Volume 13, Number 2 (August, 2012)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1.    Bing Xia, Min Huang, Yingbin Zou*, Peng Jiang, Yuehua Feng, Zhaowei Cheng and Yali Mo [Internal nitrogen efficiency of super hybrid rice grown under different tillage and crop establishment methods]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 401-407 (2012). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : ybzou123@126.com)

ABSTRACT

          This study was conducted to compare internal nitrogen (N) efficiency of super hybrid rice among different tillage and crop establishment methods. Field experiments were done in Changsha, Hunan Province, China during 2004-09. Super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu was grown under a factorial combination of two tillage practices (conventional tillage and no-tillage) and two crop establishment methods (transplanting and direct seeding) in each year. Grain yield, total N accumulation in aboveground biomass, internal N efficiency and N distribution percentage in different plant organs (straw, filled and unfilled spikelets) were measured at maturity for each combination. The results showed that the differences in grain yield, total N accumulation in aboveground biomass and internal N efficiency were insignificant among different tillage and crop establishment methods but were significant among years. Grain yield was closely related with internal N efficiency but not with total N accumulation in aboveground biomass. There was a tight positive correlation between internal N efficiency and N distribution percentage in straw at maturity. Our study suggests that adoption of N management practices that increase the N distribution percentage in straw at maturity will be effective to increase both internal N efficiency and grain yield in super hybrid rice production.

 

2.   Mohamad Mehdi Shahri, Hossein Yazdpour, Ali Soleymani*, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Maedeh Sharifianzadeh [Yield and yield components of ratoon crop of rice as influenced by harvesting at different plant height and time]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 408-411 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, P. O. Box 81595-158, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            In order to survey the effects of harvest time and harvest height on grain yield and yield components of rice (Taroem Hasemi variety), an experiment was done in Sari province in 2009. A split plot design within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. In this experiment, harvest time was considered as the main factor at two levels (T1 : The first harvest on 29 August and 8 September), and harvest height was considered as sub-factor (H1 : Level ground, H2 : 10 cm, H3 : 20 cm, H4 : 30 cm and H5 : 40 cm). The effect of harvesting time was significant on the number of days from plantation until 50% of flowering, the number of fertile tillers, the number of panicles per m2, the number of filled spikelets and grain yield. Harvesting height had significant influence on the number of tillers, the number of fertile tillers, the number of panicles per m2 and the number of filled spikelets. The number of tillers, the number of fertile tillers, the number of panicles per m2 and the number of filled spikelets were significantly affected by harvesting time and harvesting height interaction. The highest number of days from plantation until 50% of flowering, plant height, the number of tillers, the number of fertile tillers, the number of panicles per m2, the number of spikelets per spike, the number of filled spikelets, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were related to plantation on 29 August. The low grain yields of the rice may be attributed to the poor management of cutting height and harvesting time during the cultivation and harvesting period. The results of the survey concluded that the harvesting at 40 cm height and harvesting on 29 August had the potential to produce higher yield

 

3.  Ashok Kumar and Nirmal kumar [Crop residue management for sustainable crop production and soil health in rice-wheat cropping system]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 412-417 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT

             The present study has its relevance to explain the effect of residues along with green manure (Sesbania and cowpea) on rice-wheat cropping system. Randomized block design (RBD) was applied to lay out the experiment with five treatments : T1–Residue removal, T2–Residue incorporation (@ 5-6 t/ha), T3–Burned residue, T4–Residue incorporation+80 kg N/ha and T5–Residue incorporation+40 kg N/ha for the two consecutive years (2006-07 and 2007-08). The combined application of crop residue and green manures i. e. Sesbania and cowpea improved plant height, number of tillers, test weight and grain yield in both rice and wheat crops. Overall results proved that green manure along with crop residue could prove useful to improve grain yield as well as to provide favourable soil nutrient conditions for the plant growth.

 

4.  RAJIB KUNDU* AND KOUSHIK BRAHMACHARI [Nutrient management in rice-lathyrus (paira)-greengram cropping system under coastal saline zone of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 418-425 (2012). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : rajibagro2007@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             A field experiment was conducted at Regional Research Station (Coastal Saline Zone) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during 2006-07 and 2007-08 under coastal saline soil (pH 7.6, organic carbon 0.53%, total N 1140 kg/ha, available phosphorus 15.20 kg/ha and available potassium 186.21 kg/ha, respectively) of Kakdwip (Latitude 21090¢ N, longitude 88010¢ E and altitude 5.5 m), West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with nine different nutritional treatments each replicated four times to evaluate the growth, productivity and economics in rice-lathyrus (paira)-greengram sequence. The growth parameters, yield components and seed yield of all the crops in sequence were the maximum when organic manure was applied along with inorganic fertilizer at 75% of the recommended dose (RD). The effect of well decomposed fishmeal (WDFM) was as good as farm yard manure (FYM) vis-à-vis vermicompost and sometimes it showed better result over FYM and vermicompost. The maximum rice equivalent yield, net returns and net production value in rice-lentil (paira)-sesame sequence were obtained from the crops treated with 75% RD of NPK+2 t WDFM/ha only to rice.

 

5. MARYAM SOLTANI AND MOHAMMADREZA NADERIDARBAGHSHAHI* [Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperature and high radiation stress under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 426-431 (2012). Department of Agronomy Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

          High temperature as a major stress in various stages of growth and development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) causes different effects that are irreparable­ in many stages. In order to study effects of high temperature stress on yield and yield components of bread wheat, an experiment was conducted in Isfahan region using a split-split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment, four abnormal spring sowing dates as four high temperature stress levels (TSL) were used in the position of the main plots, two light density levels (LDL) full sunlight and shading as the sub-plots and two bread wheat cultivars (Back-cross Roshan and Pishtaz) as sub-sub plots. Number of spikes and unfertile tillers, spike dry weight and grain yield significantly reduced when TSL increased (sowing delayed). Shading significantly increased number of spikes and unfertile tillers, spike dry weight and grain yield. Cultivars didn’t show significant difference for these traits. On the basis of our results, it can be mentioned that heat (due to straight radiation) may increase bad effects of high temperatures and this condition may increase reduction in yield components and grain yield of wheat.

 

6.   Mohammad Rezaei*, Soleyman Mohammadi and Aliereza Eivazi [Effect of different levels of irrigation on yield and micronutrients uptake by bread wheat genotypes]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 432-438 (2012) Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of West Azerbaijan, Urmia, Iran *(e-mail : Rezaei54@yahoo.com).

ABSTRACT

            Water deficit is an environmental factor that influences grain yield and nutrient uptake of wheat. In order to study the response of 10 wheat genotypes (Zarrin, Alvand, Shahryar, Sardari, C-80-4, C-81-10, C-81-4, C-83-3, Zare and Pishgam) to different levels of irrigation (I1=70, I2=100, I3=130 and I4=160 mm evaporation from Class-A pan, after heading). Two field experiments were conducted during 2007-09. Grain yield, straw yield and grain micronutrient concentrations (Fe and Zn) in all genotypes decreased, but Cu concentration of grains increased with decreasing water availability. Micronutrients such as Fe, Zn and Cu in shoots decreased as water supply limited. But Mn concentration of grain and straw was not or only little affected by water stress.

 

7.  Hassan Nouriyani*, Eslam Majidi, Seyyed Mansoor Seyyednejad, Seyyed Atallah Siadat and Ahmad Naderi [Evaluation of nitrogen use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilizer and different levels of paclobutrazol]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 439-445 (2012). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran *(e-mail : h_noryani@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

            Nitrogen use efficiency of wheat is only 33% in the world. This low efficiency means that a large proportion of the nitrogen that is applied by farmers is lost, increasing the cost of production and having important negative consequences on the environment. A field experiment was conducted in order to study nitrogen use efficiency of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), as affected by nitrogen fertilizer and different levels of paclobutrazol, in Dezful, Iran during 2009-11. The experiment was carried out as a split-split plot design using randomized complete block design in three replications. The main plots consisted of four nitrogen rates (40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha) from urea with 46% N content, added on at zero N (control treatment) applied for calculation of nitrogen use efficiency. The sub-plots consisted of two cultivars of wheat (Star and Vee/Nac). The sub-plots consisted of four paclobutrazol concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/l) which were foliar sprayed at stem elongation stage. Results showed that increase in the application of the nitrogen caused the decline of the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). The highest NUE, NUpE and NUtE obtained in the 40 kg/ha nitrogen and 150 mg/l paclobutrazol. The highest grain yield and grain protein were obtained in 160 kg/ha nitrogen and 150 mg/l paclobutrazol. The highest correlation was between NUE and grain yield (r=0.92). These results established that paclobutrazol application in different levels of nitrogen due to increase in nitrogen uptake and reduction in leaching of nitrogen, caused increase in the NUE, NUpE and NUtE, and improved grain yield..

 

8.   Hassan Nouriyani*, Eslam Majidi, SeyyEd Mansoor Seyyednejad, SeyyEd Atallah Siadat and AHmad Naderi [Evaluation of interaction of paclobutrazol and nitrogen on correlation between yield and photosynthetic pigments contents in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 446-452 (2012). Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran *(e-mail : h_noryani@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            In order to study the effects of foliar application of paclobutrazol and nitrogen application rates on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in flag leaf (15, 30 and 45 days after anthesis stage) and grain yield of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), a field experiment was conducted in Dezful, Iran during 2009-11. The experiment was carried out as a split plot design using randomized complete block design in triplicates. The main plots belonged to four nitrogen rates (40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha) from urea with 46% N content. The sub-plots consisted of two cultivars of wheat (Star and Vee/Nac). The sub-plots consisted of four paclobutrazol concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/l) which were foliar sprayed at stem elongation stage. Results indicated that grain yield increased with higher rates of the paclobutrazol and nitrogen application. Paclobutrazol concentration increment significantly affected chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Whereas there was no significant difference between paclobutrazol concentration in respect of carotenoids content. Increasing of nitrogen rate application caused significant increase in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids content. Chlorophyll and carotenoids content increased by increasing paclobutrazol and nitrogen application rate. The maximum rates of these photosynthetic pigments were obtained from 150 mg/l paclobutrazol and 160 kg/ha nitrogen. Comparison of two wheat cultivars showed that star cultivar had more chlorophylls, carotenoids content and grain yield under paclobutrazol and nitrogen application than other cultivar. Chlorophyll a and carotenoids content showed that the highest (r=0.97) and the lowest (r=0.54) positive correlation with grain yield, respectively. These observations suggest that paclobutrazol treatment led to absorption and transportation of nitrogen in plant has increased. Therefore, it seems that the application of paclobutrazol due to high duration of flag leaf area and photosynthesis significantly affected the grain yield. .

