Volume 14, Number 3 (September, 2013)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1. M. ADIL BADSHAH, YING BIN ZOU AND NAI MEI TU* [Growth and physiological responses of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and crop establishment methods]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 609-620 (2013). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : tnm505@163.com)

ABSTRACT

        

Super hybrid rice, Liangyoupeijiu was grown in conventional tillage transplanting (CTTP) and no tillage transplanting (NTTP) at a spacing of 20 × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and conventional tillage direct-seeding (CTDS) and no tillage direct seeding (NTDS) at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg/ha to compare the growth and physiological responses during 2011-12, in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. Our results indicated that leaf area index (LAI) was higher at booting stage (BT) in transplanting (TP) and at HD stage in direct seeding method (DS) both CT (conventional tillage system) and NT (no tillage system). Leaf area duration (LAD) was higher in DS both CT and NT. Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area ratio (LAR) were higher at early growth stage both TP and DS either CT or NT then gradually decreased with advancement of time. DS produced more above ground biomass than TP but at maturity, both CTTP and NTDS had higher above ground biomass and NTTP was the lowest. Crop growth rate (CGR) was higher at PI-BT stage in TP either CT or NT but it was higher at PI-HD in DS. Net assimilation rate (NAR) was 15 and 24% higher in NTTP than CTTP at PI-BT and BT-HD, respectively, but CTTP had 15% higher NAR than NTTP at HD-12 DAH. In CTTP, higher leaf N concentration (2.04%) and uptake (5.9 g/m2) were observed at BT stage. In DS, N concentration and uptake were always higher in NT at all growth stages. It was found in the present study that CGR was closely related with LAD at BT-HD stage and grain yield was closely associated with leaf N (%) at HD stage. In DS either CT or NT had higher heat use efficiency (HUE) than TP as well as CT either TP or DS. Though DS had about 24% more number of panicles than TP but grain yield was higher in CTTP due to higher LAI, LAD, above ground biomass and bigger sink size (about 17% higher weight of panicle, higher number of spikelets per unit area and more number of grains per panicle) than DS.

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2.   S. J. Liang, Z. Q. Li, X. J. Li, H. G. Xie, R. S. Zhu, J. X. Lin, H. A. Xie* and H. Wu** [Effects of stem structural characters and silicon content on lodging resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 621-636 (2013). College of Life Sciences South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou-510 642, China *(e-mail : huaanxie@yahoo.com.cn; **wh@scau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

Increasing the mechanical strength of stems is generally thought to be essential for breeding super high-yield rice, but more information on factors influencing this variable is required. To explore the basis of variations in the compressive strength of rice stems, the morphological and anatomical characters, cell wall chemical components and silicon contents of three stem nodes were analyzed for each of 12 rice varieties using optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray spectroscopy. Major differences between varieties in node length, outer stem radius, wall thickness, the ratio of stem outer radius to wall thickness, sclerenchyma thickness, cross-sectional area, number of large vascular bundles, number of small vascular bundles, total number of vascular bundles, total area of vascular bundles and lignin content were found. Using qualitative and quantitative X-ray energy spectrum analysis, silicon was found mainly in the outer walls of epidermal cells in stems, and in decreasing amounts in sclerenchyma cell walls moving from outside to inside. Through the correlative analysis of above-mentioned characters and bending strength, it was revealed that the silicon content was more strongly positively correlated with the bending strength of the three nodes than any of the other characters. It was concluded that silicon content was the most important factor affecting the mechanical strength of rice stems. In addition, cross-sectional area, outer radius of stem, total area of vascular bundles, number of large vascular bundles and total number of vascular bundles are also important referenced factors of lodging resistance.

 

3.     Junzeng Xu, Shizhang Peng*, Shihong Yang, Yanmei Yu and Qi Wei [Morpho-physiological adaptations of rice leaf to water deficit under non-flooded water-saving irrigation]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 637-648 (2013). State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering Hohai University, Nanjing-210 098, China *(e-mail : szpeng@hhu.edu.cn; penghhu2010@163.com)

ABSTRACT         

The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological adaptations of rice leaf to water deficit under non-flooded controlled irrigation (CI), which is widely applied in China. Lysimeters were used to perform the experimentation, with traditional flooding irrigation as check (CK). The results showed that the morphological and physiological traits of rice were adapted to water regulation. Compared with rice under CK treatment, leaf water content (LWC) and leaf expansion decreased, but leaf thickness and leaf length/width ratio increased. Leaf chlorophyll content increased, while Chl a/Chl b ratio decreased. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were related to leaf morphological traits. Photosynthesis levels in CI treatment could be maintained as a result of an increase in specific leaf weight SLWd and leaf chlorophyll content and a decrease in Chl a/ Chl b. At the canopy level, leaf growth and leaf area index (LAI) were inhibited in the vegetative stage but were compensated in the reproductive stages. Morphological adaptation regarding leaf number and canopy structure for rice in CI paddies might contribute to the penetration and interception of radiation in canopy.

 

4.     R. S. BANA*, Y. S. SHIVAY, SEEMA SEPAT, K. S. RANA AND VIJAY POONIYA [Effect of summer forage crops and phosphogypsum-enriched urea on productivity of basmati rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 649-653 (2013). Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : rsbana@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT   

A field experiment was conducted during 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi to study the productivity of summer forage crops and their effect in conjunction with phosphogypsum-enriched urea (PGEU) on yield, quality and nitrogen use-efficiency in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.); and to study the residual effect of different treatments on succeeding wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori and Paol]. Among the three forage crops grown during summer, pearlmillet+cowpea mixture recorded significantly higher fodder yields compared to sole pearlmillet and sole cowpea. In basmati rice, growth and yield attributes were influenced significantly due to preceding forage crops. Application of variable concentrations of PGEU had significant effect on growth and yield attributes of basmati rice except 1000-grain weight. Significantly higher yield of basmati rice was recorded when it was grown after the harvest of cowpea as compared to other treatments. Similarly, significantly higher yield was recorded with 7.5% PGEU. Different summer forage crops and PGEU applied to basmati rice left significant residual effect on succeeding wheat.

 

5.         A. S. POLICE PATIL, H. V. NANJAPPA AND B. K. RAMACHANDRAPPA [Root and tillering behaviour study of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for targeted yield under site specific nutrient management (SSNM) approach]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 654-660 (2013). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT   

Pot experiment was carried out at ZARS, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 to study the root and tillering behaviour of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for targeted yield under site specific nutrient management. The treatment comprised four genotypes (G1–MAS 946-1, G2–MAS 26, G3–MAS 77 and G4–Rasi) and three targeted yield levels (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 t/ha) and laid out in complete randomized design (CRD). The study revealed that among aerobic rice genotypes MAS 946-1 recorded significantly longer root length (35.63 cm), higher root dry weight (17.68 g/hill) and root volume (39.05 cc) over other genotypes. Under tillering behaviour, MAS 946-1 recorded higher number of primary (4.39, 3.79) and secondary tillers (33.22, 35.54) at 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Number of productive tillers (32.44), number of grains (198.94), panicle length (17.95 cm), number of spikes/panicle (16.13), 1000-seed weight (29.29 g) and grain weight (42.35 g/hill) were recorded in MAS 946-1 genotype. In targeted yield levels, fertilizer level targeted for 6.5 t/ha yield recorded higher number of roots (193/hill), root dry weight (18.39 g/hill), root volume (39.66 cubic centimetre) longer root length (35.28 cm) and yield components compared to other yield levels. Targeted yield of 6.5 t/ha (F3) recorded higher number of secondary tillers at 60 and 90 DAS. MAS 946-1 genotype with 6.5 t/ha targeted yield level recorded the higher root traits, yield components and yield over other treatment combination.

6.     M. GIRIJA RANI*, B. V. LAKSHMI, D. ADILAKSHMI, B. N. V. S. R. RAVI KUMAR, P. V. SATYANARYANA, Y. SURYANARAYANA, S. KRISHNAMRAJU, K. S. N. PRASAD AND M. GAYATRI [Identification of new source for Pi-l blast gene for neck blast resistance through bulk segregant analysis in rice]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 661-665 (2013). Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station Maruteru-534 122, West Godavari District (A. P.), India *(e-mail : girija_aprri@yahoo.co.in)

 

ABSTRACT     

Neck blast is more destructive among rice blast symptoms causing economic yield loss. Detection of presence of blast resistant genes in resistant donors using molecular markers will aid in breeding location specific resistant varieties with precise marker assisted breeding. Simple sequence repeat marker RM 224 linked to Pi-1 blast resistant gene was found to be polymorphic between susceptible parent Samba Mahsuri and neck blast resistant donor WGL 167. Polymorphic bands between resistant and susceptible bulks with RM 224 marker indicated that Pi-1 blast resistant gene conferred neck blast resistance in donor WGL 167 through bulk segregant analysis of BC2F2 mapping population developed between Samba Mahsuri and WGL 167 and it was confirmed by field screening of individual BC2F2, BC2F3 and BC2F4 lines. Results of composite interval mapping revealed that one major effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) flanked by SSR markers RM 187 and RM 224 on chromosome 11 with LOD peak value of 11.3 accounting for 55.53% phenotypic variation of neck blast disease reaction. Three lines with more than 70% recurrent genome recovery with 0 or 1 neck blast score were selected through graphical genotyping using back ground selection markers from BC2F3 and BC2F4 population of Samba Mahsuri and WGL 167. Presence of blast resistant gene Pi-1 against avirulence genes of local pathotype in neck blast resistant donor WGL 167 was detected through bulk segregant analysis.

