Volume 13, Number 3 (December, 2012)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1.Preeyanat Hongthong, Min Huang, Bing Xia, Fangbo Cao, Peng Jiang and Yingbin Zou [Yield formation strategies of a loose-panicle super hybrid rice]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 781-789 (2012). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : ybzou123@126.com)

ABSTRACT

         To indentify the key factors that are critical to the high grain yield of loose-panicle super hybrid rice, grain yield, yield components and grain-filling characteristics were compared between a loose-panicle (Zhunliangyou 527) and a compact-panicle (Y-liangyou 1) super hybrid rice by using data from three field experiments conducted in Hunan province, China during 2007 to 2011. Average grain yields were 9.56 t/ha for Zhunliangyou 527 and 9.44 t/ha for Y-liangyou 1, showing no significant difference between the two cultivars. Zhunliangyou 527 produced significantly less spikelets per panicle than Y-liangyou 1, which resulted in smaller sink size (spikelets/m2). However, spikelet filling percentage and especially grain weight of Zhunliangyou 527 were significantly higher than those of Y-liangyou 1. High grain capacity, grain-filling rate and source capacity were responsible for the high grain weight of Zhunliangyou 527. Our study suggests that developing cultivars with high grain weight through breeding programme may also be a feasible approach to achieve high rice yield.

 

2.  Ratikanta Maiti, Dasari Rajkumar and P. Vidyasagar [Screening of rice varieties for drought resistance at seedling stage]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 790-794 (2012). Vibha Seeds, Vibha Agrotech Ltd., INSPIRE Plot # 21, Sector 1, HUDA Techno Enclave High Tech City Road, Madhapur, Hyderabad-500 081 (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : Ratikanta.maiti@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            Drought is the major problem among all the abiotic stresses. Selection of drought resistant lines is very important for good crop production and better yield under sustainable agriculture. It is essential to identify genotypic variability for drought resistance and selecting drought resistant lines and effective use in breeding programme. Simple technique is adapted to screen the rice varieties and germplasm for drought resistance. Twenty-seven rice varieties were screened for drought resistance at seedling stage by applying drought cycles in polyhouse. Drought resistant varieties showed high percentage of seedling survival, deep root system, stay green character and good recovery after drought period. Especially the root system contributed drought resistance in these varieties. Five varieties were selected for drought resistance which included VBR-6613, VBR-630, VBR-6602, Komal-Check and Silky-Check. These varieties can be grown in drought prone areas to test their performance and yield potential under drought condition.

 

3.  N. C. Sarkar, B. Mondal, D. Rajkumar and R. K. Maiti [Salt tolerance of thirteen rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties at germination and seedling stages]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 795-803 (2012). Vibha Agrotech Ltd. High Tech City, Hyderabad-500 082 (A. P.), India *(e-mail : ncsiari@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              The present experiment was conducted to study salinity tolerance of nine local rice varieties obtained from Sundarbans Region (Coastal Alluvial Region–saline prone areas) of West Bengal, including two salinity tolerant and two susceptible check varieties from Hyderabad. These varieties were tested at different levels of salinity (0.0 M, 0.1 M with EC 9, 0.15 M with EC 13.6 and 0.2 M with EC 18.7 dS/m) using a new semi-hydroponic technique. The results revealed that increasing salinity decreased emergence and seedling growth. The results also showed that large variability was present for emergence and seedling growth of different rice varieties to different NaCl concentrations. The technique is capable of distinguishing among rice varieties for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Among the varieties screened Marrirsail, Malabati, Sabita Patnai and Doodheswar were found highly tolerant at EC 18. Tolerant varieties showed high seedling emergence (%), seedling vigour index, root/shoot ratio at 0.15 M NaCl (EC 13.6 dS/m) and 0.2 M NaCl (EC 18 dS/m). Most of the varieties performed well up to 0.1 M NaCl (EC 9 dS/m).

 

 

4.XIAOHONG YIN, MIN HUANG, WENSHI GUAN, FANGBO CAO AND YINGBIN ZOU [Effect of wide plant spacing on yield formation of hybrid rice in sub-tropical environment of southern China]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 804-808 (2012). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : ybzou123@126.com)

ABSTRACT

              To determine the effect of wide plant spacing on yield formation of hybrid rice in southern China, a field experiment was conducted in Wuzhou, Guangxi Province in late rice-growing season in 2010. Grain yield, yield components and biomass production of two hybrid rice cultivars (Liangyoupeijiu and II-you 602) were compared between wide (20 × 27 cm) and normal plant spacings (16 × 23 cm). Wide plant spacing produced 10% lower grain yield than normal plant spacing for Liangyoupeijiu, while for II-you 602 the difference was consistent but not significant. For Liangyoupeijiu, wide plant spacing had 12% more spikelets per cm panicle but 13% lower spikelet filling percentage and 4% smaller grain weight than normal plant spacing. Aboveground biomass, harvest index and crop growth rate were less under wide plant spacing than under normal plant spacing by 10, 2 and 9%, respectively. Wide plant spacing is unsuitable for hybrid rice production in southern China.

5. Xiaohong Yin, Min Huang, Yingbin Zou*, Peng Jiang, Fangbo Cao and Xiaobing Xie [Chlorophyll meter-based nitrogen management for no-till direct seeded rice]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 809-821 (2012). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha-410 128, China *(e-mail : ybzou123@126.com)

ABSTRACT

         This study was aimed at determining whether chlorophyll meter (SPAD) can be used to increase N-use efficiency in no-till direct seeded rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongzhou and Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2010. Two N management treatments were imposed in each site : SPAD-based N management (SBNM) and recommended fix-timing N management (FTNM). Partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN), grain yield, yield components, biomass production and related physiological traits were measured for each N management. Averaged across two sites, SBNM increased PFPN by 26% compared with FTNM. The higher PFPN in SBNM was attributed to reduced N application rate. Moreover, PFPN differed with site. Nanxian had higher PFPN than Yongzhou, especially in SBNM (a more than 50% increase), because of both lower N application rate and higher grain yield. High soil fertility contributed to the increased grain yield in Nanxian. Nanxian had more panicle number per m2 and larger panicle size (spikelets per panicle) than Yongzhou, which resulted in greater sink size (spikelets per m2). Nanxian produced more aboveground biomass during pre-heading period but less aboveground biomass during post-heading period than Yongzhou, and the former led to higher total aboveground biomass accumulation. Low photosynthetic rate and accelerated leaf senescence were partly responsible for the low aboveground biomass accumulation during post-heading period in Nanxian. Our study suggests that increased PFPN is possible using a SPAD to guide N application on no-till direct seeded rice, and it will be more effective to increase PFPN by using SBNM combined with improving soil fertility and optimizing canopy development.

 

 

6.SWAPANA SEPEHYA, SURESH KUMAR SUBEHIA*, SURESH CHANDER NEGI, SURENDRA SINGH RANA AND SURESH KUMAR SHARMA [Potassium dynamics with long-term addition of chemical fertilizers and organics in rice-wheat sequence]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 822-828 (2012). Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : subehia@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             Effect of long-term addition of chemical fertilizers alone or in conjunction with organics was studied on different forms of potassium in soil and their relationship with rice yield and K uptake. Continuous addition of chemical fertilizers along with different organics improved all the potassium fractions in soil over control. Integrated use of chemical fertilizers and different organics viz., farm yard manure (FYM), wheat cut straw (WCS) and Sesbania aculeate as green manure (GM) sustained higher yields of rice in comparison to inorganic fertilizers alone. Application of 50% NPK through chemical fertilizers+50% N through organics in kharif followed by 100% NPK through chemical fertilizers in rabi produced highest (43.37 q/ha) rice yield. Accordingly, potassium uptake was also higher under this treatment. A significant positive correlation amongst the different forms of potassium in soil suggested the existence of dynamic equilibrium amongst themselves. Grain and straw yield of rice was also positively and significantly correlated with all the fractions of potassium in soil. The degree of correlation in respect of rice yield was highest with exchangeable K (0.535). Uptake of potassium in grain and straw and total K uptake was also positively and significantly correlated with all the fractions of potassium. A highest correlation of total K uptake (0.622) was observed with water soluble K.

7.A. Modhej* and S. Jafarizadeh [Effect of increasing plant densities of mallow weed on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different rates of nitrogen]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 829-833 (2012). Department of Agronomy Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : adelmodhej2006@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            In order to study the effect of mallow weed competition and nitrogen (N) rates on grain yield and yield components of wheat cv. Chamran, a field experiment was conducted in 2009-2010. The experiment was designed as a split-plot with three replications and additive series. The N application rates were assigned in the main plots (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ha) and sub-plots consisted of target common mallow (Mava spp.) densities (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 plants/m2). Results indicated that the effect of nitrogen (N) treatments, weed density (WD) and N × WD on grain yield (GY) was significant in 1% probability level. Grain yield decreased significantly as the WD increased. Grain yield reduction in high weed densities was due to lower spikes/m2 (S/m2), grains per spike (GN) and 1000-grain weight. Under a density of 20 mallow plants/m2, GY, S/m2, GN, spikelets per spike and 1000-grain weight losses were 27, 15, 10, 6 and 6%, respectively. Wheat grain yield loss attributed to mallow weed ranged from 7 to 32% at 50 kg N/ha to 9 to 21.8% at 200 kg N/ha. The highest and the lowest weed individual dry weight belonged to 200 and 50 kg N/ha, respectively. Agronomic N efficiency (ANE) of wheat decreased as the weed density increased. Wheat grain yield in mallow infected plot generally enhanced with N fertilization, while the density of mallow weed increased. Wheat competitiveness, GY and ANE were improved as N rate increased.

 

8. Farshad Ghooshchi*, Hamid Reza Tohidi Moghadam and Shahram Lack [Mechanism of resistance to molybdenum stress in wheat, barley and canola grown in north-west of Karaj, Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 834-839 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : ghooshchi@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

           As the level of molybdenum pollution in the environment is increasing, it is essential to understand the functional roles and toxic effects of molybdenum in plants. Plants have different resistance mechanisms against heavy metal toxicity. Increase of antioxidant enzyme activity is one of the most important mechanisms in higher plants. In order to identify resistance mechanisms in wheat, barley and canola, some samples were collected from contaminated and uncontaminated regions to study biochemical changes due to molybdenum stress. The results showed that the highest molybdenum concentration was observed in canola, wheat and barley leaves, respectively. Moreover, leaves, stems and roots had the highest molybdenum accumulation, respectively. So, the molybdenum concentration in leaves of canola was four times more than stem and thirty times more than roots. The highest and the lowest superoxide dismutase activity was related to canola leaves collected from contaminated region and barley root collected from uncontaminated regions, respectively.

