the yield stability of dry seeded rice.

 

3.  M. S. Islam, M. A. R. Sarkar, M. J. Alam, M. A. Kashem, M. Y. Rafii and M. A. Latif* [Effect of date of transplanting on yield and yield attributing characters of aromatic fine rice in rainfed condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 305-312 (2014). Institute of Tropical Agriculture University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : alatif1965@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) farm, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, during the rainfed season in June to December, 2011, with a view to study the performance of aromatic fine rice under different dates of transplanting. The experiment was carried out with four aromatic fine rice varieties (V1–BRRI dhan 34, V2–Ukunimadhu, V3–Basmati and V4–Kataribhog) and three different dates of transplanting (D1–30 July, D2–15 August and D3–30 August). The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications assigning variety in the main plot and the three different dates of transplanting in the sub-plot. Experimental result showed that aromatic fine rice varieties and dates of transplanting individually had significant effect on the agronomic parameters. The combined effect differed significantly for all the agronomic characters. The highest grain yield (3.11 t/ha) was obtained in Kataribhog, which was similar to Basmati (2.75 t/ha) followed by Ukunimadhu. The highest grain yield obtained in 15 August date of transplanting (2.93 t/ha) was identical to 30 July date of transplanting (2.88 t/ha). Combined effect showed that transplanting on 30 July and 15 August produced highest grain yield by all the varieties. In later date transplanting 30 August, production of grain yield decreased. Kataribhog, Basmati and Ukunimadhu with dates of transplanting 30 July and 15 August can be suggested in rainfed condition of Bangladesh.

 

4.   Mohammed Humayun Kabir, Qing Liu, Qiong Peng, Zhigang Huang, Bin Hong, Hesong Li and Langtao Xiao* . [Effect of temperature on chalkiness and related physiological and biochemical characteristics of early indica rice during grain filling]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 313-323 (2014). Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormones and Growth Development Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410128, Hunan, China *(e-mail : langtaoxiao@phytohormones.com)

ABSTRACT

As a major problem in many rice-producing areas, grain chalkiness influences milling percentage, cooking and eating quality. In this study, we investigated the influences of different temperature regimes, e.g. (1) low (25/20oC), (2) high (35/28oC) and (3) natural condition on chalkiness, head rice rate and other related physiological and biochemical characteristics of early indica rice at grain filling stage. The results showed that the lowest chalkiness was 22.59% under low temperature treatment and the highest chalkiness was 61.11% under high temperature treatment. The highest head rice rate was 62.33% under low temperature treatment followed by 49.91% in the control and the lowest was 42.76% under high temperature treatment. Higher amylose content in rice grain was found under the low temperature treatment. The net photosynthesis rate (NPn) and chlorophyll content in flag leaves reduced significantly under both low and high temperature treatments than the control, i.e. lower photo-assimilates produced under both high and low temperature treatments in comparison with the control. Although NPn was different among the treatments, the lowest chalkiness was observed under low temperature treatment. Malondialdehyde, proline and soluble sugar content in flag leaf were also influenced by high and low temperature stress. Scanning electron microscopic of rice kernels showed that the chalky kernels contained loosely packed and globular shaped starch granules with many air spaces than non-chalky kernels.

 

5.   HONGMEI LIU, XINYUE ZHOU, JIANFENG LIU*, QINGGUO XU, YINGBO QIU AND FENGFENG FAN [Correlations between RVA profile properties and main qualities of indica hybrid rice]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 324-331 (2014). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : 09011021@163.com)

ABSTRACT

To study the correlations between RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer) profile properties and the main qualities of indica hybrid rice, a set of 104 different amylose content (AC) indica hybrid rice combinations was grown at Chang’an experimental station of Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan province, China during May to October 2011. The results indicated that the correlations between RVA profile properties with appearance quality and cooking quality were close. The grain length and grain length/width were positively correlated with final viscosity, setback viscosity, peak time, consistency viscosity, respectively (P<0.01) but negatively with peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, respectively (P<0.01). Translucency had significant positive correlations with peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, respectively (P<0.01) but negative correlation with setback viscosity, peak time (P<0.01) and consistency viscosity (P<0.05). The amylose content, alkali-spreading value and protein content were negatively correlated with peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, respectively, but positively correlated with setback viscosity and peak time, respectively (P<0.01), but the gel consistency was vice versa. RVA profile properties can reflect the good or bad of rice quality. Varieties with different AC had different RVA profile properties, when AC was higher, setback viscosity, peak time and consistency consistency were higher, while peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity were lower. The AC in different rice varieties with different AC levels had obviously different correlations with each indicator of RVA properties. The hybrid rice combinations with different AC were categorized first based on their AC level before analyzing the correlations between AC and RVA profile properties. RVA profile properties can reflect the differences in cooking quality among hybrid rice combinations with similar amylose content from low-mid-level (15%=AC£17%) to mid-level (17%£AC£22%).

6.   Meisam Zargar* and Elena N. Pakina [Reduced rates of herbicide combined with biological components for suppressing weeds in wheat fields of Moscow, Russia]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 332-338 (2014). Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture, People’s Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : meisam.za_ir84@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Field trial was laid out to investigate the effect of biological components in combination with reduced doses of new generation post-emergence herbicide Verdict in four levels involving 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 kg/ha to control weeds in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in Moscow Research Institute of Agriculture, Nemchinovka, Odintsovskiy region, Russia. Herbicide rate 0.5 kg/ha as a labelled-dose plus biological components was favourably effective in suppressing Viola arvensis, Poaceae and Stelaria media population. Weeds also were controlled by the using of intermediate Verdict dose as 0.3 kg/ha plus biological agents. Grains per spike were affected significantly by experimental treatments, but plant height, plant/m2, stems/m2, spikes/m2 and grain weight per spike were positively affected by the using treatments, so the mentioned traits enhanced when both doses of Verdict 0.5 and 0.3 kg/ha plus biological agent were used.

