Volume 14, Number 4 (December, 2013)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

1.   JINLONG GONG, HONGCHENG ZHANG*, YAJIE HU, HOUYUAN LONG, YONG CHANG, JIE LI, BAOWEI GUO, QIGEN DAI, ZHONGYANG HUO, KE XU, HAIYAN WEI AND HUI GAO [A new cropping model for rice and wheat adapted to temperature change]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 969-984 (2013). Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in the Yangtze River Valley Ministry of Agriculture & Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province Yangzhou University, 48 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu-225 009, China *(e-mail : hczhang@yzu.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

        

The objective of this study was to seek a new cultivation model of rice and wheat for high grain yield and resource utilization efficiency (RUE). A field experiment was conducted with rice planting methods and maturity-typed rice cultivars together with corresponding sowing dates of wheat on the rice-wheat annual production in 2008-11. Results showed that, in comparison with wheat, rice possessed higher grain yield, grain yield per day, production efficiency of temperature and solar energy utilization, and lower growth duration and solar radiation, with the roughly same level of effective accumulated temperature. Therefore, it was proposed to create longer growing season for rice because of its high productivity and utilization of temperature and solar radiation in the rice-wheat double cropping rotation. Late maturity rice and late sowing wheat (DL) cultivation model for rice and wheat was an important approach of increasing annual productivity via increasing effective accumulated temperature and solar radiation or utilization of temperature and solar radiation.

 

2.   Deepthi L. Wathugala*, T. S. D. Jayakodi, A. S. Ranagalage and H. M. S. Kumarasinghe [Evaluation of allelopathic potential of Sri Lankan improved rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties for control of Echinochloa crus-galli]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 985-994 (2013). Department of Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka *(e-mail : lakmini077@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Observation of apparent allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has recently drawn great attention as a tool in sustainable weed management. Three experiments field, laboratory and greenhouse were conducted to identify allelopathic traits of nine Sri Lankan improved (BG 359, LD 365, BG 407, AT 401, BG 358, AT 362, AT 402, BG 450 and BG 300) and two traditional (Herathbanda and Handiran) rice cultivars on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), a popular rice weed in Sri Lanka. Results showed that there was a significant variation in allelopathic potential of these selected rice cultivars for growth and development of E. crus-galli. In all experiments, LD 365 rice cultivar exhibited the highest inhibition percentages to E. crus-galli seed germination, growth and development, while Herathbanda and BG 359 showed lowest inhibition percentages. As an example in the green house experiment the LD 365 cultivar showed the greatest inhibition percentages on dry weight (75%), plant height (41.9%) and seed germination (36.7%), whereas Herathbanda a traditional cultivar showed 34, 23.4 and 18.1% inhibition percentages, respectively. In field experiment, BG 300 also showed highest inhibitory effects by reducing E. crus-galli grain weight (60.4%).While residue extracts of BG 450 also exhibited the greatest inhibition on E. crus-galli seed germination at laboratory bioassay. These results suggest that there is a variation among Sri Lankan improved rice cultivars to suppress E. crus-galli seed germination, growth and development.

 

3.   Heng Wang, Yang Wang*, Jingshuang Liu, Qiang Liu and Jingjing Zhang [Toxic effects of combined accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cu) on rice]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 995-1000 (2013). North-east Institute of Geography and Agro Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China *(e-mail : wangyangw@neigae.ac.cn)

ABSTRACT         

 

Metals have strong influence on development and growth of rice. To simulate how rice is affected and accumulation from heavy metal contamination under combined condition by field experiment was conducted with rice at control (no pollution) and other five concentration gradient treatments of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) were set-up in a completely randomized design with three replications. Dry weight and yield were measured and monitored heavy metals accumulation in rice tissues at each growth period of rice. The results revealed that the growth and development of rice plants were strongly influenced under combined pollution. Root was more sensitive to soil Pb, Cd and Cu toxicity than other parts of rice plant. The rice grains Pb and Cd concentrations separately exceed the recommended safe limit (0.2 and 0.1 mg/kg), except the treatment Pb100Cd0.3Cu50, which means that rice grown in combined pollution soils poses more risk to human health.

 

4.     MJAGJOT SINGH GILL* and SOHAN SINGH WALIA** [Effect of foliar feeding of micronutrients on yield and quality of direct-seeded basmati rice]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1001-1006 (2013). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 001 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : jagjotsinghgill@yahoo.co.in; ** sohanwalia72@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT   

 

To investigate the effect of foliar feeding of micronutrients ZnSO­4 0.5%, MnSO­4 0.5% and FeSO­4 1.0% at 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) to basmati rice, a field experiment was conducted during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 with 13 treatments in randomized block design. The soil was sandy loam with normal soil reaction and electrical conductivity, low in organic carbon and available N and medium in available P and K. Results indicated that Fe4 and Mn4 treatments being at par with each other gave significantly higher spikelets/panicle, grains/panicle, grain and biological yields. Application of micronutrients ZnSO4 0.5%, MnSO4 0.5% and FeSO4 1.0% by foliar sprays at different growth stages of basmati rice had non-significant effect on straw yield, brown, milled and head rice recovery, length : width ratio of paddy, length : width ratio of head rice of basmati, protein and amylose content, minimum cooking time, elongation ratio, water uptake ratio and length : width ratio of cooked milled basmati rice.

 

5.         TAO CHEN, JIANFENG QIN, SHIHONG XU, MIN HUANG AND LIGENG JIANG* [Effects of no-tillage on rhizosphere soil nutrient contents and root lipid peroxidation and antioxidative properties of irrigated rice]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1007-1013 (2013). Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute, Nanning-530 001, China *(e-mail : jiang@gxu.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT   

No-tillage (NT) often leads to decreased root growth in irrigated rice at early growth stage. This study was conducted to determine NT effects on rhizosphere soil nutrient contents and root lipid peroxidation and antioxidative properties of irrigated rice and identify whether these effects are responsible for the decreased root growth in NT rice. Pot experiments were conducted in two seasons (early and late). A hybrid rice cultivar was grown under NT and conventional tillage (CT) in each season. Root biomass decreased by 31% in early season and by 34% in late season under NT as compared to under CT. NT had equal or higher available nutrient contents in rhizosphere soil than CT in both the seasons. Root malondialdehyde content was higher under NT than under CT in late season, while the difference was insignificant in early season. Root antioxidative enzyme activities under NT were lower than under CT, and the differences in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were smaller in late season than in early season. Our study suggests that soil nutrient supply and root oxidative damage are not general factors contributing to the decreased root growth in NT rice, and superoxide dismutase and catalase are sensitive to the oxidative damage in NT rice roots.