 

9. ALI RAHIMI* [Effect of planting date and nitrogen on yield and yield components of dry land barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in Boyerahmad Region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 840-845 (2012). Young Researchers Club Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran *(e-mail : rahimi.ali1362 @yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            In order to study the effect of planting date and nitrogen on yield and yield components of dry land barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.), a field experiment was conducted in factorial design based on randomized complete block with 12 treatments replicated three times in Boyerahmad Region of Iran during 2010-11. The treatments included three dates of planting (12 November, 12 December and 12 March) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 23, 46, 69 kg/ha) as urea. The results showed that the effect of planting date on grain yield was highly significant. The first planting date (12 November) significantly increased grain yield from 1461 kg/ha under 12 March planting to 3278 kg/ha under 12 November planting date. Similarly, the effect of nitrogen on grain yield was also highly significant. With increasing levels of nitrogen, the grain yield increased significantly from 808 kg/ha under no application of nitrogen to 3886 kg/ha grain yield with the application of 69 kg N/ha. Likewise, the straw yield was also increased significantly with increasing levels of nitrogen from 1026 kg/ha under control (0 N/ha) to 2137, 2483 and 2456 kg/ha with the application of 23, 46 and 69 kg N/ha, respectively. However, the difference in straw yield of barley recorded under 46 and 69 kg N/ha could not reach to the level of significance. The results also showed that interaction effects of planting dates and nitrogen levels on yield components viz., 1000-grain weight, peduncle length, plant height and the number of tillers per plant were significant. The highest grain (5043 kg/ha) as well as straw (3154 kg/ha) yields of barley were obtained from the crop sown on 12 November with the application of nitrogen @ 69 and 46 kg N/ha, respectively. The maximum 1000-grain weight i. e. 40 g was recorded under 12 November planting with the application of 69 kg N/ha followed by 39 and 32 g 1000-grain weight under 12 December and 12 March planting dates.

 

 

10. Zahra Khodarahmpour* [Effect of salinity stress on germination indices of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 846-851 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             The response of four corn hybrids against five different salinity levels viz., 0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar was studied at germination and early seedling stage. This investigation was performed as factorial experiment under completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications for each salinity level. Results indicated that maximum reduction in germination percentage (92.1%), germination rate (74%), length of radicle (97.2%), length of plumule (97.9%), length of seedling (97.6%), radicle/plumule length ratio (80.4%) and seed vigour (99.8%) was obtained in highest level of salinity (-12 bar). But mean germination time (73.7%) increased in highest level of salinity (-12 bar). Hybrid Simon produced the highest germination percentage, germination rate, radicle length, plumule length, seedling length and seed vigour, hence, this hybrid was the most tolerant hybrid to salinity stress

.

11. Saeid Azizi and Ali Soleymani* [Effect of removal of top leaves before and after anthesis on seed yield and harvest index of corn (KSC 540)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 852-856 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

              The yield of crop plants is intimately associated with the photosynthetic rate of leaf and the active leaf area which plays an important role in carbon fixation. This research was done at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan) in order to evaluate seed yield and harvest index of corn according to leaves and tassel removing. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included tassel removing before anthesis, tassel removing with one leaf under it before anthesis, tassel removing with two leaves under it before tasseling, tassel removing with three leaves under it before anthesis, tassel removing after anthesis, tassel removing with one leaf under it after anthesis, removal of tassel with two leaves and three leaves under it after anthesis and no tassel removing which was called control treatment. Removing of top leaves of corn had significant effect on stem height, number of seeds per row, total dry matter and harvest index. However, number of rows per ear, number of seeds per ear and seed yield were not significantly influenced by top leaves removing. The maximum stem height, number of rows per ear, number of seeds per ear, number of seeds per row, seed yield, total dry matter and harvest index were related to control treatment, and there was no tassel removing and leaves elimination both after and before anthesis. Overall, it seems that control treatment is the best treatment to achieve the maximum seed yield and appropriate not only for total dry matter, but also for harvest index.

 

 

12. Saeid Azizi and Ali Soleymani* [Effect of removal of top leaves and tassel before and after anthesis on yield components of corn (KSC 540)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 857-860 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            In order to determine yield components of corn with removing tassel and leaves before and after anthesis, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan). Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included tassel removing before anthesis, tassel removing with one leaf under it before anthesis, tassel removing with two leaves under it before tasseling, tassel removing with three leaves under it before anthesis, tassel removing after anthesis, tassel removing with one leaf under it after anthesis, removal of tassel with two and three leaves under it after anthesis and no tassel removing which was called control treatment. Top leaves removing had not any significant effect on the weight of 9.8 plants/m2, ear yield, stem dry weight, ear sheath dry weight, dry weight of removed organs and dry weight of ear’s cob. The only experimental characteristic, significantly affected by removing of top leaves, was leaf dry weight. Control treatment obtained the highest yield components such as ear yield, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, ear sheath dry weight, dry weight of ear’s cob and 9.8 plants weight/m2. All in all, dry weight of removed organs, tassel removing with three leaves under it after anthesis obtained the maximum one, which had no significant differences with other treatments.

 

 

13. Ali Soleymani*, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Mehdi Khoshkharam [Effect of different fertility systems on fresh forage yield and qualitative traits of forage corn]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 861-865 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

           An appropriate sustainable agricultural technology system is an important technical support of the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. The concept of sustainable agriculture is increasingly on the use of chemicals and finding alternatives for their replacement without affecting the quality and the quantity of forage production. This investigation was conducted in 2011 at Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan Branch), Esfahan, Iran. A strip layout within randomized completely block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manure and farm yard manure on forage yield and chemical characteristics. Green manures included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one was one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one was four weeks after returning of them. Crop had significant influence on fresh forage yield, nitrate of leaf and protein content, moreover, experimental characteristics such as fresh forage yield, biological yield, nitrate of leaf, nitrate of stem, protein and ash were influenced by different management. Even though the highest fresh forage yield and biological yield of forage corn were related to barley usage as a green manure, the maximum nitrate of leaf was related to this treatment. Forage corn plantation after rye also obtained the maximum nitrate of stem, which had no significant difference with cultivation of barley as a green manure. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in fiber among treatments. In spite the fact that triticale cultivation obtained the highest protein and ash percentage, there was not any significant difference in ash percentage among treatments. The highest biological yield and fiber percentage of forage corn were observed in residue retention for four weeks and crop residue incorporation, respectively. Furthermore, there were not any significant differences in these both experimental characteristics between treatments mentioned above and residue burning. The highest fresh forage yield, protein percentage and of course ash percentage were achieved in residue burning. In conclusion, it seems that residue burning accompanied with usage of triticale as a green manure was the best choice to achieve high quality, but for obtaining the most fresh forage yield and biological yield of forage cron, triticale plantation can be replaced by barley cultivation.

 

14. Hadise Tahmasvand, Nabi allah Nemati and Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam* [Influence of plant density, planting pattern and weed control on yield and yield components of grain corn]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 866-870 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

                       In order to optimize the use of moisture, nutrients and solar radiation, grain corn must be grown under optimum plant density and planting pattern. Hence, this experiment was conducted at Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran during 2011 growing season to study the effect of different plant density and planting pattern under weed pressure and weed free conditions. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design arranged in split-split plot with three replications. The three planting patterns, including single row, seed sowing on the furrows, zigzag double row and single row seed sowing in the ridges were allocated to main plots and four plant densities including 65000, 75000, 85000 and 95000 plants/ha were considered as sub-plots. Weed control and no control were also placed in sub-sub plots. The results showed that increase in plant density led to increase in yield, biological yield, seed weight, harvest index and ear length. By contrast, plant density decreased seed number in row, row number and ear diameter. Weed control significantly improved agronomic traits. Generally, seed sowing as single row and in the ridges produced the highest seed yield and yield components. To sum up the plant density of 85000 plants/ha and single row planting pattern were known as the best treatment in this study.

15. Ali Soleymani*, Mehdi Khoshkharam and Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian [Influence of green manures and crop residue management on yield and yield components of silage corn]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 871-876 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail: a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

              If residues are managed properly, then it can warrant the improvement in the sustainability in crop productivity. Green manures not only supply the plant nutrients but also improve the soil health. This research was conducted in 2011 at Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan Branch), Esfahan, Iran. A strip layout within randomized completely block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manure and farm yard manure on forage yield and chemical characteristics. Green manures included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one was one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one was four weeks after returning of them. Crop had significant influence on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. Moreover, different kinds of management had significant effect on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. Crop and management interaction had significant influence on stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight. The highest plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, leaf fresh weight, stem fresh weight, ear fresh weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight were related to the field after cultivation of barley as a green manure. The maximum stem diameter, plant height from ear to the ground, final plant height, ear fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and ear dry weight were obtained in four weeks of residue retention. To conclude, four weeks of residue retention accompanied by using of barley as a green manure led to the highest yield and yield components of forage corn in this experiment. In near future, the importance of these types of investigation will become increasingly important with increasing environmental concerns and obtain healthy products.

16. Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam* and Hamed Hadi [Response of corn to foliar application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and co-inoculation of seed with biofertilizers]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 877-883 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effect of foliar application and co-inoculation of seed with PGPR bacteria on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of corn, an experiment was conducted at research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch in Iran during 2011 growing season. A factorial experiment in the form of complete randomized block design with four replications was used. The factors in this study included inoculation seed with biofertilizer (with and without PGPR inoculation bacteria) and foliar application of biofertilizer in six levels (non-foliar application, foliar application with PGPR bacteria at 8-leaf stage plants, stem elongation stage plants, tassel stage plants, pistillate inflorescence stage plants and milk development). The results showed that the interaction effect between inoculation × foliar application with PGPR had significant ef­fect on all traits under examination except 1000-seed weight and seed yield. This study indicated that the highest height plant, dry weight per plant, row number in ear, seed number in row, total seed number in ear and seed yield were obtained in conditional inoculation seed and foliar application with PGPR at 8-leaf stage. Also, this result showed that foliar application with PGPR bacteria at 8-leaf stage plants increased seed yield by 17.39%, respectively, as compared with non-foliar application in inoculation with biofertilizer condition. Our results suggested that foliar application and inoculation of PGPR bacteria not only decreased chemical fertilizers but also increased grain yield, also this prevented from ecosystem pollution.

