Volume 15, No. 1 (March, 2014)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

1.   Md. Parvez Anwar*, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Batoul Samedani, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed, Md. Kamal Uddin, Ahmed Khairul Hasan and Md. Delwar Hossain [Integration of cultural and chemical weed control methods for higher weed control efficiency and better performance of aerobic rice]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 1-13 (2014). Institute of Tropical Agriculture University Putra Malaysia, Serdang-43400, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : parvezagron@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

        

Manipulation of crop-weed interaction in favour of crop at the expense of weed through incorporation of different chemical and non-chemical weed control options not only provides a better weed control but also might have some environmental benefits. Keeping that in mind, some cultural methods were integrated with different manual weeding and herbicide combinations to evaluate their weed control efficacy in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). A more favourable cropping system for rice as the consequence of integrating weed competitive rice variety, higher seeding density and seed invigoration resulted in lower weed pressure, better weed control efficiency and higher yield performance. Most of the herbicides were found exceedingly effective in controlling weeds. The study reveals the combined merits of weed competitive rice variety, higher seeding rate and seed priming in conjunction with timely herbicide application and/or manual weeding during the critical period of weed control to manage weeds and ensure high rice yields under aerobic soil conditions.

 

2.   Bing-Sheng Lv, Xiao-Wei Li, Hong-Yuan Ma, Hao-Yu Yang, Li-Xing Wei, Hai-Yan Lv, Chang-Jie Jiang* and Zheng-Wei Liang** [Different modes of proline accumulation in response to saline-alkaline stress factors in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 14-21 (2014). North-east Institute of Geography and Agroecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin-130 102, China *(e-mail : cjjiang@affrc.go.jp; **liangzw@neigae.ac.cn)

ABSTRACT

Proline accumulation is a common physiological response to various abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, we show that rice seedlings accumulate proline to different levels in response to different saline-alkaline stress factors including osmotic, saline and alkaline stresses. Expression analysis of genes for proline biosynthesis (OsP5CS1, OsP5CS2 and OsP5CR) and catabolism (OsPDH1 and OsP5CDH) revealed up-regulation of the proline synthesis genes under osmotic and alkaline stresses. In comparison, under the salt stress, a decrease in catabolic enzyme gene expressions was observed. Our results suggest that rice seedlings employ different gene regulation in proline accumulation in response to different saline-alkaline stress factors.

 

3.  S. SRIDEVI* AND M. VENKATA RAMANA [Productivity, soil fertility and sustainability of continuous rice system under long term substitution of nitrogen through organics]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 22-27 (2014). AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : sridevikarlapudi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT         

 

A permanent plot experiment was being conducted since 1988 on Inceptisols of College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar to study the long term effects of chemical fertilizers alone and in combination with organic sources on the sustainability and soil fertility under rice-rice cropping system. The study was made with 12 treatments in which major nutrients were supplied either through fertilizers alone or in conjunction with FYM, paddy straw or gliricidia at 50% and 25% substitution level of nitrogen during kharif and with fertilizers alone to supply 75 and 100% recommended dose of fertilizer during rabi. The system productivity of rice averaged over 24 years was highest in plots which received 50% N through gliricidia+50% RDF in kharif and 100% RDF in rabi seasons. However, the sustainability yield index of rice-rice system was highest (0.67) when all the nutrients were applied through fertilizers during both the seasons, and also when 25% N was substituted through gliricidia during kharif and 25% NPK was saved during rabi season. However, improvement in soil organic carbon content was more prominent when 25% or 50% of N was substituted through paddy straw and FYM during kharif season With all the nutrient management practices, available nitrogen in the soil was maintained, there was a build-up of available phosphorus, while available potassium was depleted considerably.

 

4.     Zhixin Li, Guoyou Ye, Mei Yang, Zhixia Liu, Dongbo Lu, Xingxue Mao, Qiuhua Wu and Xiaofang Li* [Genetic characterization of a multiparent recombinant inbred line of rice population]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 28-37 (2014). Institute of Crop Genetics and Breeding Agricultural College of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei, China *(e-mail : lixiaofang@163.net)

ABSTRACT   

 

The field experiment was conducted at test base in Department of Agronomy, Yangtze University and Rice Research Institute of Guangdong, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, during 2010-11 to study the genetic characterization of a multiparent recombinant inbred line rice population. Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population can be used to dissect complex agronomic traits by both linkage and association mapping. In this study, we report the development of the first rice MAGIC population with 12 founder lines. A subset of 206 lines of the MAGIC population was analyzed with SSR markers. The results indicated that plentiful recombination types were detected in the MAGIC population. Cluster analysis showed that the 12 founder and 206 lines were divided into 11 and 64 groups, respectively, when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.685. Single-marker analysis detected 13 and 25 SSR markers associated with plant height and heading date, respectively. Step-wise regression further confirmed that 5 and 11 of the markers were associated with plant height and heading date, respectively. Seven and 11 of the identified markers had been reported previously to be linked to plant height and heading date QTLs, respectively. The results showed that MAGIC populations had abundant genetic diversity and could be efficiently used to study multi-alleles and association analysis.

 

5.         Li Zhao, Zhangkui Wang, Guohua Mi, Lixing Yuan and Riliang Gu* [Comparative genome analysis of cytokinin biosynthesis genes (IPTS) reveals conserved orthologs cross Poaceae crops]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 38-48 (2014). Department of Plant Nutrition Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security China Agricultural University, Beijing-100 193, China *(e-mail : rilianggu@cau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT   

Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) catalyzed the synthesis of cytokinin and subsequently played important roles in cytokinin regulatory processes. IPT proteins were encoded by small multigene family in planta. Poaceae is the most important family for food crops (e. g. rice, maize and wheat). To understand the evolutionary patterns of IPT members in Poaceae crops, we surveyed IPT genes from the genomes of four fully sequenced Poaceae (Brachypodium, rice, sorghum and maize) in 2010. The results showed that Poaceae IPT genes could be divided into nine ortholog groups. The members from each ortholog group were located in the colinearity chromosome regions cross Poaceae species, and distinct from those of any paralog groups, indicating gene expansions within IPT family happened in the common cereal ancestor before the divergence of Poaceae plants. Duplication analysis revealed that the deletion and retention of segmental duplicates were shared by the orthologs cross Poaceae species. Organ-dependent expression patterns and protein properties of members among Poaceae orthologs were also revealed to be similar among the orthologs. These results suggested conserved evolution features of Poaceae IPT genes, and further reflected a conserved biological function among the orthologs.