7.     He An-na*, Ou Li-jun, Liu Xiao-qian and Liu Qing [Cytoplasm DNA polymorphism in different genome types of wild rice]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 666-671 (2013). Department of Life Sciences Utilization of Ethnic Medicinal Plant Resources Key Laboratory of Hunan Higher Education for Hunan-western Medicinal Plant and Ethnobotany/Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Study and Utilization of Ethnic Medicinal Plant Resources HuaiHua University, Hunan, Huaihua-418 008, China *(e-mail : anna99102@163.com or ou9572@126.com)

ABSTRACT         

The lengths of open reading frame (ORF)100 and ORF29-TrnCGCA of chloroplast DNA, SSV-500/6 and SSV-39/178 of mitochondria DNA, the intronic sequence of rps16 and the transcribed spacer of TrnTUGU-TrnLUAA of chloroplast DNA from different genomes of wild rice were studied, using indica and japonica types as controls. The results show that the lengths of ORF100 and ORF29-TrnCGCA in Hainan common wild rice (CWR) whose genome is AA genome type are similar to those of typical indica, those of in Chaling CWR whose genome is AA genome type and all non-AA wild rice are similar to those of typical japonica. The sequences of the rps16 intron and the TrnTUGU-TrnLUAA spacer had four nucleotide positions that could distinguish indica and japonica types. The Hainan CWR had two specific sites of indica types and two specific site of japonica types. The Chaling CWR was all specific sites of japonica types. The non-AA wild rice had three specific site of japonica types and one specific site of indica types. The lengths of SSV-500/6 in wild rice of BB, BBCC, CC, GG, HHJJ genome and O. alta (CCDD genome) were similar to those of typical indica, O. grandiglumis that is CCDD genome had all bands of typical indica and japonica, the others were similar to those of typical japonica. The lengths of SSV-39/178 in wild rice except HHJJ genome were similar to those of typical indica. Based on the observation that common wild rice has obvious trend of indica-japonica differentiation and cytoplasm of non-AA wild rice is general japonica. So, it might speculate that japonica type chloroplast may be the more primitive and universal type. The wild rice of CCDD genome retained a relative complete gene based three materials of CCDD genome had different subspecies type. Therefore, it improved the phenomenon of different types of chloroplast and mitochondria.

 

8.     M. K. SINGH, R. P. SINGH, PRAKASH SINGH, S. P. SINGH, R. K. AGRAWAL AND C. SEN [Estimation of genetics and heterosis for yield components in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 672-678 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), India

 

ABSTRACT

               An experiment comprising 39 rice entries (28 F1s hybrids and 11 parents including check) was conducted to examine the extent of genetic parameters (such as variability, heritability, genetic advance, degree of dominance, etc.) and various heterosis in order to identify the promising hybrids for yield and yield attributes. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among treatments for all the traits. Heritability (ns) estimates and expected genetic advance (GA) in response to selection for next generation were high for all desirable traits. It indicated the influence of additive gene action. Assessment of heterobeltiosis (over better parent) and standard heterosis based on check (NDR 97) showed significant heterosis for yield traits in all hybrids. Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis varied from -40.50 to 14.59% and 10.62 to 86.20% for grain yield per plant, -15.22 to 24.75 and 8.38 to 35.59% for 1000-grain weight, -33.89 to 42.17 and -21.71 to 59.12% for number of effective tillers per plant, and -22.17 to 11.45 and 12.43 to 52.15% for days to maturity, respectively. The most desirable cross combination Anjali x MTU 7029 for grain yield per plant showed desirable heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for 1000- grain weight, days to maturity, number of effective tillers per plant and panicle length.  

 

9.         J. Ghosh, A. Ghosh, N. Chaudhuri and K. Chakraborty [Comparative study of insect-pest constraints and yield attributes of local and aromatic cultivars of rice in northern parts of West Bengal, India]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 679-683 (2013). Department of Agricultural Entomology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (W. B.), India

ABSTRACT        

A field experiment was conducted during three consecutive years (2007-09) to screen out 20 selected local and scented paddy cultivars in comparison to high yielding paddy cultivar (Check) Swarna Masuri (MTU 7029) for their reaction against insect-pests at the regional farm station of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya (University), Pundibari, Coochbehar in insecticide free condition. Yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas WlK.), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee), gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood-Manson), green leaf hopper (Nephotettix virescens/Nephotettix migropictus) and paddy bug (Leptocoryza acuta Th.) were recorded as the important insect-pests in this region. Both insect-pest infestation and yield & yield attributing parameters were observed higher on check cultivar in respect to local and scented cultivars. CRM group of aromatic variety can be cultivated by the farmers in place of high yielding varieties.

10.   Yu Chen, Yang Liu, Xiaoxia Wen, Wei Wu and Yuncheng Liao* [Effect of conservation tillage on growth and grain yield of wheat under simulated rainfall conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 684-691 (2013). College of Agronomy North-west A & F University, Yangling-712 100, China *(e-mail : yunchengliao@126.com)

ABSTRACT

            

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of conservation tillage (CT) on growth and grain yield of wheat under different precipitation levels. In the present study, CT was compared to traditional bare soil tillage (BT) under different precipitation conditions simulated during the wheat growth stage, and the grain yield, dry matter weight and leaf area of plant, the photosynthesis of flag leaves and the soil moisture were measured. The results indicated that the effect of CT on growth and grain yield of wheat was significantly related to precipitation. At the 220 and 260 mm rainfall levels, CT significantly increased the dry matter weight, leaf area, photosynthesis of wheat and by this to increase the grain yield. In contrast, CT had no significant effect on the dry matter weight, leaf area, photosynthesis characteristics and grain yield of wheat at 300 mm rainfall level. In addition, both precipitation and CT significantly increased the soil moisture during wheat growth stage. Thus, we suggest that the reason CT had a different effect on the growth and grain yield of wheat at different precipitation levels may be that the soil moisture was sufficient for wheat growth at 300 mm rainfall; accordingly, CT had no significant effect on the growth and grain yield of wheat, even though it significantly increased the soil moisture. In contrast, as the soil moisture was significantly decreased at the 220 and 260 mm rainfall level, the plant growth was inhibited because the soil moisture was insufficient for wheat growth. CT significantly increased the soil moisture, thus promoting the plant growth and by this to increase the grain yield of wheat. Based on the results of the present study, we suggest that, in the case of wheat, the adoption of CT practices, including no tillage and straw mulching, in areas receiving 220-300 mm rainfall will provide benefits during the entire growth period.

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11.   D. D. MANKAR* [Effect of different row proportions and mixed cropping on yield and economy of mustard intercropping in wheat]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 692-695 (2013). AICRP on Mustard College of Agriculture (Dr. PDKV), Nagpur-444 001 (M. S.), India *(e-mail : drdhanrajmankar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

A field experiment on wheat-mustard intercropping was conducted at AICRP on Rapeseed-Mustard, College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India during rabi season of 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 in randomized block design with four replications and seven treatments. The pooled data of three years showed that the wheat-mustard 9 : 1 row ratio was maximum and significantly higher in respect of wheat equivalent yield, GMR and NMR and sole wheat was at par with it. The same intercropping recorded more B : C ratio. Among the different row proportions, wheat-mustard 9 : 1 row ratio showed maximum and significantly higher wheat equivalent yield, GMR and NMR and more B : C ratio over wheat-mustard 6 : 1 row ratio and wheat-mustard 3 : 1 row ratio. Among mixed croppings wheat-mustard 80 : 20% seed rate ratio recorded significantly higher wheat equivalent yield and more LER over wheat-mustard 90 : 10% seed rate ratio.

 

12.   YANG HONG-BING* AND YANG SHI-PING [Comparison of salt tolerance in different varieties of buckwheat]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 696-701 (2013). Key Lab of Plant Biotechnology in Universities of Shandong College of Life Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao-266 109, China *(e-mail : hbyang@qau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

 

Different buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) varieties were used as experimental materials, and salt tolerance of buckwheat varieties during seed germination and seedling stage had been comparatively studied through measuring germination rate (Gr), germination index (Gi) and vigour index (Vi) of seeds, the ascent rate of root length, shoot height and fresh weight, plasmolemma permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The results showed that the vigour index (Vi) of seeds and the plasmolemma permeability of seedlings were especially sensitive indexes to salinity, and the salt tolerance of Chuanqiao No. 1 was the most, followed by Chuanqiao No. 2, while that of TQ-0808 was the least at the stage of seed germination and seedlings.