 

9.   K. S. Rana and R. S. Bana [Productivity and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by aqua-fertilization under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 453-455 (2012). Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India

ABSTRACT

            A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to find out the optimum quantity of water for proper germination and initial growth of wheat cv. PBW 343 under moisture stress conditions with and without nitrogen. Six moisture treatments and two nitrogen treatments were tested in randomized block design. Results indicated that increasing water supply increased the grain yield of wheat but the supply of 5000 l water/ha was better than dry sowing and seed soaking. The differences between each higher level of water supply were statistically at par, whereas 20,000 l water/ha produced maximum grain yield (2.46 t/ha) which was 0.7 and 0.57 t/ha higher than dry sowing and seed soaking, respectively. Application of nitrogen significantly increased the growth, yield, nutrient content and nutrient uptake. Remarkable increase in consumptive use of water and water use efficiency was also observed due to aqua-fertilization and nitrogen application.

 

10. S. M. Patel, J. C. Patel, P. P. Chaudhary, D. M. Patel, G. N. Patel and B. M. Patel [Effects of nitrogen levels and weed management on production potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 456-462 (2012). Department of Agronomy S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

             An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during the rabi season of two consecutive years 2007-08 and 2008-09 to study the response of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to weed management practices and nitrogen levels. The treatments consisted of two levels of nitrogen viz., N1 : RDN i. e. 120 kg N/ha and N2 : 125% of RDN i. e.150 kg N/ha with six levels of weed management practices viz., W1: Weedy check, W2 : Pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence, W3 : Metsulfuron methyl 0.004 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS, W4 : Metsulfuron methyl 0.004+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS, W5 : Isoproturon 0.5+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS and W6 : Weed free. The results revealed that significantly higher plant height, more number of effective tillers per metre row length, higher spike length, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight were recorded with application of 150 kg N/ha. This reflected remarkable improvement in the higher grain (42.03 q/ha) and straw (63.66 q/ha) yields. Higher value of dry weight of weeds was also registered with 150 kg N/ ha. Total N, P and K uptake by crop and depletion of N, P and K by weeds were found significantly higher when the crop was fertilized with 150 kg N/ha than RDN (120 kg/ha) on pooled basis. Similarly, available N status in soil after harvest of crop was found more with treatment 150 kg N/ha. Whereas available P2O5 and K2O status in soil after harvest of crop were recorded higher by treatment 120 kg/ha. Application of nitrogen at 150 kg/ha registered higher values of net realization and BCR. Significantly highest values of all the yield attributing parameters were recorded under weed free treatment. Among the herbicidal weed control, isoproturon 0.5+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS recorded higher values of all the yield attributing characters and grain (44.39 q/ha) and straw (67.23 q/ha) yields as well as highest net realization and BCR by treatment isoproturon 0.5+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS over rest of the treatments. Weed infestation throughout the crop growth period in weedy check resulted in highest weed dry matter production. Treatment isoproturon 0.5+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS recorded lower weed dry weight and higher value of WCE with lower weed index. The treatment weedy check recorded lower values of total N, P and K uptake by the crop and higher depletion values of these nutrients by weeds From the present investigation, it was concluded that maximum grain yield, net realization, BCR and effective weed control in irrigated wheat crop on loamy sand soils of north Gujarat could be achieved with application of 150 kg N/ha and spraying of herbicide mixture either isoproturon 0.5 kg/ha+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS or metsulfuron methyl 0.004 kg/ha+2,4-D 0.4 kg/ha as post-emergence at 30-35 DAS.

 

11.Ali Soleymani*, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and MEHDI KARIMI [Growth behaviour of elite barley lines as influenced by planting date and plant densities]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 463-466 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

             To survey the effects of planting dates and plant densities on growth lengths of elite barley lines in climatic condition of Isfahan, an investigation was conducted in 2007 in Isfahan Agriculture Research Station. Strip split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were planting dates (October 2, November 1 and November 21), sub-plots were plant densities (300, 350 and 400 plants/m2) and sub-sub plots were cultivars (MB-79-4, MB-80-9, MB-80-16, D5 and Karoon × Kavir). Planting dates had significant effect on number of days and GDD from vegetative to reproductive phase, the number of days and GDD in 50% of spike appearance. The number of days and GDD in anthesis stage and physiological maturity stage also significantly affected by planting dates. All of the experimental characteristics were not significantly influenced by plant density, but cultivar had significant effect on all experimental characteristics. Plant density and cultivar interaction had significant effect on the number of days and GDD in anthesis stage. There were no significant differences in experimental characteristics between plant density treatments and there were no trends between them. MB-79-4 obtained the highest number of days and GDD from vegetative to reproductive stage, but the maximum number of days and GDD in 50% of spike appearance were obtained in MB-80-16. This cultivar also obtained the most number of days (167.6) and GDD (538.1) in anthesis stage. The highest number of days and GDD in physiological stage were 203.2 and 1041.7 that was related to MB-80-9. The minimum number of days and GDD in physiological stage were achieved in D5.

 

12. Rozbeh Farhoudi*, Hossein Sabet Zangane and Saeed Saeedipour [Allelopathical effect of barley [Hordeum vulgare (L.) cv. Karon] on germination and lipid peroxidation of wild mustard seedling]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 467-471 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : rfarhoudi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            This research was carried out in order to evaluate allelopatical effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Karon) on seed germination and seedling growth of wild mustard seed in Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Iran. The experimental design was aranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 75% barley aqueous extracts. Results showed that seed germination, lipid peroxidation, seedling fresh weight and seedling length decreased when barley extract concentration increased but mean germination time decreased. Results indicated highest malondialdehyde concentration obtained from 75% barley straw extract (0.0052 µmol/g f. w.) and highest peroxidase activity was shown in 25 and 50% barley straw extract. The results of this study revealed that barley extracts inhibited the wild mustard seedling growth and increased lipid peroxidation.

 

13. Ali Reza Amini and Ali Soleymani* [Influence of drought stress on seed yield, biological yield and harvest index of different cultivars of barley]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 472-474 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            Water is the most precious agricultural resource in the water-limited environments. In order to determine seed yield, biological yield and harvest index of barley’s cultivars in different treatments of drought stress, an experiment was conducted as a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at experimental agriculture farm of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Esfagan) branch, in Esfahan. Irrigation treatments as a main plot were arranged on the basis of evaporation from pan evaporation (including irrigation after 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation from pan), and sub-plots included four cultivars (Fasih, Nosrat, Reihan 03 and Yosef). The irrigation was done normally from plantation until the beginning of reproductive stage. Irrigation and cultivar, both had significant influence on the number of spikes per m2, the number of seeds per spike, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. The number of seeds per spike and harvest index were significantly affected by irrigation and cultivar interaction. The maximum number of spikes per m2, the number of seeds per spike, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index were obtained in irrigation on the basis of 80 mm evaporation from evaporation pan. Reihan 03 also obtained the maximum number of spikes per m2, seed yield and harvest index. It seems that cultivation of Reihan 03 and irrigation on the basis of 80 mm evaporation from evaporation pan is suitable for this region.

 

14. N. K. Jain, Hari Singh and L. N. Dashora [On-farm response of maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system to fertilizers NPK input]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 475-480 (2012). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

 

                         A field experiment conducted during 2004-07 at Udaipur, Rajasthan, India to study on-farm response of maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system to fertilizers NPK input revealed that application of 90 kg N, 15.4 kg P and 24.9 kg K/ha to maize and 120 kg N, 17.6 kg P and 24.9 kg K/ha to wheat recorded significantly higher grain and stover/straw yields, maize-grain equivalent yield, net returns, benefit : cost ratio and total NPK uptake by maize-wheat cropping system (500.3 kg/ha) over rest of the treatments. This treatment also recorded the maximum sustainable yield index (0.87), production efficiency (46.08 kg/ha/day) and nitrogen use efficiency (22.20 kg/kg in maize and 22.44 kg/kg in wheat) ), energy use efficiency (7.66), energy productivity (309.8 g/MJ) and energy output efficiency (1139.4 MJ/ha/day). Response studies indicated that maximum response was noted with phosphorus in both maize (31.88 kg/kg P) and wheat (43.41 kg/kg P).

 

15. BAHAREH DALIL* AND KAZEM GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI** [Changes in leaf temperature and grain yield of maize under different levels of irrigation]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 481-485 (2012). Department of Plant Eco-physiology Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : dalil87@gmail.com; **golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Two experiments were carried out in randomized complete block design with nine replicates during 2009 and 2010 to investigate the effects of different irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 70, 90, 110 and 130 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively) on leaf temperature, differences in leaf and air temperature, yield and yield components of maize plants in the field. Seeds were sown with a density of 10 seeds/m2 in May 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the leaf water content was reduced as water deficit increased. The largest difference in leaf and air temperatures was observed for plants under severe water stress. Mean grains per plant under I1 and I2 were significantly higher than those under other irrigation treatments, but these traits did not differ significantly between I1 and I2 and also between I3 and I4. The highest plant biomass and grain yield per unit area were obtained from well irrigation (I1) followed by limited irrigations of I2, I3 and I4, respectively. High leaf temperature due to dehydration for plants under water stress resulted in considerable loss of plant biomass, grains per plant and grain yield per unit area. Since grain weight was not significantly affected by irrigation treatments, decreasing grain yield per unit area under water stress was attributed to considerable reduction in grains per plant. Therefore, water limitation can reduce grain yield of maize via decreasing plant biomass and grains per plant.

 

16. Harphool Meena, G. L. Sharma, Shankar Lal Golada and H. K. Jain [Yield and quality of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) ssp. saccharata] as affected by nitrogen levels, Azotobacter culture and nitrogen sources]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 486-492 (2012). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

             An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Banswara during zaid season, 2010 and 2011 on clay loam soil to study the effect of poultry manure and Jatropha cake in conjunction with fertilizer-N and response of the crop to Azotobacter culture inoculation under integrated-N management. To work out the optimum N level for sweet corn under integrated use of organic and fertilizer-N sources, the 125% RDN level gave higher green cob yield (7972.75 kg/ha) over 75% RDN level but was found at par with 100% RDN level and significantly increased green fodder (20685.50 kg/ha) and biological yield (28658.25 kg/ha) of sweet corn with the increasing nitrogen levels up to 125% RDN. The 125% RDN level gave higher nitrogen content in cob over 75% RDN level but was found at par with100% RDN level and significantly increased nitrogen content in fodder with the increasing nitrogen levels up to 125% RDN. The 125% RDN and 100% RDN levels were found at par with each other in respect of protein content in grain but found significant over 75% RDN level. Application of 125% RDN level gave higher starch content in grain over 75 and 100% RDN levels. The Azotobacter culture seed inoculation gave significantly higher green cob (7888.83 kg/ha), green fodder (19577.41 kg/ha), biological yield (27466.25 kg/ha) of sweet corn, nitrogen content in cob, fodder and protein content in grain over no inoculation. Significant increase in green cob (7931.50 kg/ha), green fodder (19545.00 kg/ha) and biological yield (27476.50 kg/ha) of sweet corn was recorded under application of 50% poultry manure + 50% fertilizer-N over rest of nitrogen sources but found at par with 100% fertilizer-N. The 100% fertilizer-N source gave highest nitrogen content in cob as compared to 50% poultry manure+50% fertilizer-N, 100% poultry manure, 50% Jatropha cake+50% fertilizer-N and 100% Jatropha cake. Application of 100% fertilizer-N and 50% poultry manure+50% fertilizer-N recorded significantly higher nitrogen content in fodder over 100% poultry manure, 50% Jatropha cake+50% fertilizer-N and 100% Jatropha cake. The 100% fertilizer-N gave significantly higher protein content in grain over 50% poultry manure+50% fertilizer-N,100% poultry manure, 50% Jatropha cake+50% fertilizer-N and 100% Jatropha cake.