6.     DALEI LU, XUEMEI CAI, RENCHAO XU, JUNYU ZHAO AND WEIPING LU* [Effects of shading after pollination on starch physico-chemical properties of waxy maize]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 49-54 (2014). Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province Yangzhou University, Yangzhou-225 009, China *(e-mail : wplu@yzu.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT     

Shading stress after pollination is an important abiotic factor affecting waxy maize starch quality. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effects of shading after pollination on starch physico-chemical properties of waxy maize. The shading experiment was conducted in the field in 2011 and 2012, with a waxy maize variety (Suyunuo5) as the test material. Plants were given shading with black polyethylene nets and the light intensity was reduced by 30%, with plants grown under natural light were taken as control. Shading after pollination decreased the starch granule size and iodine binding capacity, and reduced the peak intensities at 2q=15º, 17º, 18º and 23º. Pasting viscosities were decreased by shading in both the years. The DHgel and Tc were not affected, To and Tp were decreased, while DHret and %R were increased by shading. The results indicated that shading deteriorated the pasting and retrogradation properties through reducing the starch granule size, iodine binding capacity and peak intensities.

7.     Muhammad Amin, Riaz Ahmad, S. M. A. Basra, Anser Ali* and Dong Jin Lee [Response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids to drought stress at early seedling stage]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 55-61 (2014). Sub-Campus, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan *(e-mail : uafanser@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT         

Water shortage is a key problem in semi-arid regions of the world like Pakistan. It hinders plant growth, yield and eventually leads to a substantial crop failure. Though maize (Zea mays L.) is prone to water deficit, there is a marked genotypic difference in rooting density, morphological and physiological characteristics in maize. A pot experiment was conducted in 2009-10 to screen eight maize hybrids (FH-810, P-33H25, FH-985, ICI-8288, FH-963, YH-1921, Syngenta-8441 and Rafhan-3333) for water stress tolerance, grown at three moisture levels (100, 80 and 60% of field capacity) and evaluated on the basis of dry matter production. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was used. Among tested hybrids pioneer P-33H25 performed best under normal and water deficit environment by assimilating more dry matter under either of the moisture regime, while lower dry matter was produced by FH-810.

 

8.     Mohammad Moradi*, Rajab Choukan, Eslam Majidi Heravan and Mohammad Reza Bihamta [Genetic analysis of various morpho-physiological traits in Zea mays L. using graphical approach under normal and water stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 62-70 (2014). Department of Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Tehran Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : Moradim_17@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

               The F1 hybrids along with the parents were evaluated in field under normal and water stress regimes to determine the nature and magnitude of genetic variances and heritability estimates at Dezful Research Station in Safi Abad, from 2011 to 2012 using RCBD with three replications. Results analysis of variance showed that variations among genotypes were highly significant for all the traits studied under both the regimes. Therefore, variations were partitioned into additive and non-additive components according to Hayman and Hayman & Jinks methods. Based upon the results of tests, simple genetic model was fully adequate for analyzing the data set for all traits except RWC under water stress condition. It was observed that a and b components which are due to additive and dominant gene effects, respectively, were significant for all studied characteristics under both the conditions. Considering the average degree of dominance as well as Vr/Wr graphs revealed that the yield potential traits like plant height, harvest index, RWC and grain yield per plant were controlled by over dominance type of gene action, while traits like ASI and 100-kernel weight were under the control of partial dominance with additive type of gene action under both the conditions. Over-dominance for most of the parameters reveals that selection in later generations may be more effective and the selection in early generations will be more effective for the trait which is additively controlled.

 

 

9.       JINPENG GENG, DUOFANG LI, TIANGUANG CAO, XUZHAO WANG, JIN LI, YAFEI CHEN, YINGRONG HAN, JINSHAN HU, NANNAN LI, HAILONG AN, YONG ZHAN*, LI SUI, FUQUAN KONG AND YUEFENG WU [Mutagenic characteristics of maize variety (Zheng 58) radiated by 7Li ion beams]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 71-77 (2014). Institute of Biophysics, School of Sciences Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin-300 401, China *(e-mail : rocgold@163.com)

ABSTRACT        

To shorten the time required for breeding new cultivars of Zea mays L., a better understanding of radiation mutagenesis by heavy ions is required to link initial DNA damage and assess how this varies with radiation quality. The dry seeds of Zheng 58 variety of maize were radiated by 7Li ion beams with 43MeV/u at doses of 0Gy, 10Gy, 20Gy, 30Gy, 40Gy and 50Gy. The mutagenic biological effects were analyzed from morphology to genomics by statistics and molecular biological technology including random amplified polymorphic DNA, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis assay and simple sequence repeats assay. The statistic results of morphology showed that germination and survival rates were inhibited. In the M1 generation, germination rate, plant height and ear height changed in the way of saddle curve as the dose increased. The results of molecular biology suggested that the biological effects were significant at 10Gy and 40Gy, and the relationship between genomic variation results and dose was also saddle curve. 7Li ion beams is expected to become an effective source for directed mutagenesis.

10.   M. K. Jat, H. S. Purohit and P. Singh [Effect of farm yard manure, fertility levels and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of sorghum]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 78-83 (2014). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

            

A field experiment was conducted during two consequent years (kharif) of 2010 and 2011 to assess the effect of farm yard manure (FYM), fertility levels and bio-fertilizers and their combined effect on the productivity and quality of sorghum. Two levels of farm yard manure (0 and 10 t FYM/ha), four fertility levels based on STR (0, 50, 75 and 100% NPK) and four bio-fertilizers (no inoculation, Azotobacter, PSB and dual inoculation Azotobacter+PSB) were compared. Application of 10 t FYM/ha significantly increased chlorophyll content at 60 DAS, grain yield, and protein content in grain over the control. Application of fertilizer 50, 75 and 100% NPK enhanced flowering as well as improved various growth parameters viz., plant height, chlorophyll content and HCN content at 20 and 40 days over the control. Grain yield and protein content were significantly improved up to 100% NPK, showing an increase of 44.95 and 7.66% over the control. Inoculation of Azotobacter alone and in combination with PSB increased grain yield. Grain yield was significantly increased with 100% NPK in conjunction with 10 t FYM/ha. Bio-fertilizers i. e. Azotobacter+PSB with 10 t FYM/ha significantly increased grain yield of sorghum over their individual effect.

.

11.   RONG GAI LI, YU CUI HAN, PENG LU, RUI HENG DU AND GUO QING LIU* [Molecular characterization of aphids infesting sorghum in China]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 84-89 (2014). Institute of Millet Crops Hebei Academy of Agricultural & Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang-050 035, China *(e-mail : guoqingliu@hotmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Sorghum aphid (Melanaphis sacchari), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) are the main pests of sorghum in China. Genotype characterization and/or biotype identification of pests is the first step for cereal breeding programme to obtain resistant cultivars. DNA barcoding technique provides an effective tool for species and biotype diagnosis in various organism. In this study, we sequenced a fragment of 680 bp of cytochromecoxidase I (COI) gene from above aphid species collected from 16 sorghum growing regions in China. The results revealed that (i) No polymorphism was found in the mitochondrial DNA from different sorghum aphid and greenbug populations. The diversity in these two species was not as much as we expected, (ii) Three haplotypes were identified in corn leaf aphid clones. The most common haplotype was the same as that in Canada, USA and UK and (iii) Mitochondrial COI sequences could effectively distinguish different aphid species, and further different haplotypes within an aphid species.