 

13.   Baoping Zhao, Surya N. Acharya, Jinghui Liu*, Xiangqian Zhang, Lijun Li and Qin Chen [Effect of water stress on protective enzyme system and yield of naked oat (Avena nuda L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 702-710 (2013). College of Agronomy Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia-010 019, China *(e-mail : cauljh@yahoo.com.cn)

 

ABSTRACT   

An indoor study was conducted over two years to determine the impact of drought stress on naked oat protective enzyme system and yield using a quadratic regressive spinning design. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was high at early growth stage and the levels gradually reduced as the plants getting mature. Activity of peroxide dismutase (POD) gradually reduced until jointing or booting stages but increased at anthesis stage before falling down again. For the activity of catalase (CAT), there were two peaks at the jointing and anthesis stages, respectively. CAT activity showed a downward trend with the increase of water stress time and intensity, so it may be used as a suitable indicator of drought stress. By modelling regression and analyzing the best fit, it was concluded that the order of the sensibility of water to yield under different growth duration was anthesis stage > jointing stage > booting stage > grain-filling stage > seedling stage. The highest yields were obtained when oats were maintained at 45% field water capacity (FWC) at seedling and grain-filling stages, 75 to 90% FWC at jointing stage, 67% FWC at booting stage and 76% FWC at anthesis stage. The results indicated that jointing stage was the most critical stage for oat yield, and more grain yield was obtained when water supply was adequate in jointing and booting stages. From the relationship between protective enzyme system and yield, it is concluded that 60% FWC is critical water requirement threshold under pot culture.

 

14.   Elnaz Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, Mehrdad Yarnia*, Varahram Rashidi, Farokh Rahimzadeh Khoei and Mohammad Bagher Khorshidi Benam [Effect of nitrogen and micro fertilizer application on the yield of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.) cv. Koniz]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 711-715 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : m.yarnia@yahoo.com; yarnia@iaut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

                       Amaranth’s seeds have high proteins and essential amino acids, while other plants like lysine lack. However, one of the most important factors affecting its yield and quality is the plant nutrition and fertilizers on which managing nutritional elements have a great influence. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of the application of different iron, nitrogen, zinc and manganese treatments with various rates on the yield and quality of amaranth seeds. The results showed that different levels of nitrogen fertilizer increased the features under study. The highest of these effects was observed after application of iron, nitrogen and zinc fertilizers in desirable and more than desirable levels. The study failed to reveal a significant increase in biomass, inflorescence number, inflorescence length, number of kernels and grain yield. Thus, it could be said that, economically speaking, a rationed fertilizing with low amounts of fertilizers will have similar effects and there will be no need for higher amounts of fertilizers. According to the findings of the present study, treatment of 200 and more than 200 kg/ha nitrogen showed 35 and 37% increase in the seed yield, respectively. The iron treatment of 2 and 3 in thousand demonstrated 12 and 13% increases in the seed yield. The zinc treatment with 3 in thousand showed 9% increase compared to non-treated samples. Treatments of 2 and 3 in thousand of manganese showed a 6% increase in the seed yield as well. In the present study, this could be concluded that application of fertilizers improved qualitative and quantitative features of amaranth.

15.   Haichao Zhao, Jinghui Liu*, Xingjie Zhang and Haixiang Zhao [Studies on response of maize to dissolved organic matter as influenced by fertilizers in different farmland soils using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 716-728 (2013). College of Agronomy Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot-010 019, China *(e-mail : cauljh@yahoo.com.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

                          Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEMS) was used to investigate the effects of fertilization treatment on the composition and related properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in corn fields that were treated with fertilization treatment for three years. The 3D-EEMS spectrogram of soil samples had three main peaks : peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material at an Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420 nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material at an Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435 nm; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins at an Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340 nm. In comparison with the 3D-EEMS spectrogram of the basic soil samples, that of the soil samples with fertilization treatment indicated that the intensities of peak-A and peak-B were reduced and the intensity of peak-E was increased in middle-yielding fields and low-yielding fields. Furthermore, the fertilization treatment enhanced crops on the use of soil organic matter and improved the ability of soil to provide continuous fertility. The fertilization treatment mainly increased the fertility of the deep soil layer and promoted the decomposition and utilization of soil DOM. By comparing the r(A,B) and f450/500 values, it was found that with fertilization treatment promoted the degree of maturity of high-yielding and middle-yielding fields and that it increased the terrigenous DOM of high-yielding fields and biological source DOM of middle-yielding and low-yielding fields. Peak-A and peak-B were significantly and positively correlated to the content of DOC, DON, DOP, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen and corn yield. Soil fertility, microbial biomass and crop growth were found to be important factors that increased the fluorescence intensities of soil DOM.

16.   Maryam Teymoori*, Mohammad Ali Baghestani, Eskandar Zand, Hamid Madani and Saeed Mafakheri [Weed management in maize field by chemical, mechanical and cultural methods]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 729-735 (2013). Young Researchers and Elites Club Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran *(e-mail : ma.teymoori@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              To investigate the effect of integrated weed management on yield and some physiological indices of maize under competition with weeds, this experiment was conducted in 2009 at the Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran. The experiment was conducted in split-plot in the form of a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included maize planting density (70000, 80000 and 90000 plants/ha) in the main plots and weed management techniques (weed free and weed infested controls, one time cultivation, 1 and 2 l/ha nicosulfuron) in the sub plots. Results indicated no significant differences between 1 and 2 l/ha nicosulfuron at high maize planting density. Therefore, the best maize planting density for reducing the dose of nicosulfuron was 90000 plants/ha. Based on the results obtained in this experiment, in organic agricultural systems, herbicide application could be removed from weed management programme in maize field by cultivating once at 4-6 leaf stage and planting maize at high density (90000 plants/ha). On the other hand, increasing maize planting density significantly increased the leaf area index, relative growth rate and crop growth rate.

17.   Mahmoud Darvishan, Hamid Reza Tohidi Moghadam* and Mohhamad Nasri [Effect of foliar application of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by withholding of irrigation at different growth stages]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 736-742 (2013). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                       In order to study the effect of ascorbic acid foliar application and limited irrigation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of corn, an experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch in Iran during 2012 growing season. The experimental design was laid out in a randomized complete block with a split plot arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main plot included four different levels of irrigation (complete irrigation, irrigation withholding at 8-leaf stage, irrigation withholding at silks appearance stage and irrigation withholding at both 8-leaf stage and silks appearance stages) and different concentration of foliar application of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (0, 75 and 150 ppm) was allocated to sub-plots. The results showed that irrigation withholding conditions in different growth stages significantly decreased plant height, yield components, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil and protein percentage and oil and protein yield. Ascorbic acid foliar application in irrigation withholding in different growth stages had positive effect on all attributes in this experiment. In general, the results of the present study indicate that usage of AsA reduces the harmful effects of water deficit stress and increases resistance to drought stress in corn plant.

 

18.   Roshan Choudhary, S. K. Sharma, Dilip Singh, Rajesh Chaudhari, R. L. Mahala and R. S. Dadarwal [Effect of nutrient management on growth and yield of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 743-747 (2013). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

                    A field experiment was conducted at Instruction Farm, Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during 2010 and 2011 under partially irrigated condition to find out the effect of nitrogen levels and its scheduling on productivity of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) with and without sulphur application. The field trial was laid out in factorial RBD with three replications. Results revealed that increasing nitrogen levels of 125, 150 and 175 kg N/ha significantly increased the plant height and dry matter accumulation of quality protein maize (QPM). Application of 175 and 150 kg/ha increased the plant height at harvest by 7.66 and 4.92% over 125 kg N/ha. Application of N in four splits also had a significant effect on plant height and dry matter accumulation. The significant improvement in production of QPM in terms of grain, stover and biological yield was observed by applying nitrogen in four equal splits in ratio of 25 : 25 : 25 : 25 at basal, 4-6 leaf emergence, knee high and 50% tasseling stages, respectively, over recommended three splits (33.3 : 33.3 : 33.3) of nitrogen application at sowing, knee high and 50% tasseling stages. Thus, it was concluded that to obtain maximum net returns of Rs. 46941, 50921 and B : C ratio 2.51, 2.73 from single cross hybrid ‘HQPM 1’ nitrogen should be applied in four splits in ratio of 25 : 25 : 25 : 25 at basal, 4-6 leaf emergence, knee high and tassel emergence stages.

19.   L. K. ARVADIYA, V. C. RAJ, T. U. PATEL, M. K. ARVADIA AND J. D. THANKI [Productivity and economics of sweet corn (Zea mays) as influenced by planting geometry and weed management]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 748-752 (2013). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

 

ABSTRACT

            The experiment was carried out under heavy black clay soil conditions at the Instructional Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during two successive seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 to study the productivity of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) saccharata] as influenced by different plant population and weed management treatments and their effect on weed flora. Weed population and dry weight of weeds were recorded significantly the highest with plant population of 1,11,111 plants/ha. Significantly higher green cob (9.5 t/ha) and fodder (14.9 t/ha) yield with net return of Rs. 75,779/ha and benefit : cost ratio of 5.36 was produced with plant population of 1,11,111 plants/ha and remained at par with plant population of 83,333 plant/ha. Significantly the lowest dry weight of weeds (84.95, 81.98 and 83.47 kg/ha, in first, second year and in pooled results, respectively) was recorded in weed free check (W2) and produced highest yield of green cob (10.7 t/ha) and fodder (17.1 t/ha). Application of atrazine 1 kg/ha+hand weeding at 40 days after sowing was remunerative in sweet corn as it had higher net return (Rs. 88,873/ha) and benefit : cost ratio (6.72).