 

17. Burhan Kara*, Bekir Atar and Hulya Gul [Effects of different sowing dates on protein, sugar and dry matter of sweet corn]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 493-497 (2012). Department of Field Crops Agriculture Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : burhankara@sdu.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

                        The study was carried out with the aim to determine the effects of different sowing dates on protein content, total sugar and dry matter rate of sweet corn in 2009 and 2010 under Isparta ecological conditions of Turkey. The research included five sowing dates 1 April, 15 April, 1 May, 15 May and 1 June. Different sowing dates had a significant effect on protein, total sugar and dry matter content of fresh sweet corns in both the years. Generally, the protein content (4.01 and 3.95%, respectively) and sugar amount (17.31 and 15.81 mg/100 g, respectively) of fresh sweet corn with optimal sowing date (1 May) were higher than those early and late sowing dates in 2009 and 2010. Dry matter ratio decreased when sowing for both the years delayed. The highest dry matter was obtained from April 1 sowing date (34.66 and 35.77%, respectively) in 2009 and 2010.

 

18. Ali Soleymani*, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Mehrdad Modaresi [Influence of irrigation intervals and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and prussic acid content in second cropping of forage sorghum grown after wheat]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 498-502 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            Water is one of the serious limitations of crop growth, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world such as Isfahan region and has a vital role in plant growth and development at all growth stages. So, to study the effect of irrigation intervals and different levels of nitrogen on yield, yield components of forage sorghum (var. Speed Feed) after wheat, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on completely randomized block design with three replications in 2009 at Cultural Experimental and Research Farm, Mahmoodabad region, Isfahan, Iran. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 200 kg N/ha) were the sub-plots and the main plots were irrigation intervals (7, 9, 11 and 14 days). The ANOVA results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals on plant height, number of tillers, stem diameter, fresh forage, dry forage yield and leaf/stem were significant, and the effect of nitrogen on stem diameter, fresh forage, dry forage yield and leaf/stem were significant. Also the interaction between nitrogen and irrigation intervals was significant on number of tillers, stem diameter and leaf/stem weight. The highest plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, fresh forage yield (109.2 t/ha), dry forage yield (21.08 t/ha) and dry/fresh weight belonged to 7-day irrigation interval. The highest plant height, fresh yield (160.7 t/ha), dry forage yield (23.19 t/ha) and dry/fresh weight belonged to 200 kg N/ha. Ultimately, plantation of this variety of forage sorghum with seven days interval and 200 kg N/ha were recommended to Isfahan farmers.

19. P. K. SHARMA*, SUDESH KUMAR AND G. R. CHAUDHARY [Effect of organic nutrient management on productivity and soil fertility status in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 503-506 (2012). S. K. R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Durgapura-302 018, Jaipur (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : pksharmarau@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

           A field trial was carried out at Durgapura, Jaipur during kharif seasons of 2007 to 2009 to identify the suitable organic nutrient management in pearl millet for higher productivity and soil fertility status under semi-arid conditions of Rajasthan. Three years’ study indicated that application of 75% N through vermicompost+25% N through decomposed organic waste+bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSB) gave maximum grain yield (18.21 q/ha) and stover yield (59.42 q/ha) with B : C ratio of 2.82. This treatment was closely followed by 75% N through FYM+25% N through decomposed OW+bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter+PSB) having grain and stover yield of 18.00 and 59.03 q/ha, respectively, with highest B : C ratio of 3.68. These both treatments were significantly superior over absolute control. The soil fertility parameters like O. C., available N, available P2O5 and available K2O were also improved after completion of three years of cropping when compared with initial soil parameters.

 

20. Neda Kamali Dehkordi, Ali Soleymani*, Ahmad Reza Golparvar AND Seyed Mojtaba Hashemi Jezi [Effect of different plant populations on oil yield and harvest index of three spring rapeseed cultivars grown in Shahrekord, Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 507-509 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

             According to the increasing need of our country for edible and production of oil plants, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the responses of three spring rapeseed cultivars to different plant densities. A split plot layout with completely randomized block design with three replications was used. Plant densities in main plots were 40, 80 and 120 plants/m2, and rapeseed cultivars in secondary plots were Sarigol, RGS 003 and Hyola 401. This research was conducted at Research Farm, Experimental Research Station, Shahrekord city, Shahrekord province, Iran. Plant density had significant influence on seeds yield, oil yield and harvest index. Cultivar had just significant influence on the number of seeds per pod. Plant density and cultivar interaction had no significant influence on experimental characteristics. The highest seed yield and harvest index were obtained in 80 plants/m2, and the maximum oil yield was related to 120 plants/m2, but this treatment had no significant difference with 80 plants/m2. The maximum seed and oil yields were also obtained in cultivation of RGS 003 and Hyola 401, respectively. But these two cultivars had no significant differences with each other. So, it seems that cultivation of Hyola 401 and RGS 003 in 80 plants/m2 was suitable for this region.

 

21. Neda Kamali Dehkordi and Ali Soleymani* [Yield and yield components of spring rapeseed cultivars as influenced by plant density grown in Shahrekord region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 510-513 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

               Cultivation and appropriate management of rapeseed cultivars is very important to have a good product. An experiment was conducted on the basis of split plot layout with completely randomized block design with three replications. Plant densities in main plots were 40, 80 and 120 plants/m2, and rapeseed cultivars in secondary plots were Sarigol, RGS 003 and Hyola 401. This research was conducted at Research Farm, Experimental Research Station, Shahrekord city, Shahrekord province, Iran. Plant density had significant influence on the number of secondary branches, the number of pods per plant, seed weight per pod, seed shell weight, mean of pod length, total pod weight and seed yield. Cultivar had significant influence on the number of pods per plant and the number of seeds per pod. Eighty plants/m2 obtained the maximum number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed shell weight, mean of pod’s length, total pod weight and seed yield. Although the highest number of seeds per pod was related to Hyola 401, but the highest number of secondary branches, mean of pod’s length and seed yield were obtained in RGS 003. There were no significant differences in seed yield among these cultivars.

 

 

22.  Jafar Ebrahimpour Kasmani*, Ahmad Samariha, Foad Ravanbakhsh and Javad Sadatian Shorkaei [Characterization and evaluation of rapeseed as a raw material for paper production]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 514-516 (2012). Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology Savadkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Savadkooh, Iran *(e-mail : Jafar_Kasmani@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             In this study, production of neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp from rapeseed was investigated. NSSC pulping experiments showed suitable cooking conditions; liquor to rapeseed ratio of 10 : 1, chemical charge of 20% and a cooking temperature of 170°C. Under these conditions, a total pulp yield of 66% was achieved. Pulp was refined to freeness 350 and 400 ml CSF according to Canadian standards. 127 g/m2 handsheets from both pulps were made and strength properties measured. Statistical analysis of results indicated that paper derived from freeness 350 and 400 ml CSF had better strength properties in all indices in comparison with NSSC pulp from hardwoods.

 

23. Majid Esmaeli, Hamid Reza Javanmard, Bahram Majd Nassiry and Ali Soleymani* [Effect of different plant densities and planting pattern on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars grown under climatic conditions of Isfahan region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 517-520 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

            Information about the proper plant density, planting pattern and cultivar for maximum production of crops is necessary for designing a suitable agriculture system. In order to determine seed yield and oil percentage of different sunflower cultivars in different plant densities and planting pattern, an experiment was conducted in 2010-11 at Cultural Experiment and Research Center in Isfahan. Split factorial layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Planting pattern (single row and double row) was considered as main plot, and the combination of plant densities (8, 10 and 12 plants/m2) and cultivars (Master, Lacomka and Hysun) was considered as factorial. Planting pattern had significant effect on the number of days from plantation until 100% of flowering, the number of days from plantation until physiological maturation, plant height and 1000-seed weight. Cultivar had significant influence on all experimental treatments, expect of seed yield. The number of days from plantation until 100% of flowering and physiological maturation, plant height, head diameter, 1000-seed weight and seed yield were significantly influenced by plant density. Master obtained the highest head diameter, seed yield, oil percentage and appropriate 1000-seed weight. The maximum 1000-seed weight, seed yield and oil percentage were also obtained in single row plantation. Eight plants/m2 obtained the maximum 1000-seed weight, seed yield and acceptable oil percentage. So, it seems that cultivation of Master in single row plantation and eight plants/m2 was appropriate for this region.

 

24.  Ali Soleymani* AND Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian [Effect of planting dates and different levels of nitrogen on seed yield and yield components of nuts sunflower]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 521-524 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(email: a_soleymani@Khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

            In order to study the effect of planting dates and different levels of nitrogen on yield and yield components of nuts sunflower (var. Doursephid), an experiment was conducted in 2009 at Experimental Field, Mahmoodabad region, Isfahan. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Main plots were planting dates May 5, May 20 and June 5 and sub-plots were nitrogen levels 0, 150, 200 and 250 kg N/ha. The results showed that the effect of planting date was significant on stem diameter, head diameter, number of grains per head, grain yield and biological yield. The effect of different levels of nitrogen was significant on plant height, stem diameter, biological yield and harvest index. The interaction between planting date and nitrogen had significant influence on plant height, stem diameter, biological yield and harvest index. The highest stem diameter, head diameter, grain yield and biological yield were obtained in May 5, and the highest plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, number of grains per head, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained from usage of 200 kg N/ha. Results showed that 200 kg N/ha and May 5 were suitable for this variety in this region.