6.     ZUHAIR HASNAIN* AND HAKOOMAT ALI [Location, nitrogen and zinc interactions on aromatic rice yield in central Punjab, Pakistan]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1014-1022 (2013). Adaptive Research Farm Sheikhupura and Sargodha (Punjab), Pakistan *(e-mail : zuhair.hasnain@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT     

A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) application on yield and yield components of fine rice (cv. Super Basmati) at Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura and Sargodha over a period of two growing seasons (2009 and 2010). Five levels of N (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha) and five levels of Zn (0, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg/ha) were selected for this study. The grain yield of Basmati rice increased significantly with successive increase in N doses from 0 to 120 kg/ha. Similarly, increasing Zn application rate also significantly increased grain yield up to Zn5 (14 kg/ha). It was noted that interaction between N and Zn application had significant effect over paddy yield and yield components at both the sites. Correlation between yield and yield components was also found to be highly positive and significant.

7.     ZUHAIR HASNAIN* AND HAKOOMAT ALI [Kernel quality and morphological traits of scented rice (cv. Super Basmati) in relation to nitrogen and zinc application]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1023-1031 (2013). Adaptive Research Farm Sheikhupura and Sargodha (Punjab), Pakistan *(e-mail : zuhair.hasnain@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT         

Two-year field study was conducted at Adaptive Research Farms Sheikhupura and Sargodha with the objective to investigate the impact of nitrogen and zinc fertilization on kernel quality and morphological traits of scented rice, and genotype Super Basmati was selected for this study. Results indicated that increasing applications of nitrogen and zinc had positive influence on kernel quality and morphological characters of Super Basmati, and from two sites data of two growing seasons concluded that 120 kg N/ha and application of zinc @ 14 kg/ha seemed best to obtain optimum response in fine rice. Correlation coefficient between grain yield and morphological characteristics of aromatic rice was also studied and the data showed that grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with quality attributes at both the experimental sites.

 

8.     Ming He, Zhen-Chao Wang, Zhuo Chen, Lin-Hong Jin, Shang-Feng Zhou, Song Yang, Yan Zhao, Rong Guo and Peng He* [Analysis of gene expression of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in rice planting regions of China]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1032-1041 (2013). State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang-550 025, China *(e-mail : hepeng.insect@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

               Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is mainly transmitted by the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent propagative manner. In recent years, SRBSDV has caused serious rice yield losses in southern China, with the four hardest-hit provinces being Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Jiangxi. The virus whole-gene expression in an SRBSDV-infected rice plant is still unclear. In this study, A SYBR Green I based real-time polymerase chain reaction method was constructed for the quantitative detection of SRBSDV gene expression in rice plants from different planting regions. We investigated and analyzed for the first time the expression of all 13 opening reading frames of SRBSDV in the rice plants using real-time qPCR. The results showed that P7-1, P9-1 and P2 were the most highly expressed genes. By contrast, the putative silencing suppressor gene P6 displayed the lowest expression among the 13 genes in all regions. Additionally, tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that white waxy balls had the highest expression among the studied tissues, whereas leaves had the lowest. P7-1, P9-1 and P2 were the dominantly expressed genes. Our results also provided a basis for further investigations on how SRBSDV coordinates its own gene expression during its interactions with plant hosts.

 

 

9.         T. Parthipan and V. Ravi [Growth and yield of transplanted rice as influenced by weed management strategies and its residual effect on succeeding blackgram]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1042-1046 (2013). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TNAU), Aduthurai-612 101 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT        

Rice is the most important cereal crop which plays major role in Indian food economy as well as dietary needs of the world. A major hindrance in the successful cultivation of rice in the tropics is heavy infestation of weeds. Hence, the field investigations were carried out at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai during wet seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the effect of integrated weed management on growth and yield of transplanted rice and its residual effect on succeeding blackgram. Ten weed control treatments were tested in randomised block design replicated thrice. Treatments consisted of application of pre-emergence herbicides viz., clomazone 500 g/ha, clomazone+2, 4-DEE 500 g/ha alone and their integration with one hand weeding (HW) on 45 DAT; butachlor 1250 g/ha+HW on 45 DAT; pretilachlor 500 g/ha+HW on 45 DAT; post-emergence herbicide bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha on 15 DAT + HW on 45 DAT and pre-plant incorporation of glyphosate 2.5 l/ha at 15 days before transplanting followed by (fb) pre-emergence application of bensulfuron methyl plus pretilachlor 660 g/ha on 3 DAT tested with two hand weedings on 25 and 45 DAT and unweeded control. The results revealed that the lowest weed dry weight and higher grain yield were recorded under two hand weedings and this was at par with application of bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha on 15 DAT fb HW on 45 DAT. Reduction in grain yield to the tune of 47.02 and 53.79% was recorded by unweeded control during both the years, respectively. The results indicated that the herbicides applied in rice did not show their residual effects on succeeding blackgram.

10.   MURAT TIRYAKIOGLU*, MEHMET YILDIRIM, SEMA KARANLIK AND NURAY ERGÜN [Micronutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn) concentration and remobilization in spring wheat organs during grain filling]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1047-1053 (2013). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, 31000, Hatay/Turkey *(e-mail : mtiryaki27@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            

The trials were conducted during 2008-09 and 2009-10 wheat growing seasons. Four wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in field conditions to study Fe, Mn and Zn content in different plant organs during the grain-filling period. Micronutrient contents of plant organs including lower stems, peduncle, lower leaves, flag leaf, rachis, florets and grain were measured at four stages between anthesis and physiological maturity. Analysis of variance showed high genotype and measurement stage effects for all plant organs. Fe contents in stems declined during grain filling, whereas it increased for rachis, florets and grain, and remained constant in leaves. Mn content of plant parts stayed generally constant until grain maturity, except in stems. Zn sharply decreased during grain filling for all plant parts, except grain. The micronutrients remobilization order from plant organs to grain was Zn<Fe<Mn and all nutrients were accepted as removable at grain development stages. The peduncle had the dominant contribution to remobilization for Zn and Mn. Fe remobilization to grain was supported mainly by leaves. Identification of the genotypes that have high remobilization capacity can be valuable to increase grain micronutrient content by foliar micronutrient applications. Relationships among micronutrients and their relationships with plant organs can be put to use via indirect selection in wheat breeding efforts.

.

11.   DALEI LU, XUEMEI CAI, XULI SUN, RENCHAO XU, XIN WANG AND WEIPING LU* [Grain quality of waxy corn in fresh state and at maturity]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1054-1061 (2013). Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China *(e-mail : wplu@yzu.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Understanding the differences of grain qualities in the fresh state and at maturity is beneficial for the eating quality of waxy corn. Physico-chemical characteristics of flours from five waxy corn cultivars in the fresh state (harvested at 23 days after pollination) and at maturity (harvested at 40 days after pollination) were studied to determine their proper utilization. Flours harvested at maturity presented higher starch content and lower protein content, lmax and blue value compared with that harvested in the fresh state. In general, crystallinity and swelling power were higher at maturity than in the fresh state; the reverse was true for solubility and light transmittance. Pasting temperature and transition temperature (To, Tp, Tc) was lower when harvested at maturity than its counterpart that harvested in the fresh state. Huaikenuo3 harvested in the fresh state exhibited higher viscosity characteristics, whereas better viscosity characteristics were detected for Heshengnuo1512 harvested at maturity. Flours harvested at maturity had lower PHI as well as a wider R range, while DHgel and %R response to harvest date was cultivar-dependent. Of the five cultivars, the %R values for Heshengnuo1512 at both the stages were relatively lower, indicating its lower retrogradation tendency.