 

20.   Z. A. Dar*, Asif M. Iqbal, Aijaz A. Lone, Mehfuza Habib and Gowhar Ali [Line x tester analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.) under temperate conditions of Kashmir]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 753-756 (2013). Dryland Agriculture Research Station Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir-191 121 (J & K), India *(e-mail : zahoorpbg@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            The present study was aimed at estimating the general combining ability effects of parents and specific combining ability effects of hybrids for yield and yield attributing traits. Combining ability analysis viz., line x tester mating design was done by using seven inbred lines of maize and three testers. Ten parents and 21 hybrids were evaluated for six traits viz., ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), number of kernel rows/ear, number of kernels/row, 1000-grain weight (g) and grain yield/plot (kg). The results revealed that KDM-149 x C 15 was the most prolific cross for grain yield/plot along with KDM-145 x C 15 and KDM-142 x C 6. KDM-134, KDM-142, KDM-147 and Super-1 were identified as best general combiners for most of the traits and these could be utilized for development of synthetics or elite breeding populations.

21.       Sandip Patra, Kanchan Saikia and N. S. Azad Thakur [Evaluation of maize hybrids against stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) and cob borer (Stenachroia elongella Hampson) in Meghalaya of North-East India]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 757-761 (2013). Division of Crop Improvement ICAR Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region, Umiam-793 103 (Meghalaya), India

 

ABSTRACT

  Studies were conducted at ICAR Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region, Umiam, Meghalaya during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 to evaluate some maize hybrids against stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) and cob borer (Stenachroia elongella Hampson) under field conditions. Twelve varieties viz., HIM-129, Vivek Maize Hybrid-5, Vivek Maize Hybrid-9, Vivek Maize Hybrid-15, Vivek Maize Hybrid-21, Vivek Maize Hybrid-23, Vivek Maize Hybrid-25, Vivek Maize Hybrid-33, FH-3356, Vivek QPM-9, Vivek Sankul Makka-31 and RCM-1-1 were evaluated. Results revealed that Vivek Maize Hybrid-15 recorded the lowest mean dead hearts (3.25%) followed by Vivek Maize Hybrid-5 (3.95%), HIM-129 (4.37%) and RCM 1-1 (5.72%), while highest mean dead hearts were found in FH-3356 (9.94%). On the other hand, RCM-1-1 was found least susceptible variety to cob borer (4.11%) followed by HIM-129 and Vivek Hybrid Maize-5 with 4.55 and 4.73% mean cob damage, respectively, whereas it was highest in Vivek Maize Hybrid-25 with 10.86% cob damage. Average grain yield recorded ranged from 2.87 to 5.09 t/ha in different varieties. Among the varieties evaluated, Vivek Maize Hybrid-25, FH-3356, RCM-1-1, Vivek Maize Hybrid-23, Vivek Maize Hybrid-21 and Vivek QPM-9 were found promising varieties with an average yield of 5.09, 4.71, 4.57, 4.38, 4.29 and 4.22 t/ha, respectively.

22.   VIKRAM BAIRWA, RITA DAHIYA*, PAWAN KUMAR AND V. K. PHOGAT [Effect of long term integrated nutrient management on soil properties, soil fertility, nutrient uptake and crop yields under pearl millet-wheat cropping system]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 762-768 (2013). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : ritajbd@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

Impact of 26 years of integrated nutrient management through application of chemical fertilizers and organic materials (farm yard manure, wheat straw and green manuring) on soil properties, soil fertility, nutrient uptake and crop yields under pearl millet-wheat cropping system was studied at Research Farm of CCSHAU, Hisar. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz., control, chemical fertilizers alone (100% NP), and fertilizers in combination with organic materials to substitute 50% N through farm yard manure (50% NP+FYM), wheat straw (50% NP+WS) and green manuring (50% NP+GM). Continuous use of FYM, WS and GM in conjunction with fertilizers increased the fertility status, NPK uptake, and yield of pearl millet and wheat crops. The soil reaction and soluble salts were found invariant under different treatments after the harvest of wheat. Among the organic materials, FYM resulted in highest available N (220.5 kg/ha), P (21.0 kg/ha) and K (333.8 kg/ha) in soil, and yielded highest grain yield of pearl millet (3142 kg/ha) and wheat (5452 kg/ha). These yields were not different with the yields obtained with the application of chemical fertilizer alone. Continuous application of FYM to meet 50% N requirement of pearl miller resulted in highest increase in plant height, dry matter accumulation, number of grains per earhead/spike and test weight of both the crops as compared to other treatments. Study suggests that long term integrated use of chemical fertilizers and organic materials has great potential for improving soil productivity and achieving higher crop productivity under pearl millet-wheat cropping system in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions.

23.   SOMAYEH MIRZAKHANI, MEHRDAD YARNIA* and FAROKH RHAIMZADEH KHOEI [Effects of water deficit stress on grain related traits in cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 769-776 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : m.yarnia@yahoo.com; yarnia@iaut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

 

            The present paper studied the effects of water deficit in different growth stages on the traits related to the grain in three cultivars of chickpea with different levels of water deficit stress. The experiment was carried out in the research field of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in a split plot of complete randomized blocks design in three replications. Water deficit as the main factor included seven levels : Control (without stress), stopping irrigation in vegetative growth stage (chickpea height : 15 cm), stopping irrigation in reproductive growth stage (50% flowering), stopping irrigation in the grain filling stage, irrigation starting from the vegetative growth stage once every 16 days, irrigation starting from the reproductive growth stage once every 16 days, irrigation starting from the grain filling stage once every 16 days and three cultivars of chickpea (Arman, Azad and ILC-482) were the secondary factors. Based on the results obtained from the analysis of variances the Arman cultivar had the maximum number of pods in branch, the weight of seeds in multiple seed pods and the Azad and ILC-482 had the maximum seed weight in multiple seed pods. But for the weight of 100 seeds and the number of pods in the plant there were no significant differences between the different cultivars under study. In the trait of seed weight in single seed pods, irrigation stopping in the vegetative growth stage, reproductive growth stage and grain filling stage, with the maximum reduction in case of stopping irrigation in the vegetative growth stage, resulted in significant reduction of traits. The maximum amount of reduction in the number of pods in the plant was related to the treatment of irrigation stopping in the vegetative growth stage. In this treatment, the number of pods in the plant was 67% less than the number of pods in the plant in control. Irrigation stopping in the reproductive growth stage also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of pods in the plant and reduced this trait up to 25%. Also all of the water deficit treatments resulted in significant reduction of the weight of 100 seeds compared to the control. The maximum amount of reduction in the weight of 100 seeds was caused by irrigation stopping in the vegetative growth stage with 28% reduction compared to control. Comparing the mean seed yield per unit area under different treatments of water deficit stress showed that irrigation starting from the vegetative growth stage once every 16 days and irrigation starting from the reproductive growth stage once every 16 days and irrigation starting from grain filling stage once every 16 days had no significant effect on the grain yield in the plant.

24.   S. V. PATIL, S. I. HALIKATTI, S. B. GURUMURTHY AND M. S. LOKESH [Impact of weather on performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with integrated organic nutrient management practices grown in vertisol of northern dry zone of Karnataka]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 777-785 (2013). Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Annigeri, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study impact of weather on performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in vertisol with integrated organic nutrient management practices of northern dry zone of Karnataka, at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. There were 18 treatment combinations consisting of four different organic manures in combination viz., farm yard manure (FYM), vermicompost (VC), glyricidia leaf manure (GLM), enriched compost (EC), neem cake (NC) and four different liquid manures viz., panchagavya, biodigester, cow urine and vermiwash with two control treatments RDF and absolute control (water spray). In both the years 2009-10 and 2010-11, the yield attributing parameters like number of pods per plant (66.38), number of seeds per pod (1.23), test weight (20.91 g), grain yield (2400 kg/ha) and halum yield (3156 kg/ha) were recorded with the treatment combination of EC 1/3rd+VC 1/3rd+GLM 1/3rd equivalent to 100% RDN+panchagavya @ 3% spray at flower initiation and 15 days after flowering (DAF) compared to other treatment combination and absolute control.

25.   NEELAM, R. K. NANWAL AND PAWAN KUMAR [Productivity and quality of mungbean-wheat cropping system as influenced by organic and inorganic sources of nutrients in semi-arid environment]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 786-791 (2013). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was carried out during 2010-11 and 2011-12 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the impact of different organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on yield, quality and soil fertility in mungbean [Phaseolus radiatus (L.) Wilczek]-tall wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] cropping system. The results indicated that application of 1/3 N each applied in the form of FYM+ vermicompost+neemcake+75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) recorded significantly higher yield (1226 and 1359 kg/ha) of mungbean and wheat (2908 and 2992 kg/ha) during first and second years, respectively. Application of 100% RDF improved the quality parameters of wheat during both the years. Protein content was found highest in treatment T7 (100% RDF) with the value of 11.7% during both the years of experimentation. The available N and K increased due to the application of 1/3 N each applied in the form of FYM+vermicompost+neemcake+75% RDF during both the years of study.