 

12.   Yogendra Singh, Bhagwan Singh and Deepak Kumar [Effect of phosphorus levels and biofertilizer on yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 90-95 (2014). Department of Agronomy N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

An experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2008-09 to 2009-10 consecutively at Kumarganj, Faizabad to study the effect of phosphorus and biofertilizer on growth, yield and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed condition. Application of 60 kg P2O5/ha significantly increased the number of nodules/plant, fresh and dry weight of nodules/plant, yield attributes and seed, straw and biological yields. Application of phosphorus increased the N and P uptake up to 60 kg P2O5/ha. Peat based biofertilizer inoculation (PSB+Rhizo) at 1.60 kg/ha was used for seed inoculation which gave significantly higher number of nodules, fresh and dry weight of nodules, seed, straw and biological yields and nutrient uptake compared to uninoculation and PSB or Rhizobium inoculation alone.

13.   Ch. S. rama lakshmi*, p. chandrasekhar rao, t. sreelatha, g. padmaja, M. Madhavi, p. v. rao and a. sireesha [Residual effects of INM on humus fractions, micronutrient content and their upake by rabi greengram under rice-pulse cropping system]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 96-104 (2014). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle-531 001 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : sitaramalakshmi20@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT   

Studies on cumulative and residual effects of integrated nutrient management of kharif rice on humic substances, micronutrient status and their uptake by rabi greengram were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakaplle during rabi 2009 and 2010. There were 12 treatments of integrated nutrient management imposed on preceding rice crop that formed the main plots and each plot was divided into two halves and 50% recommended dose of chemical fertilizers of greengram i. e. 10 and 20 kg N and P/ha was applied to one half, while the crop in the other half plot was studied under the residual effect. Results revealed that the values of available micronutrient status, their uptake and humic substances were higher with integrated nutrient management practices, specially when vegetable market waste vermicompost was applied. With continuous chemical farming, there was a slight reduction in the soil micronutrient status, nutrient uptake and humic substances. Conjunctive application of organics along with inorganics exhibited higher seed yield of rabi greengram with high micronutrient uptake and soil humic substances over application of inorganics only.

 

14.   G. D. KHALEKAR*, A. A. AKHARE, S. J. GAHUKAR, R. S. CHOUDHARY AND N. K. SINGH [SSR based genotypic differentiation for wilt resistance in pigeonpea]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 105-111 (2014). Biotechnology Centre, Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : gkhalekar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                      Limitations of molecular markers concerning their predictive and diagnostic values have delayed the benefits of molecular markers technology in genetic differentiation of pigeonpea cultivars. In order to evaluate the robustness of marker systems and detection of genetic polymorphism, 77 simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used to genetically differentiate and screen two pigeonpea cultivars for resistance or susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. Out of 77 microsatellites, 67 primers amplified a sum total of 568 amplicons with an average number of 8.47 amplicons per primer. Twenty-six primers produced 46 polymorphic loci suitable for differentiating the two pigeonpea cultivars. The polymorphic information content scores of SSR markers ranged from 0.077 to 0.333 with an average of 0.18 per marker. However, the number of polymorphic allele produced with the SSR primers ranged from 1 to 4. The results of present study illustrate potential SSR markers that distinguish the cultivars with respect to wilt resistance. The information may facilitate selection of cultivars to serve as parent in effective breeding programmes for crop improvement.

15.   S. J. Patel, B. M. Patel, S. K. Patel, C. H. Raval, P. B. Patel, K. I. Patel and P. M. Patel [Feasibility of fertigation of phosphorus and potash on vegetable clusterbean]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 112-115 (2014). Department of Agronomy S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

 

ABSTRACT

           A field experiment under north Gujarat conditions was conducted in summer seasons of 2010 and 2011 at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sardarkrushinagar. Sixteen treatment combinations involving three levels of irrigation (I1–Irrigation at 60% CPE, I2–80% CPE and I3–100% CPE), five levels of fertility (F1–30 kg phosphorus and 30 kg potash/ha, F2–30 kg phosphorus and 45 kg potash/ha, F3–45 kg phosphorus and 30 kg potash/ha, F4–45 kg phosphorus and 45 kg potash/ha and F5–60 kg phosphorus and 60 kg potash/ha) and a control (RDF i. e. 20-40 kg NP/ha through surface irrigation) were tried in the experiment with RBD design having four replications. Higher yield attributes and green pod yield (150.3 q/ha) and straw yield (172.8 q/ha) of clusterbean were recorded under treatment I3F5 (irrigation at I3–100% CPE along with fertigation of 60 kg phosphorus and 60 kg potash/ha). It also recorded higher net returns and BCR.

16.   E. Khalilvand Behrouzyar* and M. Yarnia [Effect of ethanol, methanol, zinc, manganese and boron seed priming on ageing, seed germination and physiological characteristics in canola under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 116-121 (2014). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : e.khalilvand@iaut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

           For studying the effects of seed priming with ethanol, methanol, Zn, B and Mn on seed mineral concentration and water deficit stress tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.), two separate laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted. Laboratory experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with six priming treatments : Non-primed, 2% ethanol, 2% methanol and 0.5% each ZnSo4, H3BO3 and MnSO4.H2O solutions in three replicates. Greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment form by completely randomized design with four levels of irrigation : 100, 75, 50 and 25% FC with three replications. The analysis of variance showed significant effect of seed priming on the final germination percentage (GP), mean germination time (MGT), mean daily germination (MDG), daily germination speed (DGS) and germination rate index (GI). Furthermore, the analysis of variance showed a significant difference of seed priming and water deficit stress on the number of seeds per pod and 100-grain weight. The detailed results of the study showed that priming seeds with ethanol increased GP by 15%, MGT by 43%, MDG by 15% and GI by 67% over the untreated control. Besides, the results also proved that ethanol seed priming increased the number of seeds per pod and 100-grain weight.

17.   DHIMAN MUKHERJEE [Influence of date of sowing and nutrient management practices on sustainable production of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) under sub-temperate condition of eastern Himalaya]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 122-128 (2014). Regional Research Station Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Darjeeling-734 301 (West Bengal), India

 

ABSTRACT

                      

A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2011-13 to study the influence of date of sowing and nutrient management practices for sustainable production of mustard under sub- temperate condition. The field experiment was conducted with split plot design with three replications, having 24 treatment combinations including four dates of sowing in main plot and six sub-plot treatments. Number of siliquae/plant, considerably maximum of 125.11 with 30 October sowing, and was at par with the 15 November (121.11) sowing. With respect of sub-plot treatments maximum of this parameter was found with the application of 125% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter (129.14), and showed parity with 100% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter (117.65) application. Seeds/siliqua were highest recorded with 30 October sowing, and significantly better than other sowing date except 15 November sowing. Sub-plot treatment revealed that more seeds/siliqua were registered with the use of 125% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter, and were statistically alike in response with the 125% RDF+vermicompost (@1.25 t/ha) and 100% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter. Significantly maximum seed yield of 1.21 t/ha was obtained under 30 October sowing, and was statistically at par with 15 November sowing date (1.11 t/ha). Amongst various fertility level treatments, highest seed yield was observed with the application of 100% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter (1.30 t/ha), and this was statistically comparable to 125% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter (1.26), 125% RDF+vermicompost (@1.25 t/ha) (1.15 t/ha) and 100% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter (1.04 t/ha). Economics revealed that 15 October sowing gave good returns (Rs. 20,036) and highest benefit : cost ratio (1.99). This was closely followed by 30 October sowing with benefit : cost ratio (1.98). Further, with sub-plot treatment highest net return (Rs. 30,256) were observed with the application of 100% RDF+PSB+Azotobacter with B : C ratio of 2.19.

