Volume 14, Number 2 (June, 2013)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1. Li-rui Cheng, Cheng-gang Luo and Jian-long Xu* [QTL detection of amino acid content in grains of rice using advanced backcross introgression lines]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 317-323 (2013). Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Qingdao, Shandong Province, China*(e-mail : xujlcaas@126.com)

ABSTRACT

         Improvement of grain quality, such as protein content (PC) and various amino acid contents (AAC) is an important breeding objective in rice (Oryza sativa L.). One hundred and thirty-two advanced backcross introgression lines derived from a cross between japonica cultivar Xiushui09 and indica breeding line IR2061 were developed and used to study the inheritance of AAC in rice. A total of 40 AAC QTLs were identified and located on all chromosomes except that 7 and 9 in milled rice, which can explain the total phenotypic variation ranging from 4.97% for Ser content to 26.30% for Thr content with an average of 10.33%. Eight QTL clusters were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 6 and 11. Among them, the QTL cluster in the region of RM536-RM229 on chromosome 11 was exclusively associated with essential amino acid content. Many regions containing QTL clusters had a wide coincidence with the loci reported previously. These results provided some useful information on marker-assisted selection (MAS) for quality by marker-assisted controlling the balance of various AAC.

 

2.  B. P. Mallikarjuna*, N. Shivakumar, Shailaja Hittalmani, G. D. Prahalada, H. C. Lohithaswa and M. R. Krishnappa [Validation of SSR markers linked to fertility restoration in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 324-329 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru (Karnataka), India*(e-mail : malli3842@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            Validation of eight SSR markers reported to be linked to fertility restoration loci in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was studied during kharif 2010 to select 10 male parents for crossing in L × T design with nine new CMS lines developed at ZARS, VC Farm, Mandya to produce 90 rice hybrids. Based on pollen and spikelet fertility of the hybrids studied during summer 2011 all the testers except MSN-75 were identified as effective restorers for all nine CMS lines, while MSN-75 showed maintainer behaviour for CMS lines, KCMS 44A, KCMS 45A, KCMS 47A, KCMS 48A and KCMS 52A. Among the eight markers used, only three markers viz., RM 6100, RM 6344 (both linked to Rf-4) and pRf1 and pRf2 (linked to Rf-1) showed positive association with phenotypic fertility restoration of male parents based on pollen and spikelet fertility of the hybrids. The markers RM 6100 and RM 6344 were found to be linked to Rf-4 locus. These results indicated that Rf-4and Rf-1 loci are the predominant restoration alleles for CMS lines studied.

 

3.     Xiu-Zhi Wang, Hai Peng, Hong-Yu Zhang, Ping-Chuan Li, Chan-You Chen, Jing Zhang, Pei-Zhou Xu, Xu-Dong Wang and Xian-Jun Wu [Gene ontology study of genome-wide immediate activation and silencing for autotriploid and diploid spontaneously derived from twin-seedling rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 330-339 (2013). Genetics Laboratory Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu-611 130, China *(e-mail : wuxj@sicau.edu.cn)

ABSTRACT

              A genome-wide immediate activation and silencing were investigated in three pairs of autotriploids spontaneously derived from twin-seedling rice. It was observed that genes activation and silencing were immediately established over the whole range of the genome at the onset of autotriploid formation. Furthermore, the occurrences of genes activation events were much more frequent than silencing ones. The frequencies of activated and silenced loci statistically deviated from the average levels for some chromosomes, which resulted in increased susceptibility or insensitivity to ploidy change for those chromosomes. Some functional categories could also influence the frequencies of activation and silencing loci, indicating different degrees of sensitivity to ploidy shift for the genes in those functional categories. This autotriploid-diploid twin-seedling rice provides us a new way to understand the changes in gene expression profiles at the beginning of spontaneous auto-polyploidization .

 

4.     Chunrui Peng, Caifei Qiu, Jinshui Xie, Xianjiao Guan, Yinfei Qian and Xiaohua Pan [Senescence characteristics of double cropping super rice under different cultivation modes]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 340-344 (2013). Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Ministry of Agriculture/National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement Nanchang, Jiangxi, China*(e-mail : pcrtfs@163.com)

ABSTRACT

              Super early rice Jinyou 458 and super late rice Ganxin 688 were used as materials to study the root, leaf and grain senescence characteristics of double cropping super rice under “three high and one ensuring” cultivation mode and conventional cultivation mode. The results indicated that SPAD value in top three leaves of “three high and one ensuring” cultivation mode was higher than conventional cultivation mode during grain filling period, but its leaf MDA (malondialdehyde) content was lower than conventional cultivation mode after full heading, simultaneously, the bleeding amount per stem, SOD (superoxide dismutase) and POD (peroxidase) activity of “three high and one ensuring” cultivation mode were higher than conventional cultivation mode during grain filling period, all of these manifested that “three high and one ensuring” was more favourable to keep root activity and prolong leaf functional period, to retard the senescence speed of rice leaves, roots and rice grains.

5.         Yosouf Niknejhad*, Jahanfar Daneshian, Amirhossein Shirani  Rad, Hemmatollah Pirdashti and Mohammad Hossein Arzanesh [Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on leaf area duration (LAD) dynamics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under nitrogen and water limited conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (2): 345-349 (2013). Rice Research Institute Deputy of Mazandaran. P. O. Box 145, Amol, Iran  *(e-mail : yosoofniknezhad@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

        The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas coinoculation on leaf area index and duration dynamics in an improved rice cultivar (Keshvari) which is commonly grown under northern Iran conditions. The experimental plots were arranged in a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. The three irrigation regimes (control, no irrigation at either panicle initiation or flowering stages) and nitrogen fertilizers (control or recommended dose as the rate of 100 kg/ha nitrogen, 50 and 25% of recommended dose) were assigned to the main-plots and sub-plots, respectively, and the four PGPR treatments [control, Azospirillum brasilense (AZP), Pseudomonas fluorescence (PSD) and AZP+PSD] were arranged in the sub-sub plots. Results of LAD showed that during the 35 to 110 days after transplanting period, AZP+PSD inoculated rice plants had higher LAD as compared to the non-inoculated plants. LAD at different growth stages, however, varied strongly among water deficit plots and control. Rice plants not irrigated at flowering stage had fewer LADs as compared to other treatments. Results of the present experiment demonstrated that dual inoculation of A. brasilense and P. fluorescence rhizobacteria in lowland rice cultivation might enable to improve the leaf area index (LAI) and hence improve leaf area duration (LAD) under low irrigation and nitrogen conditions.

6.     POLICE PATIL, A. S. NANJAPPA, H. V. RAMACHANDRAPPA, B. K. HITTALMANI, SHAILAJA AND P. K. BASAVARAJ [Performance of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under site specific nutrient management (SSNM)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 350-356 (2013). Department of AgronomyUniversity of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

             The field experiment was conducted at ZARS, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 to study the performance of aerobic rice genotypes under site specific nutrient management approach. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four genotypes (G1–MAS 946-1, G2–MAS 26, G3–MAS 77 and G4–Rasi) and three targeted yield levels (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 t/ha). Results obtained from experiments showed that among the aerobic rice genotypes, MAS 946-1 recorded significantly higher grain yield of 5903 kg/ha over MAS 77 (5322 kg/ha) and Rasi (5685 kg/ha) and was on par with MAS 26 (5776 kg/ha). Improvement in yield was to the tune of 10.93, 3.83 and 2.19% over MAS 77, Rasi and MAS 26 genotypes, respectively. Higher grain yield of MAS 946-1 was a consequence of significantly higher yield attributing components like number of productive tillers/hill (27.41), longer panicle length (15.88 cm), number of filled grains/panicle (173), test weight (25.88 g) and grain weight/hill (32.04 g) over other genotypes. Growth components like total dry matter production (98.41 g/hill), leaf area (2619 cm2/hill) and LAI (5.24) were significantly higher in MAS 946-1 genotype. At different targeted yield levels, 6.5 t/ha yield recorded  significantly higher grain yield (6488 kg/ha) and yield attributing traits like number of productive tillers/hill (28.13), longer panicle length (16.20 cm), number of filled grains/panicle (165.92), test weight (27.27 g) and grain yield (34.58 g/hill) and also growth components compared to other yield levels.