26.   WAN YAN, LUO QING-MING, YAN YAN-HONG, YANG WEN-YU* AND CAO XIAO-NING [Response of morphological characters of soybean to application of growth retardant (uniconazole) at third trifoliate stage]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 792-797 (2013). Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in South-west China, Ministry of Agriculture Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan-611 130, China *(e-mail : wenyu.yang@263.net)

 

ABSTRACT

Due to light limit under maize/soybean relay strips intercropping system, soybean is thin and weak at seedling stage. Uniconazole is a plant growth retardant that could reduce plant stem elogation and increase lateral growth. For a better understanding, the respose of soybean to uniconazole at V4 (The third trifoliolate leaf fully developed), morphological characters such as the height, the diameter of stem, the leaf morphological and the content of chlorophyll of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv. Gongxuan 1 was studied. The results showed that plant hight and stem slenderness ratio (H : D) decreased and stem diameter increased after seed treatment with uniconazole powder (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 mg/kg seed). Uniconazole also significantly increased the petiole length, leaf length and leaf width. In addition, it enhanced the content of chlorophyll and the ratio of chl a and chl b. Thus, results suggested that uniconazole treatment could improve plant growth which would be conducive to greater use of light source areas and favourable to gain light sources efficiently.

 

27.   Samira Abbasi, Hossein Zahedi*, Omid Sadeghipour and Reza Akbari [Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on physiological parameters and nitrogen content of soybean grown under different irrigation regimes]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 798-803 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Eslamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : hzahedi2006@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

The effect of inoculation of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that is Rhizobium japonicum, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and mixture of them on some physiological attributes of soybean under different irrigation regimes was investigated. Drought stress was induced by irrigation withholding until 40, 80 and 120 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan. However, seed inoculation of soybean was accompanied with 20 kg/ha nitrogen. In addition, 20 and 100 kg/ha nitrogen was considered as control treatments. The results revealed that drought stress significantly decreased membrane stability, chlorophyll, nitrogen content and relative water content. By contrast proline accumulation was promoted due to drought stress. PGPR application improved membrane stability compared to control treatment. In addition, mixture of PGPRs diminished proline accumulation in plant tissues. The highest chlorophyll content was observed when mixture of PGPRs was applied. It was noted that PGPR application improved nitrogen content in soybean plants.

 

28.       Yao Qin, H. Kwon and Wook Kim* [Optimization of the effect of physical treatment on soybean trypsin inhibitor activity by response surface methodology]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 804-814 (2013). Department of Biosystems and Biotechnology College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Korea University, Seoul-136 713, Korea *(e-mail : kwook@korea.ac.kr).

ABSTRACT

  The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of physical treatment, including thermal, ultrasound and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) on the decrease of the soybean trypsin inhibitors (STIs) under various experimental conditions. In general, the results obtained indicated that the water bath heating, microwave heating and ultrasound treatment effectively decreased STI activity by 55.11, 22.37 and 38.81% at 120, 4 and 120 min, respectively, as compared to control. However, gradual increase of STI activity of 3.47% was observed with SC-CO2-treatment. SDS-PAGE activity staining determined expected molecular size of the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (KTI) protein through various treatments demonstrating that thermal and ultrasound were more effective to reduce STI activity according to the 50% inhibition of an enzymatic reaction assay (I50). Furthermore, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal inhibition rate by effective treatments that gave ideal inactivation of STI by the factor interactions. Applying the model method, desirable condition was formulated and performed for STI inactivation. The present study concludes that the potential of decrease of STI activity was achieved by various physical treatments, demonstrating the favourable conditions of efficient treatments by the treatment interactions in order to select suitable process for soybean processing.

 

29.   B. Lal*, K. S. Rana, D. S. Rana, Y. S. Shivay, Priyanka Gautam, M. A. Ansari and Ekta Joshi [Assessment of economics, energy use and yield advantage indices of Ethiopian mustard+chickpea intercropping system under dry land conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 815-824 (2013). Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : blalsgnr@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

           A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of cropping systems, moisture conservation practices and P and S fertilization on energy use and economics of Ethiopian mustard and chickpea intercropping system under dry land conditions on a sandy loam soil at the research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, during 2008-09 and 2009-10. The treatments comprised three cropping systems (Ethiopian mustard sole, chickpea sole and Ethiopian mustard+chickpea (1 : 4) and two moisture conservation practices including (control and FYM @ 5 t/ha+organic mulch+kaolin 6% spray) as main plots and five fertility levels (control, 30 kg P2O5/ha, 30 kg P2O5/ha+15 kg S/ha, 60 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha+30 kg S/ha) as sub-plots replicated thrice in a split-plot design. The study attempts to analyze the energy input-output relationship and economic returns of the cropping systems. Findings reveal that total energy involved in intercropping of Ethiopian mustard+chickpea (58,126 and 56,962 MJ/ha) was greater than sole chickpea and sole mustard during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Intercropping of Ethiopian mustard+chickpea was found more remunerative in terms of benefit-cost ratio (3.64 and 3.81) owing to its ability to generate the highest return per rupee investment than sole chickpea (2.01 and 2.21) and sole mustard (2.44 and 2.55) during 2008-09 and 2009-10. The investment requirement and also net return were highest for intercropped and mustard and chickpea. Intercropping of Ethiopian mustard and chickpea at 1 : 4 row ratio resulted in significantly maximum net return, RNRI and energy use efficiency, LER and mustard equivalent yield. Application of FYM @ 5 t/ha+organic mulch+kaolin 6% spray performed better over control with respect to economics. Ethiopian mustard and chickpea either as sole or intercrop with each other responded significantly up to 60 kg P2O5+30 kg S/ha. The input-output ratio of energy use was higher with the application of 60 kg P2O5/ha+30 kg S/ha in Ethiopian mustard and chickpea intercropping system.

 

30.   TAN SHEE PEI, ROSLI B. MOHAMAD*, ADAM B. PUTEH AND MD. MAHBUB MORSHED** [Environmental effects on germination and emergence of two sesame (Sesamum sp.) ecotypes].Res. on Crops14 (3): 825-832 (2013). Department of Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM
Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia *(e-mail : rosli@agri.upm.edu.my; **mmorshed_bd@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

           Sesame (Sesamum sp.) is an important oil crop produced seed as a source of high quality edible oil and dietary supplement. In an effort to promote commercial cultivation of two wild sesame ecotypes (Port Dickson and Serdang) found in Malaysia, germination and seedling emergence in response to light, water stress and planting depth were evaluated in laboratory conditions. In this study, germination was evaluated for photo responses (in light and darkness), four levels of water stress (0.0, -0.3, -0.4 and -0.6 mPa) and six planting depths (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 cm). Results evidenced diverse responses upon germination within the treatment levels and between ecotypes. Germination percentage and rate were significantly higher for seeds grown in darkness compared with light conditions, but no significant differences between the two ecotypes in darkness rather than light conditions. Regarding to water stress, maximum germination was observed at water potential of 0.0 mPa (no water stress), and seeds of the Port Dickson ecotype were significantly more tolerant to water stress compared with that of Serdang ecotype. In case of different planting depths, it was evident that planting depth of 1 cm was most suitable for the seedlings to emerge (more than 80%) which favoured the requirement of sufficient soil moisture for sesame germination and subsequent emergence. The study suggests that sesame plant is susceptible to some environmental factors such as light, water stress and planting depth particularly at seed germination and seedling emergence stages.

 

31.   Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam* [Comparative study on the effect of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield and seed oil content of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 833-838 (2013). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effect of foliar micronutrients application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sunflower, an experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was laid out in a randomized complete block in four replications. The factor in this study included foliar micronutrients application (Fe+Zn+Mn+B) in six levels (non-foliar application, foliar micronutrients application within emergence stage, pollination stage, initial maturity stage, maturity stage and all growth stages). The result showed that foliar micronutrient application increased plant height, cap diameter, seed number in cap, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage and oil yield in all growth stages. The results obtained here suggest that foliar micronutrients application can improve the seed yield and seed quality of sunflower grown under irrigation condition.

 

32.   E. Khalilvand Behrouzyar* and M. Yarnia [Physiological response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to foliar application of methanol under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 839-844 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : e.khalilvand@iaut.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

  In order to investigate the effect of water deficit stress and methanol foliar application on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an experiment was conducted in the split plot form based on completely randomized block design with three replications during growing seasons of 2011-12. Treatments were water deficit stress in four levels : a1 : severe stress (25% FC irrigation), a2 : mild stress (50% FC irrigation), a3 : fair stress (75% FC irrigation) and a4 : normal irrigation (100% FC irrigation) and the foliar application of methanol in six levels [b1 : 0, b2 : 7, b3 : 14, b4 : 21, b5 : 28 and b6 : 35 (v/v)]. The analysis of variance showed significant effect of interaction between water deficit stress and methanol foliar application on Chl. a and Chl. b content, total Chl. a+Chl. b, RWC, seed and oil yield/ha (P<0.01). The detailed results of the study showed that foliar application with 21% (v/v) methanol in 50% FC irrigation and had 9, 20 and 16% more Chl. a and Chl. b content and total Chl. a+Chl. b than without methanol spraying in mild stress treatment, respectively. Besides, the results also proved that 21% (v/v) methanol foliar application in normal irrigation had 7735 and 4267 kg/ha seed and oil yield.