17. DAVOOD JAFARTAYARI, MOHAMMADREZA NADERIDARBA- GHSHAHI* AND HAMIDREZA JAVANMARD [Effects of nitrogen fertilizer levels on assimilate remobilization and phenology of corn cultivars (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 884-890 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir; mnmpsvr@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

                       l BCorn is the third most important cereal crop after wheat and rice. Assimilate remobilization in corn is one of the most important traits determining hybrid adaptability to the environment. So, this experiment was conducted in 2010 at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Isfahan) to assess the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels on assimilate remobilization and phenology of several corn cultivars. A split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The main plots included four nitrogen topdressing levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha) and sub-plots were three cultivars (DC 370, MV 524 and SC 704). Nitrogen topdressing was done when plants had 5 to 6 leaves. The maximum number of days from germination until emergence of tassel, number of days from germination until silk appearance, stem remobilization, efficiency of stem remobilization and portion of stem remobilization for seed yield were related to control treatment (0 kg N/ha), however, both the highest LAI and the number of days from germination until physiological stage were obtained in 150 kg nitrogen topdressing. No nitrogen topdressing (0 kg N/ha) had the highest remobilization of leaf sheaths, efficiency of leaf sheath remobilization, portion of leaf sheath remobilization for seed yield, remobilization of total shoot parts, efficiency of remobilization of shoot parts, portion of remobilization of total shoot parts for seed yield and source limitation. Although the highest number of days from germination until emergence of tassel, number of days from germination until silk appearance, number of days from germination until physiological stage and LAI were related to SC 704 and DC 370 had the maximum stem remobilization, efficiency of stem remobilization and portion of stem remobilization for seed yield. The maximum remobilization of leaf sheaths, efficiency of leaf sheath remobilization, portion of leaf sheath remobilization for seed yield, remobilization of total shoot parts, efficiency of remobilization of shoot parts, portion of remobilization of total parts for seed yield and source limitation were related to DC 370 which had significant differences with two other cultivars, however, SC 704 and 150 kg nitrogen topdressing had the highest seed yield.

 

18. Alieh Jelodar, Reza Farokhi Nejad and Mehdi Sadeghi* [Identification of Fusarium species associated with corn plants in Khuzestan province of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 891-898 (2012). Department of Agronomy Dezful BCorn is the third most important cereal crop after wheat and rice. Assimilate remobilization in corn is one of the most important traits determining hybrid adaptability to the environment. So, this experiment was conducted in 2010 at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Isfahan) to assess the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels on assimilate remobilization and phenology of several corn cultivars. A split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The main plots included four nitrogen topdressing levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha) and sub-plots were three cultivars (DC 370, MV 524 and SC 704). Nitrogen topdressing was done when plants had 5 to 6 leaves. The maximum number of days from germination until emergence of tassel, number of days from germination until silk appearance, stem remobilization, efficiency of stem remobilization and portion of stem remobilization for seed yield were related to control treatment (0 kg N/ha), however, both the highest LAI and the number of days from germination until physiological stage were obtained in 150 kg nitrogen topdressing. No nitrogen topdressing (0 kg N/ha) had the highest remobilization of leaf sheaths, efficiency of leaf sheath remobilization, portion of leaf sheath remobilization for seed yield, remobilization of total shoot parts, efficiency of remobilization of shoot parts, portion of remobilization of total shoot parts for seed yield and source limitation. Although the highest number of days from germination until emergence of tassel, number of days from germination until silk appearance, number of days from germination until physiological stage and LAI were related to SC 704 and DC 370 had the maximum stem remobilization, efficiency of stem remobilization and portion of stem remobilization for seed yield. The maximum remobilization of leaf sheaths, efficiency of leaf sheath remobilization, portion of leaf sheath remobilization for seed yield, remobilization of total shoot parts, efficiency of remobilization of shoot parts, portion of remobilization of total parts for seed yield and source limitation were related to DC 370 which had significant differences with two other cultivars, however, SC 704 and 150 kg nitrogen topdressing had the highest seed yield.ranch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran *(e-mail : me_sadeghi2001@yahoo.com).ranch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran *(e-mail : me_sadeghi2001@yahoo.com).

 

ABSTRACT

           Corn is one of the most economically important plants that its plantation has been increased in recent years in Khuzestan. Several plant pathogenic agents including Fusarium attack plant in different stages of its growth and cause considerable damage to its products. To study and identify Fusarium species associated with corn plants, samples were collected from corn fields in Andimeshk, Dezful, Shoush, Shoushtar and Mollasani during the growing season of 2006. Collectively 300 isolates of Fusarium were recovered from corn seeds and different parts of corn plants included root, crown, stem, male inflorescence and cob, using Nash and Snyder medium. Different media including carnation leaf agar (CLA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and water agar (WA) were used for identification. Fusarium species were identified according to different keys. In this study, eight species of Fusarium were identified. The name and number of identified species are as follows : Fusarium verticillioides (162), F. semitectum (47), F. subglutinans (33), F. solani (25), F. equiseti (18), F. proliferatum (11), F. longipes (2) and F. sporotrichioides (2).

19. MEHRDAD YARNIA*, MOHAMMAD BAGER KHORSHIDI BENAM, ELNAZ FARAJZADEH, VAHID AHMADZADEH, NIMA NOBARI, MARYAM MUSAVINIA AND ROZA TADAYON [Effect of time and levels of irrigation on physiological traits, water relations and grain yield of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.) cv. Koniz]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 899-905 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : m.yarnia@yahoo.com; yarnia@iaut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

            The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of drought (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan) in amaranth’s different growth stages i. e. plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling, respectively. The results of the study show 24% increase in the leaf chlorophyll as the irrigation carried out after 140 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan in comparison to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation. In addition, there was 129% increase in the stomatal resistance as the irrigation performed after 170 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan in comparison to 50 mm evaporation. Irrigation after 170 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan in plant establishment stage and branching caused 23 and 45% reduction in the number of stomata and 18 and 27% reduction in the size of stomata in the leaf abbaxial. Irrigation after 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan led to 17.65, 34.09, 50.18 and 59.02% reduction in grain yield. The stress practiced at the plant establishment, branching, and flowering stages caused 50.91, 38.51 and 32.29% reduction in grain yield compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation. As stress practiced, for delay in irrigation, on the basis of 1 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan 3.03 units of grain yield were decreased. The results show that low levels of water application before pollination lead to decrease in the grain yield. Amaranth yields 3 t/ha in natural conditions, whereas in the most severe drought conditions it decreases to 1 t/ha which is a high yield in comparison to other crops. Thus, it requires more attention to this new crop.

20. S. V. PATIL, S. I. HALIKATTI, S. B. GURUMURTHY, M. S. LOKESH AND RATNAKAR MANJUNATH SHET [Dry matter accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at different growth stages as influenced by organic manures and rock phosphate with PSB in vertisol]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 906-911 (2012). UAS Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted on vertisols at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad during rabi season of 2009-10 and 2010-11 to study the dry matter accumulation in chickpea at different growth stages as influenced by organic manures and rock phosphate with PSB in vertisol. Significantly higher dry matter accumulation in leaves (3.56 g/plant) at 90 DAS, in stem (4.66 g/plant) at harvest, in reproductive parts (13.95 g/plant) at harvest and TDMP (20.54 g/plant) at harvest was recorded with rock phosphate application @ 200 kg/ha over 50 and 100 kg of rock phosphate/ha except rock phosphate @ 150 kg/ha. Interaction effect of compost 5 t along with rock phosphate 200 kg/ha recorded significantly higher dry matter accumulation in leaves (3.59 g/plant) at 90 DAS, in stem (4.74 g/plant) at harvest, in reproductive parts (14.06 g/plant) at harvest and TDMP (20.66 g/plant) at harvest over organic manures combination with 50 and 100 kg rock phosphate except organic manures combination with 150 kg rock phosphate/ha.

21. A. K. PAL and M. BISWAS [Effect of inoculation with micronutrients and application of FYM on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in alluvial zone of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 912-915 (2012). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India

 

ABSTRACT

               Field experiment conducted at BCKV Farm, W. B. with cowpea during pre-kharif season (February to April) in randomized block design with eight levels (control, inoculation with Rhizobium, inoculation+zinc sulphate @ 15 kg/ha as basal, inoculation+ammonium molybdate @ 2 kg/ha as basal, inoculation+zinc sulphate @ 15 kg/ha+ammonium molybdate @ 2 kg/ha, FYM @ 15 t/ha, N : P2O5 : K2O @ 20 : 40 : 20 kg/ha as basal and N : P2O5 : K2O @ 20 : 40 : 20 kg/ha+zinc sulphate @ 15 kg/ha+ammonium molybdate @ 2 kg/ha) revealed that Rhizobium inoculation, application of macro- and micro-nutrient fertilizers and FYM significantly influenced the number of nodules/plant, dry weight of nodules/plant, dry matter accumulation in plant shoot, crop growth rate, height of plant, number of pods/ plant, green pod yield and seed yield of cowpea, except number of primary branches/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod length and test weight. The seed yield for inoculation with basal application of zinc sulphate and ammonium molybdate was 13.70 q/ha, being significantly better than untreated control with an increase by 54.45%.

22. Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Multivariate analysis of biological nitrogen fixation and seed yield in Iranian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 916-919 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             In order to improve the biological nitrogen fixation and seed yield in Iranian common bean germplasm, 64 genotypes collected from different origins were cultivated in two separate randomized complete block designs. The genotypes were inoculated by bacteria Rhizobium legominosarum biovar. Phaseoli isolate L-109 only in one of the experiments. Second experiment was considered as check for the first. Standard deviation and analysis of variance revealed genetic diversity among common bean genotypes for all the traits. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis method and varimax rotation indicated that three important factors accounted for about 94.15% of the total variation among traits. The first factor assigned 52.49% of total variation between traits and was significantly related with biological nitrogen fixation, nodule number/plant, total nitrogen of shoot, harvest index, 100-seed weight and pod number/plant. This factor was titled as nitrogen fixation ability factor. Therefore, the traits related with this factor can be used for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation ability in common bean genotypes. The second factor accounted for 31.72% of total variation and was correlated with traits seed yield, pod yield/plant and biological yield. This factor was considered as seed production factor and was proposed for increasing seed production in this crop. Result of factor analysis was confirmed using cluster analysis of variables.

