Volume 13, Number 1 (April, 2012)

By | July 26, 2014

Titles of research papers/articles alongwith their abstracts.
For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :
info@cropresearch.org

 

1.   Min Huang, Bing Xia, Yingbin Zou*, Peng Jiang, Wanju Shi, Preeyanat Hongthong and Xiaobing Xie [Improvement in super hybrid rice : A comparative study between super hybrid and inbred varieties]]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 1-10 (2012). College of Agronomy Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China*(e-mail : ybzou123@126.com)

ABSTRACT

           This study was conducted to compare super hybrid varieties with inbred varieties. Three varieties from each varietal group were grown under three sowing dates in Changsha, Hunan Province, China in 2010. Grain yield and some yield attributes such as tillering process, panicle traits and biomass production were measured for each variety. Averaged across three sowing dates, grain yield of super hybrid varieties was 26% higher than that of inbred varieties. The high grain yield of super hybrid varieties was attributed to improvement in both sink and source. Super hybrid varieties had large panicle size than inbred varieties, which was achieved not at the expense of panicle number. The large panicles of super hybrid varieties were attributed to more spikelet’s per panicle due to more secondary branches per panicle or spikelet volume. Strong tillering ability played a critical role in maintaining the panicle number for super hybrid varieties. Super hybrid varieties produced more biomass than inbred varieties, and this advantage was observed as early as seedling stage. High seed amylase activity was partially responsible for high biomass production for seedlings of super hybrid varieties. Canopy structure was improved in super hybrid varieties and reflected in large top three leaves and panicle position within the canopy. Higher total biomass production of super hybrid varieties resulted from both long growth duration and high crop growth rate.

 

2.    Mohsen Akbari, Mohammad Akbari, Davood Akbari and Nour Ali Sajedi*   [Influence of sodium hypochlorite on seed germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety Tarum]Res. on Crops 13 (1): 11-15 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran *(e-mail : n-sajedi@iau-arak.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

             Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution has been commonly used for the sterilization of seeds, and it has been reported to have stimulatory effect on seed germination, breaking seed dormancy, seedling growth, alleviation of salinity, in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration, and control in seed-borne pathogens in many species. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration of sodium hypochlorite solutions (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) for 24 h on seed germination percentage (GP), germination rate (GR), mean germination time (MGT) and seedling growth of rice. The results showed that the highest seed germination percentage  equal to 97.5% was obtained from 2% NaOCl treatment and lowest equal to 89% from 10% treatment after 14 days. Increase in concentration of NaOCl to 10% decreased GP and MGT. Therefore, 4% sodium hypochlorite could increase root length, shoot length and root dry weight by 7, 11.7 and 11% as compared to control, respectively. The best results were obtained from 2 to 4% NaOCl concentration. However, a considerable decrease in many parameters was observed at 10% level.  The sodium hypochlorite treatment was more compatible than soaks with commercial seed strilizants, inexpensive, easily available, simple procedure and had less potential for injury to seed.

 

3.   G. Santhosh Kumar, M. Srinivasa Raju and R. Mahendra Kumar   [Influence of nitrogen levels on yield, grain quality and nitrogen uptake of rice cultivars]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 16-20 (2012). Department of AgronomyAcharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

            Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2008 to study the effect of nitrogen levels on rice genotypes. Results showed that among all the three genotypes hybrid PA-6201 recorded maximum grain and straw yield of 6335 and 8892 kg/ha, respectively. The increasing levels of nitrogen from control to 150% RDN significantly increased the grain and straw yield. In case of quality characteristics significantly more head rice recovery (63.63%), water uptake (314.83 ml) and milling percentage (70.21%) were recorded by PA-6201 over PHB-71 which in turn registered significantly greater than that of Rajavadlu. 150% RDN recorded appreciable higher values of quality characteristics such as head rice recovery (65.52%), water uptake (320.11 ml) and milling percentage (73.10) over 100% RDN, 50% RDN and control. Among rice cultivars, hybrid PA-6201 recorded significantly higher N, P and K grain uptake of 76.12, 24.87 and 43.67 kg/ha than PHB-71 and Rajavadlu.150% RDN recorded significantly higher N, P and K grain uptake than that of 100% RDN, 50% RDN and control. The similar trend was followed in N, P and K uptake by straw. However, soil available N, P and K after crop harvest were significantly more with variety Rajavadlu. Significant increase in N, P and K uptake by grain and straw was observed with increasing levels of nitrogen.

 

4.   Mir Reza Miri*, Hamid Reza Tohidi Moghadam, Farshad Ghooshchi and Hossein Zahedi   [Growth, seed yield and phosphorus uptake of wheat as influenced by Azotobacter and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization under drought stress conditions]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 21-28 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : mirrezamiri@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

            The field experiment was carried out in 2010-11 at Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center of Varamin, Iran. The experiment was organized in a randomized complete block design, with factorial split plot arrangement, with three replications. main plots were three irrigation treatments containing (normal irrigation, non-irrigation at start of flowering stage (severe stress) and non-irrigation at start of grain filling stage and sub-plots were four levels of seed inoculations with biofertilizers (no inoculation, inoculation with mycorrhiza fungus, inoculation with Azotobacter bacterium and co-inoculation with mycorrhiza fungus plus Azotobacter bacterium). The results showed the effect of drought stress during reproductive stage on grain yield biological yield and protein percentage was significant at 1% and for harvest index, spike weight, number of spikes per m2, number of kernels per spike and phosphorus percentage was significant at 5%. The grain yield decreased by 16 and 30% for light and severe stress, respectively. Grain wheat quality was significantly affected by drought stress at reproductive stage. Protein and phosphorus percentages increased with drought stress treatments but it was significant only for severe stress condition. All traits except significantly affected by both inoculums. For many traits, the most effect of inoculation belonged to dual inoculation treatments. The mutual effects of two irrigation and seed inoculation treatments were not significant for traits. Wheat grain yield was significantly increased for all three inoculation treatments. This increase was 21% for mycorrhiza, 13.3% for Azotobacter and 17.4% for dual inoculation, compared with evident. Protein percentage increased for all the three inoculation treatments.

5.  Hamid Reza Tohidi Moghadam*, Hassan Salimi, Pourang Kasraie and Farshid jamshidpour  [Effect of Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with nitrogen chemical fertilizer on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 29-36 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran*(e-mail : hamid_tohidi2008@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

         In order to study the effect of biofertilizer (including Azospirillum and Azotobacter bacterium) and different nitrogen chemical fertilizer levels on grain yield, yield components and quality grain in wheat (Triticum aestivum), this research was carried out in research farm of Varamin Azad University in Varamin, Iran in 2009. A factorial experiment in the form of complete randomized block design with three replications has been used. The factors in this study included nitrogen chemical fertilizer in four levels (non application, application of 25% on based soil test, application of 50% on based soil test and application of 75% on based soil test ) and biofertilizer (N) from source of nitroxin (Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azotobacteragilis) in four levels (non-application, 2, 3 and 4 l/ha). The results showed that the interaction effect between biofertilizer × nitrogen chemical fertilizer levels had significant ef­fect on the traits under examination such as fertile tillers, number of grains per plant, grain yield, starch grain, gluten grain, protein grain and flag leaf area. This study indicated that application of biofertilizer with 4 l/ha increased grain yield by 22%, respectively, as compared with control condition. This result showed that biological nitrogen fixation caused adequate growth conditions in plants. Also result showed that the highest grain yield (6000 kg/ha) was obtained from interaction effect between biofertilizer with 4 l/ha at integrated nitrogen chemical fertilizer with application of 75% on based soil test. Furthermore, in this study, we observed that application of biofertilizer, rate of nitrogen chemical fertilizers shall be decreased upto 25%. Our results suggested that application of biofertilizers not only decreased nitrogen chemical fertilizers but also increased grain yield, also this prevented from ecosystem pollution.