 

33.       Chuan Tang Wang*, Yue Yi Tang, Xiu Zhen Wang, Qi Wu, Shu Yan Guan, WEI QIANG YANG AND Pi Wu Wang** [Development and characterization of four new high oleate peanut lines]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 845-849 (2013). Shandong Peanut Research Institute 126 Wannianquan Street, Licang District, Qingdao-266 100, PR China *(e-mail : chinapeanut@126.com; **peiwuw@yahoo.com.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

Four peanut lines resulting from near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy aided selection for high oleate trait were evaluated for their productivity and fatty acid profile by gas chromatography in replicated trials in Laixi, Shandong, China. The four lines, with an oleate to linoleate ratio of 28.63-32.37, produced a kernel yield of 5226.24-5496.18 kg/ha, no less than the productivity of local control (Huayu 33 or Fenghua 1). The lines exhibited variable response to chilling stress, demonstrating the possibility of breeding high oleate peanut cultivars both with high productivity and with chilling tolerance. The study underlined the necessity of additional selection(s) for the high oleate trait, preferably seed by seed, during breeding process prior to bulk harvest for a yield trial, to exclude possible off-types (normal oleate seed within the high oleate lot) in cultivar releases. The outcome of the study represented a big stride towards release of large-seeded high yielding peanut cultivars with high oleate in Shandong province, China.

34.   CHUAN TANG WANG*, XIU ZHEN WANG, YUE YI TANG, QI WU, GUI JIE LI, GUO SHENG SONG, HONG TAO YU, DONG QING HU and BAO TAI GUO [Transforming peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) : a simple in planta method]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 850-854 (2013). Shandong Peanut Research Institute 126 Wannianquan Street, Licang District, Qingdao-266 100, China *(e-mail : chinapeanut@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

An easy-to-follow gene transformation system is of vital importance to peanut, not only for varietal improvement and functional analysis of genes, but also for the production of pharmaceuticals. In this communication, a simple node injection peanut transformation method was described. Agrobacterial tumefaciens suspension was injected into nodes on the cotyledonary branches of field-grown peanut plants at 30 days after sowing, and PCR-positive seeds were obtained. Integration and expression of the NPT II gene were further confirmed by sequencing of the PCR/RT-PCR products and NPT II ELISA.

35.   Yang Hong-Bing AND Han Zhen-Hai* [Na+ extrusion of roots and Na+ excretion of leaves in Malus seedlings with different salt tolerance under NaCl stress]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 855-859 (2013). Key Lab of Plant Biotechnology in Universities of Shandong, College of Life Science Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao-266 109, China *(e-mail : rschan@cau.edu.cn or hbyang@qau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 

Experiment of split-roots showed that the salt-tolerant Malus seedlings had higher Na+ extrusion capability of roots and whole recirculation amount of Na+ than the salt sensitive one. This would profit to reduce the shoot Na+ content of salt-tolerant Malus seedlings. Experiment of Na+ excretion showed that the salt-tolerant Malus seedlings also had higher Na+ excretion capability of leaves and whole Na+ excretion capability, moreover, the Na+ excretion per cent of whole Na+ in young and old leaves of salt-tolerant Malus seedlings was higher than that of salt-sensitive one. These made the Na+ content of shoot even less and more salt resistant in salt-tolerant Malus seedlings.

 

36.   Arunava Samanta*, V. W. Dhote, Sandip Patra and Milan Biswas [Effectiveness of different spray schedules against mango hopper and yield of mango cv. Himsagar]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 860-863 (2013). Department of Agricultural Entomology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : asamanta64@yahoo.co.in)

 

ABSTRACT

            Field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal during 2007-08 and 2008-09 to evaluate the effectiveness of different spray treatments viz., T1 : Spraying of imidacloprid (0.005%) at panicle emergence, T2 : T1+Spraying of endosulfan (0.07%) at 21 days after spraying of imidacloprid (0.005%) spray and T3 : T2+Spraying of endosulfan (0.07%) at 15 days after first spraying of endosulfan (0.07%) along with untreated check against mango hopper. All insecticidal treatments were found to be significantly superior in reducing the hopper population as well as increase in fruit yield over untreated check. Among these treatments, the triple spray (T3) was found to be most effective, which recorded lowest hopper population (5.48 hoppers/panicle) as well as highest fruit yield both at marble stage (197.62 fruits/100 panicles) and mature stage (96.4 kg/plant) and avoidable fruit loss (82.9%) followed by T2 (double spray) and T1 (single spray), respectively.

 

37.   R. P. S. DALAL*, RAMESH KUMAR AND B. S. BENIWAL [Physico-mechanical and biochemical properties of low-chill pear cultivars under sub-tropical arid-irrigated ecosystem]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 864-869 (2013). PAU Regional Station, Bathinda-151 001 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : dalal08@rediffmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

Some physical, mechanical, biochemical and sensory properties of eight pear cultivars were analysed in order to determine the level of difference existing among different cultivars. The highest fruit mass and porosity were observed in Smith, while highest TSS and least moisture content were found in Le Conte. Fruits of Florida Home exhibited good external appearance for fresh fruit marketing. Significant differences were also observed in physico-mechanical and sensory property of the fruit. Firmness measurement showed exceptional hardness for pear cultivars Kashmiri, Baggugosha and Smith. Hence, these cultivars may not be suitable for their consumption in their raw form and need to be processed for their better utilization. On the other hand, Le Conte and Kashmiri varieties produced the fruits with excellent eating quality, while Patharnakh and China can be a better choice for processing industry due to their least susceptibility to pulp browning.

 

38.   Zhiyuan Wen and Leping Cao* [Studies on correlation between fruit and leaf of citrus based on fractal dimension]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 870-875 (2013). College of Science Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan, China-410 128 *(e-mail : clp4218 @126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the statistical distribution of fruit size, shape, mass and leaf size, shape, and the correlation between fruits and leaves of Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. unbergii Nakai, Citrus sinensis Bonanza and Luxi seedless Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan in the same plantation. After the selective image cropping, background removing and image binaryzation and boundary detection and thinning to the images of the selective samples from the three varieties, it comes to the data of the boundary pixel of fruits and leaves, and those of inner pixel of fruits and leaves, then treats them as the data of their perimeter and area, respectively, next with the perimeter-area method, it gets the fractal dimensions, which characterize the shape of fruit and leaf, and that the correlation coefficient between fruits and leaves is above 0.92 after the analysis of the fruit size, shape weight and leaf size, shape in numerical order. Finally, it comes to an conclusion that the fruit size, shape and leaf size, shape follow the correlation of linear statistical distribution, that the fruit size, shape, mass and the leaf size, shape show high linear correlations and that fruit distribution can be predicted through the analysis on the growth state of leaves.

 

39.   K. S. SEKHON, G. S. BUTTAR, ANUREET KAUR AND B. S. SIDHU [Water productivity and fruit yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) as influenced by various levels of nitrogen and irrigation methods]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 876-881 (2013). PAU Regional Station, Bathinda-151 001 (Punjab) India

 

ABSTRACT

  The field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Punjab Agricultural University Regional Station, Bathinda, India, during 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2010-11 to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of three levels of N and different quantities of water applied through drip as well as furrow irrigation on eggplant fruit yield, agronomic efficiency of N and water productivity. In the present field investigation, ridge planting with each furrow and alternate furrow irrigation were compared with drip irrigation at two levels of water : 100% (CPE 1.0) and 50% (CPE 0.5) of each furrow irrigation (designated as D1.0 and D0.5). The three levels of N studied were 90 kg N/ha (75% of recommended dose of nitrogen i. e. N1), 120 kg N/ha (100% of RDN i. e. N2) and 150 kg N/ha (125% of recommended dose of nitrogen i. e. N3). The results revealed that mean fruit yield increased significantly with increasing N level up to N2 in EF, AF and D1.0. However, in D0.5, there was non-significant reduction in fruit yield with increase in N level from N1 to N2 and significant reduction with further increase from N2 to N3.The highest fruit yield under drip (D1) was obtained at N2, which was statistically at par with that obtained under each furrow irrigation at N120. The 50% water through drip can be saved by sacrificing 1.9% mean fruit yield as compared to each furrow irrigation. The increase in fruit yield was the result of an increase in the number of fruits per plant. The highest mean WEE was recorded in D0.5 (667.4 kg/ha-cm) followed by RAF (565.3 kg/ha-cm) and the lowest in REF (481.9 kg/ha-cm). In furrow irrigation, the WEE was 605.5 and 503.6 kg/ha/cm under alternate and each furrow irrigation at N120. Similarly, under drip (D1) the WEE was 577.3 kg/ha/cm at N2 level and increased to 682.5 kg/ha/cm in D2 at same level of nitrogen. The agronomic efficiency of nitrogen (AEN) decreased with the increase in level of nitrogen in all the methods of irrigation. The higher AEN was recorded at N1 and the lowest in N3 level. The results further revealed that application of only 50% water through drip (D0.5) produced 7.0 and 10.4% higher yield as compared with each furrow irrigation method at N120 and N150 levels of N, respectively. These results clearly indicate that there is need to work out amount of water required to be applied through drip at different levels of N for maximizing the benefits under field conditions.

