Volume 14, Number 1 (March, 2013)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1. CAI Cheng-Zhi, ZHANG Wen, LIANG Ying, Claudia BATTISTA, Andrea FUMI and Massimiliano M. SCHIRALDI [Analysis of rice yield on the basis of prediction of potential yield in China]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 1-6 (2013). Institute of Economic Research Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550004, China

ABSTRACT

         In this study, the potential of using light, the historical yield evolution trend and the agricultural ecological zone (AEZ) methodology are exploited to calculate the “per unit yield” potential of Chinese rice. Results display how the maximum growth range of this value, calculated on countrywide farmlands, showed a decreasing tendency from 1961 to 2010. Achieved results are of significant importance to the Chinese rice production, because they show how the highest growth rate of Chinese rice yield production in different periods can be predicted using the rate of theoretical per unit yield.

 

2.  YONG YAN, HAILING MO, GANG QIN, ZHIYONG LUO, ZONGQIONG ZHANG and CAIHONG CHEN [Yield and yield component analysis of early-season rice in southern China]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 7-14 (2013). Guangxi Crop Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology Laboratory Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, China

ABSTRACT

            This study aimed at identifing which yield component should be emphasized in early-season rice improvement in southern China. Field experiments were conducted in Quanzhou, Guilin, Rongan, Zhongshan and Hechi, Guangxi province, southern China in 2010 and 2011. Eleven varieties were grown in each experiment under high-yielding management. Grain yield and yield components were determined for each variety. Grain yield, sink size (spikelet number/m2), spikelet filling percentage and grain weight differed significantly both across varieties and locations. A significantly positive relationship was found between grain yield and sink size, but no significant relationship was observed with spikelet filling percentage or grain weight. Sink size was related more closely to spikelet number per panicle than panicle number per m2, and spikelet number per panicle was correlated more strongly to spikelet number per cm panicle than panicle length. Our study suggests that early-season rice improvement in southern China will depend mainly on the ability to increase sink size, and increasing spikelet number per panicle by increasing spikelet number per unit panicle length is an effective approach to achieve larger sink size for early-season rice in southern China.

 

3. IBRAHIM MD., MIN HUANG, PENG JIANG, BADSHAH ADIL, QIYUAN TANG AND YINGBIN ZOU [Tillering dynamics of hybrid rice in tropical and sub-tropical environments]. Res. on Crops14 (1): 15-27 (2013). College of AgronomyHunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China

ABSTRACT

              To compare the tillering pattern of hybrid rice, multiple field experiments were conducted involving three hybrid rice cultivars (HS 995, HS 48 and LYPJ) with three nitrogen fertilizer levels during 2009 to 2011. The experimental sites were selected in the sub-tropical environments of Changsha, Hunan Province in China, and in tropical climate zones of Habiganj and Gazipur in Bangladesh. All parameters of this study were significantly influenced by the locations and mostly the cultivars as well as the N levels. Tests confirmed that (i) panicle number was highest in Hunan and LYPJ showed the superiority even under cross ecosystem. The higher panicle number was the consequential of higher tiller number in both the environments; (ii) tillering rate (TR) responded to higher tillering capability; (iii) lower tiller emergence resulted in low panicle number but showed the higher panicle production efficiency in HS 48 and vice versa in LYPJ; (iv) early tiller emergence at Hunan showed the advantage to higher panicle number; (v) dry weight of stem and hill was more than 60% higher in Hunan and 23% higher in Habiganj over Gazipur site and (vi) higher N dose generated significant increases in hill dry matter, higher tiller number as well as increased the panicle number. Our study suggested that selection should be emphasized on cultivars those boast of more potential to high TR and to produce more dry matter especially at early growth period even under low temperatures in a wider area basis adaptation.

 

4. M. RAJENDAR REDDY, CH. SURENDAR RAJU, D. SRAVANI, S. MADUSUDHAN REDDY AND NARASIMHA REDDY [Estimation of heterosis, residual heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield characteristics in F2 generation involving aromatic rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 28-32 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted during kharif2010 and rabi 2010-11 at Rice Section, ARI, Rajendranagar, involving seven parents, 7 F1 hybrids and their corresponding F2 populations to study the heterosis, residual heterosis and inbreeding depression in aromatic rice. High amount of heterosis was recorded over better parent for days to 50% flowering, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant. Whereas heterosis only on mid-parent was noticed in case of number of grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight. Heterotic effects were seen in the hybrids which were developed from the parents having poor per se performance in most of the cases. High heterosis for grain yield was accompanied by high inbreeding depression which-indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene effects. Based on the results, the crosses YANINI × MTU 1010 for days to 50% flowering, PUSA 1121 × MTU 1010 and RNR 2354 × MTU 1081 for number of productive tillers per plant, RNR 2354 × Sye 632002 and YAMINI × BM 71 for number of grains per panicle, PUSA 1121 × MTU 1010 for grain yield per plant and PUSA 1121 × BM 71 for length were identified as better crosses for further advancement to develop pure lines with high yield.

5. BIPLAB MITRA AND TANMAY SAMAJDAR [Evaluation of promising wheat varieties in terai region of West Bengal under late sown condition through on-farm trial]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 33-36 (2013). Cooch Behar Krishi Vigyan Kendra Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari-736 165, Cooch Behar (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

         In Cooch Behar district of West Bengal, the average productivity of wheat (1622 kg/ha during 2008-09) was very poor against the state average productivity (2490 kg/ha during 2008-09). Delayed harvesting of Aman paddy was supposed to be the main reason.  An on-farm trial was conducted during two consecutive years,rabi 2007-08 and 2008-09 at three villages of Cooch Behar district on evaluation of suitable wheat varieties under late sown condition in terai region. The experiment was laid out in a randomised block design (RBD) with eight replicates. It was revealed that the yield performances of the varieties NW 1014 and DBW 14 were superior as compared to the check variety Sonalika. The yield increases were recorded to be 53.33 and 40% in case of NW 1014 and DBW 14, respectively, against the check variety. Amongst the varieties,NW 1014 was superior in terms of its tillering capacity, panicle number, number of grains per spike as well as panicle length. Net income was recorded to be Rs. 17,275.00 and 14,425.00/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.11 and 1.93 in case of NW 1014 and DBW 14, respectively, against only Rs. 5855.00 (benefit : cost ratio 1.40) in case of Sonalika.

 

6. Alireza Tarinejad [Studies on genetic diversity between and within six wheat populations using ISSR markers]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 37-41 (2013). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agriculture Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

             The study of the genetic diversity of crop populations is essential for the identification of genetic resources and their use in breeding programmes. The use of genotypes with suitable genetic distance and general combining ability as parents will produce hybrids with high potential. Therefore, we evaluated the genetic diversity in six different wheat populations using 10 ISSR markers. Three markers showed no polymorphism, whereas the remaining seven which showed polymorphism and were used for statistical analysis. Primer 2 produced the highest number of bands and all the bands were polymorphic. The least and greatest heterozygosities (mean, 0.127 and 0.243) were obtained in populations C 88 and C 84, respectively. The smallest (between populations C 84 and C 89) and largest (between populations C 87 and C 89) genetic distances were 0.063 and 0.187, respectively. Cluster analysis using the complete linkage method based on the Dice similarity coefficient assigned populations to two groups. Molecular variance analysis showed that the diversity between and within populations was 7 and 93%, respectively. Because within-population genetic diversity was higher than between-population genetic diversity, we recommend selection of genotypes within the populations in either group for general combining ability and hybrid production.