6.    Majid Jiriaie and Nour Ali SajedI*  [Effect of  plant growth regulators on agro physiological traits of wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) var. Shahriar] under water deficit stress]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 37-45 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingArak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran * (e-mail : n-sajedi@iau-arak.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

           This experiment was conducted at the Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran during 2009-10. The experimental design was split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments including of water deficit stress in three levels : 100, 75 and 50% crop water requirement were assigned to main.

 

7.   Mohammad Motamedi*   [Grain yield potential and stability of some bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 46-51 (2012). Department of Agronomy Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran *(e-mail : motamedi55@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

            Genotype and environment (G x E) interactions are of major concern to plant breeders in breeding cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of grain yield in 20 wheat genotypes. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design trials of three replicates. Two methods of genotype × environment interaction analysis were performed and results were compared : the regression model and the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI). Analysis of combined analysis of variance for yield showed significant effects of the experimental sites and of the varieties. Significant interactions of these main effects were also shown. Based on AMMI method, genotypes No. 5, 6, 11, 15, 16 and Marvdasht variety showed general adaptability and genotypes 17 and 18 recognized to have specific adaptability to Varamin and genotypes 4, 19 and 20 had specific adaptability to Kermanshah. Overall, based on stability analysis on yield genotypes 15, 16 and Marvdasht with having good adaptability were determined as desirable genotypes. According to most of the parameters used in the study, genotypes 15, 16 and Marvdasht appeared to have a good level of general adaptation to all environments.

 

8.  Mohsen Ghamari, Mansour Farbod, Mohammad Hossain Gharineh, Abdolmahdi Bakhshandeh, Mohammadreza Delfieh* and Mohsen Behmanesh   [Effects of silver nano particles seed coating on germination and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 52-57 (2012). Crop Physiology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran *(e-mail : mdelfieh@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             In order to investigate the effects of silver nano particles on germination and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of completely  randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The factor A included two cultivars of wheat and seven levels of seed coating including five different concentrations of silver nano particles solution (S), ethanol (E) and a control (S), were taken as factor B. The results showed that silver nano particles had significant effects on germination percentage, germination rate, germination mean time, length of radicle and plumule, plumule and seedling dry weight and allometry. Radicle dry weight was not affected by seed coating treatments. Rate of germination, length of radicle and plumule of Verinak cultivar were higher than Chamran cultivar and the dry matter accumulation capability of Chamran cultivar was higher than Verinak. Although high concentrations of silver nano particles solution decreased Chamran germination rate, it had no effects on this trait of Verinak cultivar. Radicle and plumule dry matter accumulation was improved under silver nano particles in Verinak cultivar, while this trait was relatively reduced in Chamran cultivar. The cause of this function could be explained by desirable and undesirable effects of silver nano particles on the length of radicle and plumule in Verinak and Chamran, respectively.

 

9.   Ahmad Reza Golparvar* and Babak Bahari  [Study of heredity and gene action of harvest index and biological yield traits in wheat cultivars under drought stress condition]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 58-61 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran * (e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             In order to determine the mode of inheritance, genes action, general and specific combining abilities and effect of drought stress on genetic parameters of harvest index and biological yield traits in bread wheat, diallel mating design with eight parents was used. Parents alongwith F1 progenies were sown in a randomized complete block design with three replications under stress situations in Khorasgan (Isfahan) Agricultural Research Center. The data were analyzed according to methed of Hallauer and Miranda as well as fixed model of Griffing’s method II. Jinks-Hayman model was used to estimate broad and narrow-sense heritabilities and mean degree of dominance. There were significant differences between genotypes for mentioned traits in both the environments. Studying mean of squares of general combining ability (gca), specific combining ability (sca), the ratio of gca to sca mean of squares and portion of additive and dominance variances showed importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects for harvest index, but in biological yield heredity, additive effect was more important. Estimating broad-sense and narrow-sense heritabilities showed low efficiency of harvest index and high efficiency of biological yield for selection programmes in stress environments.

 

10.  Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani* and Bahman Abdurrahmani  [Seed priming, a way for improving grain yield and nutritional value of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under dry land condition]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 62-66 (2012). Department of Plant Eco-physiology  Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             This research was conducted to examine the effects of seed priming on nutrient uptake (P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu), grain enrichment and yield of barley (var. Abidar) under dry-land condition. Seeds of barley were divided into nine sub-samples. A sub-sample was kept as control (unprimed) and the other eight sub-samples were primed with water (hydro-priming) and 10% PEG, 5 mM CaCl2, 10 mM Zn, 50 mM P, 100 mM P, 10 mM Zn+50 mM P and 10 mM Zn+100 mM P solutions and then dried back to the initial moisture content. These seeds were sown at the early autumn 2006 as RCB design with three replications at the Dry-land Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran. Seedling emergence rate, seedling establishment, winter survival, ground green cover, rainfall productivity index and grain yield significantly improved by priming treatments. The superior priming techniques promoted enrichment of barley grains with P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu by 45, 21, 40, 36 and 32%, respectively. The beneficial effects of seed priming on yield and nutrient enrichment of barley grains were attributed to rapid seedling emergence and establishment, better winter survival, high ground green cover and consequently the best use of light, soil moisture and nutrients by the plants produced from the primed seeds.

 

11. Ali Rahimi*,  Khodabakhsh Panahi Kordlaghari and Ruhollah Jafar Azad  [Effect of sodium chloride and nitrogen on yield and yield components of dry land barley (Hordeum vulgare  L.) in Boyerahmad region of Iran]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 67-74 (2012). Young Researchers Club Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran*(e-mail : rahimi.ali1362@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             In order to study the effect of sodium chloride and nitrogen on yield and yield components of dry land barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a field experiment was conducted in factorial design based on randomized complete block with 16 treatments and three replications in Mokhtar region of Boyerahmad county in year 2009. The soil was a fine loamy over loamy skeletal, carbonatic, mesic, Typic Xerorthents. The treatments included four levels of nitrogen : 0, 17.25, 34.5 and 69 kg/ha as urea accompanied by four levels of sodium chloride : 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha. The results showed that effect of sodium chloride on grain yield was highly significant. Increasing the level of sodium chloride to 150 kg/ha increased the grain yield to 4810 kg/ha. The results also showed that effect of nitrogen on grain yield was  highly significant. The grain yield was increased to 5009.5 kg/ha by the application of  69 kg/ha nitrogen. The results also showed that there was significant difference at 1% level among different levels of sodium chloride and nitrogen in relation to 1000-kernel weight, peduncle length, plant height and the number of tillers per bush. The highest grain yield (5859 kg/ha) was obtained with 150 kg/ha sodium chloride without nitrogen (N0NaCl150). The least grain yield (866.6 kg/ha) was obtained from control treatment ((N0NaCl0).The maximum of biological yield (10100 kg/ha) was obtained by “N34.5NaCl150” treatment. The finding may cause a significant progress in rainfed barley production of the area.

 

12. YAZDAN AMIRI PARYAN, MOHAMMAD MIRZAKHANI AND NOUR ALI SAJEDI*  [Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and farm yard manure on physiological traits of maize under water deficit condition]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 75-82 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingArak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran*(e-mail : n-sajedi@iau-arak.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

            This experiment was conducted at Islamic Azad University Research Farms, Arak, Iran during the growing season 2010. The experiment model was split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were two factors, water deficit stress at three levels of 100, 80 and 60 crop water requirement as main plot and combination of nitrogen fertilizer and farm yard manure (FYM) in six levels as sub-plots. The results showed that effect of water deficit, FYM and nitrogen fertilizer on leaf chlorophyll, canopy temperature, leaf relative water content, membrane stability, protein and grain yield was significant. Application of nitrogen fertilizer and FYM under optimum and deficit stress could increase content leaf chlorophyll as compared to the same conditions. Deficit stress increased per cent of grain protein. The highest grain protein equal to 9.7% was obtained from 100% nitrogen fertilizer. Interaction effect of treatments showed that the highest grain protein equal to 10.7 was obtained from treatments of 60 crop water requirement alongwith combination of 50% nitrogen fertilizer and 50% FYM. The highest grain yield equal to 6900 kg/ha was obtained from treatments of 80 crop water requirement alongwith combination of 50% nitrogen fertilizer+50% FYM. It was concluded that with irrigation equal to 80% water requirement+50% nitrogen fertilizer+50% FYM optimum yield was obtained.