 

40.   Li Yongbo*, Sun Guoxiang, Wang Xiaochan and Ding Weimin [Development of state space model based on sap flow-leaf temperature (SF-LT) data for cultivation of cucumber in greenhouse during summer]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 882-889 (2013). College of Engineering Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China *(e-mail : bewit@njau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

          In order to incorporate the physiological parameters of crops into the greenhouse control system, a state space model was developed based on 20-day data of sap flow and leaf temperature for summer maturation cucumbers. The model was consisted of two output parameters (stem flow and leaf temperature), four input parameters (ambient temperature, humidity, solar irradiation and soil temperature) and random disturbing input (wind velocity, operating staff condition and instrument deviations). Using time sequence analysis technology, the data of 1920 × 6 items (20-day) were filtered and sorted, and effective data source for state space model identification was established. In this paper, we adopted sub-space theory to confirm a 6-order state space model with five constant-coefficient matrices, and then completed the model specification. Comparison between the measured and predicted values showed that the fitness of sap flow and leaf temperature was 92.873 and 93.574%, respectively. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper was effective and reasonable, which could provide the model basis for applying crop physiological parameters to the greenhouse control system by resorting to modern control theory.

 

41.   T. U. PATEL, D. D. PATEL, J. D. THANKI AND M. K. ARVADIA [Evaluation of weed management practices on performance of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb crop under different fertilizer levels]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 890-896 (2013). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

 

ABSTRACT

In the alluvial soil of Navsari (Gujarat), a field experiment was conducted in rabi season to study the yield, quality and post-harvest life of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Gujata onion white-1 as affected by weed management and fertilizer levels during two consecutive years of 2008-09 and 2009-10. Weed population was decreased significantly with application of pendimethalin 1 kg/ha or oxyfluorfen 0.24 kg/ha supplement with one hand weeding at 40 DAT (W5 or W6) during both the seasons of investigation. Echinochloa spp., Trianthema portulacastrum L., Digera arvensis Forsk., Physalis minima L. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. were found as major weeds in experimentation. Further, pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding (W5) produced higher onion bulb yield of 39.3, 36.6 and 38.0 t/ha during both years as well as in pooled, respectively, which was statistically on par with that obtained from treatments oxyflourfen 0.24 kg/ha+one hand weeding at 40 DAT (W6) and weed free (W9) treatments. Crop fertilized with higher levels of 125% RDF produced significantly the highest bulb yield of 37.5, 34.2 and 35.7 t/ha, respectively, which was 10.52 and 19.43% more than of the F2 (100% RDF; 100 : 50 : 50, N : P2O5 : K2O kg/ha) and F1 (75% RDF; 75 : 37.50 : 37.50, N : P2O5 : K2O kg/ha) levels, respectively, on the pooled basis. Regarding post-harvest life of bulbs, weight losses (%), black mould development (%) and sprouting (%) remained unaffected by weed management and fertilizer levels except significantly higher weight losses (%) were observed under W5 (Pendimethalin 1 kg/ha pre-emergence+One hand weeding at 40 DAT) weed management treatment. On the basis of interaction, treatment combination of W5F2 (Pendimethalin 1 kg/ha coupled with one hand weeding at 40 DAT supplement with 100% RDF) was found most appropriate (39.9 t/ha) and profitable not only to secure the net return of Rs. 2,69,422/ha with 7.85 BCR per unit cost of onion production but also saved 25% of fertilizer. However, manual weeding may not be feasible and economical in the large onion cultivations.

 

42.       Farhat Ahmadi Avin*, Subha Bhassu** and Vikineswary Sabaratnam [A simple and low-cost technique of DNA extraction from edible mushrooms examined by molecular phylogenetics]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 897-901 (2013). Mushroom Research Centre (MRC) University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia *(e-mail : farhat.avin@gmail.com; **subhabhassu@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

               The first and most important step of molecular techniques is to isolate the high quality and standard quantity of DNA. The DNA extracted using the recommended method could successfully amplify the regions of interest and demonstrated reliable results can be applied in other molecular assays. Moreover, the designed primers of ITS1-UM2 and ITS4-UM2 were perfectly matched with the species of Basidiomycetes, can be used in phylogenetic studies of other mushrooms. We here evaluated the quality and quantity of DNA using a spectrophotometer, showed reliable OD260/280, and concentration. The protocol is efficient, rapid, low-cost, and simple, needs low amount of sample, and requires minimum facilities. The standard yield in addition to the high quality of DNA will enable mycologists to establish molecular techniques easier. In the current study, the constructed phylogenetic tree based on the obtained sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) I and II regions distinctly classified the examined material.

 

43.       T. U. PATEL, M. K. ARVADIA, D. D. PATEL, J. D. THANKI AND H. M. PATEL [Response of oat (Avena sativa L.) to cutting management and times of N application]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 902-906 (2013). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

                       To assess the requirement of cutting management and schedule of N application in oat (Avena sativa L.) and their effect on growth, yield and economics were studied by conducting field experiment at Navsari for three years (2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09). The present study indicated that cutting management significantly affected the seed & straw yield and green fodder yield. No cut treatment (C0) increased seed yield by 11.29 and 29.80% and straw yield by 13.68 and 44.11% over cutting at 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). Contrary to this, significantly highest green fodder yield (143.83 q/ha) was obtained with cutting at 45 DAS than crop was left for seed production. Net return (Rs. 64167) and B : C ratio (2.89) were higher obtained with no cutting treatment. Crop was fertilized with three equal splits (40+40+40, at basal, 30 and 45 DAS) of N which recorded significantly higher seed (21.54 q/ha) and straw (100.36 q/ha) yield followed by three splits (60+30+30, at basal 30 and 45 DAS), but significantly superior to two equal splits (60+60, at basal and 30 DAS). Whereas green fodder yield (122.57 q/ha) was found significantly higher when crop fertilized with two equal splits of nitrogen [at basal and 30 DAS (60+60)]. Net return (Rs. 67634) and B : C ratio (2.97) were obtained when crop was fertilized with three equal splits of nitrogen. Consequently for higher productivity and profitability of oat crop, it should be grown without cutting and fertilized with three equal splits of nitrogen at basal, 30 and 45 DAS (40+40+40).

 

44.   YAN-HONG YAN, XIN-QUAN ZHANG*, YUN GONG, YING-MEI MA, WEN-YU YANG, JING ZHANG, JUN-LIN LI AND HUI-YING MAO [Influence of different dosages of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and soaking time on stem cuttings of Hemarthria compressa]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 907-914 (2013). Department of Grassland Science College of Animal Science and Technology Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an-625 014, Sichuan, China *(e-mail : zhangxq@sicau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

             In order to improve the clonal propagation of Hemarthria compressa, stem cuttings were subjected to the application of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A factorial completely randomized design was used for experimentation. Plant cuts by 15-16 cm in length and 3.0 mm in diameter with three nodes were treated with different dosages (0~400 mg/l) of NAA for different soaking time (10~30 min). After 30 days, the cuttings were removed from the rooting medium for observations. It was found that the rooting per cent, length of the longest primary root, number of primary roots, root dry weight per cutting, root vigour, root to shoot dry weight ratio, the number of leaves per cutting and shoot dry weight per cutting were significantly influenced by the NAA dosage. Treatment with lower dosage of NAA increased rooting parameters, whereas higher dosage NAA suppressed these parameters. Furthermore, interactive effect between NAA dosage and soaking time on rooting response was also significant. Overall, the investigations suggested that 200 mg/l NAA and 20 min soaking time can be used to maximize rooting and produce high quality planting stem material for clonal propagation grass programme of H. compressa.

 

45.   P. GOVINDARAJ, PRIYA SINDHU, C. APPUNU, S. PARTHIBAN AND S. SENTHILKUMAR [Genetic diversity analysis among interspecific and intergeneric hybrids of Saccharum spp. using STMS markers]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 915-920 (2013). Division of Crop Improvement Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641 007 (Tamil Nadu), India

 

 

ABSTRACT

              Introgression of new desirable agronomically important genes from related species and genera into commercial sugarcane varieties is the essential component of varietal development programme. At Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore wide crosses involving Saccharum spontaneum or S. robustum and Erianthus arundinaceus were made and genetic stocks were developed incorporating biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, high biomass production and improved adaptability. Genetic diversity was worked out in 21 clones of such interspecific and intergeneric origin using 15 primers of sugarcane specific sequence tagged microsatellite markers (STMS). A total of 209 fragments were amplified, of which 92% were polymorphic with an average of ~12% polymorphic fragments per primer. Analyses of molecular profiles generated by STMS markers revealed the unique bands specific for five genotypes. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient value (J) ranged from 0.56 to 0.89 among the hybrids. UPGMA cluster analysis detected four major clusters among these hybrids. The cluster I consisted of 15 clones which was further divided into four sub-clusters. The cluster II had two clones which had E. arundinaceus as one of the parents in the immediate parentage or second level pedigree. The cluster III comprised three clones that were related by common male parent. The average coefficient value indicated existence of high level of genetic diversity among the interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Utilization of these hybrids in the varietal development programme may help in broadening the genetic base in sugarcane.