23. Reza Nozari, Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam* and Masoud Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar [Effects of zeolite and cattle manure on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 920-927 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             In order to study the effects of cattle manure and zeolite on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under conditions of water deficit stress, an experiment was conducted in research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main factor was water stress (normal irrigation and irrigation withholding after 50% flowering) and sub factors were included cattle manure (0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and zeolite application (with and without). The results showed that water stress significantly decreased plant growth and production. Conversely, cattle manure and zeolite application led to increase in growth and improved yield and yield components. Zeolite application dramatically increased pod number in main branches. The highest pod number in sub-branches was obtained from those plots which were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and zeolite grown under normal irrigation conditions. These results indicated that zeolite and cattle manure application (30 t/ha) increased seed yield when plants were irrigated completely. It is interesting to remark that zeolite application was more effective under stress conditions than normal irrigation condition. Biological yield increased on account of cattle manure and zeolite application. In addition, the highest oil yield was achieved when soybean plants were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and zeolite under normal irrigation conditions. In sum cattle manure and zeolite application could improve soybean growth and seed production even under drought stress conditions.

24. Amin Taherianfar, Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam* and Masoud Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar [Effect of organic and biofertilizers on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 928-935 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effects of organic (cattle manure) and biofertilizer (mycorrhiza) on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under conditions of water stress, an experiment was conducted at research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was laid out in a randomized complete block with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main factor was water stress (normal irrigation and irrigation withholding after 50% flowering) and sub-factors included cattle manure (0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and mycorrhiza application (with and without). The results showed that water stress significantly decreased plant growth and production. Conversely, cattle manure and mycorrhiza application led to increase in growth and improved yield and yield components. Mycorrhiza application dramatically increased pod number in main branches. The highest pod number in sub-branches was obtained from those plots which were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and mycorrhiza grown under normal irrigation conditions. These results indicated that mycorrhiza and cattle manure application (30 t/ha) increased seed yield when plants were irrigated completely. It is interesting to remark that mycorrhiza application was more effective under stress conditions than normal irrigation condition. Biological yield increased on account of cattle manure and mycorrhiza application. In addition, the highest oil yield was achieved when soybean plants were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and mycorrhiza under normal irrigation conditions. In sum cattle manure and mycorrhiza application could improve soybean growth and seed production even under drought stress conditions.

25. Amir Hossein mazaher*, Hamid Reza Tohidi-Moghadam and Masoud Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar [Effect of super absorbent application and cattle manure on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under water deficit stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 936-943 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : amirhossein27mazaheri@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

              In order to study the effects of cattle manure and super absorbent on growth, yield and yield components of soybean grown under conditions of water deficit stress, an experiment was conducted at research field of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch during 2011 growing season. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. Main factor was water stress (normal irrigation and irrigation withholding after stem elongation) and sub-factors included cattle manure (0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and super absorbent application (with and without). The results showed that water stress significantly decreased plant growth and production. Conversely, cattle manure and super absorbent application led to increase in growth and improved yield and yield components. Super absorbent application dramatically increased pod number in main branches. The highest pod number in sub-branches was obtained from those plots which were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and super absorbent grown under normal irrigation conditions. These results indicated that super absorbent and cattle manure application (30 t/ha) increased seed yield when plants were irrigated completely. It is interesting to remark that super absorbent application was more effective under stress conditions than normal irrigation conditions. Biological yield increased on account of cattle manure and super absorbent application. In addition, the highest oil yield was achieved when soybean plants were treated with 30 t/ha cattle manure and super absorbent under normal irrigation conditions. In sum, cattle manure and super absorbent application could improve soybean growth and seed production even under drought stress conditions.

26. O. P. PREMI*, B. K. KANDPAL, SANDEEP KUMAR, KAPILA SHEKHAWAT, N. S. BHOGAL, S. S. RATHORE AND J. S. CHAUHAN [Performance of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) as influenced by phosphate solubilizing-mobilizing micro-organism and phosphorus fertilization in semi-arid region]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 944-951 (2012). Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur-321 303 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : oppremidrmr@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

 

             The low efficiency of applied P fertilizers is major concern for economic production of Indian mustard in calcareous semi-arid tracts of the sub-continent. It is believed that the trend could be reversed through use of phosphate solubilizing and mobilizing micro-organisms (PSMM) and foliar application of P at grand growth stage of the crop. The hypothesis was tested during 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Bharatpur, India. The mean seed yield of Indian mustard was increased by 5.5% due to PSB seed inoculation and by 10.8% due to combined PSB+VAM application over non-inoculated treatment since PSB solubilizing the native or fixed P and VAM mobilizing it to plant rhizosphere. Similarly, the basal application of 17.6 kg P/ha significantly increased the average seed yield by 14.2% over no P-fertilization. And splitting P level to 15.4 kg P basal+2.2 kg P foliar spray at 35 DAS increased the seed yield by 26.3% over basal P application and by 44.2% over no P-fertilization indicating better synchrony between P requirement and availability. The increase in seed yield due to treatments corresponded with respective significant increase in growth and yield attributes viz., primary branches per plant, siliquae per plant, siliqua length, seeds per siliqua and straw yield. The supplementary application of PSSM over P fertilization revealed their additive effect on seed yield on diminishing return. The maximum incremental benefit : cost ratio values of 13.80-17.60 due to PSB inoculation among PSMM treatments and 3.60-6.37 to split P application among fertilization practices were estimated. The findings confirm the economic viability of the tested practices for Indian mustard under semi-arid conditions.

27. Bhupender Singh, Yogesh Sharma and B. S. Rathore [Effect of sulphur and zinc fertilization on yield, nutrient content and uptake by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 952-962 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

          A two-year experiment was conducted to find out the effect of sulphur and zinc on yield, nutrient content and uptake of mustard. The crop was planted during rabi 2006-07 and 2007-08. The increasing levels of sulphur up to 40 kg/ha significantly increased the seed yield and stover yield, nitrogen content and uptake in seed and stover and their total N uptake, potassium content in seed, potassium uptake in seed, stover and their total uptake, sulphur content and uptake in stover, zinc content and uptake in seed and stover, whereas phosphorus content and uptake in seed and stover and total phosphorus uptake, sulphur content and uptake in seed and total sulphur uptake and total zinc uptake increased significantly up to 60 kg S/ha. Significant increase in seed yield, strover yield, nitrogen content and uptake in seed and stover and total nitrogen uptake, phosphorus content in seed and phosphorus uptake in seed and stover and total phosphorus uptake, potassium uptake in seed, stover and total, sulphur uptake in seed, stover and total, zinc content in seed and stover and zinc uptake in stover was observed up to 6.0 kg Zn/ha. Whereas phosphorus and potassium content in stover, sulphur content in seed and stover significantly increased up to 3.0 kg Zn/ha and zinc uptake in seed and total zinc uptake significantly increased up to 9.0 kg Zn/ha.

28. Bhupender Singh, Yogesh Sharma and B. S. Rathore [Effect of sulphur and zinc on growth, yield and quality of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.]]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 963-969 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

 

             An experiment was carried out to study the effect of sulphur and zinc application on growth, yield attributes, seed yield and quality of mustard at Agronomy Research Farm, College of Agriculture, S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan) during rabi season of 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Treatments consisted of five levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) and four levels of zinc (0, 3, 6 and 9 kg/ha). The results indicated that application of 40 kg S/ha and 6 kg Zn/ha improved growth parameters like plant height, number of branches per plant and yield components viz., number of siliquae per plant, seed per siliqua, seed yield and stover yield as compared to other treatments. Oil content in seed increased significantly up to application of 80 kg S/ha. Protein content significantly increased up to 40 kg S/ha and 6 kg Zn/ha.

29. Micky GUPTA, H. D. Yadav and Yadvika [Effect of different levels of nitrogen and FYM on mustard (Brassica juncea L.)-chicory (Chicorium intybus) mixed cropping system and soil health]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 970-977 (2012). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

           A field experiment was conducted on mustard-chicory mixed cropping with three doses of farm yard manure (0, 5 and 10 t FYM/ha) and four rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha) at the Regional Research Station, Bawal of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). Three rates of nitrogen (0, 20 and 40 kg N/ha) were also applied to chicory after harvesting of mustard. The results of these studies revealed that application of 5 t of FYM with 120 kg nitrogen could maintain higher grain and straw yields of mustard crop. However, the oil content in grain of mustard decreased with increasing rate of chemical nitrogen, but improved with increasing dose of FYM. The increasing rates of FYM and nitrogen fertilizers in mixed cropping of mustard-chicory and top dressing of 40 kg N/ha in chicory after harvest of mustard improved the grain and straw yields as well as protein content of the seeds of chicory. The integrated use of organic manure and chemical nitrogenous fertilizers had significantly favourable effect on organic carbon content of soil after two seasons of their application. It is interesting to note that higher dose of 10 t FYM not only maintained improved quality of seeds of two crops and higher soil organic matter content but also a positive balance sheet of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro nutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in soil after two seasons of its application. Therefore, for sustaining higher productivity and quality of produce as well as good soil health, the integrated application of organic manure and nitrogenous fertilizers is essential in mustard-chicory mixed cropping system under semi-arid condition of North India.

30. Micky Gupta, H. D. Yadav and Priyamvada Aggarwal [Effect of farm yard manure, phosphorus and top dressing of nitrogen on mustard (Brassica juncea L.)-chicory (Chicorium intybus) mixed cropping system and soil health]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 978-984 (2012). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

             A field experiment was conducted during two seasons on mustard-chicory mixed cropping with three doses of farm yard manure (0, 5 and 10 t FYM/ha) and four rates of phosphorus (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg P2O5/ha) at the Regional Research Station, Bawal of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). Three rates of nitrogen (0, 20 and 40 kg N/ha) were also applied to chicory after harvesting of mustard. The results of these studies revealed that application of 10 t of FYM with 45 kg phosphorus maintained higher grain and straw yields of mustard crop. The oil content in grains of mustard also increased with increasing doses of FYM and chemical phosphorus during two seasons. The increasing rate of FYM and phosphorus fertilizers in mixed cropping of mustard-chicory and top dressing of 40 kg N/ha in chicory after harvest of mustard improved the grain and straw yields as well as protein content in the seeds of chicory. The integrated use of FYM (10 t/ha) and phosphorus (45 kg P2O5/ha) significantly increased organic carbon content of soil and also maintained positive balance sheet of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro-nutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) in soil after two seasons of their application. Thus, there is a need to apply farm yard manure in combination with phosphorus to sustain higher productivity of quality produce and good soil health in mustard-chicory mixed cropping system under semi-arid condition of North India.