 

25. Rambilash Mallick, Jajati Mandal and Hirak Banerjee [Growth and yield of greengram (Vigna radiata) as affected by row spacing and foliar application of nutrients]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 525-528 (2012). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Institute of Agricultural Science University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700 019

ABSTRACT

             The effect of row spacing and foliar application of nutrients on the performance of greengram var. ‘K-851’ was studied at the Agricultural Experimental Station of Calcutta University, Baruipur, 24-Parganas (South), on Gangetic alluvial soil. The experiment was laid out in a factorial RBD with three different row spacings and four different foliar sprays (750 l/ha), thus giving 12 treatment combinations replicated thrice. The results revealed that row spacing caused remarkable improvement in growth attributes such as plant height, dry matter accumulation, RGR, CGR and NAR at different growth stages which resulted in higher productivity. Maximum CGR, RGR and NAR were observed under 30 cm row spacing closely followed by 25 and 20 cm. Among the foliar treatments, higher CGR and NAR were recorded with spraying of DAP (2%) followed by urea (2%) and KNO3 (0.5%). Spraying with DAP (2%) recorded the maximum RGR followed by KNO3 (0.5%) and urea (2%). The results on yield attributing characters revealed that row spacing and foliar spray had significant effect on the crop productivity in terms of number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-grain weight. Treatment combination of foliar spray of DAP (2%) and 20 cm row spacing revealed 32.67% higher yield over control followed by 25 cm row spacing and foliar spray of KNO3 (0.5%). The results suggested that for achieving higher productivity in summer greengram, 20 cm row spacing and foliar spray with nutrients like DAP (2%) seemed to be the most effective agronomic practices for greengram cultivation in Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

 

26. KAZEM GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI*, HAMED AKBARI AND ALI BANDEH-HAGH [Effects of plant density and pod position on seed vigour of pinto bean cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 529-533 (2012). Department of Plant Eco-Physiology Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             A field experiment was conducted in 2010 to investigate the effects of pod positions (upper, lower and middle parts of the canopy) and plant densities (30, 40, 50 and 55 plants/m2) on seed vigour of three pinto bean cultivars (Akhtar, Derakhshan and Sayad). The experiment was arranged as factorial split plot based on RCB design with three replicates. Cultivars and plant densities were located in main plots and pod positions were allocated to sub plots. Seed germination percentage, germination rate and seedling dry weight were not significantly affected by plant density. The largest seeds with the highest vigour were obtained from the lower parts of the canopy. No significant interaction of density × pod position indicated that seeds of lower position had high vigour under all densities. Akhtar had larger and more vigorous seeds compared with other cultivars. Mean seed weight was positively and significantly correlated with germination rate, germination percentage and seedling dry weight. Thus, selection of large and uniform seeds could be a practical way of improving seed and seedling vigour in pinto bean cultivars.

 

27.  H. R. Eshghizadeh*, M. Kafi, A. Nezami and A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh [Studies on the role of root morphology attribution in salt tolerance of blue-panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) using artificial neural networks (ANN)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 534-544 (2012). College of Agriculture Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hamid.eshghizadeh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            The root is the organ of a plant that firstly is affected by salinity and may play a significant role in stress tolerance. There is limited information on the role of root morphological traits in different soil layers of salinity tolerance in halophytes. This experiment aimed at investigating the importance of root morphology attributes in salt tolerance of blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) using artificial neural networks (ANN). In a column experiment, blue panicgrass plants were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (0, 86, 189 and 345 mM NaCl). The root dry weight decreased by 26, 54 and 54% at 86, 189 and 345 mM compared to the control, respectively. Salinity had no significant effect on root penetration, while it significantly decreased the length, diameter, volume, weight, number and area of plant root system. The ANN model used for predicting plant salt tolerance resulted in R2 and RMSE values of 0.95 and 0.013, respectively. According to sensitivity analysis, the root penetration in different soil layers was the most important root morphology attribute affecting salt tolerance of blue panicgrass. The role of length, diameter, volume, weight, number and area of root on salt tolerance of plant was dependent on the soil depth. For the weight, area and number of roots, the greatest sensitivity coefficient was related to the depth of 60-80 cm, while the length and diameter of roots at 0-20 cm showed the greatest sensitivity coefficient. The results showed that root penetration was the most effective factor in salinity tolerance of blue panicgrass. Although, it should be considered the most effective soil depth for each root trait.

 

28. M. Mashal*, N. Nikamal Larijani, A. Hassanoghli, A. Liaghat and M. Varavipour [Nitrate leaching through soils via application of organic manures of poultry, cow and sludge]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 545-551 (2012). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : mmashal@ut.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            The application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures, without considering their side effects cause problems to human health and environment. Nitrate is one of the most important elements of organic manures which its behaviour should be monitored because it can leach through soil to surface and ground waters by irrigation or precipitation. The main object of this study was to determine the nitrate transport via application of organic manures. Experiments were carried out in lysimeters to enable us to control all factors. Lysimeters were cylindrical drained plastic barrels with 100 cm height and 60 cm diameter which were filled by uncondensed soil up to 60 cm height. Two different soil textures, loam and silt loam, were used. Three different organic manures (poultry, cow and sewage sludge) were applied by the rate of 35 t/ha. Twenty-four lysimeters were arranged; nine lysimeters for three types of manure with three replicates and three without manure used as control for each soil type. Each lysimeter irrigated by well water three times with one week interval. Drain water samples (100 ml each sample) were taken through the pore volume drained away after irrigating of lysimeters during five times. Each pore volume was divided into five equal parts and the first one was chosen. The results were analyzed by the statistical factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. The results revealed that the nitrate concentration in loam soil was more than silt loam soil in drain water samples, so it can be ascribed to the effect of soil texture. Sewage sludge treatment caused the most nitrate concentration in drain water samples for both soil textures, and the least was monitored in control treatment. The nitrate concentration for poultry and cow manure were between them, respectively. By one week irrigation intervals and three consecutive irrigations, the amount of contamination was highest in the first week and was the lowest in the third week in both the soils; it can be related to nitrate leaching by irrigations done.

 

29. GHAFFAR KIANI* [Character association and path coefficient analysis of yield components in rice varieties]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 552-555 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sari University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, P. O. Box 578, Sari, Iran *(e-mail : ghkiani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             This study aimed at determining the relationship between grain yield and yield components in 20 rice genotypes. Results showed that traits of the total number of grains per panicle (r=0.552.) and filled grains per panicle (r=0.473) correlated significantly with grain yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that grain yield associated with number of panicles per plant and the total number of grains per panicle with the direct effects of 0.765 and 0.718, respectively. Information obtained in this study revealed that traits the number of panicles per plant and total number of grains per panicle could be used as selection criteria for grain yield improvement in rice.

30. S. K. Jain*, P. R. Patel and M. Elangovan [Genetic divergence in local land races of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] collected from different geographical origins]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 556- 561 (2012). Sorghum Research Station Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Deesa-385 535 (BK) (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : skjain_sdau@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

            This study was conducted to find out the effects of plant density on light absorption and light extinction coefficient on yield and One hundred and two local land races of sorghum collected from different geographical origins were evaluated during kharif 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the genetic diversity. The analysis of variances showed highly significant differences among the accessions for all the characters studied. The clustering pattern revealed that genetic diversity was not necessarily correlated with geographical origins. Stover yield made the largest contribution to total variability (32.90%) followed by plant height (29.79%) and days to 50% flowering (27.36%). Multivariate analysis grouped the accessions into the 13 clusters. Cluster I was the largest and consisted of 26 followed by cluster II (24 accessions), cluster III (13 accessions) and cluster IV (9 accessions). The largest inter-cluster distances were observed between clusters III and VIII (63.31) followed by clusters V and XIII (60.44), clusters V and XI (56.61) and clusters X and XII (53.84) indicating that the crosses between accessions of these different clusters could give heterotic responses and better segregants after hybridization, which can be utilized for future crop improvement programme.

 

31.  RAJNISH KUMAR, R. K. MITTAL* AND D. P. PANDEY [Genetic variability for yield and growth attributes in adzuki bean]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 562-565 (2012). Department of Crop Improvement CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India *(e-mail : mittalgenet2007@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Vigna angularis (Willd.) is commonly known as adzuki bean. It is a small bean that has an inherently sweet, nutty taste and it is one of the 12 most important grain legume crops in the world. Twenty-six genotypes of adzuki bean were evaluated at the experimental farm of the Department of Crop Improvement, CSK HPKV, Palampur, in RBD with three replications during kharif 2007. Data were recorded on the nine yield traits and seven other traits like plant height, pod length, pods/plant, seeds/pod, leaf area, 100-seed weight and protein content. Ten growth parameters viz., AGR, CGR, RGR, NAR, LAR, LAI, LAD, SLW, SLA and LWR were calculated by taking data on leaf area and dry weight/plant, periodically at 15 days interval, starting 35 days after sowing. Analysis of variance for yield and other traits and the growth parameters, which were calculated over mean of data observed at different stages of growth and at GS3 stage, recorded significant treatment differences for most of the characters showing the presence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Among the nine yield traits studied, PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance were generally high for aerial biomass at maturity, yield/day, yield/day with respect to reproductive phase, biomass/day to plant growth and seed yield/plant. Heritability in broad sense and genetic advance were high for LAD.

 

32. SONI KUMARI, R. K. SHEORAN, AMIT SINGH AND RAM AVTAR [Genetic variability, heritability and character association in sunflower]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 566-572 (2012). Depertment of Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

              In the present investigation, 80 genotypes of sunflower were grown in randomized block design with three replications accomodating each genotype in 4 m long single row plot with row to row and plant to plant spacing at 45 and 30 cm, respectively, at the experimental research area of Oilseeds Section, Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during spring season of 2008 and 2009 with the objectives to determine variability, correlation, path coefficient, genetic divergence, identification of genetically diverse and agronomically desirable germplasm and selection indices. Observations on five competitive plants for 12 metric characters were recorded. Substantial amount of genetic variability was observed for all the characters under study. The seed yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation with number of seeds per capitulum and 100-seed weight. The path coefficient analysis recorded that number of seeds per capitulum, 100-seed weight, plant height, palinitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were the main contributors towards seed yield per plant.

 

33. R. K. Sheoran, Amit Singh, Ram Avtar and Subhash Chander [Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 573-576 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

             The present study was carried out to identify sunflower hybrids suitable for spring season in northern states of India which shall be highly essential for increasing the cultivation of sunflower in the country. Sixteen newly synthesized hybrids along- with two released hybrids, namely, HSFH 848 and Jwalamukhi were evaluated during four consecutive seasons i. e. spring 2008 to 2011 in order to estimate stability of performance for six quantitative traits at the research farm of Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. A randomized complete block design with three replications was applied during each crop season. The variance of genotype x environment interaction (G x E) was highly significant, suggesting that the yield of the hybrids was inconsistent in different seasons. From this study, it was concluded that the hybrids HSPH 848, Jwalamukhi, HSFH 1183 and HSPH 1103 were more adaptive and stable with high mean, regression coefficient (bi) around unity and deviation from regression coefficient (S2di) around zero for four characters viz., seed yield, head diameter, days to flower and oil content (%). These hybrids were concluded as stable hybrids.