 

13. NASRIN IZADI, Amir Hossein Shirani Rad, Ahmad Reza Golparvar* and Majid Rafat Jah  [Effects of planting date on grain yield and yield components of sweet corn hybrids]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 83-89 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingKhorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran*(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              This experiment was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effect of two planting dates (July 14 and July 24) on yield of 12 sweet corn hybrids including Harvest Gold, E.X, Merit, Absolute, Revel, Basin, Shaker, Diva, Rival, Temptation, Shimmer and Chase in a farm located in the East of Esfahan (Iran). Delayed sowing date did not significantly decrease number of rows per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. In contrast, number of grains per row, shrub weight and biological yield increased. Merit and Chase produced the highest grain yield (2519 and 2235 kg/ha) at first and second sowing dates, respectively. The notable point about Chase was that in July 14 it produced the lowest grain yield but in July 24 generated the highest yield. It goes without saying that Chase is not recommended for earlier planting date because of higher temperature. At first sowing date Merit is a more suitable hybrid. However, seed yield at first sowing date was not significantly higher than second date.

 

14.  ALI RAHIMI*, KHODABAKHSH PANAHI KORDLAGHARI AND RUHOLLAH JAFAR AZAD   [Effects of different levels of potassium and zinc on yield and yield components of sweet corn in Boyerahmad region of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 90-94 (2012). Young Researchers Club Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran *(e-mail : rahimi.ali1362 @yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              In order to study effects of potassium and zinc on yield and yield components of sweet corn, a field experiment was conducted in factorial design based on randomized complete block with 12 treatments and three replications at Boyerahmad area during 2009. The treatments including four levels of potassium 0, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha as potassium sulfate and zinc in three rates i. e. 0, 15 and 25 kg/ha as zinc sulfate. The results showed that the interactions of potassium and zinc on cob weight and grain yield were significant. The highest rate of cob (2487.40 g/m2) was obtained under K150Zn25 treatment. The highest grain yield (1234.00 g/m2) was observed in K150Zn25. The application of 100 kg/ha potassium with 15 kg/ha Zn (K100Zn15) produced the highest 100-grain weight (208.42 g) without significant difference with K50Zn0 and K100Zn25 kg/ha treatments. The highest grain number per cob to the tune of 799.92, 750.42 and 733.22 was obtained under K100Zn15, K100Zn25 and K100Zn25, respectively.

 

15. S. K. SHARMA, N. K. JAIN AND B. UPADHYAY   [Effect of balanced fertilization on productivity and soil fertility status of maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 95-99 (2012). Rajasthan College of Agriculture Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

              A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soil of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during two kharif seasons of 2008 to 2009 to study the effect of balanced fertilization on productivity and soil fertility status of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment comprising  three balanced fertilization treatments i. e. 100% NPK, 100% NPKS and 100% NPKSZn was laid out in randomised block design with nine replications. Results revealed that application of 100% NPKSZn significantly enhanced the grain and stover yields of maize by 22.5 and 19.0% over 100% NPK, respectively. This treatment also recorded significantly higher concentrations and uptake of N, P, K, S and Zn as well as improved the soil fertility status.

 

16. HOSSEIN  HASSANPOUR  DARVISHI  AND MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*   [Effects of irrigation with saline water in production of two cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 100-102 (2012). Department of AgronomyShahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is an important crop in Iran. Different concentrations of sodium in saline water were compared for potential of forage yield in two cultivars of sweet sorghum in 2011. Crop was irrigated by saline water with different electrical conductivity such as EC=1.75 milimohs/cm (Tl), EC=2.75 milimohs/cm (T2), 50% saline water with EC=3.75 milimohs/cm and 50% sweet water (T3) and control, irrigated by sweet water (T4). IR 2240 and 6826 had less forage yield in T2 and T3 treatments in response to salt stress than Tl and T4 treatments (21.3 to 43.2% and 25.8 to 47.2%, respectively). A difference in total sugar concentration was found at harvest time and indicated that saline water could decrease the yield of sugar in sweet sorghum or salt stress had direct effect  in our study (reduction of sugar in T2 and T3 about 20.8 to 27% in 6826 and 15.7 to 23.4% in IR 2240 as compared with Tl and control). At least saline water is harmful for crops, and this is the main factor for reduction of yield in semi-arid regions in Iran.

 

17.  HOSSEIN  HASSANPOUR  DARVISHI  AND MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA*   [Effects of saline water on antioxidant enzymes and yield of two cultivars of millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 103-106 (2012). Department of AgronomyShahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran*(e-mail : rezadadnia@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is an important crop for dry regions in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the differences of yield and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) affected by saline water in two millet cultivars in 2011. In this work, the activity of SOD and GPX in millet cultivars (IE 750 and PR 268) was investigated in response to soluble sodium percentage (SSP) of irrigated water. The ranges of SSP varied from 20 to 60%. The results showed that PR 268 was more sensitive than IE 750 in response to sodium. About 20% more content of SOD and GPX was found in IE 750 than PR 268, and this was the main reason for increase about 14.6% of average final yield in this cultivar when SSP was 60%. We concluded that the rate of SOD and GPX was the major factor for decreasing the effects of sodium in millet.

 

18. Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani*, Seyyed-Hamid Mustafavi and Jalil Shafagh Kalvanagh   [Field performance of chickpea cultivars in response to irrigation disruption at reproductive stages]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 107-112 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             A field experiment was carried out in 2010 to investigate the effects of different irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3 and I4: well-watering on the basis of 70 mm evaporation from class A pan and irrigation disruptions at flowering stage, grain filling stage and during flowering and grain filling stages, respectively) on ground green cover, yield and yield components of three chickpea cultivars (Azad, Jam, ILC482). The experiment was arranged as split-plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications, with the irrigation treatments in main plots and chickpea cultivars in sub-plots. Water stress during reproductive stages caused severe reduction in ground green cover. In the most stages of crop growth and development, the ground cover of ILC482 was higher than that of the other cultivars. Pods per plant and grains per plant under I1 and I3 were significantly higher than that under I2 and I4. Mean 1000-grain weight under I1 and I2 was significantly higher than that under I3 and I4. Biological and grain yields per unit area were also significantly reduced by irrigation disruption and decreased with increasing duration of irrigation disruption. Harvest index under I1 was higher than that of the other irrigation treatments. However, the difference between I1 and I3 was not statistically significant. Pods per plant and grains per plant of ILC482 were significantly higher than that of Jam and Azad. However, the highest mean 1000-grain weight and harvest index were recorded for Azad. Consequently, grain yield per unit area was statistically similar for ILC482 and Azad.

 

19.  KAZEM GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI*, AMIR ASADI-DANALO AND JALIL SHAFAGH-KALVANAGH   [Seed vigour and field performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under different irrigation treatments]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 113-117 (2012). Department of Plant Eco-physiology  Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran *(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             The effect of seed vigour on field performance of lentil under different irrigation treatments was investigated in 2010 at the Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran. A sub-sample of lentil seeds was kept as control or high vigour seed lot (V1) and two other sub-samples with about 15% moisture content were artificially aged at 40°C for 18 and 22 days (V2 and V3, respectively). So, three seed lots with different levels of vigour were provided. Laboratory vigour tests were carried out as CRD to determine mean germination time and seedling dry weight. However, the field experiment was arranged as split-plot based on RCB design with three replications. Irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3 and I4 : irrigation after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively) and seed lots (V1, V2 and V3) were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. Mean time to germination and seedling emergence was increased with decreasing seed lot vigour. In contrast, seedling dry weight and emergence percentage were increased with increasing seed vigour. Increasing irrigation treatments and decreasing seed vigour led to significant reductions in ground cover, mainly due to poor stand establishment. Plants from high vigour seed lot produced the highest biological and grain yields per unit area. These plants also had the highest harvest index under all irrigation treatments, but the differences between V2 and V3 plants were more evident under limited irrigation conditions. It was concluded that cultivation of high vigour seeds can considerably improve field performance of lentil.