31. Micky Gupta, H. D. Yadav and Priyamvada Aggarwal [Effect of different fertility levels on mustard (Brassica juncea L.)-chicory (Chicorium intybus) mixed cropping system and soil health]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 985-991 (2012). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted on mustard-chicory mixed cropping with three rates of chemical fertilizer application i. e. recommended (80 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 15 kg S/ha), 125% of recommended and 150% of recommended dose of fertilizers at the Regional Research Station, Bawal of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). Three rates of nitrogen (0, 20 and 40 kg N/ha) were also applied to chicory after harvesting of mustard. The results of these studies revealed that 150% of recommended dose of fertilizers resulted in maximum grain and straw yields of mustard crop. These increments were relatively higher by increasing the dose of fertilizers from 100 to 125% than from 125 to 150% of recommended doses of fertilizers. The grain and straw yields of chicory increased consistently with increasing doses of chemical fertilizers and top dressing of nitrogen in chicory after harvest of mustard. However, these improvements in grain yield of chicory were not significant between top dressing of 20 and 40 kg N/ha over different levels of fertilizer application to mixed population of mustard+chicory during two seasons. The integrated use of chemical fertilizers significantly improved the oil content in seeds of mustard and protein content in the seeds of chicory as well as organic carbon content of soil after two seasons of their application. Therefore, for sustaining higher productivity and quality of produce as well as good soil health, the integrated application of NPS mixtures of chemical fertilizers is essential in mustard-chicory mixed cropping system under semi-arid condition of North India.

32. Sayyed Mohammad Reza Hejazi-Dehaghani* and Ahmad Reza Golparvar [Studies on relationship between oil yield and its components in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 992-995 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : hejazi14@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            Correlation and path coefficient analyses were studied in three diverse genotypes of sunflower in order to understand the relationship and contribution on eight characters towards the oil yield. The oil yield exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with plant height, number of seeds/pod, seed yield and oil per cent. Step-wise regression analysis for oil yield as dependent variable designated that seed number per pod, 1000-seed weight and oil per cent accounted for 98.2% of variation existing in oil yield. Finally, path analysis revealed that the traits seed number per pod and 1000-seed weight had the highest and positive direct effect on oil yield. Therefore, selection for the highest amounts of these traits resulted in genetic improvement of oil yield. In conclusion, indirect selection for highest amounts of seed number per pod and 1000-seed weight and lowest amounts of days to end of flowering had higher genetic efficiency as compared with direct selection for oil yield.

33. Homa Rafiei, Ali Soleymani* and Ahmad reza Golparvar [Effect of different nitrogen levels on yield components and seed yield of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 996-1000 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani444@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              In order to study the effect of different nitrogen levels on yield components and seed yield of three sunflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted during 2010-11 at a research farm of farming building of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch located in Khatun abad village (latitude 32o40′ N and longitude 51o48′ E). A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were different levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha) from urea source, and sub-plots were different cultivars (Sanbro, Sirna and Hai.sun33). Condition represented that the effect of N fertilizer was significant on head diameter, 100-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, oil percentage and oil yield.150 kg N/ha fertilizer treatment resulted in the maximum of all mentioned factors. Effect of cultivar was significant on head deep, seed number of head, 100-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, oil percentage and oil yield. The maximum of all mentioned factors except oil percentage were related to Hai.sun33. Interaction of nitrogen and cultivar was significant on 100-seed weight, seed yield, oil percentage and oil yield. On the basis of the results obtained, the fertilizer treatment 150 kg N/ha and Hai.sun33 might be suitable for sunflower production under the condition similar to the present study.

34. Ahmad Reza Golparvar* and Babak Bahari [Screening of high yielding cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1001-1004 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P.O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             Combined analysis of variance showed significant difference between stress and non-stress environments for grain number, grain yield, oil yield, biological yield, plant height and harvest index traits. Also, compound analysis explained that there were significant differences among all safflower cultivars in grain number, plant height, days to physiological ripening, grain filling period length and grain filling rate traits. Genotype × environment interaction analysis showed that there were significant differences only for traits 1000-grain weight, grain yield, oil percentage, oil yield, days to flowering, days to physiological ripening and their components in various environments and even among various years. Sterling cultivar had the highest oil percentage and oil yield under stress, whereas Arak 2811 had the highest grain yield. The least oil percentage was obtained in Gila cultivar. Cultivar S 149 had the highest harvest index (19.36%) and Gila had the lowest (11.6%). In no stress environment Arak 2811 showed the highest oil percentage, while sterling had the highest oil yield, but there was no significant difference between oil percentage of Sterling and Arak 2811, then sterling had an appropriate oil yield and oil percentage in both stress and non-stress environments. The least oil percentage and oil yield were obtained in Nebraska 10 cultivar. On the whole, Sterling and Arak 2811 cultivars are proposed as high yielding cultivars with more toleration to drought stress in Isfahan and similar regions.

35. Kazem Taleshi*, Alireza shokoh-far, Masoud Rafiee, Gorban Noormahamadi and Tayeb Sakinejad [Seed yield and oil and protein contents in seeds of safflower as influenced by vermicompost and nitrogen fertilizer under drought stress condition]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1005-1009 (2012). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Khozestan, Iran *(e-mail : Kazem_Taleshi@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

  Safflower is traditionally grown all over the world for its seeds and the dyeing properties of the flowers, so it is commonly used in food industry for colouring and flavouring foods, in pigment industry and in the oil production industry. In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and N fertilizer on quality traits such as seed yield, seed oil and protein content of safflower, a field experiment was carried out in 2011 at Khorramabad-Lorestan, Iran. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design as split plot-factorial with three replications. Treatments included three agents : Vermicompost rate in four levels [V1=0 (control), V2=2, V3=4 and V4=6 t/ha) and N rate was in four levels [N1= 0 (control), N2= 84 (30% less from N3), N3= 120 (from the soil analyze lab) and N4=154 (30% more than N3) kg N/ha] in the form of urea and irrigation as the main factor in two levels, S1=Regular irrigation and S2=Non-irrigation (stress from bloom growth stages). The results revealed that the vermicompost and nitrogen application and water stress had a significant effect on seed yield, and seed protein content at (P<0.01) and seed oil content at P<0.05 significant. And the interactions of water stress and vermicompost (S × V) and water stress and nitrogen (S × N) had a significant effect on seed oil and seed protein content at P<0.05. And the interactions of vermicompost and nitrogen (V × N) didn’t affect any of these traits.

36. Ali Reza Khedri and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Comparison of seed and oil yields and some agronomic traits in new cultivars of winter canola (Brassica napus L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1010-1012 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

               This experiment was done at Research Farm of Isfahan Agriculture Research Institute in Mahyar region. A complete block design with three replications was used. Cultivars were Adriana, Champlain, Cooper, ES Betty, GK Helena, GK Olivia, GKH 0784, GKH 1605, GKH 2005, GKH 305, GKH 3705, GKH 506, Karun, Licord, Modeno, NK Aviator, NK Karibik, NK Octans, Okapi, Opera, RNX 3621, RPC 2033, Savanna, SLM 046, SW Falstaff, Talaye, Tassilo, Triangle and WRH 268. Cultivars had significant effect on plant height at the 0.05 probability. The number of pods per plant and the number of seeds per pod were significantly influenced by cultivars. Cultivars had no significant effect on 1000-seed weight, biological yield, harvest index, seed yield, oil yield and oil percentage. All differences between cultivars about oil percentage were not significant, and no significant trend was found. The maximum oil yield was related to NK Aviator. The maximum and minimum seed yield was achieved in cultivation of Modena and Tassilo, respectively. Modena obtained the maximum biological yield (19310 kg/ha), but its difference with other cultivars was not significant.

37. Ali Reza Khedri and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Assessment of variation in phenological stages and seed yield in winter canola cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1013-1015 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

               The successful cultivation and development of new cultivars will supply food in the future. This experiment was done at Research Farm of Esfahan Agriculture Research Institute in Mahyar region in Esfahan to determine the changes in different growth stages and seed yield of 29 cultivars of winter canola cultivars. A complete block design with three replications was used. Cultivars were Adriana, Champlain, Cooper, ES Betty, GK Helena, GK Olivia, GKH 0784, GKH 1605, GKH 2005, GKH 305, GKH 3705, GKH 506, Karun, Licord, Modeno, NK Aviator, NK Karibik, NK Octans, Okapi, Opera, RNX 3621, RPC 2033, Savanna, SLM 046, SW Falstaff, Talaye, Tassilo, Triangle and WRH 268. Cultivar had significant influence on the number of days until the beginning of flowering, the number of days until the end of flowering, duration of flowering, duration of seed filling and the ratio of seed filling. The number of days until physiological ripening and seed yield were not significantly affected by cultivar. GKH 506 and GK Helena had obtained the maximum duration of flowering and duration of seed filling. Duration of seed feed and flowering had a significant influence on final seed yield. The maximum seed yield was obtained in Modeno (4002 kg/ha). GKH 506 and GK Helena also had obtained the appropriate seed yield.

38. A. V. RAMANJANEYULU, A. MADHAVI AND A. VISHNUVARDHAN REDDY [Bean yield, nutrient uptake and monetary returns of rabi castor as influenced by date of sowing and irrigation scheduling in Peninsular India]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1016-1022 (2012). AICRP on Castor, Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Palem-509 215, Mahabubnagar (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out for three years during winter seasons of 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 in the research farm of Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Palem, Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh in order to study the performance of rabi castor in relation to date of sowing and scheduling of irrigation with respect to growth parameters, yield attributes, bean yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rabi castor. Pooled data of results of three years’ experimentation revealed that sowing on 1st October (2.32 t/ha) significantly outyielded other three dates of sowing. With delay in sowing from October 1 to October 15, November 1 and November 15, bean yield of castor declined by 21.5, 24.1 and 44.1%, respectively. Sowing on 1st October was found to be superior in respect of water use efficiency (3.73 kg/ha-mm), net returns (Rs. 38651/ha) and B : C ratio (2.67). Among irrigation levels, scheduling of irrigation at 50 mm CPE resulted in higher bean yield of castor (2.00 t/ha) but was found at par with that of 75 mm (1.91 t/ha). Scheduling of irrigation at 50 mm CPE was found to be superior in terms of net returns (Rs. 30820/ha) but B : C ratio was higher in case of 75 mm CPE (2.39). Higher water use efficiency was observed with dry regime (100 mm CPE : 3.53 kg/ha-mm and 75 mm CPE : 3.50 kg/ha-mm) than wet regime (2.90 kg/ha-mm).