7.     Zhou Wei, Huang Yun, Leng FuQiang, Lai ZhiYong, Ren WanJun* and Yang WenYu [Effects of postponing nitrogen applications on leaf senescence of indica hybrid rice]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 357-366 (2013). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan Province, 611130, China*(e-mail : rwjun@126.com)

ABSTRACT

            From after heading to mature stage, changes in the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the flag leaves of four field-grown indica hybrid rice varieties under different postponing nitrogen (N) applications were studied. The results showed that the proper postponing N ratio could improve the value of chlorophyll and soluble protein of flag leaf, reduce the content of MDA and the activity of POD and soluble sugar content, the effects on SOD were changing with cultivars. Taken together, the different postponing N ratios for different varieties could be able to alleviate the damages membranes caused by active oxygen and the peroxidation of membrane lipids, thereby delaying leaf senescence in some extent.

 

8.     Abdulatif Ahmed, S. K. Thakral, A. KUMAR* AND A. YADAV [Efficacy of planting technique, cultivar and weed control selectivity on wheat yield and associated weeds in Indo-Gangetic Plains]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 367-373 (2013). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : akumarphysiology@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

               Sustaining and improving the productivity of wheat in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India would require research focused to evolve new and innovative production technologies. A study was conducted during winter seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to evaluate the effects of three planting techniques (furrow irrigated raised bed system–FIRBS, conventional tillage–CT and zero till–ZT), wheat cultivars (WH 711, WH 1022 and PBW 343), weed control treatments (some weed control treatments (clodinafop fb metsulfuron @ 60 & 4 g/ha, weedy and weed free) and their interaction on the productivity of wheat and associated weeds. The weed population and dry weight were significantly lower when the crop was planted on FIRBS as compared to ZT and CT. Weed infestation was lower in cultivar PBW 343 than cultivars WH 711 and WH 1022. Application of clodinafop fb metsulfuron @ 60 & 4 g/ha effectively controlled the weed flora over weedy check and was comparable with weed free treatment. The crop planted on FIRBS produced 0.4 and 3.4% higher grain yield than ZT and CT, respectively. Cultivar PBW 343 produced higher grain yield than cultivars WH 711 and WH 1022. No significant differences were found in grain yield obtained with the application of clodinafop fb metsulfuron and weed free treatments. However, both weed control treatments resulted in significant yield gains over weedy check. The interaction between planting techniques × weeding methods and planting techniques × cultivars was significant. The results revealed that application of clodinafop fb metsulfuron in wheat planted on FIRBS provided effective control of weeds comparable to weed free crop planted either on FIRBS or ZT and CT. Cultivar PBW 343 produced highest grain yield under FIRBS and CT, whereas cultivar WH 711 performed better under ZT.   

 

9.         Qiang Guo, Wen Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaoxia Wen and Yuncheng Liao* [Effects of soil moisture and temperature on soil microbial ecological environment and soil respiration in rainfed wheat field]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 374-381 (2013). College of AgronomyCollege of Agronomy Northwest A & F University, Yangling-712100, China *(e-mail : yunchengliao@163.com)

ABSTRACT

            To explore the effects of soil moisture and temperature on soil microbial ecological environment and soil respiration in a rainfed wheat field, we studied the regular changes in soil microbes, enzymes and respiration in different soil moisture and temperature conditions in a rainfed wheat field. In 0 to 50 cm soil layer during the wheat green up stage to the harvest stage, bacteria had the absolute advantage, followed by actinomycetes. Fungi had the least advantage. As soil depth increased, the number of soil microbes declined gradually in all soil layers. Soil bacteria and actinomycetes were positively correlated with soil moisture but negatively correlated with soil temperature in 0 to 50 cm soil layer. Fungi were positively correlated with soil temperature but negatively correlated with soil moisture in 0 to 50 cm soil layer. In 15 to 30 cm soil layer, soil enzymes had the highest activity, which had positive correlation with soil moisture but had negative correlation with soil temperature. The relationship of CO2 emission with soil moisture and temperature was fitted in a quadratic equation. The correlation among the soil enzymes reached the significant level or the extremely significant level in 0 to 15 cm soil layer.

10.   A. Ahmed, S. K. Thakral, A. Kumar*, A. Yadav AND D. YADAV [Physiological traits and yield of wheat cultivars as influenced by establishment methods and weed management practices]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 382-388 (2013). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : akumarphysiology@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Studies were carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to evaluate the influence of establishment methods and weed management practices on physiological traits and yield of wheat cultivars at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India. The experiment was laid out in split plot design taking three crop establishment methods, furrow irrigated raised bed system (FIRBS), convential tillage (CT) and zero till (ZT) in main plots and three wheat cultivars, WH 711, WH 1022 and PBW 343 in sub-plots and three weed management practices, application of clodinafop fb metsulfuron @ 60 & 4 g/ha (C fb M), weedy check and weed free in sub-sub-plots replicated four times. The results revealed that establishment methods, wheat cultivars and weed management practices significantly affected weed populations and their dry weight, physiological traits and yield of wheat. Weed populations and their dry weight decreased significantly in FIRBS and ZT established crop and cultivar PBW 343. Application of C fb M was as effective as hand weeding in controlling weeds. Sowing of wheat on FIRBS, use of cultivar PBW 343 and control of weeds by C fb M resulted in higher leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD) and crop growth rate (CGR) as compared to other treatments. The grain yield of wheat was higher in FIRBS than ZT and CT, in cultivar PBW 343 than WH 711 and WH 1022 and by the application of C fb M than weedy check. The interaction between establishment methods × weeding management practices and establishment methods × wheat cultivars was significant. The results revealed that application of C fb M in the crop planted on FIRBS provided effective control of weeds comparable to hand weeding in the crop planted either on FIRBS or ZT and CT. Cultivar PBW 343 produced highest grain yield under FIRBS and CT, whereas cultivar WH 711 performed better under ZT. The results revealed that among the physiological traits, LAI was the most critical trait influencing grain yield of wheat through its effect on LAD, CGR and biomass.

.

11.   Burhan KARA* [Phosphorus use efficiency of some bread wheat cultivars]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 389-394 (2013). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : burhankara@sdu.edu.tr; burhankara25@hotmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out in two vegetation seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects phosphorus doses (a control-0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) on grain yield, P use efficiency, P uptake and P utilization of some bread wheat cultivars (Gerek-79, Gün-91, Harmankaya, Altay-2000, Yildiz and Sultan) under the semi-arid climatic conditions. The experiment was set up according to a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates, where phosphorus doses were main plots, while the wheat cultivars were in sub-plots split within main plots. Of the phosphorus doses, while the highest grain yield, the highest P use efficiency and the highest P utilization efficiency were determined from the 60 and 90 kg/ha P doses, the highest P uptake efficiency was obtained from the 30 kg/ha P dose in both 2009-10 and 2010-11. Of the wheat cultivars, the highest grain yield, the highest P use efficiency, the highest P uptake and the highest P utilization were obtained from Altay-2000 and Gün-91 cultivars. Of the interactions between the P doses and the wheat cultivars, the highest grain yield (2494 and 3649 kg/ha, respectively), the highest P utilization efficiency (193.7 and 190.1%, respectively) were obtained from the 60 and 90 kg/ha, respectively, in Altay-2000 in both 2009-10 and 2010-11. The highest P use efficiency was obtained from the 60 kg/ha in Gün-91 cultivar (34.8%) during 2009-10 and Altay-2000 (36.4%) during 2010-11. The highest P uptake efficiency was determined from the 30 kg/ha in Gün-91 cultivar (52.8 and 44.9%, respectively) in both the years.