 

20. Ali Rahimi*, Khodabakhsh Panahi Kordlaghari and Abdolsamad Kelidari  [Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on yield and yield components of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grownin Boyerahmad region of Iran]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 118-122 (2012). Young Researchers Club Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran *(e-mail : rahimi.ali1362@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             The present research was conducted to study the effects of different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on yield and yield components of bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A field experiment was conducted in factorial design based on a randomized complete block with nine treatments and three replications in Boyerahmad region of Iran during spring 2009. The treatments included three doses of nitrogen (0, 34.5 and 69 kg/ha) supplied through urea fertilizer and three levels of phosphorus (0, 48 and 96 kg/ha) applied through triple super phosphate fertilizer. The results showed that the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on yield and yield components of bean were highly significant. The treatment combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus viz., N69P0, N0P96 and N34.5P96 produced maximum grain yield of bean to the tune of 5280, 5266 and 5096 kg/ha, respectively. The highest biological yield (11750 kg/ha) of bean was recorded with the application of 96 kg P/ha with no nitrogen fertilizer treatment (N0P96). The treatment combinations of N0P48, N34.5P0, N34.5P48, N34.5P96, N69P0 and N69P48 kg/ha did not differ significantly in terms of biological yield of bean. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the number of seeds per pod was not significant, whereas the effect on number of pods per plant was highly significant. The 100-seed weight was also influenced by nitrogen fertilizer significantly in bean. The economical and biological yields, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per plant of bean were significantly affected by phosphorus. The number of seeds per pod of bean was not influenced by phosphorus fertilizer.

 

21. SAEED SAEEDIPOUR*   [Salinity tolerance of canola cultivars at germination and early seedling growth]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 123-127 (2012). Department of AgronomyShoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Shoushtar, Iran*(e-mail : saeeds79@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             Salinity tolerance during germination and early seedling growth were evaluated for canola (Brassica napus) cultivarssuch as Ocapy, Hayola 308, Talaye and Hayola 401 in four treatments measuring ?0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM and were achieved by adding NaCl in deionized water. The results showed that different treatments of salinity had considerable effect on the germination, germination rate, shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, leaf area and number of leaves of canola cultivars. Germination percentage in all four species showed considerable decrease with increasing salinity upto 200 mM NaCl. This reduction was more in Hayola 308 as compared to other cultivars. The required time for germination also increased with increasing levels of salinity. The seedling growth of four species was significantly inhibited by all salinity levels. Particularly at 200 mM NaCl, root and shoot length of all species were considerably reduced. Shoot growth of all three plant species was more affected as compared to root growth at all salinity levels. Fresh shoot and root weight, leaf area and number of leaves were also severely affected at all salinity treatments. Among the cultivars under investigation Ocapy cultivar appeared to be more tolerant at germination and seedling stages.

 

22. KAZEM GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI*, P. SHEIKHZADEH-MOSADDEGH, M. R. SHAKIBA, A. MOHAMMADI AND S. NASROLLAHZADEH  [Field performance of differentially matured seeds of oilseed rape cultivars]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 128-133 (2012). Department of Plant Eco-physiology Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran*(e-mail : golezani@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Stage of maturity at harvest is one of the most important factors that can influence seed and seedling vigour of crops. This research was carried out during 2008-10 to investigate the effect of differentially matured seeds on field performance of winter oilseed rape cultivars (Modena, Opera and SLM046). Seeds were harvested at nine stages during development and maturity and three seed lots (V1, V2 and V3 : harvested at 36, 64 and 85 days after flowering, respectively) with different levels of germination and vigour were selected for evaluation in the field. Maximum germination and seedling vigour were recorded for V2, followed by V3 and V1 seed lots. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design in nine replications. The superiority of the V2 seed lot in seed and seedling vigour was led to higher seedling emergence percentage and grain yield per unit area in the field, compared with V1 and V3 seed lots. Although, emergence rate, grain filling rate and maximum grain weight of Modena were lower than those of Opera and SLM046, it produced comparatively more grains per plant.  Consequently, grain yield per unit area for three cultivars was statistically similar. The highest grain yield for Modena and Opera was obtained from V2 plants, but for SLM046 it was recorded for V3 plants. Thus, production of high vigour seeds by harvesting at the right time can considerably improve grain yield of winter oilseed rape mainly through enhancing percentage of seedling emergence and establishment.

 

23. Sanay Jain and A. K. Jha   [Effect of different tillage systems on yield and economics of mustard varieties and soil properties for Kymore Plateau and Satpura Hill Zone of Madhya Pradesh]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 134-138 (2012). Department of Physics & Agrometeorology Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

             Field experiment was carried out during rabi seasons of 2004-05 and 2005-06 at National Research Centre for Weed Science (NRCWS), Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh to evaluate different tillage systems on growth, yield and economics of mustard varieties and soil properties. The mustard varieties grown under zero tillage (16.60 q/ha) gave higher seed yield than conventional tillage (14.09 q/ha). Among the cultivars, maximum mean seed yield was produced by Varuna (17.63 q/ha). Zero tillage sowing of mustard gave maximum net monetary returns and benefit : cost ratio (Rs. 56354 and 3.4) than conventional till sown mustard (Rs. 51336 and 2.5). Varuna variety gave maximum net returns and B : C ratio than others.

 

24.  SAEED SAEEDIPOUR*   [Effect of osmo-priming on germination and early seedling growth of Brassica napus L. under salinity conditions]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 139-142 (2012). Department of AgronomyShoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran*(e-mail : saeeds79@gmail.com)

ABSTRACTS

 

             This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of osmo-priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of two Brassica napus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of  two spring rapeseed (Hayola 401 and Okapi) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) for 6 h in continuous 300C. Primed (P) and non-primed (NP) seeds were placed in petridishes with five salinity levels viz. 0.4 (control), 4, 8, 16 and 20 dS/m. Results showed that germination percentage of primed seeds was greater than that of non-primed seeds. Radicle length, seedling height and dry weight of plants derived from primed seeds were higher compared with non-primed seeds. It seems that salinity tolerance in priming resulted plantlets was due to higher potential of these plants for osmosis regulation. In general, this study revealed that seed priming with KNO3 improved canola seed performance under drought stress condition. However, the improvements were more obvious at the higher levels of salinity.

 

25. DODDABHIMAPPA R. GANGAPUR, B. G. PRAKASH, SANTOSHKUMAR MAGADUM and CHANNAYYA P. HIREMATH   [General performance of germplasm accessions in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under protected and unprotected conditions at Bijapur, Karnataka]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 143-146 (2012). UAS Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

            Forty-six germplasm lines were evaluated for seed yield and its components, separately under protected (chemical control against pest and disease) and unprotected conditions followed by RBD design with two replications, each powdery mildew reaction and aphid resistance during rabi season of 2007-08 at RARS, Bijapur. Among the eight top performing germplasm lines viz., GPM 31, 64 and 23 were common in both the conditions. The mustard lines viz., Pusa Agaram, Pusa, Mahak, GPM 46, EJ-15, JM-1, GPM 108 and GPM 25, GPM 106, GPM 65, GPM 83, GPM 58 and GPM 53 exhibited resistance to aphid and powdery mildew, respectively.

 

26.  ZHANG JING, CAO XIAO-LIN, YONG TAI-WEN AND YANG WEN-YU*   [Seed treatment with uniconazole powder induced drought tolerance of soybean in relation to changes in photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 147-154 (2012). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, China *(e-mail : wenyu.yang@263.com)

ABSTRACT

              Water deficit is an important constraint of global production of soybean. Dry seed treatment with uniconazole powder is a simple low-cost technology. To test whether such technology could be used to increase tolerance to water deficits in soybean, the effects of uniconazole application on photosynthesis, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence and seed yield were studied. Uniconazole at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg seed was applied before sowing. Four levels of soil moisture (75% field capacity for well-watered control and 60, 45 and 30% for drought-stressed treatment) were applied at blooming stage. Drought stress depressed leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), while leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, Pn, Gs and Tr of uniconazole-treated plants were higher than that of none uniconazole treated plants under the same soil moisture. Uniconazole treatment markedly increased maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) and photochemical quenching (qP) of drought-stressed plants. Treatment with uniconazole also significantly increased biomass accumulation, root/shoot ratio, the numbers of branch pod, branch seed and decreased empty pod of soybean when drought-stressed. This study shows that dry seed treatment with uniconazole can be used as a plant growth regulator technology to enhance drought tolerance and minimize the yield loss of soybean caused by water deficits.