7. JUGAL K. MANI, RAJ SINGH, DIWAN SINGH AND R. K. PANNU [Growth indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by thermal stress management strategies under late sown conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 42-47 (2013). Department of Agricultural Meteorology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

            An investigation was conducted at Research Farm, Department of Agricultural Meteorology, CCSHAU, Hisar located at 29°10¢ N latitude, 75°46¢ E longitude and 215.2 m altitude during rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 (Last week of December) to study the growth indices of wheat as influenced by thermal stress management strategies under late sown conditions. Among pre-sowing strategies, the highest value of LAI was 4.70 in 2007-09 and 4.61 in 2008-09 in the treatment T5. The peak LAD was observed at 71-90 DAS in all the treatments during both the years. The highest LAD was recorded in T5 and the lowest was recorded in T1 during both the years. The highest SLA was recorded in T4 and the lowest was recorded in T2 during both the crop seasons. The CGR was significantly higher in T5 than other treatments except at 51-70 DAS where it was non-significant during 2007-08 and 2008-09. In the post-anthesis strategies, LAI and LAD were non-significant among treatments from 30 to 90 DAS and 90 DAS, respectively, and these were significant up to 111 and 91-110 DAS, respectively, during both the crop seasons. The SLA was non-significant among all the treatments from 30 to 90 DAS then it was significant at 110 DAS during both the crop seasons and it was lower in S3 treatment. The highest CGR was observed in S3 at 71-90 DAS as compared to other treatment during both the crop seasons. The growth indices like LAI and LAD were highly correlated with weather parameters at vegetative phase than reproductive phase, whereas SLA and CGR were highly associated at reproductive than vegetative phase.

 

8. Ashkan Ashkiani, Farshad Ghooshchii and Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam [Effect of super absorbent polymer on growth, yield components and seed yield of wheat grown under irrigation withholding at different growth stages]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 48-53 (2013). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

           The hydrogel amendments may improve seedling growth and establishment by increasing water retention capacity of soils and regulation of plants available water supplies, especially under arid environments. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of super absorbent polymer use in wheat grown under normal and limited irrigation. An experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was laid out in a randomized complete block with a split plots arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main plots included four different levels of irrigation (complete irrigation or no irrigation withholding, irrigation withholding at stem elongation, irrigation withholding at flowering, and irrigation withholding at both stem elongation and seed setting stages) and sub-factors included super absorbent (0, 20 and 40 kg per hectare). The results showed that irrigation withholding conditions in different growth stages significantly decreased seed yield, carbohydrate grain content and total chlorophyll content but increased protein percentage. Super absorbent polymer application in irrigation withholding in different growth stages had positive effect on all attributes except for protein percentage. In general, it was concluded that super absorbent could improve growth conditions for wheat plants grown under water deficit stress. The reviews although show that super absorbent is able to reduce the destroying effect of low water by absorbing and preserving water and approve varying agricultural characters. With attention to increased yield and its components and decreasing plant water need, using this material is economically acceptable.

 

9. K. I. PATEL, P. T. PATEL, S. M. PATEL, J. M. PATEL AND B. M. PATEL [Effect of levels of nitrogen and iron on yield and quality of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) under different planting techniques]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 54-61 (2013). Department of Agronomy C. P. College of Agriculture (SDAU), Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, SDAU, Sardarkrushinagar in split plot design having three replications. The treatments comprising three planting techniques (P1 : Broadcasting, P2 : Line sowing at 45 x 15 cm and P3 : Paired row at 60 x 30 cm) in main plots, three levels of N (N1 : 40 kg/ha, N2 : 60 kg/ha and N3 : 80 hg/ka) as sub-plots and two levels of Fe (Fe0 : No FeSO4 and Fe1 : 10 kg FeSO4/ha) as sub-sub plots. Among the planting techniques, line sowing recoded significantly higher plant height, length of main spikelets, number and length of lateral spikelets, grain  and stover yield of amaranthus. The yield and yield components of grain amaranths increased significantly under application of 60 kg N/ha than decreased gradually as crop received higher proportion of N than RDN. Iron application did not exert any significant response, though the yield and yield attributes recorded higher under 10 kg FeSO4/ha. Highest net income (Rs. 34130) and benefit : cost ratio (3.83) were associated with 60 kg N/ha with 10 kg FeSO4 under line sowing.

 

10. Jaroslava Martinková, Václav Hejnák and František Hnilička [Effect of water deficit on sink strength of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ears]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 62-71 (2013). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources (FAFNR) Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Kamycka 129 Prague 6-Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Rep.

ABSTRACT

             The aim of the experiment with modern varieties of spring barley, Malz and Jersey, and an old variety, Valticky, was to assess the impact of water stress on yield characteristics of ears. Plants were grown in greenhouse conditions in two variants–fully watered plants and plants with reduced watering for a 10 days period from stage 31.DC. Water stress caused a weight loss in all varieties (Malz–22.5%, Jersey–35.7% and Valticky–45.8%) and drop of the number of grains in the ear (Malz–17.2%, Jersey–16.9% and Valticky–57.7%). Concurrently, the proportion of fully developed grains on the top and the base of the ear was reduced. Only in the Malz variety was the reduced number of grains partially compensated by higher weight compared to the control in all parts of the ear. Transport of assimilates detected by combustion calorimetry was slowed by water deficit. Filling of the ears was thus extended until the end of ripening. This explains the increase in energy content in the ears up to the phase 91.DC in plants of all varieties under water stress. Conversely, in control plants of the modern varieties Malz and Jersey, the energy content in the ears dropped during ripening.

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11. T. SANDEEP KUMAR­­, D. M. REDDY, C. NAGARAJU, S. ISHA PARVEEN, P. V. SUBBAIAH AND B. JAGADEESH [Heterosis for leaf, tassel characters and yield in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 72-75 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati-517 502 (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

              The present experiment was undertaken with an objective to assess the heterosis for leaf, tassel characters and yield in the single cross hybrids of maize, which were generated from recycled elite inbred lines. Among all the traits, grain yield per plant displayed highest magnitude of heterosis followed by number of branches per tassel, leaf area index, tassel length and SPAD chlorophyll. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis studies also revealed that the hybrids BML 7 x BML 15 showed maximum heterosis for leaf area index, BML 6 x BML 15 for SPAD chlorophyll, CM 149 × BML 6 for tassel length, CM 133 x CM 148 for number of branches per tassel and CM 148 × BML 15 for grain yield per plant. These crosses offer the best possibilities of further exploitation to increase the maize productivity.

 

12. J. P. Saini, Rameshwar, S. Chadha and N. Pathania [Effect of different composts applied alone and in combination on the performance of maize+soybean intercropping system under organic conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 76-82 (2013). Department of Organic Agriculture CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions during kharif 2009 and 2010 at Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, India, using different organic composts. Himsol application in the form of sprays produced higher yield attributes viz., number of cobs/ha, cob length, grains/cob and 1000- grain weight and ultimately resulted in 17.2 and 22.7% higher maize equivalent yield as compared to unsprayed treatment during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Him compost (HC) 5 t/ha being at par with vermicompost (VC)+Him compost (HC) (50 : 50) resulted in significantly higher attributes of maize and hence significantly higher maize equivalent yield as compared to other combinations. FYM+ VC+ HC (33% each), VC 10 t/ha, HC+ Nadep (50 : 50), FYM+HC (50 : 50) and FYM+VC (50 : 50) being at par with each other were the next best treatments in recording higher maize equivalent yield.

 

 

13. G. SASHI KALA, M. V. S. NAIDU AND K. SREENIVASULU REDDY [Effect of dairy factory effluent on microbial activity and quality parameters in greengram and pearlmillet crops]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 83-87 (2013). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry S. V. Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Tirupati-517 502 (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

           A pot culture experiment was conducted during rabi2009 at S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh to study the effect of dairy factory effluent on microbial activity of soil like bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes and quality parameters like ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase and total chlorophyll content in greengram and pearlmillet crops. The microbial activity and quality parameters of greengram and pearlmillet crops increased with increase in the levels of dairy factory effluent application from DFE0 to DFE3.0. The microbial activity of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes and quality parameters like ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase activity and total chlorophyll content were higher in greengram crop. Significant interaction effect was found with different levels of dairy factory effluent on soil bacteria, soil fungi and total chlorophyll content.