 

12.   Li Ruan, Jiabao Zhang*, Xiuli Xin and Yiping Tong [Enhanced resistance to low potassium stress in Elymus dahuricus H+-PPase EDVP1 transgenic wheat]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 395-403 (2013). State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable AgricultureInstitute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing-210 008, China*(e-mail : jia-baozhang@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Previous transgenic wheat transformed with Elymus dahuricus H+-PPase EdVP1 was used to compare the characteristics of K uptake and utilization, root system and the ability to increase K solubility in the rhizosphere between EdVP1 transgenic wheat and wild type wheat under low K stress. The results showed that under low K stress, the K accumulated content (KA) and K biological utilization index (KUI-B) in wild type wheat were 50.45 and 63.20% of those in EdVP1 transgenic wheat, respectively. The total root length, total root surface area, root tips and total root volume in wild type wheat were 44.18, 44.77, 42.70 and 50.00% of those in EdVP1 transgenic wheat, respectively. Excretion H+ and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of roots, which were much higher in EdVP1 transgenic wheat, were positively correlated with KA. Root box experiment showed that non-exchangeable K in rhizosphere of EdVP1 transgenic wheat was 35.46% below that of wild type wheat. The leaching amount of soil exchangeable K in root exudates of EdVP1 transgenic wheat was 1.62 times as high as that in wildtype wheat. The content of organic acids in EdVP1 transgenic wheat root exudates was 2.22 times as high as that in wild type wheat. We thus hypothesize thatEdVP1 transgenic wheat has higher K uptake and utilization because of its prosperous root system, high excretion H+ and CEC of roots and strong excretion ability of organic acids.

 

 

13.   Yang Hong-Bing* [Effects of osmotic and salt stress on some physiological indexes of wheat seedlings]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 404-408 (2013). Key Lab of Plant Biotechnology in Universities of ShandongCollege of Life Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao-266 109, China*(e-mail : hbyang@qau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

           Salt-sensitive wheat cultivar ‘Lumai No.15’ (Lu 15) and salt-tolerant wheat cultivar ‘Dekang 961’ (Dk 961) were used as experimental materials. With the increase in concentration of NaCl and iso-osmotic PEG, MDA content and respiration rate of Lu 15 obviously increased and the increase of which under NaCl stress was more than that under iso-osmotic stress; however, MDA content and respiration rate of Dk 961 increased relatively less under the same stress intension. Salt stress of low concentration obviously promoted SOD activity and photosynthetic rate of leaves of Dk 961. Under salt stress of high concentration, SOD activity and photosynthetic rate of Lu 15 was obviously restricted more than that of Dk 961, and the decrease of SOD activity and photosynthetic rate of Lu 15 was more than that under iso-osmotic stress. Salt-tolerance of wheat cultivars showed negative correlation with MDA content and respiration rate, while positive correlation with SOD activity and photosynthetic rate. The significant increase in MDA content and respiration rate of salt-sensitive cultivar very likely resulted by toxic effects of Na+ under high salinity stress.

 

14.   Amit Kumar* and R. S. Sengar [Effect of delayed sowing on yield and proline content of different wheat cultivars]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 409-415 (2013). Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250 110 (U. P.), India *(e-mail : amit.agbiotech1581@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                       Heat stress due to the global warming is one of the major constraints in the way of higher wheat productivity. This field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of late sowing on the wheat yield, chlorophyll content and proline accumulation in leaves. The results indicated that the eight wheat varieties (K-7903, HUW-234, UP-2425, RAJ-3765, K-9644, PBW-373, K-9423 and K-65) were treated with the heat stress condition. Heat stress was given to wheat varieties by delaying sowing of 20 and 40 days from the normal date of sowing (25 November) so that the reproductive stage of first set (T1) and vegetative  as well as reproductive stage of second set (T2) could experience heat stress. Analysis of the data showed that under heat stress condition Raj-3765 and K-7903 had minimum reduction in plant height, wheat yield, spike length and number of grains per spike than the other wheat cultivars. While the chlorophyll content of normal sowing is greater than the late sowing treatment. The maximum chlorophyll content in T1 and T2 under heat stress condition was recorded in Raj-3765, while lowest chlorophyll content was recorded in K-9644. Proline was significantly high in susceptible varieties K-9644, K-9423 and UP-2425, whereas tolerant varieties Raj-3765 and K-7903 showed the low proline content. From this study, it could be concluded that the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in wheat cultivars through the late sown condition and from this experiment also concluded that the Raj-3765 was heat tolerant variety.

15.   Zhiying Deng, Fang Chen, Shuna Hu, Qingdian Han, Fangyu Xing, Nana Feng, Cailing Sun, Jiansheng Chen, Yongxiang Zhang and Jichun Tian* [Contributions of allelic variations in HMW-GS and waxy proteins to dough alveogram properties of wheat]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 416-421 (2013). State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology Key Laboratory of Crop Biology of Shandong Province Group of Wheat Quality Breeding, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong-271 018, China *(e-mail :  jctian9666@126.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                          Two hundred and ninety F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the bread wheat cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and the waxy wheat cultivar Nuomai 1 were used in determining the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and waxy protein subunit combinations and their effects on the dough Alveogram properties. Seven alleles were detected at Glu-1 loci. There were two alleles found at each of the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci. Eight allelic combinations were observed for both HMW-GS and waxy protein, and a total of 44 different genotypes, with frequencies ranging from 0.34 to 5.86%, were obtained. Both the 1/7+8/5+10 and 1/7+8/5+12 combinations contributed to dough elasticity. Wx protein subunits affected the dough extensibility. Compared to Wx protein, HMW-GS was more important on dough alveogram properties. Their interactions non-significantly affected the Alveogram properties.

16.   Rashid  Varahram* and Tarinejad  AliReza [Genetic variations in traits related to stem and spike of durum wheat (Triticum durum ) genotypes]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 422-426 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureTabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran*(e-mail : rash270@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              To evaluate genotypic variations in traits related to stem and spikes of durum wheat, a simple lattice experiment was carried out by using 58 advanced lines and six landraces for two years during 2006-08 at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran. In this investigation, traits like plant height, peduncle length, number of nodes per stem, number of spikes per plant, spike length, number of seeds per plant, 1000-­seed weight and grain yield were measured. Combined analysis of data for two years showed that there were significant differences, for the traits among the lines under study at 1% probability level. This result indicates that there was genetic diversity for these traits among durum wheat lines. Interaction of lines × year was not significant for all of the traits. This means that responses of traits were identical in both the years. Mean comparisons of grain yield among durum wheat lines showed that the lines ARAMIDES (no. 33), LC/RD (no. 55), YAZLIG (no. 62) and YAZLIG (no. 64) had the highest yield than the others. Simple correlation between traits revealed a significant and positive relationship of grain yield with traits such as number of spikes/plant, spike length and seeds/spike. It can be concluded that seeds/spike in advanced lines and spikes/plant and spike length in landraces lines may play an important role in grain yield.

17.   Abdel Rahman Mohammad Al-Tawaha* and Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi [Response of barley cultivars to chitosan application under semi-arid conditions]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 427-430 (2013). Department of Biological Sciences Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, Jordan *(e-mail : abdel.al-tawaha@mail.mcgill.ca)

 

ABSTRACT

                       Field experiments were conducted at northern part of Jordan during 2010 growing season. Split plot designs with three replications were used in this study. The cultivars (ACASAD 176 and Rum) were randomly assigned to the main plots in each replicate. Chitosan treatments (0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 g/l chitosan) were randomly assigned to each cultivar plot, representing the sub-plot treatments. Significant differences (P<0.01) in grain yield per plant (g), number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike and 100-grain weight were recorded between the cultivars studied. Rum cultivar gave the highest grain yield per plant, spikes per plant, number of grains per spike and 100-grain weight compared with ACASD 176. The grain yield per plant, number of spikes per plant and number of grains per spike was affected by chitosan treatment. There were also highly significant differences (P<0.01) among treatments with and without chitosan application. The highest grain yield per plant, number of spikes per plant and grains per spike were recorded when barley plant was subjected to 3 g/l chitosan as foliar application at tillering stage.

 

18.   P. ASHOKA, T. K. PRABHAKARA SETTY, M. T. SANJAY and C. M. SUNIL [Effect of crop geometry and intercropping system on growth and yield of maize (Zea  mays L.)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 431-435 (2013). AICRP on Water ManagementWater Management Research Centre Belvatag (Post), Navalgudha (Tq.), Dharwad-582 208 (Karanataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

                    Field experiments were conducted during kharif and rabi seasons of 2008-09 at GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka to study the effect of intercrops and paired rows on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Under rainfed condition, maize intercrop with gardenpea (Pisum sativa L.) followed by frenchbean (Phaseolus  vulgaris L.) areas was found better than fieldbean and soybean. Whereas the row ratio 2 : 3 followed by 2 : 2 proved better than 1 : 1 with respect to productivity of maize. Among various intercropping systems, maize+gardenpea at 1 : 1 row ratio significantly achieved higher in growth parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves and total dry matter production and yield and yield components viz., number of grains per cob, test weight, cob length, cob girth, maize grain yield and maize equivalent yield in  maize+gardenpea at 2 : 3 in paired rows over the other inter cropping system. Intercropping gardenpea proved compatible, remunerative higher price and less competitive with maize at 2 : 3 ratios rather than 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 row ratios.