7.   I. SafrAnkovA*, J. KrutilovA and H. SimonovA [Effects of abscisic acid on gas exchange and water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 339-344 (2014). Department of Biology Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic *(e-mail : ivana.safrankova@uhk.cz)

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of abscisic acid on plant growth parameters and parameters related to leaf gas exchange (photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency). Salt stress caused by NaCl treatment affected values of all parameters analyzed. The effects were ameliorated by abscisic acid. The hormone increased root mass, relative water content and quietly water use. Under this condition, the application of abscisic acid affected the values of parameters studied, indicating not only its importance of synthesis for the normal development of the plant.

 

8.   XIAO-JUN LI, GAN LI, XIAO-LING JIANG, YU SUN, SU-WEI FENG, TIE-ZHU HU, ZHEN-GANG RU*, LI-LIN ZHANG AND JIE SONG [Identification of a wheat–Thinopyrum intermedium substitution line as revealed by GISH, FISH, SSR and EST-SSR markers]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 345-351 (2014). School of Life Science and Technology Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang-453 003, Henan Province, China *(e-mail : rzgh58@sohu.com)

ABSTRACT

The development of alien substitution lines is important for transferring useful genes of exotic species into bread wheat. In situ hybridization, SSR and EST-SSR marker analysis were used to identify a wheat–Thinopyrum intermedium substitution line designated as Zhong 199. Zhong 199 was detected with the chromosome number 2n=42 and stable agronomic traits were evaluated during the 2012 field harvest season. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis with the genomic Th. intermedium DNA as a probe showed that Zhong 199 contained a pair of Th. intermediumchromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using a repetitive sequence, pAs1, derived from Aegilops squarrosa L., indicated the replacement of chromosome 2D of wheat in the wheat–Th. intermedium substitution line. Seven SSR markers specific for chromosome 2D of wheat further confirmed that the substituted wheat chromosome was 2D in the substitution line. Such result was also confirmed by using EST-SSR marker analysis. This study provided some useful information for effective exploitation of the source of genetic variability for the improvement of wheat.
9.  JINPENG GENG, DUOFANG LI, TIANGUANG JINHUA LIAO, JIMING LI, YUNFANG LI AND YU WU [Analysis for measuring peroxidase activity in wheat seeds]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 352-357 (2014). Chengdu Institute of Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China *(e-mail : wy99988877@163.com)

ABSTRACT

Peroxidase (POD) activity in wheat seeds using guaiacol-H2O2 as substrate was determined by measuring absorbance changes at 470 nm using a spectrophotometer. The POD activity of wheat was studied under different extraction conditions (three kinds of buffers, three kinds of extraction methods, four kinds of extraction times, six kinds of extraction temperatures and four kinds of extraction eccentricities). Results showed that POD activity using acetate buffer was higher than those of KH2PO4 and sodium phosphate. The assay was repeated three times every 6 h for a single extraction, and the average CVs of the POD values for the buffers were of the order : phosphate buffer (CV=0.031) > sodium acetate (CV=0.0268) > KH2PO4 (CV=0.0168). The repeatability of the extraction method that involved grinding in buffer was lower than those that involved soaking and shaking. The optimum extraction temperature and extraction time were dependent on the cultivars and buffers. No significant differences in the activity of the POD were observed among the different eccentricities of 20000 × g, 15000 × g, 10000 × g and 4000 × g.

10.   Liu Xiaogang, Zhang Fucang*, Wang Xinle and Yang Qiliang [Effects of regulated deficit irrigation and nitrogen rate on use of water and nitrogen in maize root-zone soil]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 358-365 (2014). Faculty of Modern Agricultural Engineering Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming,China *(e-mail : zhangfc@nwsuaf.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

Regulated deficit irrigation is a new water-saving irrigation method and technique that may affect use of water and nitrogen. The object of this study was to explore the effects of water deficit at growth stages (seedling, jointing and heading) and levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (NH, 0.30 N g/kg dry soil; NL, 0.15 N g/kg dry soil; NN, 0 N g/kg dry soil) on use of water and N in root-zone soil. Pot experiment of maize [Zea mays (L.) cv. Hudan No. 16, a local variety] with six replications was conducted about water deficit stage and N rate. The effect of regulated deficit irrigation and N rate on dynamics of NO3 in root-zone soil and availability of water and N was studied. Results showed that NO3 was determined by N rate; the dynamics of NO3- in root-zone soil was affected by irrigation amount and N uptake at four growth stages. Soil NO3 in middle and lower layers of RDI lay between that of sustained low and high water, and there was a positive correlation between NO3 in middle and lower layers and N rate at the end of heading stage. N rate and water deficit stage had a notably significant effect on accumulation of dry mass and total N. Results showed that water deficit at jointing stage affected mass accumulation the greatest, then water deficit at seedling stage, and water deficit at heading stage was the lowest. The treatment of NH and water deficit at seedling stage had the maximum water use efficiency (WUE); the treatment of high nitrogen (NH) had the maximum total nitrogen accumulation, which was 2.54-3.23 times of that under non-nitrogen (NN).The N apparent use efficiency under RDI and low nitrogen (NL) was bigger than 30%, which was 6.6% more than that under RDI and NH. The best coupling treatment was water deficit at heading stage and NL.