18.  Ram Avtar*, D. Singh, N. K. Thakral, Amit Singh, O. Sangwan, Babita Rani and Nisha Kumari [Multivariate analysis for evaluation and classification of toria germplasm accessions]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 129-134 (2014). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : ramavtarola@yahoo.in)

 

ABSTRACT

                  Multivariate analysis was carried out with 22 agro-morphological traits in 92 germplasm accessions of toria [Brassica rapa (L.) var. toria]. Principal factor analysis identified eight principal components which explained about 62% variability. PC 1 had 15.04% of total variation in agro-morphological traits; PC 2 depicted 8.55% of total morphological variability, while PC 3 accounted for 7.68% of the total variation. Varimax rotation enabled loading of similar type of variables on a common principal factor permitting to designate them as seed yield, maturity, leaf and siliqua characters and oil content factors. The germplasm accessions TC5., TC36, TC 59, TC 86 and TC 87 were found to be superior on the basis of principal factor scores with regard to seed yield, its main components and oil content when both the principal factors were considered together. These accessions may further be utilized in breeding programmes for evolving toria varieties/populations with high seed yield and superior oil content. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized all the 92 accessions into 10 clusters containing one to 35 accessions. Based on the inter-cluster distances, maximum genetic diversity was observed between C VIII and C X (87.16) followed by C VI and C X (86.22), C VII and C X (85.84) and C III and C VII (84.57) indicating that germplasm accessions from these clusters can usefully be hybridized for getting superior recombinants in segregating generations. The results of cluster and principal factor analyses were in corroboration.

 

19.   Basavaraj Kumbar, T. V. Ramachandra Prasad and M. T. Sanjay [Bioefficacy of new herbicide fluazifop-p-butyl for grassy weed management in groundnut and carry-over effect on succeeding finger millet]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 135-140 (2014). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

            Major grassy weed flora observed during 2010 and 2011 mansoon season on red sand loam soil of Bangalore were Echinochloa colona, Digitaria marginata, Eleusine indica, Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Cynodon dactylon. The new graminicide fluazifop-p-butyl at 134 and 167 g a. i./ha lowered the density and growth of grasses, nutrient uptake by weeds considerably as compared to other treatments. Application of fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4 EC134 to167 g a. i./ha @18-20 DAS gave higher pod yield (1651 to 1531 kg/ha) and was on par with hand weeding (1757 kg/ha), imazethapyr 10 SL 100 g a. i./ha (1574 kg/ha) and pendimethalin 30 EC 750 g a. i./ha @ 3 DAS (1469 kg/ha). Unweeded control significantly lowered pod yield by 39% as compared to hand weeding. Fluazifop-p-butyl at 167 to 335 did not cause phytotoxicity to groundnut and did not leave residual toxicity on succeeding finger millet grown after 155 days of herbicide application during two years of experiment. Thus, herbicides were cheaper, used less energy inputs, lowered nutrient loss, provided higher energy use efficiency and higher B : C than manual weeding.

 

20.   Xiaoyuan Chi, Fang Dong, Qingli Yang, Mingna Chen, Na Chen, Lijuan Pan, Tong Wang, Mian Wang, Zhen Yang, Yanan He and Shanlin Yu* [Expression and characterization of Lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase genes from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 141-153 (2014). Shandong Peanut Research Institute 126, Wannianquan Street, Licang District, Qingdao-266 100, China *(e-mail : yushanlin1956@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            Lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAAT) is a pivotal enzyme controlling the metabolic flow of lysophosphatidic acid into different phosphatidic acids in diverse tissues. The functions of LPAAT genes have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, but not in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, conventional RT-PCR or RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends)-PCR were used to clone four AhLPAAT genes from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that AhLPAAT2 transcript was more abundant in seeds, whereas the transcript abundances of other three genes were higher in flowers than in other tissues examined. During seed development, levels of AhLPAAT6 transcripts decreased, whereas levels of other three transcripts remained relatively high at the initial stages of seed development but dramatically decreased in abundance during later stages. Expression analysis of four genes under conditions of cold, salt, drought and ABA stresses indicated that AhLPAAT transcripts were differentially regulated during abiotic stresses. Transcripts of the four genes increased substantially in leaves exposed to drought stress. Levels of AhLPAAT2 transcript were distinctly enhanced after exposure to cold, salt and drought stresses, whereas AhLPAAT4 was obviously up-regulated after salt, drought and ABA treatments. The expressions of AhLPAAT6 increased in all materials after stress treatments except for salt-stressed leaves, whereas transcript levels of AhLPAAT5 only increased in cold- and drought-stressed leaves and ABA-treated roots. These insights into peanut LPAATs may facilitate modification of oil deposition and improvement of abiotic stress resistance in this important crop.

21.   Petar Čanak*, Milan Jocković, Mihajlo ćirić, Milan Mirosavljević and Vladimir Miklić [Effect of seed priming with various concentrations of KNO3 on sunflower seed germination parameters in in vitro drought conditions]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 154-158 (2014). Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000, Serbia *(e-mail : petar.canak@ifvcns.ns.ac.rs)

 

ABSTRACT

  Seed priming is technique for controlled seed hydratation which allows activation of pre-germinative metabolic processes. It has been successfully used for improving germination parameters in different crops. The study was conducted in 2012, at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, in order to assess the effect of seed priming on four germination parameters (germination, germination index, mean germination time and time to 50% germination) of sunflower in in vitro drought conditions. Drought conditions (-0.8 MPa) were simulated using PEG 6000. Seed priming was conducted with soaking seed in water and different KNO3 solutions (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) for 12 h. Seed priming treatment with 0.1% KNO3 showed the best results and improved germination parameters : germination index, mean germination time and time to 50% germination of untreated seed (control). Seed priming showed no improvement in germination percentage in comparison to the control. Control had high germination (98%) and there was no possibility for its significant improvement with seed priming. This study showed that seed priming could improve some germination parameters of sunflower seed in in vitro drought conditions. Seed priming could be used as a simple method for overcoming problems related to a poor germination and seedling establishment in soil drought conditions. Main advantages of seed priming method are its simplicity and no requirements for expensive equipment and chemicals.