 

34.  Yao Qin*, Hai-zhu Jin, Feng-Ning Xiang and Jun Gao [Isolation of a new caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene from Chinese poplar (Populus simonii)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 577-586 (2012). Laboratory of Plant Breeding & Genetics College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, Korea  *(e-mail : qingyu624@korea.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

 

              As one of many important polymers in plants, lignin is a hydrophobic polymer that is synthesized in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It is a major industrial biopolymer in the forest products, textile and paper industries. In addition, lignin-based biomass is a renewable energy source that can be used for the generation of ethanol as a fuel. Chinese poplar (Populus simonii) is a fast growing commercial log whose fiber lignin consists of both syringyl (S) units and the guaiacyl (G) type lignin occurring in the xylem fibers. G-lignin is reported as more condensed polymer which is mainly controlled by COMT. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the lignin biosynthetic COMT genes in Chinese poplar by ESTs based on cDNA library. The partial COMT sequences were deposited in Genbank and a full length COMT cDNA sequence was isolated and obtained from PsiCOMT-5 partial sequence and RACE-PCR technique. Further more, the polygenetic and GO analysis of the Chinese poplar COMT partial sequences indicated the highly homology to the COMT gene family both in biochemical function and pathway could be considered to be contributing to the bio-energy development as an important genetic resource.

 

35.  D. ARCHANA, JAVAREGOWDA, B. HALAPPA AND P. SURENDRA [Screening of rice hybrids for resistance to rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-mason) under rainfed ecosystem]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 587-589 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

             Field screening of 49 rice hybrids was carried out against gall midge during kharif season of 2009-10 at the Agricultural Research Station, Sirsi (Uttar Kannada) under rainfed ecosystem. Hybrids were evaluated based on the standard evaluation scale of 0-9. Among 49 rice hybrids screened, 42 rice hybrids showed susceptible reaction [11-25% silver shoots (SS)]; two hybrids showed highly susceptible (>25% SS) and remaining five hybrids showed highly resistant (0% SS). None of the hybrids was found to be resistant, moderately resistant and moderately susceptible.

 

36.  ASHA V. KENCHARADDI, R. A. BALIKAI AND N. K. BIRADAR PATIL [Effect of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seed treatment on storability of sunflower]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 590-594 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

           A laboratory experiment was conducted during 2009-10 to know the effect of seed treatment with different dosages of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam on the quality of sunflower seeds in storage. Sunflower hybrid KBSH-41 was used for the study. There were five treatments replicated twice in completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of imidacloprid 600 FS @ 10 ml/kg seed, imidacloprid 70 WS @ 5 g/kg seed, thiamethoxam 70 WS @ 5 g/kg seed, thiamethoxam 35 FS @ 10 ml/kg seed and an untreated check. The seeds treated with respective dosages of insecticides were packed in separate polythene bag of more than 700 gauges and kept under laboratory conditions. The observations on seed germination, seedling dry weight and vigour index were recorded at 15 days after storage and subsequently at monthly interval up to 10 months. The results revealed that sunflower seeds treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seeds could be stored in polythene bag of more than 700 gauges up to 10 months without significant reduction in the seed quality.

 

37.   KUMAR KANABURGI, R. R. PATIL, MALLAPPA CHANDARAGI AND RAMESH BABU [Biology of hawk moth, Acherontia styx Westwood on its new alternate host Clerodendrum phlomidis Linneaus]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 595-598 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

              Arni, Clerodendrum phlomidis L. was recorded as a new alternate host to hawk moth, Acherontia styx Westwood (Sphingidae : Lepidoptera) for the first time. Hence, the biology of hawk moth, A. styx was also studied on C. phlomidis for the first time under laboratory conditions at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India during kharif 2010. The adult moths laid small bright bluish coloured eggs individually on the plant. The incubation period lasted for 6.0±0.67 days. The larva passed through five instars occupying total larval period of 19.8±1.23 days. The pre-pupal and pupal periods were 6.5±0.85 and 20.3±2.99 days, respectively. Average fecundity was 140.5±15.64 eggs/female. Total life cycle was completed in 52.6±3.75 days. The longevity of the female and male moths was 13.10±0.88 and 9.60±0.70 days, respectively.

 

38.  Gh. Shabani*, S. Vazan, M. R. Chaichi, F. Paknejad,  KUMAR KANABURGI, R. R. PATIL AND MALLAPPA CHANDARAGI [Biology and morphometrics of til hawk moth, Acherontia styx Westwood]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 599-602 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

              Biology of til hawk moth, Acherontia styx Westwood (Sphingidae : Lepidoptera) was studied on sesame under laboratory conditions at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India during kharif 2010. The adult moth laid small bright bluish coloured eggs individually on the plant. The incubation period was 6±0.91 days. The larval stage passed through five instars and the total larval period occupied 19.55±0.23 days. The pre-pupal and pupal periods occupied 5.7±0.69 and 19.7±1.65 days, respectively. Average fecundity was 138.8±8.09 eggs/female. Total life cycle was completed in 50.95±4.48 days. The longevity of the female and male moths was 13.5±0.94 and 9.85±0.93 days, respectively.

 

39.  R. SUNITHA DEVI, K. DHARMA REDDY AND M. SRINIVASA RAO [Development and validation of integrated pest management modules for Bt cotton]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 603-607 (2012). Department of Entomology Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

           Integrated pest management (IPM) module was developed and evaluated for transgenic Bt cotton during 2006-07 in farmers’ field at Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh and its performance was compared with the Bt grown under farmers’ practice (FP), non-Bt with integrated pest management (IPM) and farmers’ practice. In integrated pest management module for both Bt as well as non-Bt cotton hybrids, include imidacloprid treated seeds, single spray with azadirachtin 1500 ppm, two sprays with imidacloprid and single spray with acetamiprid for sucking pest complex, installation of pheromone traps, erection of bird perches, growing maize as border crop and need-based application of insecticides for bollworm management. Farmers’ practice module for both Bt and non-Bt involved only selective insecticides for sucking pests and bollworms. The population of sucking pests followed the order of non-Bt FP>Bt FP>non-Bt IPM> Bt IPM. The populations of natural enemies were higher under IPM than under FP of both Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids. Incidence of H. armigera and the damage caused by it were low in Bt IPM and Bt FP. Maximum damage was observed in non-Bt FP (15.28%). Seed cotton yield (3125 kg/ha) and net returns (Rs. 39725/ha) were highest for Bt IPM followed by Bt FP (2875 kg/ha and Rs. 30250/ha). Thus, Bt cotton both under IPM and FP recorded higher cost : benefit ratio of 1 : 1.37 and 1 : 1.14 over non-Bt under IPM (1 : 1.10) and FP (1 : 0.79). The results indicated that good performance of Bt cotton under both the modules.

 

40.  M. Das and N. Chaudhuri* [Life system analysis of Earias vitella for formulation of pest model]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 608-613 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (W. B.), India *(e-mail : nc_ubkv@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              In terai region of West Bengal, the Earias vitella appeared on okra during October to December in late season crop and the infestation occurred in an overlapping manner within and over the generations. Higher level of potential fecundity (135), net reproductive rate (8.49) and innate capacity for increase in number (0.0627) of adult of October-November generation and faster development (life cycle of 38 days) irrespective of shorter doubling time (11.18 days) and higher weekly multiplication rate (1.551), more number of hypothetical F2 (72.08) females and higher survival value (0.11) during October-November resulted in higher level of infestation in November. The key mortality for different generations was recorded as physical character of leaves for 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, diseases and some unknown causes for 4th and 5th instar larvae and low hatchability for eggs. All of these had a direct bearing upon variation in climatic conditions as well as crop phenology in all the generations. After December, adverse climatic conditions and late stage of crop growth reduced the infestation level under field conditions.

 

41. SHALINI, C. P. MALLAPUR AND ROHINI SUGANDI [Reaction of Bt cotton hybrids to mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) (Miridae : Hemiptera)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 614-617 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

             Field experiments carried out to screen Bt cotton hybrids against the green mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) (Miridae : Hemiptera) over period of two years 2008-09 and 2009-10 indicated that the hybrids Akka, Jai, Neeraj and ABCH-3083 recorded maximum mirid bug population (38.42, 32.60, 30.12 and 28.25 bugs/5 squares, respectively) as well as higher square and boll shedding and thus were categorized under highly susceptible group. In moderately susceptible group, the mirid population ranged between 24.20 to 26.68 bugs/5 squares. Whereas NCS-145 Bt, NCS-207, Bajaranga and Chiranjeevi proved to be the most promising hybrids against mirid bug with a population range of 19.38 to 22.12 bugs/5 squares with minimum square and boll shedding leading to higher number of bolls and seed cotton yield. Further, the correlation studies made between the morphological characters of plant with mirid bug population revealed that the length of bract (r=0.8151) and bract width (r=0.8443) played an important role in imparting mirid susceptibility. The hybrids which were categorized under less susceptible group possessed least bract size compared to the hybrids which were categorized under moderately or highly susceptible group. Whereas the number of hairs on leaf (r=-0.8487) and less bract (r=-0.9122) imparted resistance against mirid bug. Maximum number of hairs on leaf and on bract were recorded in the less susceptible group, whereas highly susceptible group recorded less number of hairs (11.26 to 19.56 hairs/cm2 on leaf and 18.12 to 25.56 hairs/cm2 on bract.

 

42.  ROHINI SUGANDI, C. P. MALLAPUR AND SHALINI [Determination of economic injury level for mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) (Miridae : Hemiptera) on Bt cotton]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 618-623 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

              The economic injury level (EIL) for mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) on Bt cotton has been worked out for the first time as 0.3 bugs/square on two years’ experimentation basis (2008-09 and 2009-10) by adopting two different approaches for EIL determination.

 

43.  C. P. MALLAPUR*, ROHINI SUGANDI AND SHALINI [Status of green mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) (Miridae : Hemiptera) on Bt cotton in Karnataka]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 624-627 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : cmallapur@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             Intensive survey and surveillance was conducted over two consecutive years (2008-09 and 2009-10) in major Bt cotton growing belts of Karnataka covering seven districts, 22 talukas and 88 villages to know the status of mirid bug incidence on cotton. The roving survey indicated that the maximum incidence of mirid bug was noticed in Haveri district (10.17 and 13.29 bugs/5 squares) followed by Dharwad (6.03 and 9.40 bugs/5 squares) during first and second year, respectively, which were recognized as hot spots. The bug incidence peaked during October-November months irrespective of the hybrids and district surveyed. The results of fixed spot survey made at MARS, Dharwad and ARS, Devihosur also indicated that the peak incidence of the pest was observed during November month coinciding with luxuriant reproductive growth of the crop.

 

44. SELIME ÖLMEZ-BAYHAN*, EROL BAYHAN AND ISIL ÖZDEMIR [Survey of predator species of aphids in Batman, Diyarbakir and Mardin provinces of Turkey]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 628-633 (2012). Department of Plant Protection Agriculture Faculty, Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey *(e-mail : solmez@dicle.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

              This study was carried out between 2006 and 2007 to determine the predators of aphid species in Batman, Diyarbakýr and Mardin provinces in South-eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Aphid predator species were determined in cultivated and uncultivated fields and collected by suction tube. Also, the immature stages were collected with their preys and reared in order to obtain adults. In addition, aphid species preyed upon by each predator species were also identified. In this study, total 15 species of predator species feeding upon different aphid species were recorded in this study.