 

12.   HUI MAO, JIANWEI WANG, YALING ZAN, HUBING ZHAO AND ZHAOHUI WANG* [Mineral nutritional quality of grains improved by soil application of Se and Zn in Loess Plateau of China]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1062-1072 (2013). College of Natural Resources and Environment North-west A & F University State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas Yangling, Shaanxi-712 100, China *(e-mail : w-zhaohui@263.net)

ABSTRACT

 

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) malnutrition is a serious threat to the health of people in China owning to the Se- or Zn-deficient soil grown grain. A survey and a field experiment were conducted to study the effect of soil Se and Zn application on four grain crops on the Loess Plateau in China. The crops responded differently to Se and Zn application. The yields of spring maize (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) increased. However, the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) did not significantly increase. The grain Se content in the Se+Zn treatment for maize increased from 0.01 mg/kg in the control to 1.67 mg/kg, compared with that of wheat from 0.02 to 4.49 mg/kg, that of soybean from 0.05 to 2.23 mg/kg, and that of canola from 0.01 to 0.07 mg/kg. Grain Zn content in the Se+Zn treatment for maize increased from 16.4 mg/kg in the control to 18.3 mg/kg, and that of canola from 28.5 to 35.7 mg/kg, whereas no significant increase was observed for wheat and soybean. Neither Se nor Zn application degraded the macro- or micro-nutritional quality of grains. Soil application of Na2SeO4 was more effective for the increase of grain Se content than soil application of ZnSO4.7H2O for the increase of grain Zn content. Maize, wheat and soybean were more responsive to Se application; conversely, canola was more responsive to Zn application.

 

13.   N. S. Mokgehle, I. K. Mariga* and D. Maposa [Studies on nutritional profiles and determination of research foci for improvement and enhanced management of traditional mustard rape varieties]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1073-1081 (2013). School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University of Limpopo, P Bag X 1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : Irvine.Mariga@ul.ac.za)

 

ABSTRACT   

Mustard rape or Chinese cabbage, locally known as Mutshaina (comprising B. juncea and B. rapa species), is grown as a traditional vegetable by smallholder farmers in the North-Eastern part of South Africa. Little research has been conducted on mutshaina and there is very little documentation on the nutritional characteristics of the local varieties nor potential for their improvement, including enhanced management. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of the varieties grown in South Africa, as well as determine production constraints, with a view to identify researchable niches for improving the germplasm and production methods. The survey revealed that the major aspects of crop management that need improvement were delayed flowering of Dabadaba and Zimbabwe, seedling management for enhanced field establishment, efficiency and adequacy of fertilizer application and adequate irrigation. The effectiveness of the many indigenous control methods used to control Bagrada bug (Bagrada hilaris), small termites (Nasutitermes spp.), aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) and flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae) need to be evaluated.The nutritional profiles of mutshaina varieties grown in South Africa show that it is a valuable food that merits attention by plant breeders to improve it on those aspects it is lacking in. The three mutshaina varieties were superior to Swiss chard in protein, calcium, sodium and energy content, while Swiss chard had higher levels of potassium, ash and fibre content than the mutshaina varieties. Florida broadleaf (B. juncea) was generally superior in nutritional attributes than the two varieties of B. rapa.

 

14.   Rajender Singh*, Dhiraj Singh and Harbinder Singh [Variability in Alternaria brassicae incitant of Alternaria blight of oilseed Brassica]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1082-1088 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : rsb1965@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                       Pathogenic variability of purified 98 isolates collected from Haryana state of India of oilseed Brassica species was analysed to identify virulent pathotype for screening and breed resistant genotypes of oilseed brassica against it. Studies were conducted over 11 host differential of oilseed Brassica species under controlled and field conditions, eight types of variants were grouped on the basis of resistant and susceptible reactions, incubation and latent period, lesion spot size and Alternaria blight severity. Isolates of Rewari and Fatehabad districts were able to infect all host differentials followed by Bhiwani district isolates on 10 differentials and minimum numbers of host differential (7) were infected by Rohtak district isolates. Minimum incubation (IP) and latent period (LP) of 4-5 and 6-7 days, respectively, were required by Rewari district isolates and maximum IP and LP 6-8 and 8-10 days were observed from Rohtak district isolates. Average maximum size of spots formed by Rewari district isolates and minimum size of spots was also induced by Rohtak district isolates. Similarly, maximum Alternaria blight severity (24.6%) was expressed by Rewari district isolates (group-1) and least by Rohtak district isolate (group-6). Brassica juncea var. Varuna contracted maximum disease severity (24.6%) and minimum by Brassica alba (2.9%). Therefore, Rewari district isolates were most virulent, while Rohtak district isolates were least virulent. Hence, Rewari district isolates can be used for screening of oilseed Brassica germplam. B. alba can be harnessed as donor parent for breeding resistance/tolerant variety of oilseed brassica against Alternaria blight.

15.   Fan Zhixiong, Lei Weixia, Yu Xiaoping, Chen Fengxiang* and Wang Hanzhong [Genetic diversity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with field freezing tolerance at seedling stage]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1089-1094 (2013). Crops Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei-230 031, China *(e-mail : oilseedaaas@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            Freezing tolerant resources are the basis for breeding freezing tolerant hybrids in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Forty-four inbred lines with good freezing tolerance performance at seedling stage in the field were selected in five consecutive growing seasons. At the same time, both the flowering time and maturity were investigated, too. For most of winter-type lines, the tolerance was found to link with late flowering time and maturity. Interestingly, although they had earlier flowering time and maturity, the spring-type lines were characterized with freezing tolerance comparable with the winter-type lines. Also it is amazing to find that it is possible to select freezing tolerant lines with early maturity in winter-type oilseed rapes. Genetic diversity of the 44 lines was analyzed using SRAP markers. Clustering analysis based on similarity coefficient showed that at the point 0.642 these 44 lines could be divided into four potential heterotic groups. The cluster analysis supported the classification based on geographical origin and pedigrees.