19.   Roshan Choudhary, Dilip Singh, V. Nepaliya and Rajesh Choudhari [Effect of nitrogen levels and scheduling on yield attributes and yield of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 436-438 (2013). Department of AgronomyMaharana Partap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted during two successive years (2010 and 2011) under partially irrigated condition to study the effect of nitrogen levels and their scheduling on productivity of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) with and without sulphur application. Maximum yield attributes and grain yield were recorded under application of 175 kg N/ha along with four split applications of recommended dose of nitrogen in ratio of 25 : 25 : 25 : 25 as basal, 4-6 leaf emergence, knee high and 50% tasseling stages, respectively, over recommended staggering of nitrogen in three splits (33.3 : 33.3 : 33.3) at sowing, knee high and 50% tasseling stages.

20.   Jyoti Kaul, Ramesh Kumar*, R. Sai Kumar, Sain Dass, Bilal Bhat, Om Prakash Kamboj, Usha Nara and Anil Kumar Yadav [Response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids to excess soil moisture stress at different growth stages]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 439-443 (2013). Directorate of Maize Research Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : rk.phagna@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            Excess moisture (waterlogging) during the kharif season is the major threat to overall productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in a large area of South-East Asia. Maize responds differently to excess soil moisture (ESM) conditions at different stages of its life cycle. Experiments were conducted during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 under managed field conditions to assess the effects of excess soil moisture stress at two different stages (knee high and flowering) on maize hybrid. The waterlogging treatment was applied following standard procedure and observations related to morpho-physiological parameters (days to anthesis, days to silking, nodes with brace roots, plant height (cm), leaf area per plant, SPAD values, canopy temperatures, test weight (g) and yield per plant (g) were recorded. Fourteen promising single cross hybrids comprising three maturity groups (early, medium and late) were used in the present study. The results indicated that hybrids on an average took 50 days to anthesis and 57 days to silking under waterlogged conditions. Anthesis-silking interval (ASI) got widened, the average ASI was 4.8 days in case of waterlogging. While in case of control conditions, average ASI observed was 2.4 days. Similarly, plant and ear heights were  severely affected and in almost all the hybrids there was reduction in plant height due to waterlogging treatment. In waterlogging, the average plant and ear heights were 153.5 and 70.9 cm, respectively, as compared to 184 and 91.9 cm under control conditions. Nodes with brace roots increased after waterlogging treatment. Under normal conditions, the number of nodes with brace roots was almost similar in all the hybrids. Heavy impact on some of the physiological traits in all the hybrids was also observed except canopy temperature which remained mostly constant under both normal and waterlogged conditions. Leaf area and SPAD values (relative greenness) of the plants got reduced due to flooding treatment. Under waterlogged conditions, leaf area ranged from 3537.5 to 10074 cm2 with maximum observed in HM 11 and Prakash and minimum in Vivek-17 and HQPM-5. Similarly, SPAD values ranged from 31.8 to 48.2 with an average of 39.5 under waterlogged conditions compared to 59.2 of control conditions. Drastic change in yield in most of the hybrids was observed but still hybrids Seed Tech-2324, Bio-9637 and HM-11 showed fairly better yields under waterlogging conditions. The average yield was 1265 kg/ha in case of waterlogging and 4173 kg/ha under control conditions. The per cent yield reduction varied from 62 to 77 with maximum in HM-10 (77%) and the minimum in Bio-9637 (61%).

21.       M. C. KGONYANE*, I. K. MARIGA  AND J. P. DIMES [Low rates of nitrogen and phosphorus as fertilizer options for maize production by smallholding farmers in drier regions of South Africa]. Res. on Crops 14 (2): 444-454 (2013). Department of Plant Production, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering University of Limpopo, Private Bag X 1106 Sovenga 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : kgonyane@vodamail.co.za

 

ABSTRACT

 Formal fertilizer recommendations for maize production in Limpopo, South Africa are inappropriate to resource constraints and climatic risks of smallholder (SH) farmers in drier regions. On-farm rainfed experiments to investigate low rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer options for maize (Zea mays L.) production were conducted in drier regions of Limpopo Province, South Africa in the 2006-07 and 2007-08 rainy seasons at six  localities : Phaudi, Perskebult, Tshebela, Mothiba, Bokgaga and Mafarana. The experiments evaluated four levels of nitrogen (0, 14, 28 and 56 kg/ha) and four levels of phosphorus (0, 5, 10 and 20 kg/ha). There were no grain and total biomass yield (TBM) response to phosphorus application rates despite the low soil P tests across all sites and seasons. There was also no interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus on grain and total biomass yield for both the seasons at all sites. Grain yield was affected by the rates of nitrogen application. These effects were statistically significant (P<0.05) for Bokgaga, Perskebult and Mothiba sites. The most responsive site on maize grain yield to N inputs was Perskebult (778 kg/ha) followed by Bokgaga (588 kg/ha). Similar to grain yield, the TBM yield increased with an increase in N application, irrespective of the site. The generally high yields at Mafarana can be attributable to higher temperature, soil organic carbon and rainfall effects. The high level of N (56 kg N/ha) at Perskebult outyielded the preceding N level (28 kg N/ha) by 63%. Recommended fertilizer rate (56 kg N/ha) gave highest value cost ratio (VCR) at Bokgaga only, while low rate (14 kg N/ha) resulted in the highest VCR at Mothiba followed by Perskebult and then lastly Mafarana. An application rate of 14 kg N/ha is recommended for those environments, especially during the low rainfall seasons for the farmers who have never used fertilizers before.  The results of these trials in drier regions of Limpopo Province have confirmed the profitability of low rates of N fertilizer in the smallholder (SH) sector.

22.   ASHOK KUMAR SINGH, VAIBHAV K. SINGH AND A. K. SINGH [Evaluation of leaf extract, fungicides and Trichoderma viride against Fusarium stalk rot of maize]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 455-458 (2013). Regional Agricultural Research StationS. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology-J, Rajouri-185 131 (J & K), India

 

ABSTRACT

Field experiment was conducted to evaluate eight different treatments against Fusarium stalk rot of maize at Regional Agricultural Research Station, SKUAST-J, Rajouri. Among these treatments, carbendazim was found to be the most effective (3.82% disease incidence with 41.06 q/ha grain yield) followed by companion (10.01% DI with 37.65 q/ha yield) and Drek seed extract (12.01% DI with 35.68 q/ha yield), while Tulsi leaf extract and captan were less effective (22.61% DI with 31.92 q/ha yield and 23.03% with 28.42 q/ha, respectively) than other treatments except control (38.91% DI with 19.12 q/ha yield). Highest plant height was observed in treatment Drek seed (226.33) along with maximum dry matter (200.16 g/plant), whereas maximum test weight was recorded in carbendazim (223 g) along with highest cob length (24.55 cm) and maximum grains/cob (309.67) followed by companion in test weight (220 g), cob length (23.71 cm), grains/cob (302.67) and cob/plant (1.15). However, all the treatments were significantly effective in plant growth as well as yield components and controlling the disease in comparison to control.