 

46.   FAN HUA, LINFENG, WANG KAIYONG AND MA FUYU* [Modulating effect of water and nitrogen factors on root yield and sucrose content of sugarbeet]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 921-927 (2013). Department of Agronomy Agricultural College, Shihezi University, Shihezi City-832 003, China *(e-mail : mafuyu2013@yahoo.com.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

      

Drip irrigation has been applied to sugarbeet cultivation in Xinjiang currently, while there are presently very few reports concerning optimal irrigation amounts and nitrogen application quantities in the cultivation of drip irrigated sugarbeet in Xinjiang, China. This study provides a theoretical basis for economically rational irrigation and nitrogen application programmes enabling the standardized cultivation of sugarbeet. Field tests were performed in conjunction with a two-factor quadratic saturation D optimum design scheme involving moisture and nitrogen to establish a binary quadratic polynomial mathematical model with moisture and nitrogen as independent variables and root yield and sugar concentration as target functions. Analysis and optimization using the model yielded the optimal irrigation and nitrogen application amounts. Results showed that there was a significant interaction between moisture and nitrogen with regard to root yield and sucrose content. Moisture is the chief factor affecting beet root weight and sugar content, followed by nitrogen. Moisture and nitrogen have a significant interactive promoting effect on root yield, but also have a significant interactive inhibiting effect on sucrose concentration. Under low levels of irrigation and nitrogen application, root yield increases with irrigation amount and the nitrogen application rate. However, after certain levels are reached, increases in root yield are not significant. Sucrose content first decreases then increases with irrigation amount and nitrogen application rate. Under the experimental conditions employed in this study, irrigation amounts and nitrogen application rates of 6417-8100 m3/ha and 166.5-292.8 kg/ha, respectively, achieved root yields exceeding 80 t/ha.

47.       Walker G. Albuquerque, Liv S. Severino*1, Napoleão E. M. Beltrão1, Carlos A. V. Azevedo and João L. da Silva Filho [Growth and biomass allocation of Jatropha curcas plants as influenced by nitrogen under different soil moisture regimes]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 928-934 (2013). Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB, Brazil *(e-mail : liv. severino@embrapa.br)

 

ABSTRACT

         Jatropha curcas plants were subjected to four levels of fertilization with nitrogen and four levels of plant available water in a 215-days long greenhouse experiment. The growth of jatropha plants was influenced by the supply of both water and nitrogen, but the effect of each of these factors was interdependent. Nitrogen fertilization favoured the growth of stem basal area, plant height and leaf area; however, these characteristics were influenced by water only when there was an adequate supply of nitrogen. The water use efficiency was increased when nitrogen was supplied and reduced when more water was supplied. The biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots was also influenced.

48.       Pedram Shahbazi*, Md. Yusoff Musa**, Geok Yuan Annie Tan, Farhat Ahmadi Avin, Wee Fei Aaron Teo and Vikineswary Sabaratnam [Streptomyces strain P42 as a potent biological control against chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum spp.]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 935-944 (2013). Institute of Biological Sciences Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia *(e-mail : ped.shahbazi@gmail.com; **mdyusoff@um.edu.my;

 

ABSTRACT

A total of 130 actinomycetes was isolated from rhizospheres of healthy and diseased (Colletotrichum-infected) chilli plants and tested for their inhibitory activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum truncatum. Twenty-six isolates were active against at least one of the Colletotrichum species and 12 were active against all three anthracnose fungi. Four bioactive isolates, P8, P39, P42 and P115, that exerted high inhibitory activity against all three anthracnose fungi species, were identified using molecular methods. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that all four isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Strain P42, which showed the highest inhibitory activity, was further tested as biological control agent in a greenhouse study. This strain successfully controlled chilli anthracnose disease by significantly reducing the disease severity. The results of the current study not only revealed that rhizosphere of Colletotrichum-infected chilli plants contained more bioactive streptomycete which are bioactive against Colletotrichum spp. than rhizosphere of healthy chilli plants, but also demonstrated the efficacy of biological control through soil suppression.

49.       Hengameh Chalajour, Saeed Safari Dolatabad* and Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani [Genetic diversity among Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Iran based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 945-949 (2013). Department of Plant Breeding Faculty of Agriculture, Roudehen Branch Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran *(e-mail : sdsafari@riau.ac.ir; saied582000@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

         Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes has long been considered as an alternative to nematicides. In this study, RAPD-PCR marker was conducted to study genetic diversity among 36 local isolates. Microscopic studies showed that about 87% of isolates contained more than one type of crystals. Also, genetic diversity of strains was studied by RAPD marker. The number of amplicons produced in various primers was 202 polymorphic. The number of amplified polymorphic bands ranged from 12 in OPJ-og primer to 77 in OPI-14 primer, with a total of 2190 polymorphic bands. The dendrogram showed three major groups. The first group clustered Bt11, Bt9AA1, Bt4Q and Bt73 local isolates. In the second major group, 10 local isolates were clustered together. The most tested strains were clustered in the third group (22 strains). Our analysis results showed that levels of similarity among the strains of the various locations were greater than the levels of similarity between the strains collected from one location.

 

50.       MAOMAO HOU*, XIAOHOU SHAO AND YUANYUAN LI [Effects of water and 15N-labelled fertilizer coupling on the growth, N uptake, quality and yield of flue-cured tobaccos : A two-year lysimeter experiment]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 950-959 (2013). Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China (Hohai University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing-210 098,China *(e-mail : wuduguer0407@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

         To identify the regularity on growth, N uptake, yield and quality of flue-cured tobaccos under different conditions, the 15N tracing technique was introduced and a two-year lysimeter experiment with four water-nitrogen treatments for flue-cured tobaccos was conducted in Nanjing, south of China, from 2010 to 2011. One year continuous cropping had little effects on agronomic characters, N uptake regularity and yield of flue-cured tobaccos, which had slight influences on the quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves, reflecting in the increasing of the total N and nicotine concentration, and the decreasing of total sugar and reducing sugar concentration. At early growth period, fertilizer N and soil N absorbed by tobacco plants accounted for about 50% of the total N absorption respectively, however, in the middle and later periods at about 56 to 84 days after transplanted, soil N became the main N absorption form of flue-cured tobaccos, which was at least 50% higher than fertilizer N absorbed at 84 days, the overabundance of soil N absorption in later periods could probably be the reason that the nicotine concentration of upper leaves was excessive. Higher N application under the same irrigation level increased the concentration of total N and nicotine in tobacco leaves, meanwhile decreased total sugar and reducing sugar. Treatments with higher N application detected a decline in tobacco quality through the surveying results of 2011, total sugar and reducing sugar concentration of which were too low. From the perspective of yield and quality stability, 800 mm irrigation water combined with 90 kg/hm2 N application was preferable for the cultivation of flue-cured tobaccos in this study.

51.       OK JA CHOI, HYUN SOOK JUNG AND KYEONG WON YUN [Variation in volatile compounds identified by headspace-GC/MS in Korean green tea]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 960-963 (2013). Department of Oriental Medicine Resources Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-950, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : ykw@sunchon.ac.kr)

 

ABSTRACT

         Variation in volatile components was studied in green tea manufactured in Suncheon region of Korea. The volatile compounds were characterized by headspace-GC/MS. 3-Hydroxy pentene, 2-propenal, ethyl hexanol, ethylene-heptanal acetaldehyde, methyl decanoate, isopentyl dodecanoate, and ethyl phenylacetate were the major volatile components in the green tea. High-grade green tea is manufactured in spring (from end of April to early in May) in Suncheon region. The volatile compound was detected on 28 April (1st), 5 May (2nd), 12 May (3rd) and 19 May (4th), 2012. The qualitative and quantitative differences were shown in volatile components between the first half sample (1st and 2nd samples) and the second half sample (3rd and 4th samples). The number of volatile components of the first half sample was more than that of the second half sample, and on the other hand the content of major constituents of the second half sample was more than that of the first half sample with the exception of isopentyl dodecanoate and ethyl phenylacetate.

52.       R. L. Leva, J. D. Thanki, D. D. Patel and T. U. Patel [Growth and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as influenced by planting methods and fertigation under vertisols of south Gujarat condition]. Res. on Crops 14 (3) : 964-967 (2013). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

 

ABSTRACT

         A field experiment was carried out at Achhalia, Navsari Agricultural University during the years 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the effect of planting methods and N-K fertigation on growth and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Treatments comprised planting methods i. e. raised bed (135, 180 and 225 cm width) and fertigation levels (80, 100 and 120% RD of N and K). Raised bed planting at 135 cm width recorded significantly higher plant height, LAI, number of tillers, number and weight of rhizomes per plant as well as yield over flat method of planting. Fertigation of 120% RD of N and K influenced remarkably growth and yield attributes as well as rhizome yield along with maximum net realization of Rs. 135245/ha.