16.   A. Tarinejad*, M. Khakpour, A. Shirzad and M. Tohidfar [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene to canola genome]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1095-1099 (2013). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : atarinejad@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              Fungal diseases, especially Rhizoctonia solani, greatly reduce the quantity and quality of oil seeds. Bean chit gene (coding chitinase enzyme) transfer can improve plant resistance against fungal diseases and subsequently reduce the use of chemical pesticides and associated environmental hazards. Transfer of chit gene under the control of CaMV35S driver was investigated in two hypocotyls and cotyledon explants of Okapi cultivar considering the influential factors in transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, LBA4404 strain. Screening of transgenic plants by antibiotics kanamycin was performed in two stages. In the first stage, kanamycin (50 mg/l) was used in the composition of culture medium, and in the second stage of screening, leaf discs were provided from probable transformed plants. Leaf segments were transferred into tubes that contain (50 mg/l) kanamycin and (0/1 mg/l) BAP and remained for two weeks in this solution. The leaves of plants which remained green were selected, and finally, the presence of chit gene was confirmed with specific primers of chit by PCR reaction. Application of two screening steps resulted in decrease of costs, time and number of molecular analysis. Results showed that co-cultivation and inoculation of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants at the same time (48 h), OD600=0.6 and application of kanamycin on culture medium after one week increased transformation efficiency.

17.   CHANGXING ZHAO, XI CHENG, MINGLUN WANG AND YUEFU WANG* [Effects of drought stress at different growth stages and rehydration on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield of peanuts]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1100-1109 (2013). Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming Technology & College of Agronomy and Plant Protection Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong-266 109, China *(e-mail : wangyuefu01@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                      

In this study, under the conditions of cement pool culture and through artificial water control, the effects of drought stress at various growth stages and rehydration on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield of peanuts were investigated. The study results showed that at the different growth stages, after drought stress, peanut leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm and ÖPS II were reduced by varying degrees, and these reductions increased with the increase of drought degree. Among these stages, the drought degree was shown to decrease minimally at the pod-filling stage, moderately at the seedling stage, and maximally at the pod-pegging and pod-setting stages. As may be seen from the respective recovery degrees after rehydration at the different growth stages, the recovery level was highest at the seedling stage, moderate at the pod-pegging stage, and lowest at the pod-setting stage. The effect of drought on the pod yield was minimal at the seedling stage, moderate at the pod-filling stage, and maximal at the pod-pegging and pod-setting stages. The authors believe that the soil water shortage is sensitive at the pod-pegging and pod-setting stages, during which if drought occurs then irrigation must be performed.

 

18.   Chuan Tang Wang*, Yue Yi Tang, Xiu Zhen Wang, Qi Wu, Zhen Yang, Kun Jiao, Guo Sheng Song and Jian Zhi Xu [Effect of FAD2A/FAD2B genes on fatty acid profiles in peanut seeds]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1110-1113 (2013). Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao-266 100, China *(e-mail : chinapeanut@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                    A multiple linear regression approach was exploited to quantify the contribution of FAD2 to fatty acid profile in peanut. Fatty acid contents in single peanut seeds of two F2 populations derived from normal oleate × high oleate crosses were determined by gas chromatography and FAD2A/FAD2B genotype was analyzed by allele-specific PCR assay. According to the multiple linear regression models, 60% of the variation in oleic or linoleic acid content, about 50% of the variation in palmitic acid and lower than 25% of the variation in eicosenoic acid could be explained by the genotypic effect of FAD2A and FAD2B. FAD2BM generally had absolute values of regression coefficients higher than FAD2AM, suggesting that FAD2B might be more important than FAD2A in conditioning fatty acid biosynthesis/accumulation. The study indicated that factors other than FAD2A/FAD2B might also affect fatty acid profiles in peanut.

 

19.   WenZhi Zeng, Chi Xu, JingWei Wu*, JieSheng Huang, MouSong Wu and Hui Lin [Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to salt stress as evaluated through lysimeter experiments, statistical tools and modelling analysis]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1114-1122 (2013). 1State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science Wuhan University, Wuhan-430 072, China *(e-mail : wujingweiwhu@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of salt stress on sunflower growth through lysimeter experiments, statistical tools and model analysis. The experiment was conducted in Hetao Irrigation District, China. Three levels of soil salinity (EC1 : 5 from 0.61-2.06 dS/m) were applied to 15 soil lysimeters and results indicated that both the average initial soil salinity and non-uniform salt distribution could affect relative yield of sunflower significantly and increasing initial salinity levels from 0.61-1.40 to 1.70-2.06 dS/m could reduce 32.7% relative yield. Furthermore, EC0-10 cm and EC0-40 cm (before sowing), EC0-40 cm (at seedling stage), EC20-30 cm (at bud formation), EC0-40 cm (at flowering) and EC0-40 cm (at milky ripe stage) were selected as salt predictor variables on the basis of multivariate regression analysis and established yield models by these indicators could achieve larger accuracy when using modified Jensen model (R=0.915). Moreover, the largest accuracy was obtained in the stepwise regression model established by agronomic and photosynthetic characteristics of sunflower in different growing periods (R=0.972).

 

20.   Seyed Alireza Valadabadi* and Abouzar Abbasian [Effects of water stress, zeolite and mycorrhiza on quantitative and morphological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1123-1127 (2013). Faculty of Agriculture Shahr-e-Gods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : s.al.valadabadi@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            In order to better understand the effects of mycorrhiza (Glomus fasciculatum) and zeolite on quantitative and morphological characteristics of safflower under water deficit condition, an experiment was conducted as split plot-factorial with four replications at Islamic Azad University of Shahr-e-Gods Branch, Iran during 2011-12. The main plot factor included : three levels of irrigation regimes on the basis of 100, 150 and 200 mm evaporation from class A pan and sub-plots which consisted of application of zeolite (0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and application and non-application of mycorrhiza. The results showed that the traits were all highly significantly different under water deficit condition and zeolite application. Mycorrhiza affected grain and oilseed yield. The results also showed that the highest of grain and oilseed yields were obtained from application of zeolite (15 t/ha) under normal irrigation. In general, it appears that application of zeolite and mycorrhiza improved yield and other plant parameters under water deficit.

21.      NIMET KARA* AND HASAN BAYDAR [Influence of distillation time and fractions on essential oil content and composition of lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Lois)]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1128-1134 (2013). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : nimetkara@sdu.edu.tr)

 

ABSTRACT

  The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of nine distillation times (DT 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 180 and 240 min) and 11 distillation fractions (DF 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 min) on essential oil content and composition of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super A). Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation method. Composition of essential oil was identified with GC/MS. Lavandin essential oil content increased with length of the DT and reached maximum at 180 min (2.00%) DT. Fifty per cent of the total essential oil was obtained at the initial DT (5 min). Linalool, linalyl acetate, borneol, 1,8 cineole and camphor were determined as the main components in lavandin essential oils. The concentration of borneol and 1,8 cineole (2.00 and 4.8%, respectively), linalool (53.50%), camphor (2.00%) and linalyl acetate (41.50%) was high at the 0-5, 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 min, respectively, and decreased with increasing DT. In these distillation fractions, the highest essential oil content of lavandin ranged from 1.05, 0.41, 0.21 and 0.067%, respectively. As a result, distillation time may be shortened to obtain high linalool and linalyl acetate content. Also, the essential oil which is produced in early minutes, having camphor at high contents is removed and the oil produced after 20th min having camphor at lower contents is used especially in perfumery.