 

22.   Ooi Bee Bee, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed*, Siti Nur Aisyah Abd Aziz, Md. Parvez Anwar and Maziah Mahmood [Germination, growth and biochemical responses of papaya (Carica papaya L.) to electric field]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 159-168 (2014). Department of Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture, Universitiy Putra Malaysia 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : mtmm@upm.edu.my)

 

ABSTRACT

Electric field, a non-ionizing radiation, exists in abundant in the vicinity of high voltage power lines, covers a large area of the agricultural land and affects crop productivity. In this study, an attempt was made to unravel the potential of using electric field as an agricultural tool to increase seed germination and plant vigour, and to investigate the effect of electric field seed treatment of several strengths on the germination rate, and the subsequent growth and biochemical changes of papaya (Carica papaya L.) Eksotika II. Papaya seeds were subjected to electric field of different strengths such as 0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 kV/m prior to sowing. Electric field treatments exerted some influence on the growth and biochemical changes in papaya. Highest germination percentage occurred when seeds were treated with 60 kV/m electric field. Most of the electric field treatments resulted in higher shoot and root length and dry weight, but 120 kV/m resulted in negative growth responses. In terms of the biochemical responses of papaya, electric field treatments up to 40 kV/m yielded higher soluble protein and nitrogen content compared to control. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content and peroxidase specific enzyme activity were also positively influenced by electric field treatment up to 100 kV/m. Therefore, 60 kV/m may be considered as the optimum electric field strength for seed treatment to increase the germination, growth and biochemical quality of papaya.

 

23.  Ying Lin and Tianlai Li [Salinity stress accelerates abscission of tomato pedicel explants and expression of MAPK gene members]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 169-174 (2014). Shenyang Agricultural University and Key Lab of Protected Horticulture Liaoning Province, Shenyang-110 161, Liaoning, China

ABSTRACT

 

  The field experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Shenyang Agricultural University of China. The seeds of Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum esculentum Mill.), a popular tomato variety in north-east China bearing an indeterminate inflorescence, were planted in March 2012. The plants were grown in a greenhouse with natural light and normal management. We collected the flower organ to study abscission in blossom period. Abnormal abscission of flowers which usually relates to some types of stress can seriously impact crop yields. Our results show that salt stress may accelerate the tomato floral organ shedding and the abscission rate. Plant MAPK cascades are complicated networks and play vital roles in stress-induced signal transduction. By pre-treatment with 100 µM PD98059 to inactivate MAPK, we found that MAPK may be involved in the salt-induced tomato floral organ abscission and act as a positive regulator of salt tolerance. Here, three pairs of primers were designed to compare the expressions of LeMAPKs treated with different salt concentrations in tomato pedicel explants by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our findings indicated that LeMAPKs were extensively involved in salt stress response. The expression of LeMAPK2 was obviously up-regulated, suggesting that LeMAPK2 might be a salt-sensitive gene and play main defense function during tomato pedicel explant abscission induced by salt stress. And LeMAPK3 might take effect in the late stage of flower abscission induced by salt stress. These results further suggest that MAPK cascades in plants had functions in signal transduction of salt stress and the expression patterns of MAPKs are complicated in tomato pedicel explants.

 

24.  P. Laxmi, M. Pratap and A. Manohar Rao [Effect of residual fertility of preceding marigold crop on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 175-179 (2014). College of Agriculture Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of residual fertility of organic manures and biofertilizers of preceding marigold crop on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of radish crop for consecutive two years (2008-10) at Students’ Farm, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. In the present experiment, radish was raised immediately after marigold crop in the same plots without disturbing the layout to study the residual fertility of organic manures and biofertilizers on succeeding radish crop. Among the different treatments imposed, treatment GM+CC 6 t/ha+BF recorded highest plant height (22.89 cm), number of leaves per plant (7.53), fresh weight of leaf (30.26 g), fresh weight of root (64.74 g/plant), dry weight of leaf (14.18 q/ha), dry weight of root (17.88 q/ha), root length (20.39 cm), root girth (3.63 cm), root yield (19.26 t/ha), T. S. S. (4.05%) and ascorbic acid content (14.53 mg/g fresh weight), N uptake by leaf (30.63 kg/ha) and root (48.94 kg/ha), P uptake by leaf (6.52 kg/ha) and root (10.79 kg/ha) and K uptake by leaf (30.82 kg/ha) and root (48.34 kg/ha) at harvest. Available nitrogen (236.21 kg/ha), phosphorus (33.85 kg/ha) and potassium (251.05 kg/ha) in soil after harvest of radish were high with GM+CC 6 t/ha+BF.

25.   Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza*, Hussein Shimelis, Rob Melis, Julia Sibiya, Gahakwa Daphrose and Magnifique Ndambe Nzaramba [Yield and yield components response of potato genotypes in selected agro-ecologies of Rwanda]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 180-191 (2014). African Centre for Crop Improvement University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa *(e-mail : mujohnbapt@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food security crop in Rwanda but its productivity is low at 9 t/ha. In the past, the major potato research and development focused on seed production and distribution without targeted breeding to enhance productivity. The objective of this study was to determine yield and yield components response of potato genotypes in selected agro-ecologies of Rwanda to identify breeding parents. Fifteen agronomically stable genotypes were evaluated during 2011 at three locations : Kinigi, Rwerere and Nyamagabe with a randomised complete block design using three replications. Data were collected on yield and yield components. Further, a number of flower and tuber characteristics such as flower colour, pollen production, tuber shape, tuber flesh and skin colour, and depth of eyes were recorded. Across locations, genotype Kigega had the highest tuber yield at 32.4 t/ha, followed by Ngunda (32.3 t/ha) and Kirundo (26.9 t/ha), whereas Mabondo had the lowest yield (10.8 t/ha). At Nyamagabe genotype Kivu had the highest tuber yield of 16.7 t/ha, while Kinigi displayed the lowest at 1.8 t/ha. Genotype Ngunda was excellent yielder at Kingi with 47.2 t/ha tuber yield, while Bineza yielded low at 2.2 t/ha. At Rwerere, genotypes Victoria and Kigega were the best yielders at 45.7 and 44.7 t/ha, respectively, while Mabondo was the least yielder with 13.1 t/ha. Overall, the study identified potential breeding parents including genotypes Ngunda, Kirundo, Gikungu, Kigega, Victoria, Nderera and Bineza on the basis of medium to high responses for yield, desirable tuber characteristics and productive flowers for crosses. Location had strong effect on trait expression and contributed as the main source of variation. Genotypes Kigega and Kirundo had stable performance across locations in Rwanda. There is a need to develop potato varieties for specific agro-ecological adaptation in Rwanda.