 

45.  CIGDEM VURAL AND SONER SOYLU* [Prevalence and incidence of fungal disease agents affecting bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 634-640 (2012). Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay-31034, Turkey *(e-mail : soylu@mku.edu.tr; ssoylu69@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Quantitative disease surveys were conducted to evaluate the distribution and incidence of the fungal disease agents causing root-foot rot and foliar diseases on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants in major bean growing districts of Hatay province of Turkey. The disease surveys were conducted, during the period of February to June 2006, in randomly selected bean fields at three major plant growing stages such as seedling stage, flowering stage and fruiting-harvesting stage. The results of fungal isolations from diseased bean roots, crowns and stems taken at regular intervals over the entire growth period indicated that the most frequently encountered and widespread soil-borne fungal disease agents were Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. f. sp. phaseoli (Burkholder) W. C. Snyder & H. N. Hans. [Fusarium root rot]; Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend Fr. f. sp. phaseoli J. B. Kendrick and W. C. Snyder [Fusarium wilt]; Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. [Rhizoctonia root rot]; Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich [Charcoal rot]; Pythium ultimum Trow [Pythium disease]; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary [White mold]; Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. [Southern blight] and Alternaria spp. on bean plants growing in all districts surveyed. Majority of the affected seedling samples were infested by more than one disease agents. Alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus were the most frequently observed foliar fungal disease agents at both flowering and fruiting-harvesting stages of bean plants. Podosphaera phaseoli (Zhao) U. Braun [Powdery mildew] and Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris [Angular leaf spot] were the least frequently observed foliar fungal disease agents at this stage.

 

46.  MERYEM MENGULLUOGLU AND SONER SOYLU* [Antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against seed-borne bacterial disease agent, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 641-646 (2012). Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay-31034, Turkey *(e-mail : soylu@mku.edu.tr; ssoylu69@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              Antibacterial properties of essential oils derived from several plant species belonging to Lamiaceae family such as thyme (Thymbra spicata L. subsp. spicata and Thymus serpyllum L.), origanum (Origanum majorana L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), lavender (Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were investigated against seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon. By using paper disc diffusion assay, the most effective essential oil caused by T. spicata was followed by essential oils obtained from T. serpyllum, O. marjarom, M. spicata, M. officinalis, R. officinalis, L. stoechas and S. officinalis, respectively. By using micro agar broth dilution assay, minimum bactericidal concentrations of the essential oil varied from 6 to 40 mg/ml, depending on the plant species. The lowest and highest EC50 values were recorded for thyme (1.98 mg/ml) and lavender (15.42 mg/ml) essential oils, respectively. Laboratory screenings of plant extracts have given encouraging results, indicating their potential use in the management of diseases caused by Aac. As the bacterial agent known to be transmitted through seeds, one of the ways of application of the plant essential oil is as a seed treatment. Thyme and origanum essential oils appear to be promising in this respect. Further study is underway in our laboratory to screen for their efficacy in managing other seed-borne bacterial disease agents in different commercially important crops.

 

47.  Y. M. SOMASEKHARA, N. G. RAVICHANDRA AND R. K. JAIN [Bio-management of root knot (Meloidogyne incognita) infecting pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) with combination of organic amendments]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 647-651 (2012). AICRP (N), Department of Plant Pathology University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

              Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) originates from Persia and is cultivated in Western and Central Asia and in the Mediterranean region. The predominant parasitic nematode affecting pomegranate is the root knot nematode, M. incognita, M. acrita and M. javanica. In India, the root knot (Meloidogyne incognita) of pomegranate has been noticed in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. The bioagents (IIHR strains), Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporium and Pseudomonas fluorescens were applied to the soil @ 50 g/plant in combination with castor cake (1 kg/plant). The experiment was conducted at Kaladgi and Pavagada during 2008-11 on 8 to 12 years’ old pomegranate gardens (cv. Ganesh). The soil application with P. lilacinus reduced nematode population from 631.8 to 35 nematodes/200 cc with reduction of root galls from 312 to 38 galls/5 g root for the period of 180 days. Carbofuran reduced the nematode population from 654.6 to 34.4 with reduction of fresh root galls from 380 to 38 galls/5 g root at Kaladgi during 2008-09. Similar trend was obtained at Pavagada, the soil application with P. lilacinus reduced galls from 113 to 19/5 g with nematode population reduction from 240 to 80 nematodes/200 cc. The combination of P. lilacinus with castor cake recorded least galls (37 galls/5 g root) with least nematode population (160/200 cc) during the year 2009-10. The same experiment was repeated during 2010-11 and noticed reduction of new galls from 106 to 37/5 g with population reduction from 440 to 60 nematodes/200 cc during 2010-11. Untreated control recorded highest galls (253 galls/5 g root) with highest nematode population (380/200 cc). The P. lilacinus (50 g/plant) with castor cake (1 kg/plant) combination was found to be effective in reducing root knot nematode in pomegranate and also prevented the entry of wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fimbriata.

 

48. B. HALAPPA, J. S. AWAKNAVAR AND D. ARCHANA [Toxicity of different insecticides to Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammitidae : Hymenoptera) under laboratory condition]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 652-655 (2012). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

             Seven insecticides, namely, imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, indoxacarb, endosulfan, flubendiamide, Btk and azadirachtin were tested during 2010-11 to determine their toxicity to the parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii using an insecticide coated vial residue bioassay. All the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid. Imidacloprid showed the highest toxicity to T. chilonis with LC50 of 0.0003% followed by indoxacarb (0.0004%). The LC50 values of endosulfan and diafenthiuron were 0.0337 and 0.0321%, exhibiting low toxicity when compared with other insecticides tested. Imidacloprid was found to be 112, 77 and 11 times more toxic than endosulfan, diafenthiuron and btk, respectively, as revealed by the LC50 values to T. chilonis. Based on risk quotient, which is ratio between the field-recommended doses and LC50 of the beneficial diafenthiuron, endosulfan, btk and azadirachtin were found to be slight to moderately toxic and imidacloprid, indoxacarb and flubendiamide were found to be dangerous to the parasitoid. Since T. chilonis is an important egg parasitoid of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) and reported to reduce the pest population considerably and often released augmentatively in rice and cotton IPM programs, the above noted dangerous chemicals should be avoided in rice and cotton ecosystem.

 

49.  Ali Soleymani* AND Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian [Response of different cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) to irrigation and planting dates in Isfahan, Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 656-660 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            Decreasing water supply adversely affects morphological and physiological processes in plants. The adverse effects of drought and water stress on crop yield may be more pronounced at some particular growth stage depending upon the nature of crop species and even genotypes within the species. A split-split plot design within randomized complete block design with three replications was used to study the responses of different fennel cultivars to disruption of irrigation and planting dates in 2004 at Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Main plots were irrigation disruption in different stages (I1–Irrigation until the beginning of stem elongation, I2–Irrigation until the end of stem elongation, I3–Irrigation until umbel formation, I4–Irrigation until seed filling and I5–Full irrigation), the sub-plots were 30 March and 25 April, and sub-sub-plots were five different cultivars, namely, Isfahan, Yazd, Shiraz, CN.uk and B.uk. Irrigation had significant effect on number of incomplete umbels, number of lateral branches, seed number and 1000-seed weight, and planting date had significant effect on number of seeds. The effect of cultivar was significant on number of incomplete umbels and seed number. The maximum number of umbels, umbelets, lateral branches, seed number, seed yield and 1000-seed weight were obtained by full irrigation (I5). Plantation of CN.uk cultivar on 30 March obtained the highest number of umbels, number of umbelets per umbel, number of seeds and seed yield. Also, the maximum 1000-seed weight was related to 30 March. It seems that cultivation of CN.uk on 30 March with full irrigation was suitable in this region.

 

50.  NIMET KARA* AND HASAN BAYDAR [Morphogenetic, ontogenetic and diurnal variabilities of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 661-668 (2012). Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32260, Turkey *(e-mail : nimetkara@sdu.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

 

              The research was carried out with the aim to determine the drug yield, essential oil rate and changes in the composition of volatile oil of hyssop in growth stages on the harvest date, different times on the day and plant organs. Samples were taken in the year of 2010, at Field Crops Experimental Area of Agriculture Faculty of Suleyman Demirel University at four different growing stages (budding, first blooming, full blooming and last blooming) and at three different times on the day (morning–08 : 00, mid-day–13 : 00 and evening–18 : 00). At each collecting time, 10 plant samples were used for analysis. Essential oil components were identified by GC/MS. In the research, the highest fresh herb, drug herb, flower and stem yield (7402, 3025, 750 and 1606 kg/ha, respectively) were observed from last blooming stage. The highest leaf yield (1224 kg/ha) was determined from first blooming stage. The highest essential oil ratio (0.57%) was determined from flowers at full blooming stage. The highest essential oil yield (9.2 kg/ha) was obtained from herb at full blooming stage. The highest essential oil ratio was determined at evening hours in both fresh herb and dry herb (0.14 and 0.48%, respectively). The main compounds of hyssop essential oil were determined as sabinene (28.4-57.2%), heneicosene (9.49-37.0%), geranyl acetate (7.5-25.0%), myrcene (2.5-10.5%), farnesene (1.3-7.5%) and camphor (0.8-8.1%).

 

51.  B. Mondal*, N. C. Sarkar, C. K. Mondal, R. K. Maiti and H. González Rodríguez [Mangrove plants and traditional Ayurvedic practitioners in Sundarbans region of West Bengal, India]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 669-674 (2012). Ramkrishna Ashram Krishi Vigyan Kendra Nimpith Ashram, South 24 Parganas-743 338 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : bholanath.ppvb@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            The Sundarbans is the world’s largest delta and continuous mangrove forest, classified as moist tropical seral forest, comprising a mosaic of beach forest and tidal forest, located in Bangladesh and in the West Bengal, India. The Sundarbans has a population of over 4 million. The island based habitation within the Sundarbans faces various hindrances to normal daily life which forced the local habitants to develop their own unique way of living. In this situation, very long time back, local people have identified the medicinal properties of the mangrove plants. They have used different mangrove plants in different forms as medicine to cure some common as well as chronic ailments like fever, malaria, cold and cough, bronchitis, asthma, skin diseases, ulcers, leprosy, small pox, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, infertility, etc. In our study, we have tried to document the medicinal uses of Sundarbans mangrove plants by collecting data from local people with special emphasis to the traditional ayurvedic practitioners (Vaidya, Gunin, Ojha, Baule, etc.). Altogether 35 mangrove species having medicinal values were recorded among which 23 trees, seven shrubs, three herbs, one semi-deciduous tree and one woody climbing shrub under 20 botanical families which were used to cure ailments commonly by the local healers.