 

14. SHAHRAM RIAHINIA, HAMID REZA KHAZAEI, MOHAMMAD KAFI AND AHMAD NEZAMI Effects of water stress and [nitrogen levels on relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane stability index in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1) : 88-94 (2013). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

ABSTRACT

 

                       Grain sorghum is a major dry land crop of the sub-humid and the semi-arid tropics where there is drought stress and low availability of soil nitrogen. In the current study, the effects of water deficit and nitrogen levels were studied on relative water content, cell membrane stability and chlorophyll fluorescence of grain sorghum in the greenhouse condition at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011. Treatments were two irrigation regimes (I1 and I2, consisting 100 and 40% of field capacity, respectively), four nitrogen levels (N1, N2, N3 and N4 consisting 0, 30, 60 and 90 mg N/kg soil, respectively) and two cultivars (Sepideh and M5) arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that water stress significantly decreased relative water content from 83.69 to 73.59%  and also decreased cell membrane stability from 87.38  to 85.35.  But, nitrogen application had no significant effect on RWC and MSI. There were no significant differences between two cultivars in the same treatment for RWC and MSI. The results showed that the kinetic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence were sensitive to water stress and nitrogen application. The basic fluorescence (F0) of leaves was higher in the dry treatment compared to control. The maximal fluorescence (Fm), the variable fluorescence (Fv) and the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II (PS2) were significantly lower in the dry treatment. It was implied that PS II reaction centers were disturbed by water stress. N application increased Fm , Fv and Fv/Fm in well-watered plants suggesting that fertilizer improved photosynthesis in well watered plants. There were no significant differences between two cultivars for chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis could be used as a useful physiological tool to assess changes in photosynthetic performance of sorghum in response to water stress and nitrogen application.

15. JI SHI WANG, MING LI WANG, J. H. J. Spiertz, ZUXIN LIU, LIPU HAN AND GUANG HUI XIE [Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 95-105 (2013). National Energy R & D Center for Non-food Biomass College of Agronomy and Biotechnology  China Agricultural University, 100193, Beijing, P. R. China

ABSTRACT

              Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31 agronomic, crop descriptors and chemical composition traits were investigated and analyzed. Among these accessions, significant variability was identified in grain yield (0.2-11.4 t/ha), stem weight (2.1-21.8 t/ha) and total biomass (13.8-34.4 t/ha) with an average of 6.5, 8.6 and 22.6 t/ha, respectively. Significant differences in chemical composition (including soluble sugar, starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of grain, leaf blade, leaf sheath and stem were identified. The stems of sweet sorghum contained a significantly higher amount of sugars and lower amounts of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin than in other two sorghum types. Highly significant correlations were detected among the investigated traits. Cluster and principal component analyses classified these 56 accessions into two main groups. Accessions : X041, X125, and X057 were identified as good parental materials for breeding high yield cultivars of grain, sweet and biomass sorghum, respectively. In order to reconfirm and identify useful breeding materials for this arid region, further experimental research needs to be conducted.

16. Chuan Deng, Qing Liu, Ibrahim Hadad Ali, Hui Zhang, Hui Yu, Zhen Ming Yang and Ming Di Bian [Evaluation of regeneration potential of sweet sorghum genotypes using immature inflorescences as explants]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 106-113 (2013). Laboratory of Soil-Plant Molecular Genetics College of Plant Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China

ABSTRACT

              Sweet sorghum is one of the most potentially valuable sources for biofuel production. However, molecular genetic research on sweet sorghum is limited by the lack of suitable genotypes for genetic transformation. Sixty-one diverse genotypes of sweet sorghum were evaluated and determined their callus induction and plant regeneration capabilities using immature inflorescences as explants. Callus was induced from 53 genotypes of sweet sorghum on four types of culture media. The frequency of callus induction exceeded 85% and even reached 100% in six genotypes. The highest callus induction rate was obtained on Y3 medium [MS medium+3 mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D)+0.5 mg/l kinetin (KT)] with an average induction rate of 43.5%. The amount of phenolic compounds produced varied widely among the different genotypes. Of the 61 genotypes, 32 were able to regenerate into whole plants. The highest frequency of plant regeneration was 87.5%. The sweet sorghum genotypes MN-3013, SILVER TOP-1, FETERITA NIDIANA, POTCH 1002  and MN-81 showed the best callus induction and regeneration capabilities in these conditions. This research has identified the sweet sorghum genotypes with the best potential for callus production and whole-plant regeneration in culture. This information is essential for successful genetic transformation of sweet sorghum.

 

17. S. V. PATIL, S. I. HALIKATTI, M. N. THIMMEGOWDA, S. B. GURUMURTHY AND M. S. LOKESH [Physiological attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by integrated organic nutrient management practices in vertisol]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 114-119 (2013). Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Annigeri, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

                       A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study physiological attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by integrated organic nutrient management practices in vertisol at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. There were 18 treatment combinations consisting of four different organic manures in combination viz., farm yard manure (FYM), vermicompost (VC), glyricidia leaf manure (GLM), enriched compost (EC) and neem cake (NC), and four different liquid manures viz., panchagavya, biodigester, cow urine and vermiwash with two control treatments RDF and absolute control (water spray). Various growth attributes like leaf area, leaf area index, AGR, RGR and CGR were worked out using standard procedures. The maximum values of growth/physiological attributes were recorded with the treatment EC 1/3rd+VC 1/3rd+GLM 1/3rd equivalent to 100% RDN+panchagavya @ 3% at flower initiation and 15 DAF during both the years.

 

18. S. V. PATIL, S. I. HALIKATTI, S. B. GURUMURTHY, M. S. LOKESH AND M. SHET RATNAKAR [Physiological attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by organic manures and various levels of rock phosphate with PSB in vertisol]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 120-125 (2013). Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Annigeri, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

           A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study physiological attributes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by organic manures and various levels of rockphosphate with PSB in vertisol at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. There were nine treatment combinations consisting of two different organic manures in combination viz., compost (5 t/ha) and farm yard manure (FYM 5 t/ha), and four levels of rock phosphate with PSB viz., 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg rock phophate with one absolute control. Various growth attributes like leaf area, leaf area index, AGR, RGR and CGR were worked out using standard procedures. The maximum values of growth/physiological attributes were recorded with the treatment   combination of organic manures with higher levels of rock phosphate with PSB (150 and 200 kg RP) during both the years.

19. S. D. Tyagi, M. H. Khan and V. Tyagi [Genetic divergence in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) grown in eight environments]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 126-129 (2013). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Kisan (P. G.) College, Simbhaoli, Ghaziabad-245 207 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

            Fifty genotypes of lentil were evaluated under eight environments for seed yield and its associated traits. All the genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. The composition of various clusters varied from 2 to 12. Clustering pattern revealed the distribution of the genotypes belonging to the same origin in more than one cluster indicating non-parallism between geographic and genetic diversity. Members of the clusters II and VII were highly diverse from each other as these clusters showed maximum inter-cluster distance. The entries of cluster VII showed the highest mean values for number of primary branches/plant, biological yield/plant, seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight. The promising genotypes for seed yield, 100-seed weight, pods/plant, seeds/pod and early maturity were identified from clusters II and VII on the basis of mean values which could be utilized for hybridization programme for the development of high yielding genotypes.