23.   FAN FAN, J. H. J. SPIERTZ, LI PU HAN, ZU XIN LIU AND GUANG HUI XIE [Sweet sorghum performance under irrigated conditions in north-west China : Biomass and its partitioning in inbred and hybrid cultivars at two nitrogen levels]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 459-470 (2013). National Energy R & D Center for Biomass College of Agronomy and Biotechnology China Agricultural University, Beijing-100 193 P. R. China*(e-mail : xiegh@cau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 

             Effects of cultivar choice and nitrogen supply on biomass yield and dry matter partitioning of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were studied under irrigated conditions in the arid temperate climate of north-west China. Two hybrid cultivars, Zaoshu-1 (ZS 1) and Chuntian-2 (CT 2), and two inbred cultivars, Rio and Lvneng-3 (LN 3) were grown in a field trial at two nitrogen fertilizer levels (0 and 150 kg/ha of N) in Urumchi (43°01’N, 88°37’E). Hybrid cultivars produced much higher aboveground dry biomass yields, amounting to on an average 27.2 t/ha than inbred cultivars with on an average 24.3 t/ha. Crop growth rates amounted to 30.8 g/m2/day on an average during the period from elongation to heading as well as from heading to maturity, however; the growth rates of the inbred cultivars slowed down after heading, while those of the hybrids still increased. Inbred cultivar Rio had the highest plant height (328 cm) and stem dry weight (16.5 t/ha). Average grain yield was 11.2 and 5.5 t/ha for hybrids and inbreds, respectively. Partitioning of dry matter differed between the inbred cultivars, but did not for the hybrids. Application of fertilizer nitrogen resulted in a higher plant height, stem dry biomass, dry biomass of leaves and aboveground biomass in inbred and hybrid cultivars. In conclusion, hybrid and inbred cultivars of sweet sorghum performed well in the environment of north-west China when irrigated. Biomass and grain yields of hybrids turned out to be higher than those of inbreds.

24.   M. M. A. MONDOL*, A. B. PUTEH, M. A. MALEK AND M. ASHRAFUZZAMAN [Role of flowering pattern and duration on yield of mungbean]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 471-477 (2013). Crop Physiology DivisionBangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh*(e-mail : mmamondal@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              Three experiments were set up under sub-tropical condition (24°8′ N and 90°0′ E) to assess relationship between flowering pattern and flowering duration with seed yield in 12 mungbean varieties. Results revealed that the high yielding varieties produced greater number of opened flowers (range 53.2-144.0/plant) having longer flowering duration (range 24.3-33.0 days) than the low yielding ones (number of opened flowers range 17.9-30.4/plant and flowering duration range 9.0-13.7 days). It also appeared that high yielding varieties had higher flower production rate over time than the low yielding ones and maximum flower production occurred within 15-20 days in the high yielding varieties and within 1-9 days in the low yielding varieties. However, high yielding varieties showed lower reproductive efficiency (range 47.6-76.6%) than in low yielding ones (range 61.1-83.3%) indicating a scope of increasing yield by improving the reproductive efficiency in high yielding genotypes in mungbean. Pod number, the prime yield attribute, had highly significant and positive correlation with flower number (r = 0.91**) and flower number depended on flowering duration (r = 0.75**). This aspect may be necessary for future plant breeding program of mungbean yield improvement.

25.   KANCHAN PAHWA, NAVITA GHAI*, JAGMEET KAUR AND SARVJEET SINGH [Physiological evaluation of pigeonpea genotypes (Cajanus cajan L.) for flowering and pod set]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 478-482 (2013). Department of BotanyPunjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India*(e-mail : navitaghai@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

              A study was undertaken during 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the performance of 25 advanced breeding lines of pigeonpea along with three check varieties at the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. There was a significant genotypic difference with respect to morphological, physiological, phenological characters, yield and yield components. Of all the genotypes, AL 1744 (mid duration) had highest seed yield (1465 kg/ha). Among late duration genotypes, AL 1721 had maximum (1237 kg/ha) yield, while among early duration genotypes AL 1757 had maximum (1298 kg/ha) yield. Total number of flowers produced were higher in check (1087.65) followed by AL 1811 (1064.93), while number of pods was maximum in AL 1744 (283.22). AL 1744 had maximum pod setting percentage as well as yield. It was evident that taller plants with high total dry matter had maximum number of pods as well as yield .

26.   Ravinder Kumar, R. S. Waldia, M. S. Sangwan, Deepak Kumar Yadav, C. Appunu and U. N. Joshi [Genetic studies of some biochemical compounds involved in  Ascochyta blight resistance of chickpea]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 483-488 (2013). Department of Plant BreedingCCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of three chickpea crosses HC-5 x H 00-256, HC-5 x HC-3 and HC-1 x H 00-256 were screened against Ascochyta blight disease. The total phenols, flavanols, ortho dihydric phenols and electrolyte leakage were measured after disease development and the genetic parameters viz., correlation coefficients, gene actions and heritability (ns) and genetic advance were calculated. Resistant parents H 00-256 and HC-3 recorded higher quantity of phenolic compounds as compared to susceptible parents HC-1 and HC-5. The total phenols, flavanols and ortho dihydric phenols were strongly and inversely associated with disease rating scale and AUDPC, while electrolyte leakage was positively correlated with disease development irrespective of the crosses. There were positive correlations between total phenols, flavanols and ortho dihydric phenols. The additive and dominance gene effects were significant for most of the biochemical compounds studied, but the magnitude of dominance effect was higher over additive effect. The level of heritability was low to moderate (<20, 20-50%) for the biochemical traits under study.

 

27.   Abdel Rahman Mohammad Al-Tawaha* and Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi [Effect of chitosan coating on seed germination and salt tolerance of lentil (Lens culinaris L.)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 489-491 (2013). Department of Biological SciencesAl Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, Jordan*(e-mail : abdel.al-tawaha@mail.mcgill.ca)

 

ABSTRACT

Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important legume crop in West and South Asia and North Africa. In our experiment, lentil seeds were primed with different chitosan concentrations 0, 1, 3 and 6 g/l, then five levels of salinity including control, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl were added to the primed lentil seeds. Different variables have been taken including germination percentage, hypocotyl length, radical length, hypocotyl dry weight and radical dry weight. Our results indicated that there were significant differences in germination percentage, hypocotyl length, radical length, hypocotyl dry weight and radical dry weight among chitosan treatments irrespective to salinity level. The highest germination percentage, hypocotyl length, radical length, hypocotyl dry weight and radical dry weight were recorded when lentil seed was primed with 3 g/l chitosan. On the other hand, salinity level caused a marked reduction in lentil hypocotyl and radical dry weight at all concentrations when compared with the water control. On the other hand, our results indicated that salt tolerance of lentil plant could be improved by priming their seed with chitosan.

28.       Farhat Ahmadi Avin*, Alireza Nabipour, Abbasali Zali, Pedram Shahbazi, Jesu Arockiaraj and Subha Bhassu [Identification of high diverse heterotic groups in sunflower inbred lines for further hybrid production]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 492-499 (2013). Mushroom Research Centre and Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia *(e-mail : farhat.avin@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a source of vegetable oil and proteins is grown in many parts of the world. It is the fourth important vegetable oil crop, producing 9 million tonnes per year. The present study was attempted to identify the effective mating partners and assign probable heterotic groups by estimating the genetic variation among the experimental materials. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of 49 sunflower promising inbred lines, selected morphological features as well as oil percentage were precisely investigated. Sunflower stocks including 18 R-lines and 31 B-lines were planted based on a simple lattice (7 × 7) design with two replications. Relationships among (i) quantitative and quantitative; (ii) qualitative and quantitative; and (iii) qualitative and qualitative traits were estimated by correlation analysis, ANOVA and chi square test, respectively. Results of ANOVA revealed significant differences (P<0.01) between the lines for most of the characters. A considerable outcome appeared when negative correlation between oil percentage and seed weight was achieved. Classification of lines based on cluster analysis separated them into two distinct groups of male and female. These achievements were confirmed by plot analysis based on the first two principal components. Moreover, the results of factor analysis indicated that four factors could explain 73.92% of the total variance. To sum up, the high genetic diversity that was demonstrated among 49 sunflower inbred promising lines suggested that selection of parents for hybridization needed to be based on genetic diversity. According to these findings, the heterotic groups that may lead the crosses to production of vigour hybrids were recommended.