 

26.   Sanjay Kumar Sharma [Field evaluation of insecticides for controlling cutworm damaging potato in highlands of north-west Himalaya]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 192-197 (2014). CSKHPKV Highland Agricultural Research and Extension Centre Kukumseri, Lahaul and Spiti-175 142 (Himachal Pradesh), India *(e-mail : sanjayhpau@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

Field evaluation of six insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos (0.05%), imidacloprid (0.0178%), lambda cyhalothrin (0.004%), profenofos (0.05%), quinalphos (0.05%) and triazophos (0.04%) as post emergence sprays was done to control cutworm damaging potato in Lahaul valley of Himachal Pradesh during 2008 and 2009. The results indicated that all the evaluated insecticides were effective and statistically non-significant in checking cutworm infestation in potato. These insecticides increased the tuber yield by more than 90% over control with highest increase recorded in profenofos (0.05%) sprayed plots in both the years (118.1 and 123.4%, respectively). Reductions in tuber damage to the tune of 85 to 92.2% were recorded for all the insecticides.

 

27.  Mohammad Abdollahi and Ali Soleymani* [Influence of integrated use of chemical, biological and organic fertilizers on nitrate, lead and cadmium concentration and physiological characteristics of different cultivars of potato]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 198-205 (2014). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Esfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

Potato in most of the industrially developed and developing countries has an important status among agricultural crops. Strip plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications was used to evaluate potato yield and chemical concentration of some elements at Fereydan Research Station, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. Three levels of fertilizer included manure (20, 40 and 60 t/ha), biological fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 ml/ha) and chemical fertilizer (175, 350 and 525 kg/ha). Cultivars were Marfona, Maradona and Ramus. The highest plant height, the number of stems/m2, total dry matter, LAI, tuber yield, dry matter of tuber and tuber weight in all three categories were related to usage of chemical fertilizer. However, there was no significant difference in tuber yield, dry matter of tuber and the number of tubers between chemical and manure fertilizers. Application of 60 t/ha manure, 200 ml/ha biological fertilizer and 525 kg/ha chemical fertilizer had obtained the highest plant height, the number of stems, total dry matter, LAI, tuber yield, dry matter of tuber and tuber weight. Marfona had obtained the maximum plant height, total dry matter, LAI, tuber yield, dry matter of tuber, the number of tubers and tuber weight. Application of 60 t/ha manure, 200 ml/ha biological fertilizer, 525 kg/ha chemical fertilizer obtained the highest potato tuber yield and weight. Application of 60 t/ha manure fertilizer together with Marfona produced the highest yield. The positive effects of manure application on the growth and yield of potato are a common phenomenon, as manures provide nutrients to the plants. It can be concluded that manure was effective in improving potato growth.

 

 

28.  JINGTIAN YANG AND YAN SHI* [Effect of different harvest stages on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of purple yam]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 206-210 (2014). Dryland Technology Key Laboratory of Shandong Province in Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong-266 109, China *(e-mail : yanshi@qau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

 The effect of different harvest stages on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of purple yam was studied in the open field. The results showed that the chlorophyll content of purple yam decreased continually with the extension of the harvest stage, which led to the decrease of photosynthetic rate. The moisture content of purple yam aboveground reduced, leading to plant wilted gradually. Moreover, the inflation of tuberous root lasted throughout whole harvest stage. And the tuberous root yield was the highest during the third harvest stage. However, yield of purple yam had reached approximately maximum, due to the rapid increase of dry matter accumulation of purple yam tuberous root during the first harvest stage to the second harvest stage, and then slowed down. In consideration of nutritional components of purple yam and the cultivation of next crop, we drew a conclusion that the date between September 30th and October 15th was the best harvest stage.

29.  DIPIKA SARMAH*, PRADIP MAHANTA, MADHUMITA C. TALUKDAR AND RANJAN DAS [Effect of mulching on growth and flowering of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) cv. Red Gem under Assam Condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 211-214 (2014). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : dsdipikasarmah@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

  A field experiment was carried out in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2010-11 and 2011-12 in order to study the effect of mulching on growth and flowering of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus) cv. Red Gem under Assam condition. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with seven treatments (viz. black polyethylene mulch, paddy straw, dried leaves, dried banana leaves, water hyacinth, rice husk and control without mulch) replicated thrice. The results showed that black polyethylene mulch produced tallest plant with maximum number of leaves per plant and number of suckers per clump. Same treatment showed earlier flower bud visibility, maximum flower size, flowers per clump and highest length of flower stalk. From the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that black polyethylene much triggers plant growth and development (vegetative growth) and also encourages flower production both quantitatively or qualitatively in gerbera plant.

 

30.  NEHA CHOPDE AND V. S. GONGE [Influence of varieties and growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of gladiolus]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 215-219 (2014). Horticulture Section College of Agriculture (Dr. P. D. K. V.), Nagpur-444 010 (M. S.), India

 

ABSTRACT

  A field experiment was conducted at Main Garden, Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during rabi seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the effect of varieties viz., Phule Neelrekha, Phule Tejas and Phule Ganesh and growth regulators viz., GA3 (100 and 150 ppm) and NAA (200 and 300 ppm) sprayed at 30th and 60th day after planting on growth, flowering, yield and quality of gladiolus spikes and cormels. The results revealed that the maximum protein content of leaves, yield of spikes/ha and the earliest opening of first pair of florets were found with the variety Phule Tejas, whereas total chlorophyll content of leaves, diameter and length of spikes, distance between two florets, length and width of florets and yield of cormels/plant were superior in the variety Phule Ganesh. In respect of growth regulators, the earliest opening of first pair of florets and the highest yield of better quality spikes were noticed with the gladiolus plants treated with GA3 150 ppm, whereas NAA 300 ppm treated plants noticed the highest yield of cormels.

 

31.  ZHENHUA WANG*, XURONG ZHENG AND JINZHU ZHANG [Effect of different cultivation patterns on yield of sub-surface drip irrigated cotton in arid regions of China]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 220-225 (2014). College of Water & Architectural Engineering Shihezi University, Shihezi City-832 000, Xinjiang, China *(e-mail : wzh2002027@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              The cotton experiments were conducted at the water-saving irrigation experiment station of Shihezi University at the suburbs of Shihezi City, Xinjiang, China, College of Water & Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, during 2010-11 by pot, measuring pit and plot experiments in three ways to study the effect of different cultivation patterns on the yield of sub-surface drip irrigated cotton in arid regions. Water shortage has seriously hindered the sustainable development of oasis agriculture in Xinjiang and the whole national economy. Water-saving irrigation occupies a pivotal position in Xinjiang, and can effectively inhibit evaporation, which is especially suitable for application in Xinjiang where evaporation is strong. Drip irrigation, especially that under mulch or in sub-surface, is the first that can simultaneously achieve less irrigation, evaporation suppression and water saving. In this study, three different treatments or cultivation patterns were set up, that is, seedling transplantation without mulch (T), transplantation with mulch (TM) and direct sowing with mulch (SM). And biomass and yield of sub-surface drip irrigated cottons with the above cultivation patterns were compared. The results showed that transplantation without mulch was favourable for root elongation and the increase of root/shoot ratio in length of sub-surface drip irrigated cotton, with intermediate shoot height, root weight, shoot weight, root/shoot ratio in weight and total biomass between those of other two cultivation patterns. Transplantation without mulch was favourable for increasing seed cotton yield and quality of sub-surface drip irrigated cotton. Seed cotton yield increased by 5.18-11.02% and lint percentage rose by 0.19-2.78 in TM compared with that in SM, respectively. There were no pronounced differences between T and TM, and mulch removal did not have a big effect on transplanted cottons with sub-surface drip irrigation. Drip irrigation coupled with the cultivation pattern of transplantation without mulch can bring higher yield and more income for cotton farmers, thus it is suitable for the sustainable development of the cotton planting industry in Xinjiang.