20. DAYANAND, H. R. MAHLA, V. S. RATHORE AND J. P. SINGH [Effect of soil and foliar application of nitrogen on yield attributes and yield of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] under extreme Thar desert conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 130-134 (2013). Regional Research Station Central  Arid  Zone Research Institute, Jaisalmer-345 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted to assess nitrogen application effects on yield attributes and yield of clusterbean during kharif 2011 at Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India. Nitrogen application showed significant variations in yield attributes and seed yield. N application had significant improvement in number, weight and length of pod. Among the tested treatments, highest seed yield was recorded with application of 20 kg N/ha combined with foliar application of urea @ 1% at vegetative and flowering stages, which was significantly superior over all treatments except basal application of nitrogen 20 kg/ha along with 1% urea foliar spray at flowering stage treatment.

21. B. N. Patel, R. T. Desai, P. B. Koladiya  and K. N. Chaudhari [Diallel analysis for seed yield in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 135-139 (2013). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India

 

ABSTRACT

               A study was carried out in half diallel fashion with 12 parents in cowpea. Parents were evaluated for estimation of gca and sca effects and variances for yield and yield contributing characters in four environments i. e. two locations in latekharif 2010 (E1 and E2) and two locations in laterabi 2011 (E3 and E4). The combining ability analysis revealed significant differences among the parents for all the traits indicating the presence of preponderance of dominance gene action for all the traits. The parents GC-4 and Re-101 recorded significant gca effects for seed yield per plant and most attributes. Among the hybrids, the best mean performance and significant sca effects for seed yield per plant were noticed for cross CPD-103 x Re-79 followed by GC-4 x CPD-105 and Rev-7 x Re-79. These crosses need to be exploited and also one can explore the possibility of isolating transgressive segregants from the segregating generations of these crosses.

22. S. S. rathore, kapila shekhawat, o. p. premi and b. k. kandpal [Water use efficiency, productivity, photosynthesis and sustainability of pressurized irrigation systems for Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.] under semi-arid conditions of Rajasthan]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 140-150 (2013). Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Sewar, Bharatpur-321 303 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

             An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of micro-irrigation and fertigation on water use efficiency, productivity, photosynthesis and sustainability of mustard crop during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The treatments consisted of five irrigation systems in main plot viz., micro-sprinkler (MS), micro-sprinkler followed by check basin (MS+CB), drip irrigation system (DS), drip followed by check basin (DS+CB) and check basin (CB) alone. In sub-plot, four treatments of N doses viz., control (0 kg/ha N), 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha of N were taken. The soi pH and EC varied from 8.5-9.5 and 1.5-2.5 dS/m, respectively. The soil was poor in available N (125 kg/ha), medium in available P (20 kg/ha) and available K (245 kg/ha). Micro-sprinkler, drip systems and their combination with check basin method resulted in significantly higher growth attributes like plant height, dry matter accumulation and chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate as compared to check basin alone during both the years of the experimentation. The similar trend was recorded for biological, seed and oil yield. Other sustainability parameters like sustainability yield index, water use efficiency and production efficiency were recorded highest in pressurized irrigation systems. During the first year, the irrigation water use efficiency and gross water use efficiency were recorded highest under drip system being at par with the micro-sprinkler, but in the subsequent year the highest water use efficiency was produced under micro-sprinkler system due to uniform moisture distribution in the soil profile. Among sub-plots, growth parameters and yield attributes were improved with increasing dose of nitrogen up to 120 kg/ha, while the days to 50% flowering reduced with higher N doses. The enhanced yield under 120 kg N/ha also resulted in higher sustainability index, production efficiency and water use efficiency.

23. C. S. PATEL, J. J. PATEL, C. J. PATEL AND R. A. PATEL [Influence of irrigation schedules based on IW : CPE ratios, sulphur and plant growth regulators on growth and quality of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under middle Gujarat conditions]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 151-156 (2013). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

 

             An experiment was conducted at College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during two consecutive summer seasons of 2009 and 2010. The experiment consisting of 16 treatment combinations comprised four levels of irrigation schedules (IW : CPE ratios) viz., I1– Control–Irrigation at critical growth stages, I2–0.6 IW : CPE ratio, I3–0.8 IW : CPE ratio and I4–1.0 IW : CPE ratio were relegated as main plot treatment in main plot, two sulphur levels (0 and 25 kg/ha) were relegated as a sub-plot treatment in sub-plot and two levels of plant growth regulator [water spray (control) and NAA @ 25 ppm at 30 and 40 DAS] as sub-plot treatment in sub-sub plot. The field experiment was laid out in a split split plot design with four replications. For securing higher pod yield, net realization, ICBR and net ICBR from summer groundnut crop cv. GG-2 raised on loamy sand soils of middle Gujarat conditions, it is advisable to apply 11 irrigations, including two common irrigations of 50 mm soil depth, first irrigation should be applied immediately after dry sowing, second irrigation should be applied at 13 days after sowing for uniform plant stand and the rest of the irrigations, each of 50 mm soil depth to be scheduled at IW : CPE ratio of 0.8 at an interval of 8 to 10 days with 25 kg S/ha and along with application of plant growth regulator NAA @ 25 ppm at 30 and 40 DAS.

24. C. S. PATEL, J. J. PATEL, C. J. PATEL AND R. A. PATEL [Influence of irrigation schedules based on IW : CPE ratios, sulphur and plant growth regulators on yield attributes and pod yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 157-161 (2013). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

              An experiment was conducted at the College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during two consecutive summer seasons of 2009 and 2010. The experiment consisted of 16 treatment combinations comprising four levels of irrigation schedules (IW : CPE ratios) viz., I1–Control–Irrigation at critical growth stages, I2–0.6 IW : CPE ratio, I3–0.8 IW : CPE ratio and I4–1.0 IW : CPE ratio were relegated as main plot treatment in main plot, two sulphur levels (0 and 25 kg/ha) were relegated as sub-plot treatment in sub-plot and two levels of plant growth regulators [water spray (control) and NAA @ 25 ppm at 30 and 40 DAS] as sub-sub plot treatment in sub-sub plot. The field experiment was laid out in a split split plot design with four replications. For securing higher pod yield, net realization, ICBR and net ICBR from summer groundnut crop cv. GG-2 raised on loamy sand soils of middle Gujarat conditions, it is advisable to apply 11 irrigations, including two common irrigations of 50 mm soil depth–first irrigation applied immediately after dry sowing, second irrigation should be applied at 13 days after sowing for uniform plant stand and the rest of irrigations, each of 50 mm soil depth to be scheduled at IW : CPE ratio of 0.8 at an interval of 8 to 10 days with 25 kg S/ha and application of plant growth regulator NAA @ 25 ppm at 30 and 40 DAS. The interaction effect was found non-significant in some cases.

25. Sara karimi, Mohammad Nasri and Farshad ghoshchi [Effects of zeolite application on yield components and yield of sunflower grown under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 162-168 (2013). Department of Agronomy Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effects of cattle manure and super absorbent on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under conditions of water deficit stress, an experiment was conducted at research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main factor was water stress (normal irrigation and irrigation withholding after stem elongation) and sub-factors included cattle manure (0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and super absorbent application (with and without). The results showed that water stress significantly decreased plant growth and production. Conversely, cattle manure and super absorbent application led to increase in growth and improved yield and yield components. Super absorbent application dramatically increased pod number in main branches. The highest pod number in sub-branches was obtained from those plots which were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and super absorbent grown under normal irrigation conditions. These results indicated that super absorbent and cattle manure application (30 t/ha) increased seed yield when plants were irrigated completely. It is interesting to remark that super absorbent application was more effective under stress conditions than normal irrigation conditions. Biological yield increased on account of cattle manure and super absorbent application. In addition, the highest oil yield was achieved when soybean plants were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and super absorbent under normal irrigation conditions. In sum, cattle manure and super absorbent application could improve soybean growth and seed production even under drought stress conditions.