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11.   M. M. Jaliya*, M. K. Othman, A. A. Mukhtar1, A. A. Muhammad1 and B. M. Sani [Individual and combined contributions (per cent) of some growth and yield parameters to yield of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) at Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 366-369 (2014). National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria 1Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria *(e-mail : jaliyamuhammad@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Field trials were conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons, at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm, Samaru in the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria to determine the individual and combined contributions (%) of some growth and yield parameters to yield of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) varieties. Treatments consisted of four rates each of nitrogen (0, 60,120 and 180 kg N/ha) and sulfur fertilizer (0, 5, 10 and 15 kg S/ha) and two QPM varieties (Obatampa and EV-99), laid out in a split-plot design with variety and nitrogen in the main plots and sulfur in the sub plots and replicated three times. The results showed that among the growth parameters measured total dry matter and number of leaves/plant had the highest individual and combined contributions. However, when the individual and combined contributions of the yield components were studied, cob weight/ha, days to 50% tasselling and silking were observed to be the highest contributors to grain yield of quality protein maize.

 

12.   QIAN YANG* [Response of salt-tolerant tree species to different levels of soil salinity]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 370-376 (2014). Department of Gardening Henan Vocational College of Agriculture, Zhengzhou-450 000, China *(e-mail : yangqian8505@126.com)

ABSTRACT

 

To identify the response of salt-tolerant tree species to different soil salinity, four tree species including Rhus trilobata, Gleditsia triacanthos, Acer negundo and Acer ginnala were introduced and a lysimeter experiment with five soil salinity treatments (CK, 1, 3, 5 and 7%) was conducted in Nanjing, south of China. 1% soil salinity had no significant effect on the relative seedling rate and the seedling height of different tree species, the obvious decrease of relative seedling rate and seedling height of the seedlings firstly appeared at 3% salinity level. Salt stress significantly influenced the photosynthetic indexes of the seedlings, and the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of the seedlings were significantly decreased by the high soil salinity; comparing the four tree species, photosynthetic indexes of R. trilobata were less affected by the salt stress. The seedlings of R. trilobata and G. triacanthos absorbed K+ and discharged Na+ when facing with high soil salinity, while other tree species like A. ginnala was significantly influenced by the increasing of Na+, leading to the obvious decline of K+ absorption. Fully considering the evaluation indexes including seedling rate, seedling height, photosynthetic indexes and Na+ and K+ absorption of different tree species under the salt stress condition, and by the calculations of projection pursuit model, R. trilobata was believed to own the most satisfactory salt tolerance and recommended as the preferable tree species for planting in coastal areas of south-eastern China.

 

13.   Du Yangong, Li Yikang* and Cao Guangmin [Dominant process and mechanism of nitrous oxide flux in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan plateau]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 377-382 (2014). Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota North-west Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Science #23, Xinning Lu, Xining, Qinghai-810 008, China *(e-mail : liyikang501@163.com)

ABSTRACT   

Nitrous oxide emission (N2O) and its main process in a Kobresia humillismeadow were measured by acetylene inhibition during the growing season in 2009, and the DNDC model was validated by the N2O fluxes of 2004 and 2005. The average fluxes were 2.91±0.46 and 1.97±0.58 µg/m2/h from nitrification-denitrification and soil denitrification process, thus indicating that the potential nitrification might be the dominant process in the alpine meadow. DNDC model also revealed that nitrification contributed 52.85% to N2O flux, while denitrification contributed about 47.15%. The N2O flux could be well captured considering the main affecting factors by a linear regression model (r2=0.663), which demonstrated that soil temperature and biomass played a large part in N2O emission, while biomass, soil organic matter and mineral nitrogen concentration could also simulate the emission. Nevertheless, warming and increasing precipitation would mitigate the emission.

 

14.   R. P. Basak, I. Hossain, M. A. Kashem, M. M. A. Mondal, M. Y. Rafii and M. A. Latif* [Management of bacterial leaf blight of mango through antibiotics and bio-fungicide]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 383-388 (2014).Institute of Tropical Agriculture University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : alatif1965@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in the net house, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during 15 July 2012 to June 2013 to find out the efficacy of antibiotics and biofungicide for controlling bacterial leaf blight of mango. Six treatments were applied viz., (i) T1–Gentamycin @ 0.05%, (ii) T2–Erithromycin @ 0.05%, (iii) T3–Doxycycline @ 0.05%, (iv) T4–Copper sulphate @ 0.05%, (v) T5–BAU-biofungicide @ 2% and (vi) T6–Control. The treatment BAU-biofungicide was found good in controlling bacterial leaf blight of mango. This treatment increased 23.71% plant height, 53.33% branch over control and reduced 39.31% disease incidence and 48.50% disease severity when applied as foliar spray @ 2%. The second best control measure was found by gentamycin as it reduced 28.46% disease incidence and 46.43% disease severity when applied as foliar spray @ 0.05%, although other treatments reduced incidence and severity of bacterial leaf blight which were applied as foliar spray @ 0.05%.
15.   R. P. Basak, I. Hossain, M. A. Kashem, M. M. A. Mondal, M. Y. Rafii and M. A. Latif [Effect of antibiotics and BAU-biofungicide in controlling bacterial leaf blight of litchi]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 389-393 (2014). Institute of Tropical Agriculture University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : alatif1965@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out in the net house, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, Bangladesh during 16 July 2012 to June 2013 to find out the suitable management practices for controlling bacterial leaf blight of litchi by applying six treatments viz., (i) T1–Gentamycin @ 0.05%, (ii) T2–Erithromycin @ 0.05%, (iii) T3–Doxycycline @ 0.05%, (iv) T4–Copper sulphate @ 0.05%, (v) T5–BAU-biofungicide @ 2% and (vi) T6–Control. Per cent incidence and per cent severity have been found to decrease by applying BAU-biofungicide, copper sulphate and gentamycin, although other treatments showed good result in decreasing severity of bacterial leaf blight. BAU-biofungicide was found superior among the treatments as it increased 18.83% plant height, 43.50% branch over control and reduced 17.16% disease incidence and 63.03% disease severity over control when applied as foliar spray @ 2%. Copper sulphate reduced 13.85% disease incidence and 50.21% disease severity over control and graded second best control measure for bacterial leaf blight of litchi when applied as foliar spray @ 0.05%.