29.   M. R. ALI, M. ASHRAFUZZAMAN, M. A. MALEK*, M. M. A. MONDAL, M. Y. RAFII** AND A. B. PUTEH [Defoliation and its effect on morphology, biochemical parameters, yield and yield attributes of soybean]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 500-506 (2013). Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : malekbina@gmail.com and **mrafii@upm.edu.my)

 

ABSTRACT

           Loss of foliage in soybean crop through leaf eating insects and diseases is common in tropical and sub-tropical countries where farmers do not protect their crops adequately. Experiment was performed under sub-tropical condition (2408′ N, 9000′ E) with four levels of defoliations (0, 25, 50 and 75% from base of the canopy). Defoliations were imposed at the visible bud initiation stage to investigate the growth and yield attributes in two popular soybean varieties during January to April 2011. Results revealed that degrees of defoliations simultaneously decreased leaf area and total dry matter (TDM) production irrespective of varieties. Defoliation not only reduced source sizes but also decreased total sink (pod) production resulting in lower seed yields. However, basal 25% defoliation did not decrease TDM, seed weight/plant and seed yield/ha significantly indicating the fact that the soybean plant, in general, can tolerate 25% basal leaf loss of the canopy. Exceeding this threshold limit (>25%) of the canopy defoliation reduced TDM and seed yield significantly. Implication of the results in relation to pest management was also discussed.

 

30.   M. MONJURUL ALAM MONDAL* AND ADAM B. PUTEH [Effect of source of nitrogen on nitrate reductase activity and biomass productivity in peanut mutant]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 507-510 (2013). Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture University Putra, Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia *(e-mail : mmamondal@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

          The experiment was conducted under sand culture condition to know the effect of nitrogen sources on nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and its consequence on dry mass production and seed yield in peanut. The treatments were two genotypes viz., Dacca-1, a widely cultivated variety in Bangladesh and Mut-3, a promising mutant and three nitrogen sources viz., (i) 0 N, (ii) 5 mM KNO3 and (iii) 5 mM NH4Cl. No rhizobial inoculant was provided for 0 N treatment. Results showed that NRA increased with supplying nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium at early growth stage of peanut with being the highest in nitrate. But no effect was observed at reproductive growth stage. Leg-haemoglobin content decreased with adding nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium resulting in decreased growth and development thereby yield in peanut over control. The NR activity was greater in Mut-3 than Dacca-1 and Mut-3 also showed higher dry mass and pod yield than Dacca-1. Mut-3 was significantly affected by adding nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium, whereas Dacca-1 had no significant effect indicating the variety Dacca-1 resistance to ammonia suppression.

31.   Yue Yi Tang, Xiu Zhen Wang, Qi Wu, Chao Qi Fang, Shu Yan Guan, WEI QIANG YANG, Chuan Tang Wang* AND Pi Wu Wang** [Identification of differentially expressed genes from developing seeds of a normal oil peanut cultivar and its high oil EMS mutant]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 511-516 (2013). Shandong Peanut Research Institute 126, Wannianquan Street, Licang District, Qingdao-266 100, Qingdao, China *(e-mail : chinapeanut@126.com; **peiwuw@yahoo.com.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

              To isolate differentially expressed peanut genes potentially related to oil accumulation, we examined the gene expression on 40 and 47 days after flowering in developing seeds of Huayu 22, a normal oil peanut cultivar with 49.5% oil, and its high oil chemical mutant, O1, with 60.9% oil, using genefishing technology. All distinguishable differentially expressed bands were selected, cloned and checked by colony PCR prior to sequencing. A total of 40 genes were finally obtained, with 27 unigenes from 40 DAF and 13 from 47 DAF. A homology search for their nucleotide sequences revealed that 20 unigenes (17 from 40 DAF, 3 from 47 DAF) were highly homologous to known sequences of genes for oil biosynthesis, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and stress response, and some genes have not been implicated previously in oil synthesis. Three differentially expressed genes encoding thioredoxin, oleosin and transaldolase, respectively, were further confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR.

32.   Amol S. Shinde*, S. B. S. Tikka, S. Acharya, W. Sheikh, S. Kalaskar and A. Rathod [Optimization of DNA isolation and PCR protocol for RAPD analysis of different castor (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 517-521 (2013). Centre of Excellence for Research on PulsesSDAU, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India*(e-mail : amolshinde0110@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 Molecular analysis of plant requires pure and high yield of DNA samples. In castor, certain polyphenols and secondary metabolites have been observed to interfere with DNA isolation and DNA amplification. To avoid this problem here we standardized DNA isolation method for different castor genotypes by referring of CTAB and SDS methods and also optimized RAPD protocol. The DNA extraction method involves three times grinding with wash buffer containing 100 mM trisHCl and 1% Polyvinyl pyrrolidone and last wash by SDS extraction buffer with 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS and 200 mM trisHCl. All steps were carried out at room temperature and resulted DNA quantity ranged from 4500 to 6600 ng/µl and the purity (ratio) was between 1.7-1.9 indicating minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. The technique is ideal for isolation of DNA from different castor genotypes and the DNA isolated was used for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. RAPD protocol was optimized based on the use of higher concentration of MgCl2 (2 mM), dNTPs (1 mM), lower concentrations of primer (0.5 µM) and Taqpolymerase (1 unit), 20 ng of template DNA and an annealing temperature of 37°C, resulted in optimal amplification. Reproducible amplifiable products were observed in all PCR reactions. Thus, the results indicate that the optimized protocol for DNA isolation and PCR was amenable to castor genotypes belonging to different pistillate lines which are suitable for further work on diversity analysis.

33.       M. A. Mir, Mushtaq A. Beigh* and Fouzia shafi [Effect of 1-MCP on quality attributes of Red Delicious apples under non-refrigerated and refrigerated conditions of storage]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 522-529 (2013). Division of Post Harvest Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K), India *(e-mail : beighmushtaq2010@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted at the Division of Post Harvest Technology, SKUAST-K, Shalimar to evaluate the storage response of Red Delicious apples to post-harvest application of 1-MCP. Physiologically mature Red Delicious apples harvested after 158 days from full bloom were treated with 1-MCP (1 ppm) for 24 h under small scale airtight plastic tent at 14±20C. The treated fruits along with untreated fruits were subsequently stored under two storage conditions i. e. non-refrigerated (12±20C) and refrigerated (0-20C) conditions for monitoring quality changes. The studies indicated that quality attributes like fruit firmness, juiciness and TSS and acidity were retained in treated samples up to 110 days while as to  untreated apples retained the same quality parameters up to 30 days, thus the shelf life of treated apples was increased by 80 days under non-refrigerated conditions (12±20C). Similarly, under refrigerated conditions 1-MCP treated fruits retained maximum quality attributes up to 270 days, while as untreated fruits retained quality attributes up to 180 days thus storage life was increased by 90 days. Post cold storage deterioration in 1-MCP treated apples was very slow as compared to untreated fruits. Maximum quality parameters in 1-MCP treated apples were retained up to 14 days of ambient storage (22±20C) after refrigerated storage of 270 days, while untreated fruits retained quality parameters up to five days.

34.   L. S. Singh and A. Pariari [Effect of foliar application of plant bio-regulators (PBRs) on growth and graft success of cashew rootstocks]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 530-534 (2013). Department of Spices and Plantation CropsBidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

 

 

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of plant bio-regulators on growth and graft success of cashew rootstocks during three different periods of the year (March-May, June-August and September-November). Application of GA3 100 ppm 20 days after germination produced the maximum plant height and number of leaves per seedling at 60 days (March-May and September-November). However, during June to August rootstock growth was found to be higher either with GA3 50 ppm or 100 ppm. Maximum graft success was recorded with GA3 100 ppm during different periods. The study also showed that graft success was found to be highly correlated (0.05% level) with plant height. No significant difference was observed among the concentrations of panchagavya applied, though application at 5 % was apparently found to be beneficial for growth parameters and graft success.  .

35.   Yang Hong-Bing* [Effect of NaCl stress on selective absorption and transportation of K+ and Na+ of roots in Malus species]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 535-539 (2013). Key Lab of Plant Biotechnology in Universities of ShandongCollege of Life ScienceQingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao-266 109, China*(e-mail : hbyang@qau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

Salt sensitive variety Malus baccata (L.) Borkh., middle salt tolerant variety Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang and salt tolerant variety Malus zumi Mats of Malus seedlings were used as experimental materials. K+ and Na+ content of roots, stem and leaves were determined at 5, 10 and 15 days under NaCl stress. It showed that Na+ restriction capability of salt tolerant variety in Malus was significantly greater than that of the salt sensitive one, which could effectively restrict Na+ from transport to shoot. Roots of salt tolerant variety had higher K+ selective absorption and transport capability, which made the Na+/K+ of leaves significantly lower than the salt sensitive one; moreover, through Na+ re-distribution and re-transport of shoot, salt tolerant variety had lower Na+ content of young and mature leaves and more salt tolerant.