 

27.  P. Kalaiselvi* and S. Mahimairaja   [Biomethanated distillery spentwash–A nutrient supplement for improving production in groundnut]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 155-161 (2012). Department of Environmental Science Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : kalaiphd@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

             The biomethanated distillery spentwash is a nutrient rich liquid organic waste obtained from molasses based distillery industries after biomethanation process. The effect of different levels and methods of spentwash application on yield attributes, yield and quality was examined through a field experiment. The field experiment was conducted using Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a test crop. The different levels of spentwash (0, 40, 80 and 120 m3/ha) were applied to the field in one time and continuous split doses of application. Among the spentwash applied plots, the plot which received spentwash @ 120 m3/ha alongwith NP recorded the maximum kernel yield of 1641 kg/ha, oil content of 44.2% and seed crude protein of 25.1%. The continuous application of split doses of spentwash was found better than one time application. Hence, spentwash is a bioresource material which offers a low cost fertilizer alternative on agricultural utilization. In doing so, the manurial and irrigational potential of distillery spentwash invariably has a considerable economic value in the context of present energy and fertilizer nutrient crisis.

 

28.  Mohamad Reza Naghavi*, Amir Hossein Shiranirad  and Mohamad Ali Baghestani  [Effect of plant densities on seed and oil yields of safflower cultivars grown under weedy and non-weedy conditions]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 162-165 (2012). Department of Agronomy Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran*(e-mail : mohamad.rezan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

           In order to determine the effects of plant densities and weed competition of safflower cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Cultural Experiment and Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan in 2009-10. Plant density had significant effect on number of seeds per main head, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield, biological yield and harvest index. The influence of cultivars was also significant on plant height, number of seeds per main head, seed yield, 1000-seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and biological yield. Number of seeds per main head, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and biological yield were significantly influenced by weeds. Plant height, seed yield, 1000-seed weight, oil yield and biological yield decreased when weeds were on the field. The results showed that the highest seed and oil yield was observed in 70 plants per m2 and Mahali cultivar. In treatment with weed, seed and oil yield decreased significantly. So, cultivation of Mahali cultivar with 70 plants per m2 was recommended to Isfahan’s farmers.

 

29.  Mohhamad Heydarian*, Hamid Reza Tohidi Moghadam, Javad Hassanpour and Hossein Zahedi   [Effect of boron foliar application and irrigation withholding on yield and yield components of safflower]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 166-173 (2012). Department of Agronomy Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran *(e-mail : m_h_1979@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

            In order to study the effect of irrigation withholding at flowering and seed setting stage and boron foliar application on quantitative and qualitative traits of safflower, a field experiment in randomized complete block design arranged in split plot with three replications was conducted in 2010. Irrigation withholding was comprised of water stress at two stages (flowering and seed setting) as main plot and three concentrations of boron (0, 0.5 and 1%) were considered as sub-plots. Results showed that exertion of water stress at flowering and seed setting stage decreased seed yield of safflower significantly. In addition, plant growth indexes and harvest index were affected by water stress negatively. Use of foliar boron increased seed yield under water stress; on the other hand, use of boron foliar application had the highest positive effect on plant height, branch number, seed number, biological yield and harvest index.  In general, application of boron under conditions of late season drought stress is recommended to safflower seed production.

 

30. Z. Emami-Bistghani, S. A. Siadat, M. Torabi*, A. Bakhshande, Saeid Kh Alami and H. Shiresmaeili   [Influence of plant density on light absorption and light extinction coefficient in sunflower cultivars]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 174-179 (2012). Kabotar-Abad Agricultural Research Station Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : masoud.agro.ir@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

           This study was conducted to find out the effects of plant density on light absorption and light extinction coefficient on yield and yield components of sunflower in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement. The trial carried out with four replications during 2009-2010 in Isfahan province of Iran. The variables of experiment were four levels of plant density (6, 8, 10 and 12 plants/m2) and four varieties of sunflower included Arm-mok18-85, S1RE85-ES, Mok13-8 andKc20-83ES85.The results indicated that the leaf area index (LAI) of different cultivars varied under different plant densities. The LAI increased with increasing plant density and the highest LAI among  cultivars was recorded as 3.43. The LAI and dry matter in cultivar Arm-mok18-85  was higher compared to other cultivars. With increasing plant density, the light extinction decreased in cultivar Arm-mok18-85especially in early reproductive stage. There was a positive and significant relation between plant density and light absorption among all the cultivars. The highest light absorption and maximum grain yield were recorded under plant density of 12 plants/m2.  The yield of sunflower cultivars decreased by about 19% with reduction in plant density from 12 to 6 plants/m2.

 

31. D. B. Patil, J. A. Jadhav, H. D. Sathe, N. H. Chavan and S. N. Mendhe   [Effect of land configuration and irrigation management on growth attributes and quality parameters of linseed]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 180-182 (2012). Section of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Nagpur (M. S.), India

ABSTRACT

            An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2009-10 to study the effect of land configuration and irrigation management on growth and growth attributes and quality parameters of linseed with split plot design. The treatment consisted of four levels of land configuration viz., L1 (flat bed), L2 (broad bed furrow), L3 (furrow in every row), L4 (furrow after two rows) and three levels of irrigation management viz., I0 (no irrigation), I1 (one irrigation at flowering) and I2 (two irrigations, one at flowering and one at capsule formation stage). Results showed various growth characters like height of plant, number of branches/plant and mean dry matter accumulation/plant and were significantly increased and were highest in treatment (BBF) and at par with furrow in every row and furrow after two rows. In case of irrigation management, mean height of plant, number of branches/plant and mean dry matter accumulation/plant were maximum in treatment I2 (two irrigations, one at flowering and one at capsule formation stage) and significantly superior over treatments I1 (one irrigation at flowering) and I0 (no irrigation). The interaction effect of land configuration and irrigation management was found to be non-significant. In case of quality parameters like oil content was not influenced by any treatment but oil yield was recorded maximum in treatment BBF which was at par with furrow in every row and furrow after two rows and the oil yield as higher in treatment two irrigations, one at flowering treatment and one at capsule formation stage than remaining treatments. The interaction effect was non-significant on quality parameters of linseed.

 

32. R. B. JOLLI, D. LAKSHMAN, M. S. DHANALEPPAGOL AND S. Y. WALI  [Impact of hydropriming techniques in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 183-186 (2012). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

             Field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008 at Bijapur, Karnataka to study the impact of hydropriming techniques of sesame (Sesamum indicum) ‘DS-1’ strain on germination, growth, yield attributes and seed yield. On an average, soaking of sesame seed in water for 6 h and GA3 500 ppm solution for 10 min followed by shade drying before sowing enhanced germination by 23.1 and 21.6% and seed yield/ha by 35.6 and 32.2%, respectively, over the control. These treatments also recorded better growth attributes viz., root (4.8 and 4.6 g) shoot (25.2 and 24.6 g) dry weight and length (16.6 and 16.1, and 74.1 and 73.7 cm) 50 days after sowing, and yield attributes viz., capsules/plant (52.8 and 51.6), seeds/capsule (26.4 and 25.9), 1000-seed weight (2.11 and 2.09 g), seed yield/plant (2.86 and 2.79 g) and seed yield (0.455 and 0.444 t/ha) at harvest compared with rest of the treatments.