 

32.  S. PRAVEENA KATHARINE*, R. SANTHI, C. N. CHANDRASEKHAR, S. MARAGATHAM AND K. M. SELLAMUTHU [Evaluation of soil test crop response based integrated plant nutrition system (STCR-IPNS) recommendations for transgenic cotton on Inceptisol]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 226-231 (2014). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : praveenakate@rediffmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 Soil test based fertilizer prescription equations (FPEs) were developed for desired yield target of transgenic cotton under Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) through drip fertigation on Vertic Ustropept of Tamil Nadu, south India. To validate the equations, an experiment was conducted on the same soil series. The results revealed that the deviation recorded in the achievement of target aimed, was within the range of ±10% (90-110%) proving the validity of the FPEs. STCR treatments greatly influenced the growth and yield attributes of the crop and recorded significantly higher yield, response ratio (RR) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) than blanket, farmer’s practice and control. STCR-IPNS treatments performed better than STCR-NPK alone treatments. There was build-up of post-harvest soil fertility in the STCR treatments. The treatment, STCR-IPNS for 4.0 t/ha of cotton proved its superiority over all other treatments in terms of yield, uptake, response ratio, BCR and quality parameters. This treatment recorded an yield increase of 62.4 and 65.6%, respectively, over blanket and farmer’s practice. Therefore, it could be concluded that these FPEs could be made use of for prescribing soil test based fertilizer doses for transgenic cotton on Inceptisols under drip fertigation.

33. Siavash Jahanshahi, Alireza Pazoki and Hossein Zahedi* [Effect of planting date and vermicompost on growth and chlorophyll content of dill (Anethum graveolens L.)]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 232-236 (2014). Department of Agronomy Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey,Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : hzahedi2006@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

In order to study the effects of different planting dates and vermicompost rates on growth and chlorophyll content of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), an experiment was carried out in the fields of College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Shahre-Rey, Iran during 2012 growing season. Four planting dates : 13 and 23 April as well as 3 and 13 May as main plots and five levels of vermicompost : 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 t/ha as sub-plots were studied in a split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results showed that planting dates and vermicompost treatments had significant effect on dill growth and development. Seed sowing in early April had positive effect on dill growth as well. Furthermore, increase in vermicompost level led to increase in dill growth and flowering. Generally, seed sowing on 13 or 23 April was found as the best planting dates and application of 32 t/ha vermicompost was recommended for dill production.

34.  O. ASKARI-KHORASGANI*, F. MORTAZAEINEZHAD, A. R. GOLPARVAR AND A. SOLEYMANI [In vitro bacterial decontamination of Kelussia odoratissima seed during dormancy breaking]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 237-247 (2014). Department of Horticulture Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : oaskari@ymail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Kelussia odoratissima (Apiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant indigenous to Iran. Seeds of this plant have a long-term dormancy. This study aimed at obtaining in vitro method to reduce microbial contamination, overcome seed dormancy and to disclose the type of classification system of seed dormancy. After using completely randomized design and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test, the significance of between individual group’s means was assessed. Results revealed that only one gram negative bacterium strain, Klebsiella sp., was isolated from the contaminated culture. Applying 500 mg/l copper sulphate for 6 min during seed sterilization, the contamination was eradicated. During cold stratification, to estimate the effect of exogenous application of cytikinin hormones, N6-furfurylaninopurine (Kin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with each other, pre-soaking treatment with tioureae as a nitrogen compound and seed osmopriming with polyethylene glycole (PEG 6000), alone or in combination with BAP, the highest final seed germination (92.5%) was obtained on medium containing 1 mg/l BAP combined with 1 mg/l Kin. The lowest mean germination time (45.81 days) was also obtained on medium containing 0.25 mg/l BAP. Since using tiourea was simple and economical, with 80% final seed germination (using 0.2% thiourea) this can be an excellent way to promote seed germination of this plant. Considering the efficacy of treatments and growing of zygotic embryo without cold temperature exposure, seed dormancy mechanism identified as non-deep physiological dormancy and particularly chemical dormancy classification.

35.  YAMING ZHAI*, CHENGLI ZHU, LIHUA CHEN AND MAOMAO HOU [Comparative study on different simulation models of flue-cured tobacco LAI variation under salinity condition]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 248-253 (2014). Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing-210 098,China *(e-mail : 332155763@qq.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

In order to simulate the dynamic changes of flue-cured tobacco leaf area index (LAI) and predict the tobacco yield under different salinity and fertilizer levels, a field experiment with six treatments for flue-cured tobaccos was carried out at a plastic sheet covered greenhouse in south China, and three models including the linear model, exponential model and crop growth model were used to simulate the tobacco LAI dynamic changes varying with days after transplanted. Results showed that the dynamic change of LAI presented a single-peak curve, and the changes of LAI could be divided into three stages, including the slower growth period, the acceleration period and the recession period. The linear simulation model, exponential simulation model and the crop growth model could well simulate the dynamic changes of flue-cured tobacco LAI, with the correlation coefficient of 0.8738~0.9027, 0.9964~0.9985 and 0.9924~0.9972, respectively; the linear model had the same parameter number as the exponential simulation model, but the simulation accuracy of which was poorer than that of exponential simulation model. Although the crop growth model had more parameters to fit, most of the parameters had practical significance and were conducive to provide useful information for the LAI simulations and predictions. In general, the exponential model and the crop growth model were more satisfactory in simulating the dynamic changes of LAI since they possessed the better simulation precision, and the deciders could consider using the crop growth model or the exponential model according to the actual requirement : if the more comprehensive information of tobacco LAI was needed, the crop growth model should be the first choice; and if the simpler calculation process and shorter calculation time were required, then the exponential simulation model could be firstly taken into consideration.