 

16.   Shalini Badge, D. M. Panchbhai and V. N. Dod [Response of pinching and foliar application of gibberellic acid on growth and flower yield in summer African marigold]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 394-397 (2014). Department of Horticulture Dr. Punjab Rao Deshmuk Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

           A field experiment was conducted at Main Garden, Department of Horticulture, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola with the objective to study the effect of pinching and foliar application of gibberellic acid on growth and yield of African marigold. Treatments comprised four levels of pinching i. e. no pinching , pinching at 15 DAT, pinching at 22 DAT and pinching at 30 DAT and four levels of gibberellic acid i. e. 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and control during summer seasons of the years 2010-11 and 2011-12. Among the pinching treatments, pinching at 15 DAT was found to be the best for improving vegetative growth parameters and flower yield. In respect of foliar application of gibberellic acid, gibberellic acid 300 ppm was recorded significantly better for increasing the vegetative growth and flower yield.

 

17.   SHUANG LONG MA, SHENG JUN XU, ZHI HUI BAI*, XIN HAI WANG*, RUN LIN XIAO AND GUO QIANG ZHUANG [Starch wastewater effluent from an anaerobic baffled reactor as a low environmental cost biofertilizer for Shanghai cabbage cultivation].. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 398-407 (2014). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan-475 004, China *(e-mail : zhbai@rcees.ac.cn)

ABSTRACT

In this study, the liquid digestate (LD) from an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating starch wastewater (SW) was used as a low-cost biofertilizer for the cultivation of Shanghai cabbage, a common Chinese vegetable. A greenhouse randomized pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the following : the effect of urea (UN), SW and liquid digestate (LD) on the yield and NO3 and NO2 content of the vegetable; NH4+, NO3, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the soil; and N2O emissions during the experimental period. SW was used for three treatments (100, 200, or 300 ml per pot per application) and LD for six treatments (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 ml per pot per application). Our results showed that LD significantly increased the vegetable yield. Application of 200 ml of LD provided 41.5% higher yield than UN application. Furthermore, the NO3 content of LD-treated vegetables was 2.40-42.83 times lower than that of UN-treated vegetables. LD treatment also reduced the risk of N leaching from the soil, and the total N2O fluxes (FPV 30) per tonne fresh weight of vegetable for LD 4 were about 39.8% lower than those of the UN. Thus, LD was found to be a feasible low-cost biofertilizer alternative to UN for sustainable vegetable farming.

 

18.  M. R. Islam, A. K. M. M. Hossain, M. A. Hakim*4, M. M. Hanafi, Abdul Shukor Juraimi and M. J. Islam [Interaction effect of nitrogen and potassium on growth and yield of carrot]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 408-415 (2014). Department of Agricultural Chemistry Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University Dinajpur, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

                  The experiment was carried out to study the effects of three mulching practices viz., no mulch, water hyacinth mulch and polythene mulch, three levels of nitrogen viz., 0, 150 and 200 and three levels of potassium viz., 0, 200 and 250 kg/ha on the growth and yield of carrot. The yield and yield contributing characters of carrot were significantly influenced by the application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers with mulching treated plot. The highest marketable yield (63.47 t/ha) was recorded from the treatment combination of black polythene mulch with 200 kg N/ha and 200 kg K/ha treated plot and the lowest (23.69 t/ha) from the control treatment (M0N0K0). But the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was found maximum (5.60) in the treatment combination of water hyacinth mulch with 200 kg N/ha and 200 kg K/ha, and the lowest (2.54) in control treatment. Considering the above findings, water hyacinth mulch with the application of 200 kg N/ha and 200 kg K/ha appeared to be recommendable for carrot cultivation for the place where irrigation facility was not available.

 

19.   Z. ISLAM1, M. K. SIDDIQUA1, M. M. HASAN2*, M. A. NAHAR1, MD. AMIRUL ALAM2, S. M. SHAMSUZZAMAN3, M. M. A. MONDAL2 AND ADAM B. PUTEH2* [Assessment of genetic diversity of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) germplasm by RAPD markers]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 416-422 (2014). 1Department of Horticulture Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh 2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 3Bangladesh Soil Resource Development Institute, Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh *(e-mail : adam@upm.edu.my; mahmudag60@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop species is prerequisite to its improvement. The use of germplasm with distinct DNA profiles helps to generate genetically diversified breeding populations. The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic diversity in brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Fifteen brinjal germplasm and three decamer primers were used for random polymorphic DNA assay. A total of 17 fragments were obtained, out of which 12 (70.59%) were polymorphic. Each primer generated 4 to 8 amplified fragments with an average of 5.67 fragments per primer.The highest genetic distance (0.8873) and the lowest genetic identity (0.4118) were observed in Laffa (Elongated) versus Jessore L and Dharola combinations. The lowest genetic distance (0.1525) was observed in several cultivars. The unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram was constructed from genetic distance and all brinjal cultivars were grouped into five clusters. The genetic diversity of brinjal cultivars reported in this study will be useful when planning future crosses amongst these cultivars.