 

33. Ahmad Reza Golparvar*  [Screening for salinity tolerance in Agropyron desertorum accessions at the seedling stage]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 187-190 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : dragolparvar@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              Inter-cultivar variation for salt tolerance in Agropyron desertorum was assessed by screening 10 diverse accessions originally collected from different areas of Iran with varying environmental conditions. The set of accessions examined in this study showed considerable variation in all the germination attributes such as germination percentage and rate as well as seedling fresh and dry weights under salt stress. Principal component analysis revealed that four important principal components accounted for about 94% of the total variation among the traits studied. The first component comprised root length, plumule length, seedling length and seed vigour and accounted for 49% of the total variation among the traits. This component entitled as the seed germination ability. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes in four clusters. In conclusion, selection for the higher amounts of the traits root length, plumule length, seedling length and seed vigour can improve the seed germination ability in A. desertorum genotypes. Also, crosses between the genotypes classified in the clusters 1 and 4 caused broadening genetic variation and possibility of the efficient selection among the progenies exhausted from these crosses. Moreover, based on the probit analysis 341-mix and 3974-p11 was determined as the most salinity tolerant and sensitive Agropyron genotypes.

 

34.  Amir Hossein Nayerain-Jazy*   [Morpho-chemical traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar N 200 as influenced by irrigation regimes and foliar feeding of micronutrients]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 191-196 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingKhorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan, Isfahan, Iran*(e-mail : ahnayerainj@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

              Scientists have found that different soil moisture conditions in different cotton growth stages affect vegetative growth, reproductive development, qualitative and quantitative yield, yield components, boll abscission, maturity and physiological process such as photosynthesis, respiration, assimilate translocation and partitioning and so on. To evaluate effect of irrigation regimes and foliar feeding of micronutrients on some morphological characteristics of cotton plants and cottonseed traits, this experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station owned by Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch in a split plot layout with three replications in 2009. Irrigation treatments were regarded as the main factors and foliar application of micronutrients was applied as sub-factors. Plant height, main stem’s node number, number of monopodial and sympodial branches, weight of 100 seeds, cottonseed yield, seed oil and protein percentage and oil yield were calculated and analysis of variance was carried out for all traits on split plot layout based on randomized complete block design. According to the results, effect of irrigation regimes was statistically significant on morphological characteristics at 1% probability level. Foliar feeding of micronutrients had no significant effect just on number of monopodial branches, although, Interaction of irrigation regimes and foliar feeding of micronutrients had significant effect just on plant height. Effect of irrigation regimes and foliar feeding of micronutrients on related traits to seed was significant at 1% probability level as well. The greatest 100-seed weight (10.88 g) and seed oil percentage (28.03) were related to irrigation after 80 mm evaporation with three times foliar feeding of micronutrient treatments. Also, the highest amount of oil yield (163.78 kg/ha) was produced in irrigation after 160 mm evaporation with three times foliar feeding of micronutrient treatments.

 

35.  A. I. PATEL*, S. C. MALI, C. G. INTWALA and J. R. NIZAMA   [In vitro regeneration using shoot tip culture in commercial cultivar CoN 05072 (Saccharum spp. hybrid)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 197-201 (2012). Department of Tree Biology and Improvement Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat), India*(e-mail : akshay742000@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

           A protocol for direct shoot regeneration without intervening callus phase was developed by using shoot tip culture on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) variety CoN 05072. The study revealed that aseptically inoculated shoot tip of sugarcane in BAP (Benzylamine purine) @ 2.00 mg/l established the shoot induction and shoot multiplication was also observed at the same concentration. At 2.00 mg/l of BAP (82.00%), the shoots were weak, tiny and non-separable, whereas at 1.0 mg/l of BAP (25.84%) rate of multiplication was low (6.46) but resulted in desirable quality, well grown, easily separable and healthy plantlets. The root induction was observed in NAA (Napthalene acetic acid) @ 2 mg/l (90.00%) and complete plantlets were hardened and transferred to greenhouse for establishment with survival rate of 80%.

 

36.  Jamshid Zandi, Mohammadreza Naderidarbaghshahi*, Mehrdad  Jafarpour and Alireza Jalalizand   [Evaluation of super absorbent hydro gels application for reduction in water use by Bermuda grass grown in urban landscapes of south Iran]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 202-205 (2012). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 81582-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : mnaderi@khuisf.ac.ir; mnmpsvr@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             In order to study effect of super absorbents on water use reduction of Bermuda grass in urban landscapes, a study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental factors were three irrigation regimes (after 24, 48 and 72 h) and four levels of super absorbent hydro gel (0, 3, 5 and 10 g of hydro gel per kg of soil mixed with soil to 20 cm depth). Effects of various hydro gel levels on leaves dry weight, root weight and land coverage percentage were highly significant and 10 g of hydro gel had the highest amounts of these traits. This result showed that using super absorbent was effective in Bermuda grass cultivation and had positive effects on its growth indices by increasing water holding capacity of soil. Various irrigation regimes had also significant effects on leaves dry weight, root weight and root length and the highest leaves dry weight and root weight were related to daily irrigation, whereas every 48 h irrigation had the highest root length. In this study, 10 g of superabsorbent per kg soil under every 24 h irrigation produced the highest leaves dry weight. Increasing super absorbent matters plus daily irrigation could prepare the most appropriate amount of water to grass use. Meanwhile, use of 10 g super absorbent produced the highest land coverage in all three irrigation levels.

37.   Hani M. Saoub*, Muhanad W. Akash and Jamal Y. Ayad  [Agronomic potential of vetch landraces from Jordan]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 206-213 (2012). Department of Horticulture and Crop Science University of Jordan, Faculty of Agriculture, Amman-11942, Jordan*(e-mail : hanis@ju.edu.jo)

ABSTRACT

            In Jordan, the improvement of vetch production is becoming one of the main objectives as its growing areas are decreasing either because of environmental or cropping system changes. However, there is no literature concerning the assessment of genetic diversity of vetches landraces that harbour important genes for the development of new adapted varieties. The present study aimed at collecting, evaluating and characterizing vetch landraces covering different parts of Jordan. Twenty-six vetch landraces were collected from different parts of Jordan during a period extended from April to May in 2006-07 growing season and assessed in the field during 2008-09 growing season. The experiment was conducted at three stations (Ghwier Agricultural Research Station, Rabba Agricultural Research Station and Jubeiha Agricultural Research Station, The University of Jordan). Results indicated that grain yield of Vicia erivillia landraces was higher than grain yield of Vicia sativa landraces, regardless of the growing location. However, biological yield obtained from V. sativa entries [671 kg/ha (entry no. 6) upto 2514 kg/ha (entry no. 1)] was higher than that obtained from V. erivillia entries [536 kg/ha (entry no. 10) upto 2125 kg/ha (entry no. 23)]. Similar trend was shown for straw yield where V. sativa entries had more vegetative growth compared to V. erivillia entries. These differences attributed to the dissimilarity in genetic make-up of the two species. For example, some researchers mention that V. erivillia produces more grain yield due to its ability to tolerate drought when compared to V. sativa. The identification of these superior adapted local landraces is the first step in fulfilling the objective of the national vetch breeding programme.

 

38.  Gh. Shabani*, S. Vazan, M. R. Chaichi, F. Paknejad,  Gh. Mohammadi and  F. Golzardi   [Effects of weed control methods on seed yield, seed protein and percentage of seed hardiness in annual medic (Medicago scutellata cv. Robinson)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 214-218 (2012). Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kermanshah Province, Iran *(e-mail: bb1379@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

          Annual medics alongwith high quality residues production are capable to produce high percentage of hardseeds which play a significant role in sustainability of Ley-farming system. To study the effect of two selective post-emergence grass herbicides on seed production and characteristics of annual medic during pasture stage, this experiment was conducted in 2009 growing season. The treatments were : control (without weed control), hand control of weeds, Nabu-S and Gallant herbicides. Results showed that application of Gallant herbicide caused over 85% damages to annual medic population in the pasture. The application of Nabu -S herbicide successfully controlled all the weeds. However, it caused a significant decrease in seed yield, seed protein, per cent of hardseedness as well as protein content in produced dry residues by annual medic. Weed control by hand significantly increased the quality and quantity of seed produced in annual medic pasture. Application of herbicides is not highly recommended as it imposes some deleterious effects on annual medic.