 

36.   Mahmood Pooryousef AND KHOSHNOOD ALIZADEH* [Effect of foliar application of free amino acids on alfalfa performance under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 254-258 (2014). Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran *(e-mail : khdizaj@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

         This work investigated the efficiency of free amino acid compounds to improve production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under rainfed conditions during 2011-12. Experiment was conducted as complete randomized block design with three replications at three already established alfalfa cv. Garayonja fields. There was two different spraying times including one spray at early 4-6 leaves stage and three times spraying started at 4-6 leaves stage with two weeks’ intervals. The experiment included 12 treatments resulting from factorial of six spray treatments and two spraying times. Spray treatments included Aminol-forte, Kadostim, Fosnutren and Humiforte at 1 l/ha, along with water spray and no spray as control. Results indicated that increasing the spraying times of plants with amino acid compounds significantly (P<0.01) increased plant height, dry biomass weight and crude protein content compared to control. Different amino acid compounds showed different effects regarding the studied traits. The highest fresh biomass (14 t/ha) achieved in using Kadestim which was 100% more than control. Application of Aminol-forte resulted in the highest crude protein content (22%) comparing 17% in the control. It was concluded that foliar spray of free amino acids could enhance the quality and quantity of alfalfa in the rainfed conditions.
37.  Xiangyang LIU, Guoqing LI and Yan SHI* [Effects of collocation of different fertilizers on photosynthesis characteristics of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 259-263 (2014). Dryland Technology Key Laboratory of Shandong Province in Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong-266 109, China *(e-mail : yanshi@qau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The effects of collocation of different fertilizers on photosynthesis characteristics of stevia rebaudiana bertoni were studied in the open field of qingdao agricultural university. The results indicated that the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of the fertilizer treatments were higher than that of no fertilization (ck), and concentration of intercellular co2 of the fertilizer treatments was lower than ck. The indicators on chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of organic fertilizer treatments before 60 days after transplanting were lower than fertilizer treatment. And after 60 days after transplanting, organic fertilizer treatment on these indicators was higher than that of ck. And the concentrations of intercellular co2 of organic fertilizer and decomposed S. rebaudiana Bertoni leaf (t4) were lower than others. The effects of collocation of different fertilizers on photosynthesis characteristics of S. rebaudiana Bertoni were studied in the open field of Qingdao Agricultural University.

38.  QIN MING SUN, TONG LIU*, ZHI QUAN HAN AND HUA FENG LIU [Effects of climate changes on vegetation cover in the northern Tianshan mountains using multiple time scales]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 264-269 (2014). College of Life Science Shihezi University, Shihezi-832 000, Xinjiang, China *(e-mail : betula@126.com)

ABSTRACT

 

This paper analyzes climate-vegetation correlations over 30 years in the northern Tianshan mountains in Xinjiang Province. The analysis combines the wavelet cross-correlation technique with trend analysis and spline interpolation. The study areas include the Irtysh River, Bortala Valley, Ili River Valley, the northern slope of the Tianshan mountains and the western Junggar Basin. Daily meteorological data were acquired from 21 eligible weather stations between January 1, 1981 and December 31, 2009, inclusive. The satellite data comprise NOAA/AVHRR NDVI digital images (1981-2001) and SPOT-4 VEGETATION NDVI digital images (1998-2010). The results showed that (a) the correlation between early climate changes and subsequent vegetation had multiple-time-scale and time-lag characteristics. In all regions, the overall correlations were similar on different time scales; (b) The most useful time scale for evaluating precipitation effects was 15 ten-day periods, while the optimal time lag was 5 ten-day periods. The exception was the western Junggar Basin (where the optimal time lag was 2 ten-day periods); (c) The most useful time scale for evaluating temperature effects was 15 ten-day periods, except in the western Junggar Basin (where the most useful time scale was 10 ten-day periods) and (d) Early changes in temperature were more correlated with subsequent vegetation than with early changes in precipitation.

 

39.  SUN XIAO-SONG*, LIU AN-PING, SUN XIAO-NAN AND YAO XING-XING [Migration and transformation of Cr6+ in soil environment]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 270-274 (2014). The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission Chongqing University, Chongqing-400 044, China *(e-mail : sunxs@cqu.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Through the adsorption and permeation experiments, the authors explored the adsorption characteristics and permeability characteristics of the Cr6+ in different soils (sandy loam, clay loam and clay). Introduced an adoption to the soil flaps to concuss a machine, the shot solid type permeates instrument and the high velocity centrifuge to separate the pure liquid for the experiment material and method of measuring the density. The experimental results show that the adsorptions of Cr6+ are in line with Langmuir equation. The three kinds of soils saturated absorptions are 181, 203 and 242 mg/kg. We also found that would change the soil texture and increase soil permeability coefficient when it was infiltrated in soil. The results provide the basis for the governance of the chromium contaminated sites repairing and preventing the spread of contamination.

 

40.  LU LIU, LAN LAN HAN, CHUN JIE PANG AND KUI JUN ZHAO* [Identification and characteristic analysis of the heat shock protein 70 of Hypena tristalis (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 275-280 (2014). Agricultural College North-east Agricultural University, Harbin-150 030, China *(e-mail : kjzhao@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

The experiment began in June 2011, and completed in December 2012 in the insects laboratory of the North-east Agricultural University, Harbin, China. The Hypena tristalis (Htri) was collected in the North-east Agricultural University Xiang Fang farm. For the purposes of research on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) gene of H. tristalis treated by heat stress, with changes in expression level in different induction times, RT-PCR technology was adopted for cloning to obtain a 1905 bp HSP 70 fragment of H. tristalis (GenBank accession number JQ316541), 635 amino acid residues were encoded, the predicted molecular weight was about 69.6 kD, and the isoelectric point was 5.36. The online bioinformatics prediction and analysis showed that the homology of the nucleotide sequence of H. tristalis HSP 70 with that of Helicoverpa armigera (accession number HM593518) was the highest one, which was 96%; the similarity was more than 70% while comparing with other insects. A 69.6 kD heterologous protein was detected in the HSP 70 prokaryotic expression (pET/Htri), and the protein was branded by Western blot detection. These results provide basic data for further research on the function of HSP 70 protein and for the pest control by thermal stress.

 

41. CAI Chengzhi*, LIU Juan, ZHANG Wen and Massimiliano M. SCHIRALDI [Un-sustainability of global ecosystem based on the carrying capacity of agro-ecosystem]. Res. on Crops 15 (1) : 281-285 (2014). Institute of Economics Guizhou University of Finance & Economics, Guiyang-550 025, China *(e-mail : caichengzhi@263.net)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The yield potentials of crops were projected by three different methods : (1) The yield potentials of the majority of global crops were projected by the regression analysis of the historical annual crop yield data to be 2 to 3 times of their current yields, (2) The yield potentials of rice, wheat, maize, potato, rapeseed and soybean for China were projected by the AEZ model developed by IIASA and FAO to be 1.2, 2.0, 2.0, 1.8, 2.1 and 1.9 times of its 2010 countrywide average, respectively, and (3) The yield potentials of global rice, wheat, maize, potato, rapeseed and soybean were projected to be 1.4, 2.5, 1.2, 1.8, 1.9 and 2.2 times of its present record yield, respectively, by the maximum light use efficiency (LUE) of plant model. The projected potential crop yields of our study indicate that the carrying capacity of global agro-ecosystem is limited. Thus, in a closed system such as the global ecosystem is not sustainable. Human can only do his best to postpone the inevitable “ending”. Thus, the earlier the human takes action, the better chance is for the humanity to survive.