 

20.   Muhanad Akash*, Luma Al-Banna, Wajdy Al-Awaida and Tareq Hidmi [Differentially expressed TDFs by cDNA-AFLP in tomato infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici].. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 423-431 (2014). Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan *(e-mail : makash@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the tomato defense responses during the interaction of tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), a cDNA-AFLP experiment of the fungal-induced changes at the transcriptional level was performed to identify up- or down-regulated genes. Transcript derived fragments (TDF) from leaves, stems and roots were used for accurate gene expression profiles by visual observation and analysis of bands and their intensities in Fol infected and non-infected tomato lines (AVTO 9802 and AVTO 1002). Using 10 AFLP primer combinations, an average of 163 scored TDFs was identified as differentially expressed genes, corresponding to about 55.7% of all visualized transcripts. These TDFs were consistent with the extensive physiological changes that affect infected tissues from leaves, stems and roots. Although most of the visualized transcripts were affected by infection, about 46.6% of the identified differentially expressed TDFs were down-regulated during infection, possibly reflecting the management of cellular resources and/or the repression of defense responses. Understanding the defense mechanism of plant against pathogens would significantly assist in the development of new resistant tomato cultivars.

 

21.    Brito-Vega, A. Rodríguez-Maturino, D. González-Mendoza*, O. Grimaldo-Juarez and C. Ceceña-Duran [Antioxidant activity and total carotenoids of selected capsicum species from Tabasco, Mexico]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 432-436 (2014). División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Km7 Carretera Villahermosa-Teapa, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico *(e-mail : daniasaf@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Fruits of Jalapeño (Caspicum annuum), Amshito (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) and Habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were analyzed for total carotenoids, extractable colour (total pigments) and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total contents of carotenoids of Amshito (496.10±67.08 µg/g FW) and Habanero fruits (445.91±24 µg/g FW) were very similar and showed no significant difference (P<0.290) among themselves. However, Jalapeño pepper, presented low values of total carotenoids (324.04±51 µg/g FW) and had a significant difference (P<0.005) with respect to other peppers. With respect to extractable colour, the results showed that Amshito and Habanero chilli were characterized by accumulated higher concentration of ASTA units (P=0.043) with respect to Jalapeño, respectively. On the other hand, Amshito (5.56±0.58 mg AAE/g FW) and Jalapeño (6.79±0.43 mg AAE/g FW) peppers showed significant changes in the total antioxidant activity. However, Habanero, chilli exhibited the best antioxidant property of the pepper species evaluated in the present study. These results provided useful and important information for researchers in order to increase the know about biochemistry properties of Jalapeño (Caspicum annuum), Amshito (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) and Habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), for food and nutraceutical industries in Mexico.

 

22.   M. S. A. FAKIR, A. B. PUTEH*, M. A. HOSSAIN, P. MALLIK, A. S. M. S. HOSSAIN­, B. C. SAHA AND M. M. A. MONDAL**[Effects of source and sink removal on yield attributes and yield of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 437-443 (2014). Department of Crop Botany, Faculty of Agriculture Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh *(e-mail : adam@upm.edu.my; **mmamondal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of source (leaf) and sink (flower and pod) removal on some morphological characters, and yield and its attributes in high and low yielding mungbean genotypes grown under sub-tropical condition. Four levels of defoliation (0, 8, 16 and 33%), four levels of deflowering (no deflowering, deflowering of all opened flowers borne up to 10th or 15th or 20th nodes in a raceme), and four levels of depodding (no depodding, depodding of all pods for 5 or 10 or 15 days after anthesis) were employed. The results showed that defoliation had no significant effect on seed yield in high yielding genotype, while it reduced the yield in low yielding one under 16 and 33% defoliation. Deflowering up to 10th nodes had no significant effect on seed yield though deflowering beyond 10th nodes in a raceme reduced the seed yield in high yielding mungbean genotype; low yielding genotype exhibited reduced seed yield under any level of deflowering. Depodding up to five days from anthesis had no negative effect on seed yield though depodding beyond this period reduced the yield depending upon the magnitude of depodding. Pod number per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were the yield attributes sensitive to deflowering and depodding. The results suggest that mungbean plant, especially high yielding genotypes, can compensate seed yield to moderate source loss and partial sink loss.

 

23.  M. M. A. MONDAL, A. B. PUTEH*, M. A. KASHEM, M. M. HASAN, H. El-ZEADANI AND B. ZULKARAMI [Morpho-physiological and reproductive characters and their relationships with seed yield of mungbean mutants].. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 444-449 (2014). Crop Physiology Division Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh *(e-mail : adam@upm.edu.my; mmamondal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to investigate the variations in some morphological features, growth, reproductive characters and its impact on seed yield using correlation coefficient in 15 promising mungbean mutants and cultivars. Correlation study revealed that among the traits investigated, leaf area was the most important source that determined total dry mass (TDM) yield, and reproductive characters like number of racemes, flowers and pods/plant were the most important sinks that determined seed yield. Contrarily, reproductive efficiency (RE, % pod set to opened flowers) did not show significant relationship with pod number, pod size and seed yield, indicating that selection of high yield based on RE may be misleading. Generally, high yielding genotypes had capacity to produce higher branches, total dry mass production, leaf area, crop growth rate and number of flowers per plant than the low yielding ones. This information may be used in future plant breeding programme.

 

24.  SHOHREH KHAGHANI*, SHILA GOLDASTEH, ABBAS ALI ZAMANI, REZA VAFAEI SHOUSHTARI AND SEYED SAEID MODARRES NAJAFABADI [Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on damage of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 450-453 (2014). Department of Entomology Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran *(e-mail : shohreh_khaghani@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            In order to study the interaction effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on chiti bean, sadri variety, this experiment was conducted in 2012-13 at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran. A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen (as urea 46% N) including no application (N1), 75 kg/ha (N2) and 150 kg/ha (N3) and three levels of phosphorus as di phosphate ammonium, no application (P1), 100 kg/ha (P2) and 200 kg/ha (P3) were used. Each day the number of deaths and the number of eggs was counted. In this paper, the life expectancy (LEx) of 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after infection has been studied. Results showed that nitrogen increased the establishment of the plant mite in days after infection and that phosphorus application in plants reduced life expectancy 20, 25 and 30 days after infection.