26. Burcu TarIkahya HacIoGlu, Hümeyra Yaman, Yusuf Arslan, Ilhan  SubaSI and Duran Katar [Investigation of molecular diversity of Asian safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) accessions by RAPD markers for using in hybridization programme]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 169-174 (2013). Central Research Institute for Field Crops Republic of Turkey Food Agricultural and Livestock Ministry Sehit Cem Ersever Street 9-11, Yenimahalle, Ankara, Turkey

 

ABSTRACT

 

             In this research, the relationship among genotypes was identified and this information was evaluated with seed oil contents. Eight RAPD markers revealed polymorphic products and banding patterns among 32 accessions. The polymorphism rate was 94.6%. In both clustering analysis and principal coordinates analysis, Chinese and Indian accessions scattered among other accessions, Afghanistani accession was grouped with Pakistani and Indian accessions, Japanese accession grouped with Chinese accessions and Turkish accession grouped with Iranians. CHN 4 and CHN 9 had the highest seed oil content (33%) in Turkey; also these two accessions were identified as closely related. Due to the phylogenic relationships and high seed oil content, CHN 4 and CHN 9 can be used in hybridization programme for safflower improvement in Turkey.

27. YAN YANHONG, CHEN ZHONGQUN, YANG WENYU, WAN YAN AND ZHANG XINQUAN [Soybean root growth as influenced by seed treatment with molybdenum under net and relay strip intercropping system]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 175-181 (2013). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan-611100, China

 

ABSTRACT

          For a better understanding of soybean root growth as influenced by seed treatment with molybdenum (Mo), we examined some root growth morphological characteristics of different concentrations Mo (B0–Control, 0 g/kg, B1–0.5 g/kg, B2–1.0 g/kg, B3–2.0 g/kg and B4–4.0 g/kg) treated seeds on the growth of soybean under net and relay strip intercropping system. The results showed that the taproot length, number of first order lateral roots, root volume, root-nodule fresh weight , number of root-nodules and root dry weight were increased by Mo treated after blooming. Moreover, 2.0 g/kg Mo treatment increased root growth morphological characteristics (except the taproot length) most strikingly in net cropping system, while 1.0 g/kg Mo treatment increased root growth morphological characteristics most significantly in relay strip intercropping system. It could be found that the taproot length in relay strip intercropping system was the most strikingly higher than that in net cropping system, while the first order lateral root number, root volume, root-nodules fresh weight and the number of root-nodule of net cropping soybean were most markedly higher than those of relay strip intercropping soybean at R2 stage. The results also showed that seed treatment with Mo at a suitable concentration could delay root senescence, and it was more sensitive to Mo treatment of relay strip intercropping soybean, lower concentration could achieve the effect of delaying root senescence.

28. Shamarao Jahagirdar, Sachin Khedekar, Ramesh Bhat, G. T. Basavaraja and Yogesh Bhagat [Biointensive management of Asian soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 182-188 (2013). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

 

             Thirteen different  treatments were evaluated against soybean rust during 2009 and 2010 kharif seasons at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. The results revealed the significant superiority of seed treatment with recommended seed dressing dosage of  Trichoderma harzianum @ 6 g/kg with 106 cfu/g+spray with cow urine @ 10%+T. harzianum @ 0.5% recorded minimum (35.1) per cent disease index (PDI) followed by 37.4, 38.9 PDI in case of spray with cow urine @ 10%+potassium phosphonate @ 0.3%and neem oil @ 1%, respectively. However, minimum PDI was recorded in hexaconazole @ 1 ml/l (30.5) which was statistically on par with each other. The maximum incidence of 87.8 PDI was recorded in control. The maximum seed yield of 18.06 q/ha was recorded in hexaconazole @ 0.1% followed by seed treatment with T. harzianum @ 6 g/kg+spray with cow urine @ 10%+T. harzianum @ 0.5% (17.15 q/ha) which was statistically on par with each other. The minimum seed yield was recorded in untreated check (9.06 q/ha). Among the bio-intensive strategies, reducing sugar was maximum (0.737%) in seed treatment with T. harzianum @ 6 g/kg+spray with cow urine @ 10%+T. harzianum @ 0.5% followed by 0.707% in case of seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg with 108 cells/ml+spray with cow urine @ 10%+P. fluorescens @ 0.5%. The minimum reducing sugar was recorded in untreated control (0.071%). With respect to non-reducing sugars, seed treatment with P. fluorescens @ 10 g/kg+spray with cow urine @ 10%+P. fluorescens @ 0.5% recorded maximum (10.53%) followed by 9.59% in case of T. harzianum @ 6 g/kg+spray with cow urine @ 10%+T. harzianum @ 0.5%. The minimum non-reducing sugar was recorded in untreated control (1.22%). The peroxidase activity ranged between 25 to 70 Kda. The maximum peroxidase activity was recorded in cow urine @ 10% and neem oil @ 1%. The expression of polyphenol oxidase which is the key factor for upregulation of defense genes in induced systemic resistance (ISR) against rust pathogen was also studied. The maximum polyphenol activity was recorded in cow urine @ 10%+neem oil @ 5% followed by cow urine @ 10%+T. viride @ 0.5% and neem oil @ 1%. The polyphenol activity ranged between 55 to 110 Kda. There was no expression of catalase activity in all the treatments.

29. Samira Abbasi and Hossein Zahedi [Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on antioxidative enzymes of soybean subjected to different irrigation regimes]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 189-193 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Eslamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamshahr, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

           Drought is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting yield. The effect of inoculation of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that is Rhizobium japonicum, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and mixture of them on antioxidant enzyme activity of soybean under different irrigation regimes was investigated. Drought stress was induced by irrigation withholding until 40, 80 and 120 mm evaporation from evaporation pan. However, seed bacterization of soybean was accompanied with 20 kg/ha nitrogen. In addition, 20 and 100 kg/ha nitrogen was considered as control treatments. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activity, while PGPR application mitigated enzyme activity. The inoculated plants with mixture of PGPR showed the lowest enzyme activity so this treatment was found to be the best in terms of influencing enzyme activity of the plants under drought stress. The study reports the potential of PGPRs in alleviating drought stress effects on soybean.

30. Rozbeh Farhoudi and Dong-Jin Lee [Evaluation of antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from Mentha spicata, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis plants]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 194-198 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

             Essential oil from the leaves and head branches of Mentha spicata, Salvia officinalis and Rosmarinus officinalis of the family Lamiaceae was obtained by hydro-distillation using an all-glass Clevenger-type apparatus. In vitro antioxidant activities of the oil at various concentrations were assessed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power. Gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS) analyses of oil revealed seven polysulfides with a pungent garlic-like odour. The principal constituents were 1,8-Cineole, bisabolol, a-bisabololoxide, a-pinene and b-pinene. It is clear that as concentration increased, the scavenging effect of M. spicata and S. officinalis also increased, reaching as high as 89.7% (M. spicata)and 88.2% (S. officinalis)at 400 µg/ml. This value was very close to the activity of synthetic antioxidants BHT (92.1%) at the same concentration. The plants essential oil exhibited a lower reducing power compared to synthetic antioxidant BHT but results showed that M. spicata (0.97%) and S. officinalis (0.98%) essential oil absorbance values were close to synthetic antioxidant BHT (1.18%) obtained at 100 µg/ml but R. officinalis absorbance value was 0.71%. This study indicated that M. spicata and S. officinalis might be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant to be used in medicinal and food products to promote human health and prevent diseases.