 

22.   Shun Feng Ge*, Yuan Mao Jiang** and Shao Chong Wei [Effect of different nitrogen forms on distribution and utilization of 15N and 13C in young Fuji/Malus hupehensis apple trees]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1135-1139 (2013). State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, P. R. China *(e-mail : geshunfeng210@126.com; **ymjiang@sdau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at investigating the plant growth, distribution, and utilization of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in apple trees in response to different N forms (NH4-N, NO3-N and urea-N). The track technology of C, N double mark was applied to study the effect of different N forms on the distribution and utilization of 15N and 13C in two-year-old young potted Fuji/Malus hupehensis apple trees. The results showed that both dry matter weight and root-cap ratio were obviously higher in the NO3-N treatment than in the urea-N and NH4-N treatments. In the three N treatments, the distribution pattern of 15N was consistent in each organ : leaves > shoots > roots > stems. However, obvious differences were found in the same organ under the different N treatments, especially in the leaves and roots. The highest and lowest distribution ratios of 15N in the leaves were found in the NO3-N and urea-N treatments, respectively. For the roots, the order was NH4-N treatment > urea-N treatment > NO3-N treatment. In addition, significant differences in 15N utilizaton efficiency were found among the three treatments. The highest 15N utilizaton efficiency was found in the NO3-N treatment, followed by the urea-N treatment and then the NH4-N treatment. The different N treatments also caused different distributions in each organ of photosynthetic products. In the NH4-N and urea-N treatments, the order of 13C distribution ratio in each organ was the same : leaves > shoots > roots > stems. In the NO3-N treatment, the order was shoots > roots > leaves > stems. Therefore, different N forms cause different physiological effects in apple trees.

 

23.   Shuang Zhong*, Guo Gang, Huicai Zeng and Zhiqiang Jin [Influence of continuous cropping on soil nematode communities in a Chinese banana plantation]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1140-1150 (2013). Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Haikou Experimental Station, Hainan Haikou-570 102, China Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement, Hainan Haikou-570 102, China *(e-mail : ongzhish@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

  To study the effect of banana continuous cropping on soil ecosystem, soil nematode community structure and diversity, as well as soil chemical properties under continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years were investigated in Hainan province, China. The results indicated that the mean relative abundances of 41 nematode genera belonging to 23 families under the six treatments were identified. The abundance of total nematodes, fungivores, the values of diversity (H’), maturity index (MI) and Wasilewska index (WI) tended to decrease from 1 to 15 years at most of the sampling stages, while the abundance of omnivores-predators, the values of dominance (ë), plant parasite index (PPI) and maturity index ratio (PPI/MI) exhibited a increase pattern. The abundance of bacterivores at the jointing and ripening stages and plant parasites at the boot stage progressively increased from 1 to 7 years and decreased again afterwards. Continuous cropping tended to decrease the values of pH, the contents of TOC, TN, NH4-N and NO3-N at most of the sampling stages. In conclusion, banana continuous cropping deteriorated soil ecosystem as evidenced by increasing soil acidity, decreasing soil C and N contents, increasing abundance of omnivores-predators and decreasing that of bacterivores and fungivores. The results indicated that nematofauna could be used to assess the effects of continuous cropping on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical indicators.

 

24.   FATIH MEHMET TOK* AND SENER KURT [Pathogenicity, races, vegetative compatibility and AFLP groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) isolates from eastern Mediterranean and south-eastern Anatolia regions of Turkey]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1151-1158 (2013). Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya, Hatay, Turkey *(e-mail : ftok@mku.edu.tr)

 

ABSTRACT

              In the 2007 and 2008 melon growing seasons, surveys were conducted in Adana, Antalya, Hatay and Mersin provinces of the Mediterranean Region and Adiyaman, Batman, Diyarbakir, Mardin, Sanliurfa provinces of south-eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. One hundred and fourteen F. oxysporum isolates were recovered from diseased melon plants. The pathogenicity was tested on melon seedlings at the one-true-leaf stage. Eighty-nine of the 114 isolates of F. oxysporum were virulent on melon seedlings. Based on disease symptoms, 89 isolates were identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom). Mutants in different phenotypic classes were paired on MM. Of 89 Fom isolates, 71 (79%) were found belonging to VCG 0138, 13 (15%) and 5 (6%) to VCG 0134 and 0133, respectively. All strains were vegetatively self-compatible. Fom isolates were grouped into three distinct clusters and eight F. oxysporum isolates grouped into one cluster. Group one included all eight F. oxysporum isolates obtained from pea plants. Group two included 14 isolates belonging to VCG 0134, group three included 57 Fom isolates belonging to VCG 0138 and five belonging to VCG 0133. Groups two and three composed of race 0 and 1, whereas group 4 contained only race 1-2.

 

25.   XIAOHOU SHAO, MAOMAO HOU AND JINGNAN CHEN* [Effects of EM-calcium spray on Ca uptake, blossom-end rot incidence and yield of greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum)]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1159-1166 (2013). Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing-210 098, China *(e-mail : 53cjn@sina.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              Calcium is well known to maintain proper membrane structure and integrity, and plays important roles in crop development and disease control. The exogenous Ca applications are a suitable choice because they improve the calcium nutrient uptake of crops. In this research, tomatoes were selected as plant materials and sprayed with the self-made EM-calcium solutions on different plant organs; aimed at investigating (1) the Ca uptake and forms in tomato fruits with different treatments and (2) the effects of EM-calcium on tomato yield and BER incidence. Results showed that EM-calcium application significantly increased content of Ca pectate, Ca phosphate and carbonate, and water-soluble Ca in tomato fruits, while had no obvious effects on calcium silicate contents; the BER incidence of different EM-calcium treatments was 2.23-13.39% lower compared to that of CK (22.81%); after supplied with EM-calcium, the marketable tomato yield was increased to be the maximum value of 26.67 t/ha; it was also suggested that spraying EM-calcium on tomato leaves or young fruits obtained better results in increasing tomato yields and controlling the BER incidence; based on the observation of Ca accumulation in tomato leaves, roots and stems, it was deduced that foliar-spraying EM-calcium promoted the calcium translocation from the leaves to another organ which needed calcium most. The study conclusions indicated that the preparation of EM-calcium was a successful attempt, which was beneficial for the tomato cultivation and BER prevention.