25.   A. P. Chavan , N. K. Jain , V. V. Sagvekar  and Taresh Kumar [Integrated nutrient management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 454-460 (2014). Rajasthan College of Agriculture Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during two rabi seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to study the integrated nutrient management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) at Agricultural Technical School (Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth Dapoli, Maharashtra) farm, campus-Deodhe (Lanja), district Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. Successive increase in fertility levels up to 125% RDF significantly increased plant height, number of branches/plant, dry matter accumulation, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant, kernel weight/plant, total protein content, oil content, pod, haulm and kernel yields and available N and K status. The crop fertilized up to 100% RDF significantly increased shelling out-turn as well as available P status and was at par with 125% RDF. Inoculation of groundnut with Rhizobium and PSB significantly enhanced dry matter accumulation, total protein content, all yield attributes (number of pods, pod weight and kernel weight/plant), yield and available N and P status over control (no biofertilizers). Treatment 125% RDF as well as biofertilizers significantly increased the net returns and benefit : cost ratio over rest of the lower treatments.

 

26.   L. S. FENG, Z. X. SUN*, C. R. YAN, M. Z. ZHENG, J. M. ZHENG, N. YANG, W. BAI, Y. LIU AND C. FENG [Effect of peanut and foxtail millet intercropping on crop photosynthetic response and fluorescence parameters]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 461-466 (2014). Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences Shenyang, Liaoning-110 161, China *(e-mail : sunzx67@163.com)

ABSTRACT

Peanut and foxtail millet intercropping can produce a better production increase and synergy, but there is not any research report on the photosynthetic response characteristics of the intercropping system. In this test, a research was conducted on the variation characteristics of leaf photosynthetic response and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under the intercropping conditions of peanut and foxtail millet. The increase in Fo (dark level fluorescence) of intercropping foxtail millet leaves can reduce the reversible inactivation of hard light on foxtail millet leaves; increase in Fm (maximum fluorescence) and Fv/Fm (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) of intercropping peanut can improve conversion efficiency of the PS II (photosystem II) original light energy of peanut. Meanwhile, dark respiration rate and light compensation point of crops in the intercropping system decreased and the apparent quantum efficiency and light saturation point increased, which can show that the peanut and foxtail millet intercropping can improve the light energy utilization efficiency of them.

 

27.  Xiu Zhen Wang, Qi Wu, Yue Yi Tang, hong tao Yu, Jiancheng Zhang, Fenggao Cui and Chuan Tang Wang* [Isolation of differentially expressed genes related to salt tolerance in peanut] Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 467-472 (2014). Shandong Peanut Research Institute 126, Wannianquan Street, Licang District, Qingdao-266 100, China *(e-mail : chinapeanut@126.com)

ABSTRACT

Salinity is one of the most serious environmental factors influencing crop growth and development, especially during germination period. In peanut, screening for salinity tolerance has been reported by several investigators, but there are few reports regarding isolation and identification of salt responsive genes from salt tolerant genotypes. In this study, we compared gene expression profile of a large-seeded saline tolerant peanut line 10L19 imbibed in 1.0% sodium chloride solution and seeds of the same genotype treated with distilled water, using the annealing control primer (ACP)-based GeneFishing technology. Total RNAs were extracted from seeds sampled at 1, 6 and 24 h after imbibition initiation. With 40 ACPs, a total of 20 differentially expressed transcripts were isolated. Thirteen of them were found to have high homology to genes with known functions in GenBank nr database. BLAST search revealed that those genes were related to gene expression regulation, signalling transduction, development and stress tolerance, among which S-38 was of direct relevance to hyperosmotic salinity response. S-14, S-15, S-17, S-28, S-31, S-32 and S-38, encoding ethylene-responsive element binding factor 4, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit, oleosin 5, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein, vacuolar-processing enzyme precursor, ribosomal protein s7 and nac domain protein, respectively, were selected and their relative expression levels determined by qRT-PCR using b-actin as internal control. The results confirmed that all the seven genes were expressed differentially in stressed and control peanut seeds. The highest relative expression for S-17 and S-38 was both at 6 h, while that for the rest genes was at 24 h.

 

28.  JVáclav Hejnák*, Lenka NEmcová, MartIn MatEjoviC, Jaroslava Martinková, FrantiÅ¡ek HniliCka, Milan Skalický and Philippe Grieu* [Physiological responses as influenced by night freeze stress at the beginning of vegetative growth of sunflower]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 473-480 (2014). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic *(e-mail : hejnak@af.czu.cz)

ABSTRACT

 Physiological changes on leaves of young sunflower plants (genotypes C120, C124, C148 and PAC2) were evaluated in a growth chamber after exposure to night frost of -3 and -5°C for a period of 12 h. Net CO2 assimilation rate (PN), potential photochemical efficiency of electron transport PS2 (FV/FM), relative electrolyte leakage (REL%) and osmotic potential (yp) were monitored in the plants. Stressed plants were evaluated immediately (2 h) after the effect of the freezing temperature (var. S1), after 2-day recovery (var. S2) and after 6-day recovery (var. S3). The PN was determined as the most sensitive of the evaluated parameters of the sunflower. In genotypes C120, C148 and PAC2, a statistically evident decrease of PN in all variants S1-S3 was found during a temperature of -3°C. To the contrary, the results have proved minor sensitivity or, more precisely, a high stability of FV/FM, yp a REL% at the freezing temperature of -3°C. The results showed that physiological parameters were more sensitive to a freeze temperature at -5°C. It was also possible to determine the differences between genotypes. Statistically evident changes were found there in comparison to control plants : decrease of PN in genotypes C120 and C148 in all variants S1-S3, in genotype C124 in variant S1and in genotype PAC2 in variant S3. There was also the decrease of FV/FM in genotypes C120, C124 and C148 in variant S1; increased REL% in genotype C120 in variants S1 and S3 and in genotypes C124 and C148 in variant S1; decreased yp in genotype C124 in variants S1-S3 and in genotypes C120 and C148 in variant S2. As apparent from the above, the PAC2 genotype may be considered relatively resistant to freeze stress, while genotypes C120, C124 and C148 rather sensitive to freeze stress.