31. YUGANG ZHANG, JUN ZHU AND HONGYI DAI [Morphological characteristics and pollination compatibility of a new red flesh apple, Hongxun No. 1]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 199-204 (2013). College of Horticulture Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao-266109, China

ABSTRACT

              This article reports a new red flesh apple variety Hongxun No. 1 [Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana (Dieck) Langenf], which had a large number of flowers and was highly productive although the fruits were quite small. The flesh of the fruit was deeply red and the anthocyanin content of ripe fruit peels was 250.4 U/g FW, followed in turn by flesh, new leaves, flowers and new shoots. The acidity of the Hongxun No. 1 juice and juice concentrate was 6- and 5-times higher than that of Gala. The highest number of pollen tubes of Hongxun No. 1 was found in the stigma of Gala, followed in turn by Fuji, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson. In addition, the order of fruit setting rate was similar to that of pollen germination in the stigmas, suggesting its pollination compatibility to Gala was the highest, followed by Fuji, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson. The segregation rates of red and green leaves of the F1 progeny were in the range of 1:1.04-1.13, indicating that the red colour of leaves was controlled by a single dominate gene.

32. J. S. BRAR, H. S. DHALIWAL, J. S. BAL AND SOM PAL SINGH [Influence of inter-plant spacing on microclimatic and horticultural parameters of guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 205-212 (2013). Department of Horticulture Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

 

ABSTRACT

            The research was aimed at studying the variations in canopy microclimate along with vegetative and reproductive growth and quality parameters in ‘L-49’ guava trees under different plant spacings viz., 6 × 2, 6 × 3, 6 × 4 and 6 × 5 m during 2007-09. Intensive observations during both the years revealed that maximum solar radiations were intercepted at 6 × 4 m spacing. Canopy temperature and relative humidity also altered with increase in plant spacing. Plant growth in terms of stem girth, inter-row plant spread and canopy volume increased with increase in spacing, while the tree height and inter-plant spread decreased. Fruit yield, fruiting density and fruit quality were improved at wider spacing levels. Leaf nutrient concentration did not influence significantly with plant spacing except nitrogen. The plants at 6 × 4 m spacing were identified better due to higher solar radiation penetration and better microclimatic conditions led to better fruit yield and quality of  guava fruits.

33. D. KRISHNAMURTHY, S. BHASKAR, C. A. SRINIVASAMURTHY and T. N. ANAND [Influence of ferti-irrigation of distillery spentwash to banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) growing soils on organic carbon content and soil fertility status1]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 213-218 (2013). Directorate of Research University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 102 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

 

              Field experiments were carried out in a loamy soil (pH 8.10, EC 0.30 dS/m and organic carbon 0.57%) to study the effect of distillery spentwash ferti-irrigation under different combinations  to banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) cv. Grand naine on the availability of nutrients in soil from 2008 to 2010 at the Shanthi farm of the M/s Gemini Distilleries Pvt. Ltd., Nanjangud, Mysore district located in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka and situated at 12°11′ North latitude, 76°69′ East longitude with an altitude of 610 m above mean sea level. In general, the application of distillery spentwash ferti-irrigation helped to build up soil nutrient status with respect to OC, available major, secondary and micro nutrients. Available nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur content of soil varied significantly due to distillery spentwash irrigation. Highest content of all these nutrients in soil was recorded with 25% N through fertilizers plus 75% N through distillery spentwash in five irrigations. Available potassium, exchangeable calcium, magnesium and micronutrients content of soil also varied significantly due to distillery spentwash irrigation. Highest content of all these nutrients in soil was recorded in treatment receiving 100% N through distillery spentwash irrigation followed by 25% N through fertilizers plus 75% N through distillery spentwash irrigation.

34. AliReza Tarinejad [Effects of disinfectants and antibiotics on contamination during propagation of walnut (Juglans regia L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 219-225 (2013). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agriculture Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : atarinejad@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different disinfectants and antibiotics on walnut contamination under in vitro conditions at Biotechnology Laboratory of Tabriz Islamic Azad University, Iran. In this experiment, single nodal segments of walnut were used as explants. Different disinfection methods were used to determine the best possible method for disinfecting the explants. Furthermore, different antibiotics at various concentrations were used to control any latent contamination. Significant differences were observed among the different disinfection methods with regard to controlling contamination. The best method was disinfecting explants with 70% ethanol for 2 min, 5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min and 0.7 g/l mercury chloride for 3 min in the presence of 12.5 mg/l gentamycin and 100 mg/l vancomycin. This method showed a reduction in contamination as well as an increase in response to tissue culture. However, different disinfection methods had no effect on phenol production.

35. K. B. Bhushan, Y. V. Singh, R. K. Upadhyay and Neelima Joshi [Heterosis breeding and protein profiling through SDS-PAGE in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 226-230 (2013). Department of Vegetable Science G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), India

 

ABSTRACT

  Thirty-six genotypes (12 lines, 2 testers and 24 F1s) of brinjal were studied for heterosis and 14 parents were characterised through SDS-PAGE. The crosses PR × PS and BARI × PS showed highest economic heterosis for most of the traits studied including the yield and yield attributing characters. Crosses PR × PS, BARI × PS, PB 69 × PS and Punjab Sadabahar × PU demonstrated highly significant heterosis, over the standard cultivar, Pant Samrat. Parents were distinguished into nine groups on different banding patterns in three zones (A, B and C). The UPGMA analysis showed that PB 60, PB 68, PB 64, Pant Rituraj, PB 66, BARI and PB 69, KS 331, PB 70, SMB 115, Punjab Sadabahar, Pant Samrat, Pusa Upkar formed two different clusters. However, PB 60, PB 68, PB 64 and PB 66; BARI and Pant Rituraj; KS 331, PB 69 and Punjab Sadabahar; PB 70, SMB 115 and PB 70; Pusa Upkar and Pant Samrat were three different neighbouring groups.

36. Y. M. SOMASEKHARA, N. G. RAVICHANDRA AND R. K. JAIN [Management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucurbits (bitter gourd, bottle gourd and cucumber) with the organic amendments]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 231-234 (2013). AICRP (N), Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

 

ABSTRACT

               Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, remains to be one of the most important constraints in agricultural production worldwide. However, reports showed that root-knot nematode population could be suppressed by the addition of organic amendments.  One of the methods for the control of root-knot nematode is the use of organic amendments, which have nematicidal effect. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate organic amendments for the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infesting cucurbits in field condition during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Various organic amendments viz., neem cake, castor cake and Jatropa cake were applied to the severely infested field 15 days before sowing @ 30 g/plant in randomized complete block design to the root zone of bitter gourd, bottle gourd and cucumber. Observations on initial and final nematode population along with number of galls per plant were recorded. The results indicated that in bitter gourd, neem cake performed well which recorded least number of galls (21.12 g/plant) and minimum nematode population (262.2 N/200 cc soil) compared to untreated control. Whereas in untreated check, the number of galls was 129.6 g/plant with the population of 527.5 N/200 cc soil. In bottle gourd, neem cake reduced number of galls (54.61 g/plant) and also reduced nematode population (350 N/200 cc)  compared to untreated control with higher yield (18.03 t/ha). Untreated control recorded highest nematode galls i. e. 155.7 g/plant with highest population (1272 N/200 cc). Neem cake treated fields showed higher B : C (1 : 2.48).  In cucumber, neem cake treated fields recorded least number of galls (61.66 g/plant), minimum nematode population (239.5 N/200 cc) with higher yield (11 t/ha), followed by jatropha and castor cakes, respectively. Untreated check recorded highest galls (213.1 g/plant) with highest nematode population (541 N/200 cc) with lowest yield i. e. 9.21 t/ha. In total, on bitter gourd, bottle gourd and cucumber for the period of 2009-10 and 2010-11, the soil application of neem cake @ 30 g/plant reduced root knot nematode incidence and also increased yield.