 

26.   BAI-GE ZHANG, QIANG LI, QIONG-XIAN CHEN*, JIAN CAO AND SHAO-BO LUO [Effects of different potassium doses on growth of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) and possible use of SPAD for quick diagnosis]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1167-1174 (2013). Vegetable Research Institute Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science, 510640, Guangzhou, China *(e-mail : plantgroup@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) production faces growing challenge from long-term over fertilizing. Potassium is the biggest demand and one of the most frequently overused nutrients for Chinese kale, inducing extensive environment and safe concern. Quick and accurate response to nutrient requirement is an effective solution. Therefore, pot experiments were conducted to study the influence of potassium fertilizer in different rates on the growth and nutrition utilization capacity of Chinese kale and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter was evaluated throughout season for its potential to determine the need for K fertilizer by Chinese kale. Potassium fertilizers were added to soil at five levels : 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg soil as KCl. The K rates were found to affect the growth of the leaves and stems, morphology of roots and utilization of K nutrition. Three hundred mg/kg K significantly increased stem/leaf ratio and K content in above-ground. The highest dry weight and K utilization of whole plant were obtained under 200 mg/kg K conditions and were associated with increased root length and surface area compared to other treatments. In quik-leaf-growth stage, relatively strong correlationship between SPAD and dry weight, K fertilizer amount and K content in stem was observed. These data provide preliminary results to establish the final proposal for environmentally and economically use of K fertilizer and it is the first step to further develop precision agriculture for vegetables in tropic and sub-tropical regions of China.

 

27. RIYUAN CHEN, HOUCHENG LIU, RUIFU LI, SHIWEI SONG AND DANFENG HUANG* [Genetic regularity of pigment in Chinese kale and its F1 heterosis]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1175-1180 (2013). College of Agriculture and Biology Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China *(e-mail : hdf@sjtu.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

Using two types of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) with different epidermis colour of flower stalks (cultivar ‘Hongjiao’ with purple epidermis; cultivar ‘Zhonghua’ with green epidermis) as material, the colour performance of the epidermis and flower for F1 hybrid and selfing F2, also the growth and yield traits of hybrids, were studied in the experiment. The results showed that heredity of epidermis colour was controlled by a pair of completely dominant nuclear gene, without maternal effect, and purple was dominant to green; heredity of flower colour was also controlled by a pair of completely dominant nuclear gene, and white was dominant to yellow. Epidermal anthocyanin content of flower stalk in Chinese kale showed ‘Hongjiao’ > ‘Hongjiao’ F1 > ‘Zhonghua’ F1 > ‘Zhonghua’, and its mid-parent heterosis (MPH) was obvious, while high-parent heterosis (HPH) was not clear for two F1 hybrids. Soluble phenols and flavonoid content of flower stalk were higher than their parents for both F1 hybrids; also their MPH and HPH were quite evident. The plant height for two F1 hybrids was higher than those of their parents, while the stem diameter was significantly lower than their parents. Shoot fresh weight and economic yield for two F1 hybrids were significantly higher than their parents, and MPH and HPH were quite obvious. The biomass of ‘Zhonghua’ F1 was significantly higher than that of ‘Hongjiao’.F1.

 

 

28. Sh. Morshedi Nour, T. Ghotbi and M. Maleki* [Occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus on three commercial cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium : First report in Iran]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1181-1189 (2013). Department of Plant Protection Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : mojdehmaleki@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 Chrysanthemum morifolium (Compositae) is globally the second economically most important floricultural crop following rose, and one of the most important ornamental species. The most affected ornamental crops were surveyed in one main cultivation area in province of Tehran in 2011-12. In all, 116 virus-like symptoms were collected and analyzed by serological DAS-ELISA and TIBA techniques against important diseases of ornamentals, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The total of 116 ornamental plants were tested, 36 samples were shown to be infected to the virus TSWV. In Tehran province, Bonfire yellow was identified in 28 samples (57.14%), Payton snow in 56 samples (21.42%) and Bella rosa in 32 samples (33.33%). Nucleotide sequences of the N gene of TSWV isolated from infected chrysanthemum were determined. TSWV was identified from chrysanthemum by sequence determination of N nucleocapsid protein, to confirm TSWV identification polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using samples that previously tested positive by ELISA. All tested commercial cultivars were infected to TSWV. In all, C. morifolium cv. Bonfire yellow was shown to be prevalent TSWV infecting commercial cultivar Chrysanthemum morifolium in these regions. This is the first of natural occurrence of TSWV on three commercial cultivars of C. morifolium in Iran.

 

29.  Junmei Yin*, Cun Wang, Chonghui Li, Huan Zhang and Surong Huang [Floral buds differentiation and physiological changes in pseudobulb of Eulophia flava]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1190-1196 (2013). Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement in Southern China Ministry of Agriculture, Bao Dao Xin Cun, Danzhou, Hainan, China *(e-mail : yinjunmei2011@sina.com)

 

ABSTRACT

  Eulophia flava is a wild orchid with excellent ornamental and market value. The natural florescence misses the good sale season. It’s necessary to acknowledge the characteristic of the floral bud differentiation to regulate the flowering period of E. flava. The paraffin section of developing floral bud was observed, and physiological changes were evaluated. The morphological process was divided into six stages: initial, inflorescence primordium, floral primordium, sepal primordium, petal primordium, and column and pollinia differentiation. In pseudobulbs, soluble sugars and protein content decreased at the early stage, then, increased. High carbon-nitrogen ratio was favourable to the commencement of floral bud differentiation, and high level of total nucleic acid was benefit for the initiation. Relatively lower endogenous IAA and ABA concentration was helpful for the morphological formation of floral bud. GA3 inhibited the differentiation at the early stage, and promoted it later. In the whole process, ZR content increased gradually.

 

30.  M. A. MALEK*, L. RAHMAN, M. Y. RAFII** AND A. B. PUTEH [Selection of a high yielding soybean variety : Binasoybean-1]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1197-1201 (2013). Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : malekbina@gmail.com; **mrafii@upm.edu.my)

 

ABSTRACT

  Collected 201 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasm were evaluated for selection of desirable germplasm for registration as variety and/or for future utilization as breeding materials. Among the germplasm, nine were selected on the basis of better field performance considering their seed yield, morphological characters and yield attributes. Results showed that BAU-S/80 produced higher number of pods/plant and its yield was 2516 kg/ha as against 2142 and 2108 kg/ha of the two control varieties, Sohag and BARISoybean-5, respectively. Yield trials of BAU-S/80 were carried out in both rabi and kharif seasons during the period from 2007 to 2010 in selected locations under soybean growing areas of Bangladesh and found to be suitable for cultivation in the farmers’ field. BAU-S/80 was found to be moderately resistant to soybean yellow mosaic virus and collar rot diseases, and also showed lower insect infestation than control varieties. On the basis of superior performance of BAU-S/80, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) applied for registration to the National Seed Board (NSB) of Bangladesh. Consequently, the NSB of Bangladesh registered BAU-S/80 as Binasoybean-1 in 2011 for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh.