 

52.   NIMET KARA* AND HASAN BAYDAR [Essential oil contents and composition of lavenders and lavandins cultivated in Turkey]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 675-681 (2012). Department of Field Crops Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey *(e-mail : nimetkara@sdu.edu.tr)

ABSTRACT

             In Isparta, lavender is cultivated on an area of 250 hectares. The lavender plants are often used as lavender oil and lavender buds by drying a small amount too. The research was carried out at the Field Crops Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty of Suleyman Demirel University in 2011. The study was conducted with the aim to determine essential oil and its composition in fresh stem flower and dry stemless flower of lavender and lavandin cultivars. Essential oil was obtained by steam distillation method. Composition of essential oil was identified with GC/MS. Statistically significant differences (P£0.01) were observed between both the fresh stem flower and dry stemless flower essential oils of lavender and lavandin cultivars. The highest essential oil rate in both fresh stem flower and dry stemless flower was obtained from L. angustifolia var. Silver (1.72 and 7.50%, respectively), the lowest essential oil rate from L. angustifolia var. Munstead (0.13 and 0.67%, respectively) lavender cultivars. Linalool, linalyl acetate, sabinene, cimene, terpineol-4-ol and camphor in essential oils of lavender and lavandin cultivars were determined as the main components. Essential oil components rate in fresh stem flower and dry stemless flower of lavender cultivars ranged from linalool 25.3 and 43.0%, 25.5 and 42.1%, linalyl acetate 3.6 and 37.4%, 8.0 and 47.2%, camphor 0 and 9.8%, 0 and 11.4%, sabinene 1.6 and 19.4%, 3.0 and 15.8%, cimene 2.7 and 11.0%, 1.9 and 8.5% and terpeneol-4-ol 0.6 and 12.9%, 0 and 13.8%, respectively.

 

53.  B. Vajantha, M. Umadevi, M. C. Patnaik and M. Rajkumar [Dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in Ashwagandha grown soils as influenced by INM and panchakavya]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 682-693 (2012). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

            A field study was conducted to determine the activity of dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in soils of Ashwagandha during rabi 2007-08 and kharif 2008 with different levels of NPK (0, 50, 100 and 150% NPK), organic manures (castor cake @ 2.5 t/ha and vermicompost @ 1 t/ha), panchakavya and bio-fertilizers. The activity of dehydrogenase and phosphatase was increased significantly with NPK levels and maximum activity was under 150% NPK. The build-up of dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity was higher with castor cake @ 2.5 t/ha+bio-fertilizers. In general, the integrated use of 150% NPK along with castor cake+bio-fertilizers showed the higher enzymatic activity.

 

54.  Rozbeh Farhoudi* [Effect of drought stress on growth, physiology and flower essential oil yield of Iranian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in south of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 694-699 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : rfarhoudi@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              In this research, the effect of drought stress on growth, photosynthesis, essential oil yield of Iranian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) in Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar Branch was studied during 2010-11. A field examination was conducted using complete randomized block design with three replications. Drought stress levels included control, medium stress (70% field capacity) and severe stress (55% field capacity). Results showed that drought stress had significant effect on photosynthesis, plant height, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll content, proline and carbohydrate concentration, flower yield, essential oil percentage and flower essential oil yield. Medium drought stress increased chamomile flower essential oil yield (69.5 g/m2) compared to control. Severe drought stress decreased flower essential oil yield (33.6 g/m2), flower dry yield (48 g/m2) and shoot dry weight (330 g/m2). The highest lipid peroxidation, leaf proline and carbohydrate content were obtained from severe drought stress.

 

55.  G. K. SINGH*, S. K. SHUKLA, S. N. SINGH, R. L. YADAV, R. K. SINGH AND RAM KISHOR [Optimizing growth and yield in sugarcane (plant)-ratoon system under different crop geometries, N and K levels in sub-tropical India]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 700-707 (2012). Division of Crop Production Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : gayakaran_singh@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              A field experiment was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-08 cropping seasons on sugarcane plant crop and two consecutive ratoons at Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow to optimize crop geometry, N and K levels in sugarcane plant and ratoon crops. The sugarcane plant crop was raised with four planting geometries (planting at 60 cm, 75 cm and paired row planting at 75 : 45 cm and 105 : 45 cm). In two subsequent ratoon crops, three levels each of N (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha) and K (0, 40 and 80 kg/ha) were also applied. Paired row planting at 75 : 45 cm recorded the highest cane and sugar yields in both plant and ratoon crops. Higher planting density with 75 : 45 cm resulted in increased stubble population (32,870 and 31,680/ha in 1st and 2nd ratoon crops, respectively), removed the highest uptake of N (159.2 and 136.5 kg/ha) and K (216.3 and 186.5 kg/ha) and produced the maximum number of millable canes (1,28,900 and 1,18,100/ha) with improved yield attributes. Application of N and K @ 200 and 80 kg/ha individually produced the highest cane (77.65 and 66.59 t/ha, respectively) and sugar yields (8.25 and 7.65 t/ha, respectively). Thus, paired row planting at 75 : 45 cm with application of 200 kg N and 80 kg K/ha in ratoon crops could be recommended for optimizing growth and yield in sugarcane plant-ratoon system in sub-tropical India.

 

56.  Anureet Kaur, Sudeep Singh, K. S. Sekhon and B. S. Sidhu [Response of Bt cotton to nitrogen under drip and check basin method of irrigation under Punjab conditions]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 708-710 (2012). PAU Regional Station, Bathinda (Punjab), India

ABSTRACT

 

           Field experiments were conducted for two years to investigate the effect of various levels of nitrogen (N) on seed cotton yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in Bt cotton irrigated through surface drip irrigation at Regional Station, Bathinda on loamy sand soil. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with four treatments i. e. nitrogen application at the rate of 100, 75 and 50% of recommended dose (150 kg N/ha) through drip system and recommended N in check basin and irrigation application through flood. The fertigation of 75% RDN through drip increased the seed cotton yield to the tune of 12.7% over check basin. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) recorded was the maximum under 50% RDN through drip followed by 75% RDN through drip and the lowest recorded in 100% RDN through flood irrigation.

 

57. RAJAKUMAR, J. M. NIDAGUNDI, C. R. KONDA, M. Y. AJAYAKUMAR AND R. LOKESHA [Genotype × environment interaction and phenotypic stability for seed cotton yield and fibre quality traits in Bt cotton hybrids]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 711-714 (2012). All India Co-ordinated Cotton Improvement Project UAS Agricultural Research Station, Siruguppa-583 121, Dist. Bellary, Raichur (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

 

             Petuniais one of the most important bedding plants in landscape. Petunia violacea has cultured from old times in Iran and it is famous between producers to native species. Irrigation levels on characteristics in this plant were studied due to deficiency of water sources. In order to survey the effect of irrigation levels on this species, the trial has been executed on the baA study was conducted with an objective to determine genotype × environment (G x E) interaction and stability parameters of 20 commercially available Bt cotton hybrids over three environments viz., Agricultural Research Station, Siruguppa (E–1), Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur (E-2) and Agricultural Research Station, Bheemarayanagudi (E-3). Stability parameters including mean, linear regression coefficient (bi) and deviations from regression (S2di) were arrived at following standard procedures. Significant differences for yield were observed in all the three environments. Mean seed cotton yield ranged from 1478 to 2203 kg/ha with genotypes showing significant interaction with environment. Regression coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 1.70 with deviation from regression being significant for all the hybrids evaluated except Tulasi-4BG-II, Tulasi-117 BG-II, Chirutha BG-II, ACH-155-2 BG-II, Rakhi-621 BG-II and RCH-2 BG-II. The study revealed that three hybrids viz., MRC-7347 BG-II, ACH-177-2 BG-II and MRC-7351 BG-II exhibited better stability not only with respect to seed cotton yield but also fibre qualities, particularly span length and fibre strength.

 

58.  Alireza Khakifirooz, Majid Kiaei, ABASALI NOURI SADEGH* and Ahmad Samariha [Studies on chemical properties and morphological characteristics of Iranian cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) : A potential source of fibrous raw material for paper industry in Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 715-720 (2012). Agricultural Department Zabol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zabol, Iran *(e-mail : anourisadegh@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             In the present work, the chemical component and morphological characteristics of Iranian cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibers were investigated. Chemical properties including holocellulose (72.31%), alpha-cellulose (48.2%), lignin (16.27%) and extractives (1% NaOH 17.39%) contents were determined. Fiber length, width, width of lumen and cell wall thickness were 2553, 22.35, 5.23 and 11.90 µm, respectively. The results of a biometrical study showed that kenaf bast contained fibers with similar average biometrical properties to the softwood fibers, except that the cell wall of kenaf bast was thicker. Chemical compositional analysis showed that the lignin content of kenaf bast was lower than other non-wood papermaking fiber resources, while the holocellulose content of kenaf was high. It was found that the kenaf bast contained low amounts of ash.

 

59.  Nafise Nikkhah, Ali Soleymani* and MAJID SHAMS [Influence of pre-chilling and plant growth hormones on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling growth of black cumin (Bunium persicum)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 721-725 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan, Esfahan, Iran *(e-mail : a_soleymani@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

             Bunium persicum is an important medical plant with dormant seed and it is established and distributed only in its natural habitats. In order to determine the effects of some pretreatment factors on primary growth and germination characteristics of two Bunium persicum, an experiment was conducted as split-factorial layout within completely randomized design at Seed Research Laboratory, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch in 2011. Most pre-chilling treatments were 0, 15, 30 and 45 days and cultivars were consisted of Esfahan and Mashad. Hormone treatments were GA3, BA, KI, GA3+BA, GA3+KI, BA+KI, GA3+BA+KI, KNO3, H2SO4 and distilled water as a control treatment. Pre-chilling had significant effect on coleoptile length, radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean time for germination, germination rate and seed vigour index. Cultivar also had significant influence on coleoptile length, radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, germination rate and seed vigour index. All experimental characteristics except uniformity of seed germination were affected by hormone treatments. The maximum coleoptile length, radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, germination ratio and seedling vigour index were related to 45 days moist pre-chilling treatment. Esfahan also obtained the highest coleoptile and radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, germination ratio and seedling vigour index. It seems that application of endogenous GA3+KI and BA+KI concentration, which is provided mostly by chilling treatment, is the most effective factor for breaking the seed dormancy. On the basis of the results, usage of 45 days moist pre-chilling accompanied by application of GA3+KI and BA+KI in Esfahan cultivar was appropriate.

 

60. S. M. PRADEEP, V. K. DESHPANDE AND K. S. JAGADEESH* [Evaluation of phytotoxicity of matured biocomposts obtained from pressmud and spentwash on seed germination and seedling vigour in different crops]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 726-730 (2012). Department of Agricultural Microbiology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : jagsbio@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            The phytotoxicity of three different biocomposts obtained by degradation of pressmud and concentrated spentwash evaluated seed germination and seedling vigour in different crops. The matured compost material was mixed in water at 1:10 (w/v) and a compost tea was prepared. The seeds of four different crops such as maize, greengram, soybean and okra were soaked in compost tea for 6 h and subjected to seed germination tests. The toxicity was examined by recording seed germination and its vigour index under lab conditions. Among the four treatments, treatment T2 (biocompost material obtained due to inoculation with specially developed consortium) showed best results for seed germination and seedling vigour in all the crops.