37. Salauddin Khan and Anupam Pariari [Effect of plant growth regulators on chilli]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 235-236 (2013). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

               Four growth regulators (GA3, ethephon, NAA and CCC) were sprayed with different concentrations on chilli cv. Bullet seedlings to study their influence on growth and yield parameters. The experiment was carried out during 2006-07 and 2007-2008 in Gangetic Alluvial Plains ( soil pH 6.9) of West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Each growth regulator was sprayed twice at 30 and 60 days after planting. The data pooled over two seasons showed that the maximum plant height (75.20 cm) was obtained with GA3 150 ppm followed by 100 ppm (72.10 cm). Yield and yield attributing characters were found highest (3.89 t/ha) with NAA 50 ppm followed by ethephon 100 ppm (3.68 t/ha).

38. Veena Joshi, M. Vijaya, R. V. S. K. Reddy and Vinod kumar [Evaluation and popularization of onion (Allium cepa var. cepa) varieties during kharif season under semi-arid conditions of Andhra Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 237-240 (2013). Vegetable Research Station Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (Andhra Pradesh), India

 

ABSTRACT

Seven popular varieties of onion were evaluated for their suitability under semi arid conditions of Andhra Pradesh during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011. The analysis of variance revealed that Agrifound Dark Red, N-53 and Agrifound White produced bigger size bulbs leading to high bulb yield (37.57, 31.64 and 26.09 t/ha, respectively). Rabi varieties when grown during kharif season could confer equally good bulb yield as that of kharif varieties. Therefore, varieties viz., Agrifound Dark Red, N-53 and  Agrifound White may be promoted for successful commercial cultivation as they were found to be promising during rainy season.

39. A. PARIARI AND S. KHAN [Effect of cow dung manure and vermicompost on growth and seed yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 241-243 (2013). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted in gangetic alluvial plains of West Bengal (soil pH 6.9) during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the response of organic manures with or without inorganic nitrogen on growth and yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). A total amount of 40 kg N/ha was applied through two organic sources of nitrogen like cow dung manure and vermicompost in different combinations with or without an inorganic source of nitrogen (urea). The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine treatments and three replications. The results revealed that vermicompost and urea in 1 : 1 ratio showed highest increment in plant height (75.50 cm), number of primary branches (7.10) and secondary branches (25.40) per plant, whereas lowest values for the growth parameters were obtained with application of cow dung manure only (100%). The highest seed yield (10.50 q/ha) along with maximum yield parameters like number of seeds/umbel (41.10), number of umbels/plant (26.05) and test weight (9.36) was also obtained with vermicompost and urea in 1 : 1 ratio.

40. N. CHAWLA, S. GANGOPADHYAYAND B. R. DHAKA [Studies on compatibility and efficacy of bioagents with organic amendments in suppressing cumin wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 244-252 (2013). Agricultural Research Station S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

          Increasing awareness towards environment has re-emphasized the urgency of biological management of cumin wilt. Therefore, an investigation was conducted under green house condition by using fungal and bacterial bioagents in conjunction with organic amendments. The effect of organic amendments of vermicompost and mustard cake on disease control efficacy of four combinations of bioagents viz., Trichoderma  harzianum+Pseudomonas  fluorescens, Trichoderma  viride+P. fluorescens, T. harzianum+ Bacillus subtilis and T. viride+B. subtilis applied as seed treatment @ 3+3 g/kg seed was tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini. Seed treatment with talc based formulations of T. harzianum+P. fluorescens and T. viride+P. fluorescens provided excellent control of pathogen. These bioagents suppressed the pathogen population in soil and also enhanced the shoot, root  lengths and dry weight of cumin plant. Disease incidence as well as pathogen population in soil were significantly reduced due to seed treatment with bioagents and simultaneous application of organic amendments. These treatments also led to considerable increase in shoot, root lengths and dry weight of cumin plant. The biocontrol potentiality of T. harzianum+P. fluorescens and T. viride+P. fluorescens was relatively better in presence of mustard cake. While disease control due to seed treatment with T. viride+P. fluorescens or T. harzianum+P. fluorescens was similar in presence of vermicompost.

41. M. MONJURUL ALAM MONDAL AND ADAM B. PUTEH [Effect of foliar application of Chitosan on growth and yield of Indian spinach (Basella alba L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 253-256 (2013). Crop Physiology Division Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

            A pot experiment was conducted at the pot yard of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, during the period from April to June 2011 to investigate the effect of Chitosan application on morphological characters, growth and economic yield in Indian spinach. The experiment comprised five levels of Chitosan concentrations viz., 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. The Chitosan was sprayed two times of 15 and 25 days after sowing. Foliar application of Chitosan at early growth stages had a profound influence on morphological characters such as plant height, branch and leaf number, physiological characters such as specific leaf weight (SLW), chlorophyll content in leaves and nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves and yield characters such as leaf area (LA), leaf and stem fresh weight as well as total fresh weight. Plant height and leaf number/plant increased with increasing concentration of Chitosan, whereas branch number, LA, leaf and stem fresh weight as well as total fresh weight increased till 75 ppm followed by a decline. The highest number of branches/plant, LA/plant, SLW, leaf and stem fresh weight as well as total fresh weight (the economic parts) were observed in 75 ppm followed by 100 ppm Chitosan. These results indicate that application of Chitosan @ 75 ppm is optimum for maximizing plant growth and development of Indian spinach.

42. Safwan Shiyab [Effect of Pb on growth, chlorophyll and Pb content in two varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 257-265 (2013). Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Faculty of Agriculture The University of Jordan, Amman-11942, Jordan .

ABSTRACT

 

              Two varieties (Local and Ice Burg) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were cultivated in pots on substrates containing 0, 50, 100, 300 or 500 ppm of Pb for 32 days. Exposure to excess Pb resulted in a decrease root growth, though shoot growth remained less affected. Increasing Pb doses (500 ppm) caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in edible plant parts in both the varieties and decreased macroelements such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Compared to the control, the relative water content (RWC) in the shoots and roots of local species decreased by 8% for shoots and 5% for roots at 500 ppm Pb level, and decreased by 4% for shoots and 5% for roots for Ice Burg, respectively. Only very little part up to 7% of total accumulated Pb was translocated to leaves. The results of the present study indicated that Ice Burg withstood excess Pb with higher Pb accumulation capacity in roots and better upregulated protective mechanisms compared to Local. Therefore, Ice Burg is more tolerant to Pb toxicity compared to Local which was found to be a susceptible variety.

43. M. MONJURUL ALAM MONDAL AND ADAM B. PUTEH [Response of tuberose to integrated nutrients management]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 266-270 (2013). Crop Physiology Division Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

               Field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field of Sutiakhali, Mymensingh Sadar Upazilla, Mymensingh, during the period from April, 2009 to March, 2010 to investigate the effect of organic fertilizers along with half chemical fertilizers on the growth, bulb and flower yield of tuberose cv. Single. The experiment consisted of four different sources of fertilizers viz., (i) recommended chemical fertilizers @ 400, 300, 300 and 100 kg/ha of urea, TSP, MP and gypsum, respectively; (ii) vermicompost @ 5 t/ha along with half of chemical fertilizers; (iii) poultry litter @ 20 t/ha along with half of chemical fertilizers and (iv) cowdung @ 20 t/ha along with half of chemical fertilizers. Results revealed that plant height, leaf number/plant, leaf length and breadth and number of side shoots/plant, bulb production/plant, bulb length, bulb diameter and bulb yield both per plant and per hectare, rachis length, spike length and diameter, number of florets/spike and flower yield both per spike and per hectare were greater in organic fertilizers along with half chemical fertilizers than absolute use of chemical fertilizers. The highest bulb and flower yield both per plant and per hectare were recorded in poultry manures followed by cowdung. The bulb and flower yields were higher in poultry manures which might be due to increased side shoot number, bulb size and flowers/plant. In contrast, the lowest bulb and flower yields were recorded in chemical fertilizers due to production of fewer side bulb and flowers/plant.