 

31.  YING LIU, TINGJUN MA* AND JIE CHEN [Effects of storage time on lecithin content in soybean varieties]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1202-1204 (2013). College of Food Science and Engineering Beijing University of Agriculture-102 206, Beijing, P. R. China *(e-mail : tingjunma@hotmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effects of storage time on lecithin content in soybean varieties, an experiment was conducted at Research Laboratory of College of Food Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing during April, 2011. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. The main factors were varieties (50 kinds of soybean) and storage time (1, 2 and 3 years). The results showed that the geography significantly influenced the soy lecithin content. Five soybean varieties with high content of phosphatidylcholine were Jindou 20, Zhe 8018, Gongjiao 5610-2, Jinda 125 and Zhihuang No. 7. At the same time, the storage period led to decrease in lecithin content of soybean. The higher phosphatidylcholine number was obtained from those varieties which were grown in plots falling in north-east region. These results indicated that varieties, geography and storage time markedly affected lecithin content in soybean varieties.

 

32.   Muhammet KARASAHIN* [Effects of different fertilizers on forage and dry matter yield of hybrid corn cultivars]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1205-1209 (2013). Department of Plant and Animal Production Karabuk University, Eskipazar Vocational School, Karabuk, Turkey *(e-mail : mkarasahin@karabuk.edu.tr)

 

ABSTRACT

 This research was conducted to determine the effects of different fertilizer treatments (F1, F2 and F3) on forage and dry matter yield of hybrid corn cultivars (C1, C2 and C3) in the years 2011 and 2012 under the ecological conditions of Eskipazar-Karabuk. The highest values of forage and dry matter yields were obtained from F2 and F3 fertilizer treatments in all three hybrid corn cultivars. When we consider the sums paid for the export of inorganic fertilizers and the negative effects of these inorganic fertilizers on human and environmental health, we may see that F3 fertilizer treatments would be preferable in the regions where corn is grown.

 

33.  M Yanling Zhao, Zhenqi Hu*, Beilei Wei, Qing Xia, Juanjuan Shi, Yaping Liu and Chao Chen [Correlation between antioxidant enzymes activity and alfalfa leaf temperature determined by using infrared thermalgraphy technology]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1210-1213 (2013). College of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing, China *(e-mail : huzq@cumtb.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

In order to study the correlation of antioxidant enzymes activity and leaf temperature determined by using infrared thermalgraphy technology, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse of China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing) using plastic pots during September to December 2012. Total 14 different experimental disposals were carried with three replications. That was experimental soil (heavy clay) as the control disposal (DZ) and that mixed different additives (nitro humic acid, peat, modified straw, vermiculite and earthworm) of different amount. The experimental crop was alfalfa. After alfalfa grown for 80 days, antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) were extracted, and temperature of alfalfa leaf was recorded by an infrared thermal camera : TH9100 WV (NEC San-ei Instruments, Tokyo, Japan) in greenhouse at 14 : 00-17 : 00 on December 16, 2012. The results showed that the correlation between the plant leaf temperature determined by infrared thermalgraphy technology and SOD (0.360**, n=42) or POD (0.332**, n=42) was significant positively. These results can provide theoretical support for thermal infrared imaging technology promotion.

 

34.   Fan Hua, Zhang fenghua, Tan lanlan AND Wang Kaiyong* [Compensation effect of planting density on cotton growth in Xinjiang, China]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1214-1221 (2013). Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi City-832 003, China *(e-mail : wky20@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Increased planting density is one of the chief routes to increased cotton yield in Xinjiang. This paper relies on density experiments to analyze the relationship between aboveground biomass, canopy light interception and light utilization efficiency in high density cotton populations in Xinjiang, and clarifies the compensation effect achieved by dense planting in relation to cotton growth and yield. The results indicate that differences in the canopy light interception of cotton populations with different densities can be expressed primarily in terms of maximum light interception and its continuation time. The canopy light interception of high, medium, and low density cotton populations uniformly reaches a maximum value 80-90 days after sowing (flowering and boll stages). The light interception value can be maintained near maximum for a period of time in the case of low density populations, but falls rapidly from its peak in high density populations. Among cotton populations in the peak bolling stage, as planting density increases, the greatest light interception shifts from the lower parts of plants (15-30 cm) to the middle and upper parts of plants (30-60 cm). The extinction coefficient gradually increases with density, but does not vary significantly among the three densities. Different cotton populations have light extinction coefficients of 0.98 during the flowering and boll stages. Dense planting does not affect light utilization efficiency, and three cotton population densities all have a light utilization efficiency of 3.2 g/MJ.

 

35.   Farzad Aslani*, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, M. S. Ahmad-Hamdani, DzolkhiFLi Omar, Md Amirul Alam, Md Abdul Hakim and md kamal uddin [Allelopathic effects of Batawali (Tinospora tuberculata) on germination and seedling growth of plants]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1222-1231 (2013). Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture University Putra Malaysia 43400 (UPM) Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *(e-mail : aslani.farzad.1362@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

A study was undertaken to explore the effects of methanol extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 g/l) from the dried powders of aerial parts of Batawali (Tinospora tuberculata) on emergence and initial growth of rice, radish, lettuce and carrot as represented by germination percentage, radical and hypocotyle length. Results indicated that both stem and leaves of Batawali markedly raised the suppression of germination and primary growth of all examined crops when plants were exposed to increasing the methanol extract concentrations from 6.25 to 100 g/l of distilled water. The half- inhibitory concentrations that inhibit germination (ECg50), radicle (ECr50) and hypocotyle (ECh50) growth were determined for both the extracts. According to these values, an index (Re) was calculated in order to establish a ranking of the most sensitive plants and most effective extract. It was observed that the leaves extract was more active than the stem extract and caused the greatest negative effect on germination and early growth of plants. All tested plants differed in their sensitivity to T. tuberculata extracts. Higher reduction in plant growth parameters was observed in carrot. The tested extracts inhibited mainly the growth of radicle more than the growth of the hypocotyle and germination percentage in all examined crops, except carrot. According to the study, it could be concluded that T. tuberculata extracts had a significant herbicidal activity which depended on the extract concentrations, plant parts and the target crops.

 

36.   MAOMAO HOU*, XIAOHOU SHAO, YAMING ZHAI AND BOJUN DENG [Entropy weight coefficient evaluation of comprehensive index for flue-cured tobacco and its response to different water-nitrogen treatments]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1232-1237 (2013). Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing-210 098, China *(e-mail : wuduguer0407@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            In order to investigate better mulch drip irrigation scheduling with the compromise among yield, quality and irrigation water use efficiency of flue-cured tobaccos, an experiment with different mulch drip irrigation and N fertilization treatments was conducted in the south of China during 2012 growth season. After measuring the tobacco quality indexes, yield, and irrigation water use efficiency, the new method combining principal component analysis (PCA) model with entropy weight coefficient model was used to determine the weight of single attribute and comprehensive index, and to select optimum mulch drip irrigation and fertilization scheme. Results showed that T5 was the best treatment with the entropy weight coefficient of 0.8997, comprehensive quality evaluation value of 2.39, yield of 2741 kg/hm2 and irrigation water use efficiency of 0.69 kg/m3. Considering the quality, yield, water saving amount and irrigation water use efficiency, the irrigation amount of 12, 16 and 12 mm (T5) each time corresponding with root-extending stage, vigorous stage and maturity stage appeared to be the optimal mulch drip irrigation scheme, at the same time, 104 kg/hm2 N fertilizer amount with the distribution proportion of basal dressing : topdressing = 7 : 3 was recommended to be the best nitrogen fertilization scheme. The combination of PCA model and entropy weight coefficient model was a successful attempt of selecting optimal water-nitrogen scheme for high quality and yield flue-cured tobacco cultivation, which not only reflected the subjective decision but also effectively integrated the objective information.