36.   Huai-Yu Ma, Jing Sun, Hong Su and De-Guo Lyu* [Effect of different calcium salts on PSII function and antioxidative enzyme activities of Malus baccata Borkh. under temperature stress]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 540-545 (2013). College of Horticulture Key Laboratory for Northern Fruit Cultivation and Physiology-Ecology of Shenyang CityShenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang-110 866, China*(e-mail : shynydxgshzp@163.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            In order to study the effects of different calcium salts on leaf photosynthetic function and anti-oxidative system, 15-leaf seedlings of Malus baccata Borkh. were used as materials to evaluate PSII function and anti-oxidation activities, including reaction centers per excited cross section (RC/CSo), units reaction center energy of the light energy absorbed (ABS/RC) and capture energy (TRo/RC), activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of leaves under dramatic fluctuation of temperature (5°®20°®10°®0°C). Comparing with control, CaCl2 and CaAc2 increased TRo/RC during the whole temperature treatment, and TRo/RC in CaAc2 treatment was slight higher than that in CaCl2 treatment. In both of CaCl2 and CaAc2 treatments, the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX were markedly higher than that of control as temperature fluctuating. Hence, CaCl2 and CaAc2 obviously decreased MDA content in M. baccata Borkh. leaf. In a word, exogenous Ca2+ could alleviate the damage of temperature to M. baccata Borkh. leaf, in which 1% CaAc2 treatment saw better influence on protecting leaf photosynthesis than that in 2% CaCl2 treatment under temperature stress.

37.   M. S. HOSSAIN, M. ASHRAFUZZAMAN, M. A. MALEK*, M. M. A. MONDAL, M. Y. RAFII, M. R. ISMAIL AND M. S. ISLAM [Evaluation and selection of tomato mutants for cultivation in summer]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 546-550 (2013). Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : malekbina@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

Results revealed significant genotypic differences in respect of morphological and biochemical parameters, reproductive characters, yield attributes and fruit yield in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) mutants along with two varieties of summer tomato. In general, high yielding genotypes showed superior performance in plant height, branch and leaf number, total dry mass production, nitrate reductase activity, total sugar content, fruit number and individual fruit weight as compared to low yielding ones. Number of effective and non-effective flower clusters and number of fruits/cluster had no relation with fruit yield. Binatomato-2 and TM-2 showed the highest fruit yield/plant (1.30 and 1.20 kg, respectively) due to superiority in morpho-physiological characters and yield attributes.  In contrast, the mutant TM-4 produced the lower fruit yield/plant (average 0.52 kg). Binatomato-3 showed the highest individual fruit weight (73.50 g). Further, duration of first harvesting was higher in low yielding genotypes than in high yielding ones. This information may be helpful in future plant breeding program.

38.   Gagan Joshi, K. K. Mrig, Ram Singh and S. Singh [Eco-friendly management of phorid fly (Megaselia sandhui) and sciarid fly (Bradysia tritici) on oyster mushroom]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 551-554 (2013). Department of EntomologyCCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

Phorid fly (Megaselia sandhui) and sciarid fly (Bradysia tritici) are the most destructive insect-pests of oyster mushroom causing serious threat to mushroom production and cultivation in India. The present study was carried out at Mushroom Technology Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana to evaluate seven botanical insecticides (Turmeric, Kalmegh, Dharek, Neem, Sarpgandha, Datura and Ashvagandha) against phorid and sciarid fly for two consecutive years during February-March (2008 and 2009). All the botanical treatments decreased the per cent infestation of mushroom flies significantly over the control but no botanical was at par with checks (Endosulfan 35 EC and nimbecidine 300 ppm). Minimum infestation (20.70%) was observed in neem treatment, whereas maximum (40.04%) was in sarpgandha treatment. No botanical treatment gave the higher yield over checks. The mean yield was maximum (8.20 kg/15 kg substrate) in neem treatment and minimum (6.74 kg/15 kg substrate) in sarpgandha treatment. Avoidable losses were highest (20.10%) in neem .

 

39.   XiaoXue Fan*, Zang Jie,  ZhiGang  Xu**, Jiao  Xuelei, Liu  Xiaoying and Gao Ying [Effects of different light spectra on photosynthetic structures and photosynthate of non-heading Chinese cabbage]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 555-560 (2013). College of Agronomy Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing-210 095, China *(e-mail : 2010204035@njau.edu.cn; **xuzhigang@njau.edu.cn)

 

ABSTRACT

 The present investigation was conducted to study the effects of the different light spectra on the growth, photosynthate and chloroplasts ultrastructure of non-heading Chinese cabbage seedlings. Red LED light (R), blue LED light (B), green LED light (G), yellow LED light (Y), red plus blue LED light (RB) and dysprosium lamp (CK) were applied under controlled environmental conditions for 28 days. Compared with other treatments, the RB treatment induced the greatest fresh mass and dry mass. The content of photosynthetic pigments was also enhanced under RB treatment. Chloroplasts of the leaves under the RB treatment were rich in grana. B treatment promoted soluble sugar and starch accumulation effectively. The current results suggested blue light seemed to be an essential factor for the growth of non-heading Chinese cabbage. The RB LED light might be propitious to non-heading Chinese cabbage seedlings growth, and it may be used as a primary light source for non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivation.  

40.   SHAILBALA, VAIBHAV K. SINGH AND SIDDHARTHA KASHYAP [Field response of Trichoderma harzianum on control of red rot and quantitative attributes of sugarcane]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 561-566 (2013). Sugarcane Research Centre, Kashipur CampusG. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India

 

ABSTRACT

         Application of Trichoderma harzianum is eco-friendly, economical and efficient approach for disease suppression and improving growth of the sugarcane plant. So, it becomes imperative to know the field performance of T. harzianum against red rot and quantitative attributes of sugarcane. Before this, longevity test was conducted to know the viability of formulated product under proper storage condition. In the study to assess longevity of bio-agent, T. harzianum the population of bio-agent decreased significantly (10.00 x 106 to 2.00 x 106 cfu/g) over the period of its storage (120 days). Bio-agent Trichoderma harzianum @ 10 g/kg was applied effectively for setts’ treatments. Disease management was ascertained by inoculation challenged with Colletotrichum falcatum. Red rot incidence showed decreasing trend with application of talc based formulation of T. harzianum. Red rot infection was considerably suppressed in all the treated plants where grade of infection was also reduced. The protection offered might be due to direct parasitic action of T. harzianum on C. falcatum and also systemic resistance induced in sugarcane. Bio-agent T. harzianum was also found to be more efficient and significantly better in improving germination (7.42-13.40%), number of tillers (5.15-8.45%), number of millable canes (3.28-8.53%) and cane yield (7.09-17.86%) of sugarcane cultivars over the control.

41.   SHAILBALA, VAIBHAV K. SINGH AND SIDDHARTHA KASHYAP [Integrated management of sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum (Meike)]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 567-570 (2013). Sugarcane Research Centre, Kashipur CampusG. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India

 

ABSTRACT

Different management practices such as fungicides, bio-agent and physical mean were evaluated in sugarcane clone against smut incidence and cane yield at Sugarcane Research Centre, Kashipur Campus, GBPUAT, Pantnagar. Among these, fungicide triademifon @ 0.1% was significantly superior in reducing the disease incidence and found to be the best in terms of cane yield and B : C ratio. It  recorded minimum disease incidence (7.0 and 8.05% in case of clones S1196/06 and S112/06, respectively) followed by propiconazole @ 0.1% as against control (34.05 and 29.95% in case of clones S1196/06 and S112/06, respectively). The sett treatment with triademifon also reported maximum cane yield (i. e. 850.80 and 852.49 q/ha) and maximum B : C ratio (1.73 and 1.74) in case of sugarcane clones S1196/06 and S 112/06, respectively. Control plots showed maximum disease incidence and minimum cane yield. Hot water treatment could not prove the best in terms of B : C ratio. Sugarcane clone S1196/06 contributed more to per cent disease incidence and comparatively less to cane yield as compared to clone S112/06.