29.  Yanyang Liu, Chengqi Cui, Hongxian Mei and Yongzhan Zheng* [Development and applications of a set of chromosome-specific DNA markers in sesame]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 481-486 (2014). Henan Sesame Research Center Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou-450 002, China *(e-mail : sesame168@163.com)

ABSTRACT

To identify all sesame chromosomes, a multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure was developed to delineate and physically map the probes of simple sequence repeat (AC)8, 45S rDNA, 5S rDNA, cot-1 DNA and telomeric repeat (TTTAGGG)n. The results showed that the karyotype formula of this species was found to be 2n=6m+18sm+2st. All 13 chromosomes were identified by the banding and colour pattern in the three examined varieties. The FISH analysis of rDNA, (AC)8 and Cot-1 DNA sites showed two sites for 5S rDNA, three sites for 45S rDNA, nine sites for (AC)8 and ten sites for cot-1 DNA. The (AC)8 on the long arm, pericentromeric region of short arm, at the centromeric and near telomeres at the short arm was assigned number 1, 2, 8 and 12, respectively, by simultaneous hybrization with a Cot-1 DNA site. On chromosome 3, we found two (AC)8 sites. One chromosome with no other hybridization signals but a (AC)8 site on the short arm near telomeres was assigned number 11. Both chromosome numbers 5 and 7 had the 45S rDNA and Cot-1 DNA sites near telomeres at the short arm, while the chromosome number 5 was longer than the 7th. The chromosome numbers 6 and 9 had the (AC)8 , 5S rDNA and Cot-1 DNA sites near telomeres at the short arm, while the chromosome number 6 was longer than the 9th. The chromosome with the 45S rDNA site at the telomeres and Cot-1 DNA site near the telomeres at the short arm was identified as number 10. The chromosomes with no other hybridization signals but telomeres sites were identified 4 and 13, while the chromosome number 4 was longer than the 13th. It is hoped that the results in this study would provide the reference and support for further studies in genetics and evolution in sesame.

 

30.  J. TUERXUN*, X. Y. LI, C. Y. TIAN, J. P. GUO, S. KHAN, J. D. WANG, J. Y. ZHENG AND X. T. AI [Super high yield performance of lint cotton cultivars in upstream Tarim river, Xinjiang, China]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 487-497 (2014). Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi-830 011, China *(e-mail : 13325520588@126.com)

ABSTRACT

Three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were evaluated for their growth and yield performance in the upstream Tarim river, Xinjiang, China in 2009 and 2010. In 2009, 12090 kg cotton 10-108-3/ha beat the world’s record in this area. In the following year, the output of cotton 10-108-3 yield created new world’s record of 10590 kg/ha. Our studies focus on theoretical and potential factors of cotton production such as the internal and external causes of super high yield production, the damage-averse cultivation and so on. Seed and lint yields had significant positive correlations with mean net assimilation rate, ratio of reproductive to vegetative organs and mean boll weight at earlier stages of boll growth. The overall study showed the feasibility of the super high yield performance of lint cotton 10-108-3 cultivars and the technical experience in upstream Tarim river cotton region.

 

31.  D. SAGAR*, R. A. BALIKAI AND D. P. BIRADAR [Influence of varied dosages of nitrogen application on the leafhopper population in Bt cotton under rainfed condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 498-502 (2014). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : garuda344@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out to study the influence of nitrogen dosages (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kg/ha) on cotton leafhopper population under rainfed condition in Dharwad during 2011-12 and 2012-13. Mean population of leafhopper was highest at higher dosages of nitrogen as compared to recommended and lower dosages of nitrogen. A positive and significant correlation between the insect-pests and nitrogen fertilizer was observed. Leaf nitrogen content increased with the increased nitrogen dosages applied wherein leafhopper population correlated positively and significantly with the leaf nitrogen content. Increased levels of nitrogen from 0 to 125 kg/ha significantly increased production of good opened bolls per plant, total bolls per plant and seed cotton yield. Further increased level of nitrogen from 150 to 200 kg/ha increased leafhopper population and reduced the seed cotton yield.

 

32.  B. D. Patel*, R. B. Patel, B. T. Sheta, V. J. Patel, R. A. Patel and D. J. Parmar [Influence of integrated weed management practices on weeds and yield of Bt cotton] Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 503-507 (2014). DWSR-Anand Centre, B. A. College of Agriculture Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bdpatel62@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 Field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 at DWSR-Anand Centre, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) to study the performance of different weed management practices on weeds and yield of Bt cotton. Results revealed that inter-culturing and hand weeding carried out at 15, 30 and 45 DAS recorded the minimum weed dry weight of monocot, dicot and total weeds at 25 DAS and at harvest with maximum weed control efficiency. The said treatment also recorded maximum seed cotton yield (3127 kg/ha) as well as additional profit over control (46367 kg/ha). The next best treatments were T1(pendimethalin @ 900 g/ha fb IC+HW at 30 and 60 DAS), T2 (quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha POE fb IC+HW at 30 DAS) and T5 (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 50 g/ha POE fb IC+HW at 30 DAS) which were found efficient and economical for weed management in Bt cotton.ased fertilizer doses for transgenic cotton on Inceptisols under drip fertigation.