39. Mohsen Ali Mohammadi Nafchi and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Effect of planting dates on protein percentage and yield components of sorghum cultivars grown in Isfahan province of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1023-1025 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              Appropriate management of planting dates for each cultivar is necessary for enhancing site productivity in forage sorghum plantation. To investigate the effects of planting dates on yield components and protein percentage of sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Lavark in 2008. A split plot design with completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main plots included 15th June and 30th June, and sub-plots were four cultivars, namely, Sarasai, Speedfeed, Pegah and Sofera. Planting date had significant effect on plant height, LAI, total fresh yield and stem dry yield. The effects of cultivars were significant on plant height, LAI, stem fresh yield, leaf fresh yield, total fresh yield, stem dry yield and total dry yield. Protein percentage was not influenced by both planting dates and cultivars, and there was no trend in this treatment. Stem fresh yield, leaf fresh yield, total fresh yield, stem dry yield, leaf dry yield and total dry yield were significantly influenced by planting dates and cultivars. On the basis of the results, it seems that cultivation of Speedfeed because of its high fresh and dry forage production on 30th June was suitable. The forage and protein percentage of three other cultivars were the same and there were no differences between them.

40. Mohsen Ali Mohammadi Nafchi and Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Growth and yield of forage sorghum cultivars as affected by different planting dates]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1026-1029 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

          A possible strategy to increase sorghum forage production could be the use of appropriate planting dates and cultivars. To investigate the effects of planting dates on yield components and protein percentage of sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University in 2008. A split plot design in the layout completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main plots included 15th and 30th June, and sub-plots were four cultivars, namely, Sarasai, Speedfeed, Pegah and Sofera. The effect of planting dates was significant on the number of days from plantation until ear emergence stage, the number of days from plantation until flowering stage, the number of days from plantation until milk seed development and total fresh yield. Planting dates did not significantly influence total dry yield. The number of days from plantation until ear emergence stage, the number of days from plantation until flowering stage, the number of days from plantation until milk seed development, the number of days from plantation until ripening, total fresh yield and total dry yield were significantly affected by cultivars. The interaction between cultivars and planting dates effect on all experimental characteristics was significant. In this experiment, the maximum number of days from plantation until ear emergence stage, flowering stage, milk seed development stage, soft dough seed stage and hard dough seed stage were obtained on 30th June. Plantation on 15th June also obtained the maximum total fresh and dry yield. Speedfeed cultivar having appropriate growth time and suitable number of days in flowering and seed development stage can obtain the highest total fresh and dry yield.

41. Ali Soleymani* and Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian [Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on ash, nitrate, organic carbon, protein and total yield of forage maize in semi-arid region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1030-1034 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            Forage maize has become a major constituent of ruminant rations in recent years. Application of appropriate nitrogen fertilizer can improve forage yield and quality and also increase animal performance and has a potential to reduce production costs. This research was done to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and total protein of forage maize at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan). Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Nitrogen levels included 0, 40 and 60 kg/ha. The nitrogen fertilizer was provided from urea source (46% pure N). Nitrogen had significant effect on plant height, stem diameter, LAI, leaf fresh yield, stem fresh yield, leaf dry yield, stem dry yield, leaf dry weight/stem dry weight, total fresh yield and total dry yield; however, the number of leaves per plant was not significantly affected by nitrogen. Even though nitrogen had significant effect on total protein, protein yield, nitrate and organic carbon, there was no significant effect of nitrogen on leaf protein, stem protein and ash percentage. The highest LAI, total fresh yield, total dry yield and total protein were obtained with application of 60 kg N/ha, but the difference in total protein between 40 and 60 kg N/ha was not significant. The highest LAI, total fresh yield, total dry yield, leaf protein, stem protein, total protein, ash percentage, nitrate and organic carbon were obtained with application of 60 kg nitrogen/ha, but in this treatment the maximum nitrate content was also achieved which caused adverse effect of nutrition quality. The appropriate nitrogen fertilizer, which is useful to obtain not only high forage quantity, but also maximum nutrition value, was applied with 60 kg N/ha in low input nitrogen farming.

42. Ali Soleymani*, Mehdi Khoshkharam and Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian [Germination rate and initial growth of silage corn grown under various fertility systems]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1035-1038 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : a_Soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

              In order to evaluate the initial growth and germination rate of silage corn under various fertility systems, an experiment was done at 2011 in Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan Branch), Esfahan, Iran (latitude 32o40¢ N, longitude 51o58¢ E and 1570 m elevation). A strip layout within randomized completely block design with three replications was used. The experiment was related to the effects of green manure and farm yard manure on forage yield and chemical characteristics. Green manures included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manure, namely, 30 and 60 t/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment in main strip and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one was one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one was four weeks after returning of them. Crop and management interaction had significant influence on the average time of seedling emergence, seedling emergence percentage, radicle length, radicle length/coleoptile length ratio, radicle dry weight, coleoptile dry weight and radicle dry weight/coleoptile dry weight ratio. The maximum germination seed rate, coleoptile length, radicle dry weight, coleoptile dry weight and radicle dry weight/coleoptile dry weight were related to forage corn in which barley was used as a green manure. However, the maximum average time of seedling emergence and seedling emergence percentage were related to the forage corn field in which triticale was returned to the soil. The highest average time of seedling emergence, seedling emergence percentage, radicle length, coleoptile length and radicle dry weight were obtained in four weeks of residue retention. So, it seems that four weeks of residue retention and using barley as a green manure showed better initial growth and germination in this experiment.

43. H. R. Eshghizadeh*, M. Kafi and A. Nezami [Effect of soil chemical properties on bio-saline production of blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) under water-deficit and salinity stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1039-1047 (2012). College of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran *(e-mail : hamid.eshghizadeh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

               An experiment comprising two irrigation regimes (110 and 160 mm cumulative evaporation from Class A pan) and four salinity levels of irrigation water (5, 10, 20 and 30 dS/m) was conducted on bio-saline production of Panicum antidotale Retz. Results showed that the artificial neural network model could predict dry matter yield variability by 99% using soil chemical properties. The sodium content of 30-60 cm depth had the most important factor affecting dry matter production of blue panic grass. And acidity, concentration of sodium and potassium in the depth of 90-60 cm, pH in the depth of 30-60 cm and organic matter in the depth of 0-30 cm were other important factors affecting the production of dry matter. Establishment of bio-saline system in this condition had a significant effect on soil chemical properties during short time and should be paid attention for productivity, profitability and sustainability of commercial in arid zones.

44. Hamid Reza Javanmard*, Davood Habibi, Mehran Hoodaji, Farzad Paknejad and Massod Mashhadi Akbar Boojar [Influence of humic acid, super absorbent and bacteria usage on the lead phytoextraction by annual alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L.) from contaminated soil]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1048-1052 (2012). Department of Agronomy Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : javanmard@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

             A pot experiment was conducted in 2011 at Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan) (latitude 32o40¢ N, longitude 51o58¢ E and 1570 m elevation). A factorial layout within completely randomized design with four replications was used. Experimental factors included (1) Lead (Pb) in three levels, namely, control treatment (17.5 mg/kg), 417.5 and 817.5 mg/kg and (2) Application and not application of super absorbent, humic acid, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas bacteria, which included (a) application of super absorbent, (b) application of humic acid, (c) application of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas, (d) application of super absorbent+Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas, (e) application of super absorbent+humic acid, (f) Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas+humic acid, (g) application of super absorbent+humic acid+Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas and (h) none application what mentioned above as a control treatment. Element level, super absorbent and humic acid had significant influence on element density in the root, element density in aerial parts, total element density in the soil, the extractable element density with DTPA-TEA in the soil, fresh weight of aerial parts, fresh weight of root, dry weight of aerial parts and dry weight of root. Bacteria just had significant effect on element density in the root, element density in aerial parts, fresh weight of aerial parts and dry weight of aerial parts. Increase in lead in plant led to produce lower dry matter in annual alfalfa. Furthermore, with application of super absorbent the dry weight of plant increased significantly. All in all, in conclusion, super absorbent application seemed to be beneficial for phytoremediation and reduced the adverse effects of toxic metal in annual alfalfa.

45. Hamid Reza Javanmard*, Davood Habibi, Mehran Hoodaji, Farzad Paknejad, Massod Mashhadi Akbar Boojar and Ali Soleymani [Effect of humic acid, super absorbent and bacteria on EC and pH of soil after harvest, plant height and total dry weight of annual alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L.) on the phytoextraction of lead from contaminated soil]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1053-1056 (2012). Department of Agronomy Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : javanmard@khuisf.ac.ir)

 

ABSTRACT

             This pot experiment was conducted in 2011 at Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Esfahan) (latitude 32o40¢ N, longitude 51oo58¢ E and 1570 m elevation). A factorial layout within completely randomized design with four replications was used. Experimental factors included (1) Lead (Pb) in three levels, namely, control treatment (17.5 mg/kg), 417.5 and 817.5 mg/kg and (2) Application and not application of super absorbent, humic acid, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas bacteria, which included (a) application of super absorbent, (b) application of humic acid, (c) application of Azotobacter and Azospirillum and Pseudomonas, (d) application of super absorbent+Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas, (e) application of super absorbent+humic acid, (f) Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas+humic acid, (g) application of super absorbent+humic acid+Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas and (h) none application what mentioned above as a control treatment. Element level had significant influence on total dry weight, EC, the element density in root and aerial parts and plant height at the harvest time. Total dry weight and plant height at the harvest time were significantly influenced by super absorbent. Humic acid and interaction between element level and humic acid had significant influence on all experimental characteristics, but bacteria just had significant effect on total dry weight, EC, the element density in root and aerial parts, and plant height at the harvest time. The maximum total dry weight and plant height, and the lowest element density in root and aerial parts were related to control treatment, however, the maximum pH and EC were related to 817.5 and 417.5 mg/kg lead, respectively. Application of super absorbent obtained the highest total dry weight, the element density in root and aerial parts and plant height at the harvest time. The highest total dry weight, pH in the soil, plant height at the harvest time and also the lowest EC and element density in root and aerial parts were achieved in application of humic acid. Usage of bacteria obtained the highest total dry weight, EC, the element density in root and aerial parts and plant height at the harvest time.