 

39.  YAHYA ABDEL RAHMAN AL-SATARI*, HANI SAOUB, MOHAMMAD OKLAH ABU DALBOUH AND IBRAHIM MOHAMMAD SAEID AMAYREH  [Assessment of effect of rangeland protection in Khanasri area of  northern Badia region of Jordan]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 219-222 (2012). National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) P. O. Box 639, Baga-19381, Jordan *(e-mail : y.satari@ncare.gov.jo)

ABSTRACT

 

             The experiment was conducted at Khanasri to study the effect of protection on native vegetation productivity and stocking rate. Productivity of protected and non-protected locations was recorded. Coverage per cent, fresh and dry yield, allowable productivity and stocking rate of native vegetation productivity were recorded. Highly significant differences (P<0.0001) were noticed between protected and non-protected locations. The coverage percentage was increased by 464% due to protection. Meanwhile, fresh yield was increased from 457.80 kg/ha for non-protected to 2739.10 kg/ha for protected treatments. Dry yield was increased from 213.47 kg/ha for non-protected to 923.16 kg/ha for protected treatments. Also, allowable yield was increased from 106.74 kg/ha for non-protected to 461.58 kg/ha for protected treatments. Finally, stocking rate was increased from 0.79 head/ha/3 months for non-protected to 3.42 heads/ha/3 months for protected treatments. Protection is highly recommended for rangeland degradation control.

 

40.  Marjan Padidar  and Kamran  Safavi*   [Kinetics of copper desorption in selected calcareous soils of Iran]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 223-227 (2012). Young Researchers Club Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : kamran.safavi60@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              Desorption of copper (Cu) from soil surfaces into soil solution is an important factor in determining Cu availability to growing plants. To ascertain the pattern of Cu desorption and soil characteristics affecting it, the kinetic of Cu desorption by oxalic acid and HCl 0.01 M from 10 different soils of Western Iran were studied in a laboratory experiment. The study was done on the area that potato cultured. Five kinetic models were evaluated to describe the rate of desorption of soil Cu by oxalic acid and HCl, which was rapid initially but gradually declined with time. For all soils, the quantity of Cu desorbed by oxalic acid was more than desorbed by HCl 0.01 M. It was postulated that the greater effectiveness of citrate compared with HCl was related to the ability of citrate to form bridging complexes between the Cu and the soil surface. The results showed that LMWOAs (oxalic acid) played an effective role in desorption of Cu and enhanced the release of Cu from solid phase to soil solution. In extracts, zero-order, first-order, parabolic diffusion and two constant rate equations were the best fitted equations used to describe Cu desorption from studied soils. The amount of Cu desorbed from the soils was poorly described by the simple Elovich equation.

 

41.MARYAM  VARAVIPOUR* AND ZAHRA  ARZJANI   [Investigation in remediation of contaminated soil with petroleum product on agricultural economy in Esmail Abad (south of Tehran refinery), Iran]. Res. on Crops 12 (3): 807-812 (2011). Department of Horticulture Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi-221 002 (U. P.), India

ABSTRACT

             In this research, soil pollution with petroleum combinations in Esmail Abad (south of Tehran refinery) has been studied. Since many years ago, the soil of this area has been polluted due to leakage of petroleum combinations from underground reservoirs and worn transferer pipes and waste from pollutants of refining crude oil. To conduct this study, on soil samples of this area, measuring tests of pollutants with BTEX and PAH were measured to determine leakable pollution of soil. Also leakage degree of pollutants was measured by TCLP. Moreover, the pollution amounts of soil in this area with existing pollutants amount in the table were compared by EPA. Due to the results of analysis, it can be observed that the highest density of banzan, toluene and ethyl banzan was extracted as 54.9, 9 and 407.5 mg/l,  respectively, which are 109, 6.8 and 29 times of determined amount in comparing with TCLP standard.  This comparison indicates that the soil of Esmail Abad has been polluted with petroleum combinations and it is possible to extend pollution towards neighbour areas. Then four refining methods to remove petroleum pollutions of soils which are common in Iran studied aspect of agricultural economy (soil washing, in situ thermal treatment, bioremediation and phytoremediation). In this order, genetic algorithm method which is optimization method based on natural mechanisms was used. The results of applying genetic algorithm have prioritized four methods and introduced phyto-remediation as optimized method economically.

 

42.  Forogh Mortezaeinezhad*, Hoda  Azarm, Shokoofeh Enteshari and Kamran Safavi  [Comparison of epicatechin content in black and white grape cultivars of Iran]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 236-239 (2012). Department of HorticultureKhorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran*(e-mail : mortazaeinezhad@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

             Antioxidants constitute a considerable part of the human beings’ eating schedule. Fruits and vegetables are the main source of the active living materials. Their most important productivity is due to the nature of prohibition of the brains senility and consumptions and also has an important role in preventing from illnesses. It has been proved that antioxidant mixtures prevent skin, lung, breast, gullet, pancreas and prostatic cancers and heart diseases like arterosclerose. Epicatechin, which is one of the most important of catechins, is an especial antioxidant which is frequent in green teas and other types of fruits. In this research, investigation has been done on epicatechin of grape (Vitis vinifera). We prepared different cultivars Yaghoti, Gandomeh, Samarghandi and Shahani which were black grapes and Rishbaba, Hosseini, Rajabbi and Asgari which were white cultivars. Results showed that the amount of epicatechin in black cultivars was higher in comparison with that in the white cultivars. There was a direct relationship between anthocyanin and other antioxidants especially catechin. The current research confirms that most of the catechin and other antioxidants are frequent in fruits. In this study we compared the black and white grape juice and results showed that the black grape juice had more phenolic compounds. So, it was recommended to use black grapes in the eating habits.

 

43.  VEENA JOSHI, S. AMARENDER REDDY, B. SRINIVASA RAO AND R. SUBHASH REDDY   [Evaluation of different grape wine varieties on growth and yield attributes under Hyderabad conditions]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 240-244 (2012). Department of HorticultureAcharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

             Thirteen grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars were evaluated for growth and yield parameters, which were five years old vines on own rooted cuttings. Highest pruning weight was recorded in cv. Athens (5.23 kg/vine), while the lowest was noticed in Zinfandel (1.03 kg/vine). The cultivar Pusa Navrang recorded less number of days for bud break (8.15 days), while Ruby Red took more days (21.21 days) for bud burst. The number of canes per vine varied significantly among the varieties with highest in the cv. Shiraz (54.93) and least in Thompson Seedless (32.91). On the contrast, Italia showed thicker canes (18.60 mm), while Zinfandel recorded thinner canes (10.93 mm). However, the number of bunches showed significant influence among the varieties with maximum in the variety Chenin Blanc (113.78) and minimum in Thompson Seedless (37.26). But the average weight of bunch was recorded highest in Italia (331.61 g), followed by Thompson Seedless (307.79 g) and lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon (88.06 g). Number of berries varied significantly among the varieties, with maximum recording in Pusa Navrang (87.16), while minimum in Gulabi (31.73). Cultivar Italia besides weighing maximum bunch weight showed higher berry weight (414.21 g/100 berries). However, the poor performance with respect to yield components was recorded in Sauvignon Blanc (4.51 kg/vine) and Gulabi (4.94 kg/vine), while highest yield was observed in Chenin Blanc (16.81 kg/vine) followed by Shiraz (13.48 kg/vine). The overall results suggest that the varieties Shiraz, Pusa Navrang and Cabernet Sauvignon among the coloured grapes, Chenin Blanc and Italia among white grapes were found suitable for commercial growing.