 

37.  Yuanyuan Li*, Xiaohou Shao, Xiujun Hu, Binbin Jin and Guanxi Zhu [Dynamic changes of nitrogen losses through drainage with controlled and mid-gathering irrigation during typical rainstorm events in southern China]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1238-1243 (2013). Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing-210 098, China *(e-mail : liya66720@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen losses through the paddy field runoff by comparison of controlled and mid-gathering irrigation and conventional irrigation of rice during typical rainstorm events in southern China. Statistical analysis on water samples showed that flow happened after the field soil was filled with rainfall water, and the controlled and mid-gathering irrigation was much later than that of conventional irrigation. The drainage volume didn’t change much during runoff, while three forms of dissolved nitrogen varied greatly under two irrigation modes. Compared with conventional irrigation, controlled and mid-gathering irrigation had a shorter drainage time under the same conditions, and this indicated that paddy field could store more water during the rainfall events. According to the results, drainage volume and duration under conventional irrigation were, respectively, 1.2 and 1.5-2.5 times of those in controlled and mid-gathering irrigation. Also, it was suggested that nitrate nitrogen (NO-3-N) contributed most to soluble nitrogen losses during runoff. Dynamic changes of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO-3-N) concentration were not much the same in the two modes during rainfall process. In general, the controlled and mid-gathering irrigation can significantly reduce emissions of non-point source pollution. Besides, the change trend of pollutants provided a certain theoretical basis for irrigation-drainage mode formulation.

 

38.   M. MASHAL*, M. VARAVIPOUR AND H. LIAGHAT [Sustainability of biodrainage systems as influenced by declining of evapotranspiration rate of trees due to soil salinization]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1244-1249 (2013). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mmashal@ut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Biodrainage is a natural system in which tree plantation strips absorb deep percolation losses of irrigation water applied to neighbouring crops. The sustainability of the system, however, is questionable except where the irrigation water is quite suitable and/or in humid regions with high annual precipitation. In saline environments, a hybrid system that combines biodrainage and conventional drainage technology will be needed to achieve sustainability. The purpose of this research is to determine the sustainability of biodrainage systems in low hydraulic conductivity soils with moderate water salinity and different barrier depths in a semi-arid region. SAHYSMOD, a known drainage and ground water mathematical model, was used to simulate ground water level and soil salinity simultaneously at the end of each year. Plant evapotranspiration decreases annually due to salt accumulation in the root zone and osmotic pressure increases. The results demonstrated that the life system could not be more than 5 to 6 years, while it was around 10 years when the depth of the barrier increases to 10 metres. The main conclusion of the study is that biodrainage could not be considered as a sustainable technique in arid and semi-arid regions without the availability of good quality irrigation water and/or it must be used in conjunction with conventional drains.

 

39.  Arash Asadi* and Jahangir Porhemat [Calibration of snowmelt parameters using the HEC-HMS hydrologic model (Study Area : Kabkian basin of Iran)]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1250-1257 (2013). Islamic Azad University,Dehdasht Branch, Iran *(e-mail : arashasadi79@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Rainfall-runoff process in Kabkian basin (846.5 km2) in Kohgilouye and Boyerahmad provinces located in Iran was examined. In this study, Kabkian basin was considered as lumped. The hydrologic model HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, Hydrologic Modelling System), was used in combination with the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension, HEC-GeoHMS. In this study, the SCS curve number method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) was considered for the rainfall-runoff modelling. The first, SCS parameters (curve number, initial abstraction and lag time) were carefully calibrated and verified in basin using historical observed data. Then, the snowmelt parameters (critical temperature and degree-day coefficient) were calibrated and verified. In this basin, the calibrated values for curve number, initial abstraction and lag time were obtained 62, 34 mm and 347 min, respectively, and for critical temperature and degree-day coefficient were obtained 2 and 3.1, respectively. The determination coefficients and coefficients of agreement for all the flood events were above 0.9, and the per cent errors in peak flow and volume were all within the acceptable range. The results indicated that model captured the peak runoff discharges and total runoff volume.

 

40.   M. VARAVIPOUR*, M. MASHAL AND J. SOLTANI [Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil with poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southern region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1258-1263 (2013). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mvaravi@ut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine the suitable criteria for remediation and reclamation of land contaminated with poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).The field experiments were conducted for examining the feasibility of microbial community to remedy petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum containing 2% (w/w) of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) was collected from the Esmail Abad (south of Tehran) in order to identify a microbial strain for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil. The authors isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification which was identified as Bacillus cereus closely related to the strain 03 BB102, which was able to grow in a wide range of pH from 5 to 11. Salinity of 3.5% and temperature from 200C to 450C which were evaluated during composting of mixture contained 28% of organic amendments (chicken manures). After one month of composting, 58.5% of initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes compared with control (35%). This decay rate and removal ratio can be good finding suggesting that Bacillus cereus is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of applying enhanced bioremediation on the treatment of (PAHs) contaminated soils.

 

41. Vijayanti Jakhar*, R. C. Sihag and S. K. Gahlawat [Effect of probiotics on growth and survival of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)]. Res. on Crops 14 (4) : 1264-1268 (2013). Department of Zoology and Aquaculture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : vijayanti.jakhar@yahoo.in)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The study was carried out for eight weeks to determine the growth and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn (M. rosenbergii) after feeding probiotics in the Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India. In this experiment, healthy individuals of prawns 3-4 months old of average length (5.10±0.07) and weight (1.83±0.01) were brought from the three fish farms of this study to the laboratory and were acclimated at 25oC for one week in flat bottomed circular 30 l tubs. The prawns were fed a normal recommended commercial diet with two commercial probiotics with different compositions used. The hydrological parameters of the above fish farms were maintained as per local recommendations of this region viz., temperature (25-30°C), pH (7.0-8.5), DO (5.0-7.0 mg/ml), salinity (>2 ppt), total hardness (150-200 ppm) and total alkanity (80-150 mg). The average final body length and weight of the experimented prawn was 7.74±0.00 cm and 5.81±0.01 g, 10.03 ±0.00 g and 8.52±0.01 cm, 9.31±0.00 g and 7.75±0.00 cm in probiotic 1, probiotic 2 and control, respectively, and was significant (P£0.05). The average survival rate was 96.30±6.42, 92.59±12.83 and 81.48±6.42% in probiotics 1, probiotic 2 and control, respectively. The results showed that probiotic played an important role in maintaining health management as well as increased the growth and survival of prawns.