46. M. YARNIA* [Germination, growth and seed bank of red-root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) as influenced by allelopathic extract and residues of alfalfa]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1057-1063 (2012). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : yarnia@iaut.ac.ir; m.yarnia@yahoo.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the residue from different parts of alfalfa at different stages of growth and in different amounts of extract and residues on red-root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). For this purpose, a factorial experiment was carried out three times during 2008-09. The factors included five levels of the residue from the leaves, stem, root, the whole plant of alfalfa and the control; the added amounts of residue to the soil at five levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g/m2 and the residue in the four stages of vegetative, flowering, seed bulking of alfalfa and the control. The results of the study showed that the extract and residue from the different parts of alfalfa significantly decreased the germination rate, seedling length, plant height, leaf area, dry weight of the shoot and root, biomass, 1000-seed weight and grain production of red-root pigweed. By increasing the amount of the alfalfa residue in the soil, where the red-root pigweed was growing, the amounts of all the attributes to be studied decreased. The reduction of the leaf area, biomass, 1000-seed weight and grain production of red-root pigweed, due to the addition of 50 g/m2 alfalfa residue, was 12.82, 23.82, 30.5 and 9.52%, respectively, as compared with control. By increasing the alfalfa residue by 200 g/m2 , this reduction reached 73.42, 78.25, 29.85 and 76.19%, respectively. Thus, the biomass and grain production of red-root pigweed showed more sensitivity to the amount of the alfalfa residue. Compared to the control group, reduction in the pigweed dry weight by adding residuals obtained from vegetative, inflorescence and seed bulking stage was 30, 38 and 36%, respectively. The red-root pigweed grain production recorded as 1.62 g/plant for the control group decreased by adding 200 g/m2 of the residue from the leaf, stem, root and the whole plant of alfalfa to 79, 67, 72 and 69%, respectively. The increasing red-root pigweed seed to soil seed bank decreased from 15 to 72%. Residue from alfalfa leaf in the vegetative stage had the highest decreasing effect on the most attributes and especially on the soil seed bank.

47. Y. M. SOMASEKHARA AND B. G. MANASA [Integrated management of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1064-1069 (2012). Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, G. K. V. K., Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

            Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important commercially grown flowers of the world. The pathogen, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi) is one of the major constraints worldwide in carnation (D. caryophyllus Linn.) cultivation in greenhouse. The fungicides were evaluated in vitro against carnation wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and fungicides, propiconazole, difenaconazole, benomyl and carbendazim were effective in inhibiting the pathogen. The fungicides copper oxychloride and mancozeb were ineffective against this pathogen. In field evaluation of fungicides, propiconazole and carbendazim were found to be effective in the reduction of soil population of fusaria and wilt incidence. The fungicide captan was not much effective in single application but it improved effectiveness in three applications. The phytotoxicity was observed in the fungicide propiconazole in all three soil drenchings with 0.1% concentration compared to other fungicides. The results of dual culture technique revealed that fungal bioagents were better than bacterial bioagents in inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Trichoderma viride-22 (IIHR), Trichoderma harzianum-20 (IIHR), Trichoderma viride 56 (IIHR), Trichoderma harzianum (NBAII), Trichoderma harzianum-19 (IIHR), Trichoderma viride-21(IIHR) and Pseudomonas fluorescens 11 (IIHR) were effective against this pathogen. In field evaluation of bioagents, T. viride, T. harzianum and P. fluorescens were found to be effective in the reduction of soil population of fusaria. The fumigants formalin, basamid, metham sodium and thiocarbonate were found to be effective in reducing the soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The present investigation showed that the fungicide propiconazole, benomyl and carbendazim were useful in the management of carnation wilt. The bioagent, T. viride reduced fusarial population in soil. The fumigants formalin and basamid are useful in the reduction of soil fusaria and save the crop by planting disease free seedlings.

48. KORAY KACAN AND NIHAT TURSUN* [Effect of planting time and tomato varieties on broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca) emergence and tomato yield in western Turkey]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1070-1077 (2012). Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey *(e-mail : ntursun@ksu.edu.tr)

 

ABSTRACT

            The tomato is among the most susceptible hosts of Phelipanche aegyptiaca Pomel. Broomrape causes significant yield losses, due to excessive infection in areas used to grow tomatoes in Turkey. The present study was carried out with the purpose of determining the level with which the intensively grown tomato varieties in the area are affected by broomrape and the optimal planting time in order to reduce the damage caused to industrial tomato production by P. aegyptiaca. Field surveys were conducted during the years of 2007, 2008 and 2009 according to a split-plot trial design by taking the years as the main plot and tomato varieties as the sub-plots. At the end of the study, it was determined that the highest yield of tomato and lowest number of broomrape shoots were obtained in 2007. By continuing to grow tomatoes in the same area in the following years of 2008 and 2009 considerable decreases in tomato yields were observed, as well as increases in the number of broomrape shoots. While the highest yields were obtained from early plantings in each of the three years, the lowest weights in terms of broomrape shoots were also observed for early planted tomatoes. The highest tomato yield in terms of tomato varieties was obtained from the hybrid tomato variety. It was concluded that tomato planting should not be made in areas where broomrape is present, that early planting results in higher yields than normal and late planting and that suitable varieties that are resistant to broomrape should be used.

49. N. Chamundeswari, P. V. Satyanarayana and K. Raja Reddy [Genetic assessment of physical quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by generation mean analysis]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1078-1083 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

               Physical quality characters viz., hulling (%), milling (%), head rice recovery (%), kernel length (mm), kernel breadth (mm) and kernel L/B ratio were studied in three crosses viz., BPT 5204/MTU 1081 (C1), MTU 1010/JGL 13595 (C2) and NLR 34449/MTU 1075 (C3). Six populations (P1, P2, B1, B2, F1 and F2) of these crosses were evaluated in RBD and generation mean analysis was carried out. Of all the three scaling tests one or more tests were highly significant indicating inadequacy of additive dominance model to explain the inheritance of the characters studied. Though both additive and non-additive gene actions were significant, non-additive gene actions played predominant role in the inheritance of the traits. Majority of the characters were under the influence of either complementary or duplicate epistasis besides additive type of gene effects.

50. N. Chamundeswari*, P. V. Satyanarayana and Y. Suryanarayana [Heterosis and combining ability studies for yield components in rice]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1084-1089 (2012). APRRI & RARS, Maruteru, West Godavari District (Andhra Pradesh), India *(e-mail : narne_chamundeswari@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            Studies on heterosis and combining ability were conducted with 21 F1s generated from seven parents crossed in diallel fashion. The results revealed that the estimates of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were variable among crosses in desirable direction. The gca/sca variance indicated that all the characters were predominantly governed by non-additive gene action except for days to 50% flowering, panicle length and 1000-grain weight. The parents identified as good general combiners were MTU 1010, JGL 13595 and NLR 34449 for early flowering, JGL 3844 and MTU 1081 for short stature and MTU 1075 for more number of tillers and panicles, panicle length and grain yield per plant. The best specific cross combinations identified in the present investigation were MTU 1010/JGL 13595 (earliness), MTU 1010/JGL 3844 (short stature), BPT 5204/NLR 34449 (number of tillers and panicles), BPT 5204/MTU 1081 (panicle length), MTU 1010/MTU 1075 (1000-grain weight) and BPT 5204/MTU 1075 (grain yield per plant).

51. B. Bharathiveeramani, M. Prakash and A. Seetharam [Correlation and path coefficient studies in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1090-1093 (2012). Foliage Crop Solutions Private Limited, R & D Farm, Attur-636 102 (Tamil Nadu), India

 

ABSTRACT

             A study was carried out to investigate the relationship between grain yield and other important yield contributing characters in maize inbreds through correlation and path coefficient analysis. One hundred and forty-four inbreds were tested in a square lattice design with two replications and the observations were recorded on 12 important characters viz., days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant height (cm), number of leaves, ear length (cm), ear girth (cm), number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row, days to maturity, 100-seed weight (g), shelling percentage and grain yield (g/plant). Analysis of simple correlation coefficient showed that all the characters studied had positive correlation with yield. However, significant and high positive correlation with grain yield was recorded by number of kernels per row, ear length, number of leaves, ear girth, plant height, 100-seed weight and days to maturity. Path analysis revealed that number of kernels per row and 100-seed weight had very high direct effect on grain yield. Number of kernel rows showed high direct effect and number of leaves had moderate direct effect on grain yield. Among these, number of kernels per row, 100-seed weight and number of leaves had significant and positive genotypic correlation with grain yield along with high positive direct effect on grain yield, whereas the other characters showed non-significant genotypic correlation with grain yield or negative direct effect on grain yield. Hence, more importance can be given to number of kernels per row, 100-seed weight and number of leaves to develop productive inbreds in maize breeding programmes.

52. V. P. CHAUDHARY, K. K. DHEDHI, H. J. JOSHI AND D. R. MEHTA [Combining ability studies in line x tester crosses of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1094-1097 (2012). Pearl Millet Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar-361 006 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

           Combining ability analysis was carried out in a line x tester fashion for grain yield and eight component traits using five male sterile lines and nine restorers in pearl millet during kharif season of 2011-12. The predictability ratio of gca and sca revealed the preponderance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of eight traits viz., grain yield per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of effective tillers per plant, plant height, earhead length, 1000-grain weight, harvest index and dry fodder yield per plant. Female parent ICMA-841 and male parents J-2482 and J-2340 were identified as the best general combiners for grain yield per plant along with one or more component traits. Majority of their crosses exhibited desirable sca effects, coupled with high per se performance for grain yield. Among the 45 crosses, nine displayed significant and positive sca effects for grain yield. Of these, four hybrids viz., JMSA-20091 x J-2433, ICMA-841 x J-2507, JMSA-20081 x J-2495 and JMSA-20081 x J-2430 were the most promising having good specific combining ability effects in addition to high per se performance, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for grain yield. Thus, it was suggested that these four hybrids would be evaluated under multiplication trials along with the standard hybrid for their direct release as high yielding hybrids.