42.       Zahra Khodarahmpour* [Screening of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars for drought tolerance at germination stage and seedling growth]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 571-575 (2013). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

               In order to study morphological indices of alfalfa cultivars under drought stress, an experiment was performed as factorial form under completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Cultivar factor contained  20 cultivars and four levels of drought (control, -3, -6 and -9 bar) with PEG 6000. Results of correlation showed that germination percentage had the most positive and significant correlation with radicle length (r=0.90**). Factor analysis based on principal component analysis showed that two independent factors, respectively, 57 and 30% of all variation data determined. In the first component, germination percentage, germination rate, seedling length and seed vigour positive factor coefficients and mean germination time negative factor coefficient were shown. With attention to significant traits in the first component, this component named germination characteristics, seedling length and seed vigour. In the second component radicle length and radicle/plumule length ratio positive factor coefficients and plumule length negative factor coefficient were shown. Therefore, named seedling characteristics. Based biplot cultivars KFA8, KFA10, KFA13, KFA14, KFA17, Yazdi Garmsiri, Nikshahri Garmsiri and Bami Garmsiri had tolerant to drought stress. The cultivars KFA2, KFA3, KFA5, KFA6, KFA7, KFA9, KFA12 and KFA15 had sensitive to drought stress and the cultivars KFA1,, KFA4,, KFA11, and KFA16, had semi-sensitive to drought stress.

43.       ERSIN CAN*, MEHMET ARSLAN, OKAN SENER AND HATICE  DAGHAN [Response of strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum L.) to salinity stress]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 576-584 (2013). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay-31034, Turkey *(e-mail : ersincan69@gmail.com; ecan@mku.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

                       Forage crops tolerant to salinity stress during seed germination and vegetative growth are highly important for plant establishment and maintenance in saline pastures and meadows. The present study was conducted to determine how salinity affects germination, plant growth and development of strawberry clover. Strawberry clovers were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sand and peat moss, and were irrigated with waters of seven different levels of salinity [0.06 (control), 9.36, 18.22, 26.67, 34.07, 42.70 and 50.1 dS/m].  Germination studies indicated that each increase in salinity after 11.0 dS/m caused a reduction in germination, with no seed germination after 42.0 dS/m NaCl. Salinity had considerable effect on plant (hay) fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, SPAD reading and electrolyte leakage value. The NaCl treatment proportionally reduced the fresh and dry weights of plant. Membrane damage of cells increased as NaCl concentration increased. Higher salinity concentration decreased photosynthetic pigment content that led to decrease photosynthetic rate and less dry matter production. Our data suggest that strawberry clover possesses moderate to good salinity tolerance during seed germination and vegetative growth has potential to be used on pastures and meadows with moderate salt problems affecting forage crops establishment and maintenance.

44.   Vineet Kaswan, Arunabh Joshi and S. R. Maloo [Genetic studies on divergence and quantitative characterization of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 585-591 (2013). Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

             An investigation was carried out with 24 isabgol genotypes collected from different geographical regions of India using 15 quantitative characters to study genetic diversity through multivariate statistical analysis. All genotypes were grouped into seven clusters and distribution pattern was not related to their geographical origins. The cluster III contained highest number of genotypes (6) followed by cluster VI which had five genotypes. The intra-cluster distance was highest in cluster VII (4.40) followed by cluster III (4.31). Highest inter-cluster distance was noticed between clusters II and VI (7.13) followed by clusters V and VII (7.06), and lowest between clusters III and VI (4.76). Husk recovery % contributed to 27.90% and swelling factor contributed to 22.83% of the total genetic divergence. Genotypes, namely, Gumary, RI-148, GI-4, RI-138 and PB-7 may be used as parents to produce highly heterotic and superior transgressive segregants upon hybridization and its conservation may be helpful for the plant breeders to design future breeding programme.

45.   D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal* and M. Jana [Host range, medium for isolation and technique for bioassay of fungicides against Phytophthora nicotianae : the causal pathogen of leaf rot of betel vine]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 592-595 (2013). Department of Plant Pathology Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : bholanath.ppvb@gmail.com)

 

 

ABSTRACT

               Leaf rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan is prevalent in all betel vine (Piper betle L.) growing areas of West Bengal. Besides, the pathogen infected brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt.), red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum Bailey), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits and leaves of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in laboratory condition and red pepper causing foot rot symptom in field condition when inoculated artificially. P. nicotianae isolated from fruit rot of brinjal, guava, leaf rot of black pepper, foot rot of rozelle (Hibiscus subdariffa L.), foot rot and leaf blight of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), and Phytophthora capsici Leonian from foot rot of red pepper infected betel vine leaves in laboratory and in field conditions. Phytophthora spp. from all the hosts were successfully isolatedin oat meal agar medium amended with vancomycin (200 ppm), natamycin (10 ppm) and carbendazim (25 ppm). An easy technique for bioassay of fungicides against P. nicotianae has been standardized. When agar disc with mycelial growth of P. nicotianae was put in water in half-submerged condition, the fungus produced good mycelial growth with abundant sporangia and the sporangia thus formed germinated in water. Sensitivity of this fungus towards fungicides was successfully tested by putting agar disc with mycelial growth in different concentrations of a particular fungicide and subsequently recording the extent of mycelial growth, sporangia formation and sporangial germination. Copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide, mancozeb, thiram, combination product of mancozeb+metalaxyl, copper oxychloride+metalaxyl and cymoxanil+mancozeb showed good inhibition against P. nicotianae.

46.   Anju Ahlawat, H. R. Dhingra and S. K. Pahuja [Studies on reproductive biology of three species (tetragonoloba, serrata and senegalensis) of Cyamopsis]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 596-603 (2013). Department of Botany & Plant PhysiologyCCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India)

 

ABSTRACT

      The present investigation was undertaken to study and compare reproductive and yield characters of three species of Cyamopsis viz., C. tetragonoloba , C. serrata and C. senegalensis. Its outcome may serve as a stepping stone for development of early varieties of guar. Pollen production in the three species was nearly identical with fairly high pollen viability. However, these species differed in nutritive requirement for in vitro germination of pollen  and lag phase. Pollen of C. tetragonoloba required 25% sucrose+100 ppm boric acid+300 ppm calcium nitrate, while C. senegalensis pollen needed 35% sucrose with same basal medium. On the other hand, C. serrata pollen required 35% maltose+6% PEG 6000 along with boric acid and calcium nitrate. Moreover, pollen germination in C. serrata was initiated after 30 h of incubation and its pollen tubes were slow growing attaining 174.7 µm length in 48 h. C. tetragonoloba possessed minimum number of pods per cluster (6.35), while C. serrata had maximum number of 12 pods per cluster. The number of seeds per pod ranged from 7-9 and did not reveal any significant difference in the wild and cultivated species.

47.       KHODABAKHSH PANAHI KORDLAGHARI*, SAJJAD PANAHIKORDLAGHARI and ALI RAHIMI [Variation in soil available phosphorus and potassium and their relationships with soil properties in some Isfahan soil series of Iran]. Res. on Crops14 (2): 604-607 (2013). Department of Agronomy Yasouj Branch,  Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran *(e-mail : mmppan@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

        The relationship between available phosphorus and potassium with calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay content and electrical conductivity of surface and sub-surface horizons of 23 arable soil series  was studied. The results showed that 65% of soils contained 20-45 mg/kg available phosphorus. Less than 18% of these soils had low available phosphorus. A correlation coefficient of 83% was found between P in surface and sub-surface horizons, almost higher in surface horizon. Calcium carbonate content of surface horizon ranged between 10 and 50%. A power relationship with high correlation coefficient was found between available P and calcium carbonate in both surface and sub-surface horizons. No significant correlation was found between available P and EC, OC and clay content. About 78% of soil series contained moderate to high amount of available K+ and only less than 20% low in available potassium. A negative correlation (r= -58%) was found between available K+ and CaCO3 content of soils in surface horizon and the relationship was polynomial. A high correlation (r=0.71) was found between available K+ and EC (in saturated extract), but no significant correlation was found between available K+ and clay content of soils. Significant differences of clay content in surface and sub-surface horizons among the majority of the soils showed transferring of clay particles from surface to sub-surface horizon.