33. Dipak Mandal*, Paramita Bhowmik and M. L. Chatterjee [Seasonal influence on cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) population and correlation with weather parameters in alluvial zone, West Bengal, India]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 508-512 (2014). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : dipakagri.mandal@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The impact of weather parameters on population fluctuation of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley was evaluated for monitoring the seasonal and annual trend of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Institutional Research Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India. The mealybug population was found to be increasing during 11th and 9th weeks in 2011 and 2012, respectively, after sowing of cotton i. e. the 8th and 6th standard weeks during respective years. The peak population 81.37 per 10 cm upper shoot was recorded during 14th standard week in 2011 and 127.44 during 16th standard week in 2012. Correlation studies revealed that population of mealybugs exhibited a significant positive correlation (r=0.733 and r=0.780) with minimum temperature, but significant negative correlation with relative humidity (r=0.646 and r=0.689) and rainfall (r=0.566 and r=0.523) during 2011 and 2012, respectively.

 

34.  O. Xihui Liu1,2, Rongzhong Yang1, Huiping Ou1, Hongwei Tan1, Yiyun Gui1, Liu Yang1, Yangrui Li*1 and Litao Yang**1,2 [Nitrogen fixation and accumulation in sugarcane under nitrogen supply]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 513-519 (2014). Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biotechnology and Genetic Improvement (Guangxi) Ministry of Agriculture; Sugarcane Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530 007, China 2State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresource, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China *and **(e-mail: liyr@gxaas.net and litao61@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

In order to investigate nitrogen fixation and accumulation in sugarcane under nitrogen supply, a barrel gravel culture was conducted in Guangxi province, the south-west China in 2012. The sugarcane varieties B 8 and ROC 22 were employed as the plant materials, which were inoculated either with or without endogenous nitrogen fixation bacteria at two levels of nitrogen supply, that is 0 N and 1/2 N. The nitrogenase activity in the stalks and total nitrogen in the leaves were determined at different growth stages of sugarcane. The results showed that the nitrogenase activity in stalks reached its peak at booming stage. The treatment with 1/2 N nitrogen supply significantly increased the nitrogenase activity in stalks and total nitrogen content in leaves compared that with 0 N for both with and without inoculation. The nitrogenase activity was more sensitive in B 8 than in ROC 22. ANOVA results revealed that the nitrogen supply, variety and inoculation had significant interaction effects on nitrogenase activity and total nitrogen content in sugarcane. Therefore, it was concluded that inoculation of endogenous nitrogen fixation bacteria and fertilization of a low amount of nitrogen were beneficial for the biological nitrogen fixation, cane yield so saving chemical fertilizer in sugarcane production.

35.  Liming Lu*, Huizhan Gu, Ke Liu, Yong Chen and Dong Wang [Comparative study on different simulation models of flue-cured tobacco LAI variation under salinity condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 248-253 (2014). Agronomy College Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu-611 130, China *(e-mail : luliming@sicau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of this study was to explore dynamic accumulation and distribution of five heavy metal elements i. e. lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in different organs of tobacco plants. Field experiment was carried out in 2011. Leaf, stem and root samples of tobacco were prepared 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 days after transplanting (DAT), respectively, and the contents of these five elements were measured. The results showed that lead and chromium content in tobacco root was significantly higher than that in stem and leaf during tobacco whole growth period. Cadmium content in stem and root was significantly higher than that in leaf at early growth stage, except at 60 DAT, which was significantly lower. Arsenic content in root was significantly higher than that of stem and leaf, but at 45 and 75 DAT, the arsenic content of luggs was the highest among all tobacco organs. Tobacco leaf mercury content was significantly higher than that in root and stem. While at later growth stage, mercury content of middle leaf was obviously higher than the others. Our experimental data suggest that characteristics of tobacco heavy metal accumulation and distribution are quite different. Tobacco accumulates cadmium at its early growing stage, mercury at later stage, while lead, chromium and arsenic at middle stage. Tobacco has the special ability to accumulate cadmium and transport it from root to stem and leaf. Lead and chromium mainly store in tobacco root, cadmium mainly in leaf, while arsenic and mercury in root and leaf.

 

36.   D. M. Patel, G. N. Patel, J. C. Patel, S. M. Patel and J. K. Patel* [Nitrogen management in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL.) under organic farming]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 526-531 (2014). Department of Agronomy S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506, Banaskantha (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2007-08 to 2010-11 (except 2008-09) at Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) on loamy sand soil to evaluate the effect of different organic manures and biofertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL.) under organic farming. Results revealed that combined application of 50% RDN through castor cake along with rhizobium+PSB seed inoculation recorded significant improvement in yield attributes viz., number of pods/plant, seeds/pod and test weight as well as seed and stover yields of fenugreek in pooled results. It also proved its superiority with respect to N, P and K content (%) in seed as well as in straw and total N, P and K uptake. Conjuctive use of 50% RDN through castor cake+rhizobium and PSB seed inoculation, remarkably improved soil fertility viz., organic carbon, available N, P and K after harvest of fenugreek crop as compared to RDF through inorganic fertilizers and sole application of either organic manures or biofertilizers. It recorded maximum net returns (Rs. 22,859) and benefit : cost ratio (1.65).
37.  Na Wang, Jing Liu and Yufei Zhou* [Structural responses of vascular bundles in different maize stems to water deficit during seedling stage : a compensating development]. Res. on Crops 15 (2) : 532-538 (2014). College of Agronomy Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province-110 866, China *(e-mail : zhouyufei2002@aliyun.com)

 

ABSTRACT