53. BINESH GOYAT, DHIRAJ SINGH, RAM AVTAR AND AMIT SINGH [Estimation of selection parameters in the elite gene pool of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1098-1101 (2012). Oilseeds Section Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

              Selection parameters were estimated for seed yield and 10 component traits in an elite germplasm collection of Indian mustard comprising 200 accessions. A wide range of variation was observed for different traits studied in the genetic stock. Various estimates of selection parameters revealed that GCV and PCV were highest for number of primary branches/plant and 1000-seed weight, respectively, whereas these estimates were recorded to be lowest for plant height. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited by number of secondary branches/plant, main shoot length, number of siliquae on main shoot, number of seeds/siliqua and seed yield/plant. Based upon correlation and path analysis, number of primary and secondary branches/plant was observed to be the main components of seed yield which should be taken into account in mustard breeding programmes aimed at higher seed yield.

54. BINESH GOYAT, DHIRAJ SINGH, RAM AVTAR AND AMIT SINGH [Genetic divergence in elite gene pool of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1102-1104 (2012). Oilseeds Section Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

               Genetic divergence was studied among 200 elite germplasm accessions of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] using D2 technique which indicated the presence of substantial genetic diversity among the materials. The genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Based on the inter-cluster distances, clusters 1 and 6 were found to be most divergent followed by clusters 4 and 6 and clusters 1 and 7. The use of diverse germplasm accessions included in these clusters was advocated in crossing programme to evolve high heterotic hybrids and for taping the good transgressive segregants in segregating generations.

55. Ahmad Reza Golparvar* [Studies on path coefficient analysis for best components of oil yield in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1105-1108 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

           An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in order to assess the direct and indirect effects of some agronomic traits on oil yield as well as determine the best indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of this trait in canola cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that number of seeds/pod, grain filling rate, days to flowering termination, seed weight and harvest index had the highest significant and positive relationship with oil yield and accounted for the highest variations of this trait. The highest direct and positive effect on oil yield also belonged to traits number of seeds/pod and harvest index. Furthermore, grain filling rate showed positive direct and indirect effects on oil yield. Therefore, number of seeds/pod, harvest index and grain filling rate are the best indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of oil yield in canola cultivars. Concerning grain filling rate, indirect effects of this trait through days to flowering termination and harvest index have higher efficiency than its direct effect on oil yield.

56. RAM AVTAR, R. K. SHEORAN, R. YADAV, AMIT SINGH, D. SINGH AND BABITA RANI [Evaluation and classification of exotic collections of sunflower using principal factor and cluster analysis]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1109-1114 (2012). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

             Principal factor and cluster analysis were carried out with 27 different traits in 97 exotic collections of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Principal factor analysis identified 10 principal components which explained about 69% variability. Varimax rotation enabled loading of similar type of variables on a common principal component permitting to designate them as seed yield, oil content and other traits’ factors. Genotypes EC-152673, EC-623017, EC-623032, EC-512674, EC-601871 and EC-623029 were found to be better performers on the basis of principal factor scores with regard to seed yield and oil content when both the principal factors were considered together. These genotypes may further be utilized in high yielding hybrids development programmes with better oil content. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in 10 clusters containing 1 to 49 genotypes. The results of cluster and principal factor analyses were in agreement.

57. A. V. Ramanjaneyulu and A. Vishnuvardhan Reddy [Studies on correlation and path coefficient analysis in rabi castor]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1115-1118 (2012). AICRP on Castor, Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Palem-509 215 (A. P.), India

 

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted for three years during rabi seasons of 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Palem, Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh in order to study the performance of rabi castor in relation to date of sowings and irrigation levels. No. of effective spikes/plant, number of spikes/plant, primary spike length, nodes/plant, effective spike length and number of branches/plant showed positive direct effects coupled with positive genotypic correlation with seed yield of castor. Therefore, direct selection for these yield attributing traits might be helpful enhancing yield of rabi castor grown under irrigated conditions.

58. S. S. Manhas, B. S. Gill, V. Khajuria and anil kumar [Interactions of mulch and farm yard manure on yield attributes and yield of turmeric]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1119-1123 (2012). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India

 

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted during 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Ludhiana to study the interactions of mulch and farm yard manure on yield attributes and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Increase in the mulch levels from no mulch to 6.25 t/ha and 6.25 to 9.38 t/ha, there was significant increase in mother, primary and secondary rhizome weight per plant and fresh rhizome yield during both the years. Increase in farm yard manure levels from 30 to 45 t/ha also increased significantly yield attributes (mother, primary and secondary rhizome weight per plant) and fresh rhizome yield during 2007-08 and 2008-09. Application of 9.38 t/ha mulch with 45 t/ha farm yard manure resulted in maximum mother, primary and secondary rhizome weight per plant and fresh rhizome yield during both the years of crop growth. Increase in farm yard manure and mulch levels increased yield attributes and fresh rhizomes yield due to more availability of nutrients and water.

59. S. K. Lohan, M. S. Dalal, S. S. Jakhar, R. C. Punia and O. S. Dahiya [Enhancement in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seed quality using specific gravity separator and its economics]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1124-1129 (2012). Department of Seed Science and Technology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

 

ABSTRACT

           Raw breeder seed of wheat was processed with various processing machines viz., seed cleaner, screen grader and gravity separator. Seed recovery and seed quality parameters were analyzed after each step of processing. Significant enhancement in seed quality parameters was observed in terms of the physical purity (3.53%), test weight (17.13%), germination percentage (27.40) and seed vigour (8.2%) over unprocessed seed with a total rejection of 7.2%. The screen grading improved the seed quality well above the minimum acceptable limits of seed certification standards w.r.t. physical purity (98%) and standard germination (85%); however, the seed quality was further enhanced with the use of specific gravity separator. It was observed that with a meagre rejection of 1.72% seed by specific gravity separator, the seed quality was further enhanced in terms of physical purity (0.39%), test weight (9.83%), germination percentage (9.0) and seed vigour (15%) over the processed seed. The study also revealed that the output capacity of the processing plant increased and cost of processing decreased with the increase in quantity of seed processed.

60. SULEYMAN KAVAK* AND HULYA ILBI [Can vigour tests estimate the storage potential of white-seeded beans?]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1130-1136 (2012). Department of Horticulture Faculty of Agriculture, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260, Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : suleymankavak@sdu.edu.tr)

 

ABSTRACT

            This study was conducted to determine storage potential of white-seeded beans using the electrical conductivity and accelerated ageing tests recommended by ISTA for legumes. For this purpose, eight seed lots of five white-seeded cultivars from research institutes and seed companies were stored at 5o and 25oC up to 10 months. Seed quality was determined before and during storage using standard germination, electrical conductivity and accelerated ageing tests. There was a greater reduction in both the standard and accelerated ageing germinations when seeds were stored at 25o than at 5oC. The electrical conductivity of seed lots increased during the storage period at both the temperatures. The electrical conductivity and accelerated ageing before storage were significantly correlated with standard germination after 10 months storage at 5oC (r=-0.814; r=0.796, P<0.05) and 25oC (r=-0.845; r=0.761, P<0.01; P<0.05), respectively. Therefore, it can be stated that the electrical conductivity and accelerated ageing tests can be used for storage management.

61. Roozbeh Riazi*, Mahmood Shafai Bejestan, Hydarali Kashkouli  and Amir Khosrojerdi [Effect of roughness on characteristics of bed B-jump in stilling basin with abrupt drop]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1137-1141 (2012). Department of Irrigation Engineering Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan-Iran *(e-mail : roozbehriazi@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

             Hydraulic jump stilling basins are used as an energy dissipater structures downstream of gates, spillways and weirs. In the present study, the effect of roughened bed on flow characteristics of hydraulic jump at abrupt drop has been experimentally investigated. Total of 42 tests were conducted in a flume of 70 cm in width and 15 m long. Experiments were performed for wide range of Froude numbers ranging from 3 to 5.68. The relative sequent depths and the length of hydraulic jump were plotted against the Froude number for both smooth and roughened bed jumps. The results showed that both sequent depth and hydraulic jump length decreased when the bed was roughened. The maximum reduction was found to be in the order of 14 and 33%, respectively. These results showed that roughened bed at abrupt drop could decrease the cost of stilling basin.

62. SAMIRA ZAREEI*, SHAMSOLLAH ABDOLLAH POUR, MOHAMMAD MOGHADDAM AND HOSSEIN SAHRAYAN [Optimum setting of combine header for wheat harvesting using Taguchi method]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1142-1146 (2012). Department of Agricultural Machinery Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : s.zarei63@gmail.com)

 

ABSTRACT

            Grain loss due to combine header comprised more than 50% of the entire harvesting losses. This study was performed to determine the best adjustments of the combine header components for reducing the gathering loss using combine „Claas Lexion-510“ in Iran. The adjustable factors influencing combine header losses were forward speed, peripheral reel speed, cutting height, horizontal distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar and vertical distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar. The Taguchi method was utilized for the design and analysis of the experiment. A total of 54 experimental runs were conducted using an L18 orthogonal array. Results showed that the best combinations of setting parameters were level 2 for the forward speed (2.5 km/h), level 2 for the peripheral reel speed (3 km/h), level 2 for the cutting height (30 cm), level 3 for the horizontal distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar (10 cm) and level 1 for the vertical distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar (5 cm), which resulted in the minimum gathering loss. Furthermore, the forward speed had the highest effect on gathering loss and cutting height, peripheral reel speed, vertical distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar and horizontal distance of reel tine bar from cutter bar were arranged in the lower ranks, respectively.

63. Gajendra Singh, G. L. Sharma, Shankar Lal Golada and Ramniwas Choudhary [Effect of FYM enriched with fertilizers and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (3) : 1147-1151 (2012). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

 

ABSTRACT

               A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2010 at Instructional Farm of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur. The treatments consisting of four levels of FYM enriched with fertilizers viz., conventional (FYM @ 10 t/ha+100% RDF), enriched FYM+50% RDF, enriched FYM+100% RDF and enriched FYM+150% RDF and four biofertilizer levels viz., control, Azotobacter, PSB and Azotobacter+PSB were laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Application of FYM @ 10 t/ha enriched with 150% RDF significantly increased the growth parameters and grain yield (4449.52 kg/ha) as compared to rest of treatments. Among biofertilizer treatments, seed inoculation with combination of Azotobacter+PSB culture appeared to be profitable as this treatment gave significantly the highest grain yield (4368.35 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 46328/ha) and B : C (2.93).