44. SATISH KUMAR, R. K. ROY, A. K. GOEL AND S. K. TEWARI [Performance of gerbera varieties for flowering and yield parameters under low cost green house]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 271-273 (2013). Botanic Garden Division CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226 001 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

             An investigation on evaluation of 10 varieties of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) under ‘Low Cost Green House’ (LCGH) with respect to flowering and yield parameters growth was conducted at Botanic Garden, CSIR- National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow during 2010-11. The results indicated that maximum growth, flowering characters and vase life were noticed in Silvester, followed by Salvadore, which were significantly higher than other variety, while these were minimum in Zingaro. The increase in plant height (26.86%), plant spread (76.86%), number of leaves/plant (34.80%), number of suckers/plant (50.00%), number of days for flower bud initiation to harvest (42.06%), flower diameter (12.50%), length of the ray floret (17.50%), number of ray florets (66.74%), stalk length (19.11%) and stalk diameter (51.16%) was recorded in variety Silvester which was higher over lower growth and flowering variety.

45. G. R. Smitha [Vegetative propagation of Ashoka [Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde) – An endangered medicinal plant]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 274-283 (2013). Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi, Anand-387 310 (Gujarat),

 

ABSTRACT

             Ashoka [Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde] is a sacred evergreen tree where bark, leaves, flowers and seeds are medicinally important. The plant is under threat due to unscientific management practices, ever increasing demand for its phytochemicals, short longevity and over-exploitation which has resulted in the dwindling population in the wild. Vegetative propagation in tree would help to multiply elite mother plant and hence, vegetative propagation by cuttings, air layering and grafting was attempted in this crop. A minimal rooting of 16.67% was achieved in hardwood stem cuttings in spite of treating it with 500 ppm IBA, whereas air layering outperformed cuttings with 90% rooting success. Among four methods of grafting (cleft, whip, whip and tongue and side tongue grafting) and two methods of budding (chip and patch budding) tried in three seasons (January, June and October), whip and tongue grafting performed during June was the best with 86.67% grafting success. However, budding did not show any significant result. Age of the rootstock tried (1, 5, 10 and 15 months) also had significant influence on grafting, whereas 10 month old rootstocks recorded highest grafting success of 81.58%. Pre-curing of scions (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before grafting) and pre-treatment with NAA (10, 25 and 50 ppm) were also attempted and the scions pre-cured at 1 week before grafting and pre-treated with 50 ppm NAA resulted in better grafting success.

46. JING ZHANG, JIANG LIU, WENYU YANG AND XINGFU CHEN [New aliphatic diglycoside from the buds of Lonicera macranthoides]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 284-286 (2013). College of Horticulture Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an-625014, P. R. China

 

ABSTRACT

             From the methanol extract of the buds of Lonicera macranthoides, a new aliphatic diglycoside was isolated and identified as n-butyl-b-D-apiofuranosyl-(1′®6′)-b-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical studies.

47. W. X. MAI AND C. Y. TIAN [Mechanism of premature senescence of cotton plants grown under drip irrigation and mulch film : plant growth response and nutrient status]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 287-295 (2013). Korla Experimental Station Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi-830011, China

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanism of premature senescence of cotton plants grown under drip irrigation and mulch film (DI) compared with flooding irrigation (FI) in 2009 and 2010. Plants showed severe premature senescence symptoms at advanced growth stages under DI but not under FI. The K content of upper leaves in the canopy was lower under DI than FI. At the late bolls stage, shoot biomass under DI was significantly higher than under FI, whereas root biomass showed the opposite trend. Root length density in the 0-10 cm soil layer was higher under DI than FI, and total root length decreased after 125 DAS under DI. The soil available K content decreased significantly after the onset of flowering. The soil available K content decreased as root length density increased within the range 0-2 m 1000/cm3. It suggested that the premature senescence under DI was attributable to the increased shoot K demand exceeding the roots’ capacity to supply K, and localized soil K deficiency caused by the shallow root distribution coupled with decreased root length, which impeded the K absorption capacity of the plant.

48. Z. Khodarahmpour and A. Soltani [Selection of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars for drought stress tolerance through germination indices]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 296-303 (2013). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

 

ABSTRACT

            To select the most tolerant alfalfa genotypes to drought stress, an experiment was performed in a factorial scheme in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The cultivar and salinity stress factors comprised 20 cultivars and four levels of drought stress (control, -3, -6 and -9 bar) with PEG 6000, respectively. Results indicated that a significant decrease was observed in all traits in stress conditions. The Bami Garmsiri cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, seedling length and seed vigour traits in drought conditions. Results of the cluster analysis using the data for all measured traits and drought levels clustered cultivars into three groups. The first cluster included four of the cultivars KFA1, KFA4, KFA11 and KFA16, the second cluster included eight cultivars KFA2, KFA3, KFA5, KFA6, KFA7, KFA9, KFA12 and KFA15 and the third cluster included eight cultivars KFA8, KFA10, KFA13, KFA14, KFA17, Yazdi Garmsiri, Nikshahri Garmsiri and Bami Garmsiri. Cultivars in the third cluster were found to be tolerant, while the second ones were sensitive and cultivars in the first cluster semi-sensitive to drought. Bami Garmsiri the most tolerant cultivar was found to drought. They will be used in large field trials to confirm their tolerance to drought waiting creation of new hybrid varieties.

49. DURAN KATAR, YUSUF ARSLAN AND ILHAN SUBASI [Effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.] grown under ecological conditions of Ankara, Turkey]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 304-310 (2013). Faculty of Agriculture Ali Numan Kiraç Campus, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir-26160, Turkey

ABSTRACT

 

               The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different sowing densities on seed and silymarin yields, plant height, branch number per plant, seed yield per plant and 1000-seed weight in milk thistle. Sowing densities 25 x 10 cm (40,000 plants/ha), 25 x 20 cm (20,000 plants/ha), 25 x 30 cm (13,333 plants/ha), 25 x 40 cm (10,000 plants/ha), 50 x 10 cm (20,000 plants/ha), 50 x 20 cm (10,000 plants/ha), 50 x 30 cm (6,666 plants/ha) and 50 x 40 cm (5,000 plants/ha) were used. The study was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results revealed that increasing plant population sowing density caused increase seed yield, thus silymarine yield. 25 x 10 sowing density (40,000 plants/ha) gave the highest seed (83.13 kg/ha) and silymarine yield (1.413 kg/ha).

50. Rozbeh Farhoudi, DONG-JIN LEE and Saeed Saeedipour [Evaluation of oxidative stress by sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.) cv. Azargol] extract on germination and seedling growth of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)]. Res. on Crops 14 (1): 311-315 (2013). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

ABSTRACT

            This research was carried out in order to evaluate allelopathical effect of sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.) cv. Azargol] on seed germination, seedling growth and lipid peroxidation of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) seedling in two experiments, in Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Iran. The experimental design was aranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications and treatments were 0, 5, 10 and 15% sunflower extracts. Results showed that seed germination, lipid peroxidation, seedling fresh weight and seedling length of weeds decreased when sunflower extract concentration increased but mean germination time decreased. Results indicated highest malondialdehyde concentration obtained of 15% sunflower extract in Johnson grass (0.061 µmol/g f. w.) and wild mustard (0.073 µmol/g f. w.). The results of this study revealed that sunflower extracts inhibited the wild mustard and Johnson grass seedling growth and increased lipid peroxidation.