 

61. J. A. SHAIKH, K. B. KATHIRIA, R. R. ACHARYA AND B. VARPE [Combining ability studies in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] over environments]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 731-736 (2012). Main Vegetable Research Station Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

 

            Combining ability estimates for fruit yield and its components were studied following line x tester anlysis in bottle gourd. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that both gca and sca variances were significant for all the characters indicating importance of additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of various traits. Female parent ABG-1 and male parents NDBG-517, PSPL and Samrat were found to be good general combiners for fruit yield per plant and at least for two to three important yield attributes in respective environments. For fruit yield per plant, three crosses viz., ABG-1 x NDBG-517, Pusa Naveen x NDBG-517 and Arka Bahar x Punjab Komal in E1; NDBG-104 x Thar Samruddhi, Arka Bahar x NDBG-517 and Punjab Long x PSPL in E2 and Pusa Naveen x PSPL, ABG-1 x PSPL and Pusa Naveen x Samrat in E3 displayed significant and positive sca effect. Hence, these hybrids were identified as potential for wide spread cultivation and commercial exploitation after more evaluation in respective environment.

 

62.  B. Mondal*, I. Bhattacharya, N. C. Sarkar, A. Paul and D. C. Khatua [Standardization of inoculation technique and screening of some brinjal and tomato lines against bacterial wilt]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 737-742 (2012). Department of Plant Protection Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 236 (West Bengal), India *(e-mail : bholanath.ppvb@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            Bacterial wilt (c.o.–Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al.) is a devastating disease of brinjal and tomato throughout India, causing considerable yield loss. Use/development of host plant resistance/tolerance is the most effective way for disease management strategy. Inoculation of secondary roots of tomato and brinjal seedlings after incision with sterilized knife followed by application of bacterial suspension (1.5 x 108 cells/ml) over wounded roots was found best method of inoculation. Seven genotypes of brinjal viz., Utkal Anushri (BB 45C), Utkal Madhuri (BB 44), Utkal Jyoti (BB 13), BCB 64, Ayeb 2, Soiler and Muktakeshi (susceptible check) and seven F2 generations of tomato viz., Cross 7F2P8, Cross 7F2P-1-2, Cross 4F2P4, Cross 3F2P-1-1, Cross 4F2P-3, Cross 8F2P-1-1 and Cross 7F2P3 were screened against bacterial wilt in laboratory conditions during 2006-07. Only three genotypes of brinjal (Utkal Madhuri, Ayeb 2 and Soiler) and two F2 generations of tomato (Cross-7F2P8 and Cross-8F2P-1-1) showed resistance reaction which can be utilized in future breeding programme.

 

63. Sunita Sheokand, S. S. Dudeja and K. Swaraj [Nitrogen fixation in tropical environments–Adaptive responses and benefits]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 743-753 (2012). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

ABSTRACT

 

             It is widely recognized that biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legume-rhizobium symbiosis is an important component of productivity in tropical agriculture. Nitrogen fixation is strongly influenced by the environmental conditions such as salt stress, drought stress, acidity, alkalinity and nutrient deficiency. These major stress factors suppress the growth and symbiotic characteristics of most rhizobia; however, several strains, distributed among various species of rhizobia, are tolerant to stress effects. Some strains of rhizobia form effective (N2-fixing) symbioses with their host legumes under salt, temperature and water stress. The effect of these conditions on the nitrogen fixation system and the adaptive responses have been reviewed. In addition to their N2-fixing capacity legumes are extremely important in human and animal diets. Globally, they supply 33% of human protein, and some are important sources of oil. Other legumes provide unique phytochemicals which have industrial and medicinal uses. The rhizobium legume symbiosis also plays an important role in phytoremediation.

 

64. Ehsan Houshyar*, Shahram Kiani and MOHAMMAD JAVAD SHEIKH DAVOODI [Energy consumption efficiency for corn production utilizing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 754-759 (2012). Izeh Branch, Islamic Azad University Izeh, Iran *(e-mail : houshyar.e@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              The present study was carried out to assess corn production efficiency with regard to energy consumption in three regions of Fars province, Iran. For this purpose, the data were collected from 287 corn growing farmers using completely randomized design. Efficiency evaluation was done using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique via using CCR, BCC and SBM models. The results indicated that total input energy for corn production was 41631.97, 44730.15 and 38866.64 MJ/ha with the weighted average yield of 7357.18, 7227.30 and 7582.47 kg/ha in region 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The main three energy consumers were electricity, fertilizer and diesel fuel by about 90% in all regions. The efficiency evaluation disclosed that the number of technical efficient farmers was more in region 3 by 35.16% using CCR model. For determining the best region for corn production considering all efficiencies, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used. AHP was applied in two ways, different and equal weighted efficiencies. In both the ways, region 3 was the best place for corn production considering energy consumption efficiency. .

 

65. R. K. Brahma Bhatt and N. K. Jain [Response of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) saccharata Sturt] to sulphur and zinc fertilization]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 760-763 (2012). Department of Agronomy Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

 

             A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur to evaluate the response of sweet corn [Zea mays (L.) saccharata Sturt] to sulphur and zinc fertilization under Sub-humid Southern Plain and Aravalli Hills Zone of Rajasthan. Results showed that plant height, dry matter accumulation, green cob and green fodder yields, net returns, B : C ratio and soil S status after harvest of sweet corn increased and Zn status decreased significantly with the addition of sulphur up to 45 kg/ha. The enhancement in green cob and green fodder yields due to application of 45 kg S/ha was 41.8 and 58.6% over control, respectively. Similarly, zinc application up to 6 kg/ha significantly improved plant height, dry matter accumulation, green cob and green fodder yields, net returns, B : C ratio and soil Zn status after harvest of sweet corn, while S status decreased significantly up to 6 kg Zn/ha. The improvement in green cob and green fodder due to application of 6 kg Zn/ha was 39.9 and 45.8% over control, respectively. The optimum levels of sulphur and zinc as worked out from production function were estimated to be 47.03 kg S and 6.61 kg Zn/ha, respectively.

 

66. Mohamad Reza Naghavi*, Amir Hossein Shiranirad and Mohamad Ali Baghestani [Effect of plant densities on weed competition in safflower cultivars]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 764-767 (2012). Department of Agronomy Group Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University,Takestan, Iran *(e-mail : mohamad.rezan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             In order to determine the effects of plant densities and weed competition of safflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Cultural Experiment and Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan in 2009-10. Plant density had significant effect on number of seeds per main head, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield, biological yield and harvest index. The influence of cultivar was also significant on plant height, number of seeds per main head, seed yield, 1000-seed weight, oil percentage, oil yield and biological yield. Number of seeds per main head, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and biological yield were significantly influenced by weed. Plant height, seed yield, 1000-seed weight, oil yield and biological yield decreased when weeds were on the field. The results showed that the highest seed and oil yield was observed in 70 plants per m2 and Mahali cultivar. In treatment with weed, seed and oil yield decreased significantly. So, cultivation of Mahali cultivar with 70 plants per m2 was recommended to Isfahan’s farmers.

 

67. V. R. Garasiya, N. M. Patel, H. S. Bhadauria, L. R. Verma, B. S. Rathore* and P. O. Vaghela [Effect of NAA, GA3, CCC and 2, 4-D on the quality parameters of winter season guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L-49 (Sardar)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 768-769 (2012). Department of Horticulture Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bhagwat80@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             An experiment was undertaken during monsoon 2009-10 at the Horticultural Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat. The application of 40 and 20 ppm NAA significantly enhanced the quality parameters viz., TSS (10.95 and 10.87%), reducing sugar (3.79 and 3.65%), non-reducing sugar (2.65 and 2.56%), total sugar (6.44 and 6.21%) and ascorbic acid content (180.30 and 173.97 mg/100 g pulp). The minimum acidity (0.42 and 0.45%) was also observed with 40 and 20 ppm NAA treatments.

 

68. V. R. Garasiya, N. M. Patel, H. S. Bhadauria, L. R. Verma, B. S. Rathore* and P. O. Vaghela [Effect of plant growth regulators on the yield components of winter season guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivar L-49 (Sardar)]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 770-772 (2012). Department of Horticulture Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : bhagwat80@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             The present investigation was carried out to work out the effect of plant growth regulators on the yield of winter season guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L-49 (Sardar). The study revealed that an application of NAA 40 ppm as well as NAA 20 ppm was found to be the most effective in increasing more number of fruits per tree (439.00 and 410.05, respectively). These treatments also increase the fruit weight (153.22 and 136.13 g), fruit volume (127.68 and 114.20 cc), fruit diameter (5.63 and 5.36 cm) and yield (66.39 and 59.90 kg/tree; 183.91 and 165.92 q/ha, respectively). The number of seeds per fruit was found to be non-significant. But minimum number of seeds per fruit was observed with GA3 50 ppm (300.87).

 

69. S. K. Parmar*, C. J. Tank and H. S. Bhadauria [Study of quantitative traits in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] by using half diallel analysis]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 773-775 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Ta-Dantiwada, Banaskantha-385 506 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : sanjayagri@ymail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            The present investigation was carried out using 28 F1 obtained from 8 x 8 diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) for green fruit yield and its traits. Highly significant gca and sca variances were observed for all the traits. The non-additive gene effects were predominant for traits under study. The cultivars Parbhani Kranti, Pusa Sawani and Panjab-7 were found the best general combiners for fruit yield. The crosses Arka Bahar x JOL-04-08, Gujarat Okra 2 x Parbhani Kranti and Panjab-7 x JOL-04-08 had highest sca effects for fruit yield and its contributing characters.

 

70. Majid Kiaei [Wood density of naturally growing oak trees in north Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 776-777 (2012). Department of Wood and Paper Engineering Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran *(e-mail : mjd_kia59@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              The variations of oven-dry density of Quercus castaneaefolia wood along radial direction from the pith to bark were investigated. Three normal oak trees (75-80 years old) were selected from Ramsar region in northern part of Iran. Disks were cut at breast height. Testing samples were prepared along radial position from the pith to the bark (eight distances such as 1-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70 and 70-80 annual ring from pith) to examine the wood density. There were two types of wood along radial position such as juvenile wood (1-20) and mature wood (20-80) and two types of wood including heartwood (20-60) and sapwood (60-80) in the mature wood part. Results indicated that the oven-dry density was lower in sap wood compared to the juvenile wood and heartwood.

 

71.  Majid Kiaei [Effect of loading surface on static bending in planted elder pine wood]. Res. on Crops 13 (2) : 778-779 (2012). Department of Wood and Paper Engineering Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran *(e-mail : mjd_kia59@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            The aim of this paper was to carry out the effect of loading surface on modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of Pinus eldarica Medw. For this purpose, three normal pine trees were cut from Iranian plantation forests (western part of Mazandran province). Testing samples were prepared from mature wood, and they were categorized in two groups including radial and tangential surfaces. The results indicated that the tree, loading surface and interaction between them had no significant effect on the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, while the effect of tree on the wood density was significant.