 

44.  Rakesh Kumar Yadav, M. C. Jain and Mahesh Choudhary   [Effect of media on seed germination of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) with or without Azotobacter].Res. on Crops13 (1): 245-248 (2012). Department of Fruit Science College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

             The present investigation was carried out at the Fruits Research Farm, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar during the year 2009-10 to study the effect of different media on germination of freshly extracted seeds of acid lime. Among the different growing media i. e. T0–Control (soil), T1–Soil+sand (1 : 1), T2–Soil+vermicompost (1 : 1), T3–Soil+vermiculite (1 : 1), T4–Soil+cocopeat (1 : 1), T5–Soil+vermicompost+vermiculite (1 : 1 : 1), T6–Soil+vermicompost+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1), T7–Soil+vermicompost+vermiculite+ Cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), T8–Soil+sand+vermicompost+vermiculite (1 : 1 : 1 : 1) and T9–Soil+sand+vermicompost+vermiculite+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 1) the media T9– soil + sand +vermicompost+vermiculite+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 1) with Azotobacter had given significantly better result on germination parameters under study. Under this treatment, minimum days taken to first germination (15.00 days), 50% germination (24.33 days), total span of germination (19.00 days) and maximum germination percentage (76.00) were noted.

 

45. Rakesh Kumar Yadav, M. C. Jain and Anop Kumari   [Effect of media on leaf area and biochemical analysis of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) seedlings with or without Azotobacter]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 249-253 (2012). Department of Fruit Science College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar-313 001 (Rajasthan), India

ABSTRACT

              An investigation was carried out to study the effect of media on leaf area and biochemical analysis of acid lime seedlings with or without Azotobacter at Fruits Research Farm, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar during the year 2009-10. Acid lime seedlings were subjected to different media i. e. T0–Control (soil), T1–Soil+sand (1 : 1), T2–Soil+vermicompost (1 : 1), T3–Soil+vermiculite (1 : 1), T4–Soil+cocopeat (1 : 1), T5–Soil+vermicompost+vermiculite (1 : 1 : 1), T6–Soil+vermicompost+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1), T7– Soil+vermicompost+vermiculite+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), T8–Soil+sand+vermicompost+ vermiculite (1 : 1 : 1 : 1) and T9–Soil+sand+vermicompost+vermiculite+cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 1). It was observed that the treatment T9–Soil+sand+vermicompost+vermiculite+ cocopeat (1 : 1 : 1 : 1 : 1) with Azotobacter had significantly better effect on leaf area (1.43 cm2) and biochemical analysis viz., per cent nitrogen content in leaf (1.86%) and chlorophyll content in leaf (5.44 mg/g) as compared to other treatments.

 

46.   KAMRAN SAFAVI* AND FOROGH MORTEZAEINEZHAD   [Role of modified tissue culture media by nanomaterial in potato propagation]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 254-257 (2012). Young Researchers ClubKhorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran*(kamran.safavi60@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

             Nanotechnology is concerned as a key technology which will have wide usage. Antibacterial activity is one of the important abilities of nanomaterial and bacterial contamination is a serious problem in plant tissue culture procedures. This research was planned to evaluate the potential of nano silver to remove bacterial contaminants that exist in plant tissue culture media. Experiment involved Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with five rates (5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) of nano silver. Potato explants were cultured on this modified MS medium and evaluated after four weeks. The results showed that nano silver had a good potential for removing the bacterial contaminants in plant tissue culture procedures.

 

47.  Hassan Borji*, ahmad mohammadighesareh AND mehrdad jafarpour   [Effect of date-palm and perlite substrates on nutrients content and quality of tomato grown in soilless culture]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 258-261 (2012). Faculty of Agriculture Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : hasan_soil63@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

             Use of suitable growing media in soilless culture or substrate high quality is essential for production of crops. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of culture substrates on tomato fruit nutrient (N and K) and fruit quality in soilless cultivation. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan in Iran. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design with six replications. Treatments were date-palm peat 1 (without fermentation period), perlite, palm peat 2 (with three months fermentation period) (v/v=100%), perlite+date-palm peat 2 (v/v=50%) and perlite+date-palm peat 1 (v/v=50%). Maximum total soluble solids (TSS), related to perlite treatment had non-significant difference with other treatments. Also media had no significant effect on nitrogon in fruit. The aspect of titrable acidity (TA), potassium  and TSS/TA had not any significant difference between treatments. The results showed that palm peat with suitable  physical properties, availability, low cost and efficiency of palm cultivated could be a new substrate that was introduced for  replacing with other media.

 

48.  AYNUR OZBAHCE*, ALI FUAT TARI AND RECEP CAKIR   [Influence of various water supply levels and emitter spacing on yield and water use of processing tomato grown in middle Anatolian region of Turkey]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 262-267 (2012). Soil and Water Resources Research Institute, P. O. 48 42151, Konya, Turkey *(e-mail : a_ozbahce@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT

              This research was carried out in order to determine the effects of different dripper space and water stress levels on total fruit yield, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and water use efficiency (WUE). The randomized split block experimental design with three replications was applied in the study. Each row of the experimental plots was equipped with a single lateral. Dripper spacings of 25, 50 and 75 cm along the lateral were tested for main plots, while four levels of water supply (i. e. water amount applied to replenish the water deficit of 0-60 cm soil depth to field capacity (I1) and water supply reductions of 25, 50 and 75%) were applied as sub-plots of the experiment. Results of the field experiments carried out during experimental years showed that the highest total fruit yield (73.4-74.0 t/ha) was obtained under conditions of I1 application (P<0.01). It was also determined that IWUE and WUE values varied in the ranges of 9.6-37.1 kg/m3 and 8.7-14.0 kg/m3, while seasonal values of yield response factor (ky) obtained for the first and the second experimental years were determined as 1.22 and 0.84, respectively.

49.  L. ALIYU*, D. I. ADEKPE, H. MANI AND M. O. OGUNLANA [Response of carrot to mulching and irrigation interval at Kadawa, Nigeria]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 268-270 (2012). Department of Agronomy Institute for Agricultural Research Ahmadu Bello University, P. M. B.-1044, Zaria, Nigeria *(e-mail : lamidoaliyu06@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

              Experiments were carried out during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 cool dry seasons at the Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, located at Kadawa (11o 29¢ N, 08o02¢ E and 500 m above sea level) in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria to determine the response of carrot to mulch materials (no mulch, rice straw and grass mulch) and three irrigation intervals (4, 8 and 12 days).  The treatments were factorially combined and laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant height, root length, root diameter and root weight were not significantly affected by the treatments in both the years of study.  Rice mulch resulted in significantly fewer leaves than no mulch and lower total yield compared with grass mulch in 2006-07 dry season. Marketable yield in both the seasons and number of leaves/plant in 2005-06 were not significantly influenced by mulching. Irrigation at four days interval significantly resulted in higher total yield in both the seasons and marketable yield in 2006-07.

 

50.  Y. BINDIYA, D. SRIHARI, J. DILIP BABU AND P. VENKATESHWAR RAO   [Effects of organic manures and biofertilizers on yield and yield attributes of gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 271-274 (2012). Students’ Farm, College of AgricultureAcharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

              An experiment on gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.) cv. Ajax was carried out at Students’ Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during 2007 and 2008 to study the effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on gherkin with reference to yield and yield attributes. Analysis of pooled data revealed that higher yield and yield attributes were recorded with application of recommended dose of fertilizers (150 N : 75 P : 150 K kg/ha) and were on a par with vermicompost 18 t/ha+Azotobacter (2 kg/ha)+phosphate solubilizing bacteria (2 kg/ha) than control.

 

51.  S. Anuja and L. Jayalakshmi  [Effect of foliar spray of organic nutrients and inorganic fertilizers on yield and quality of palak [Beta vulgaris (L.) var. bengalensis]]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 275-277 (2012). Department of Horticulture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

             The experiment was carried out at the Orchard Field Unit, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during January-March 2010. Foliar organic nutrients viz., panchakavya (3 and 4%), vermiwash (1 : 3 and 1 : 5 dilution ratio), humic acid (0.1 and 0.2%), water spray (control) and two levels of fertilizers (basal) 100 and 75% recommended dose of fertilizers were tried in this study. Among the different treatments, foliar application of panchakavya 4%+100% NPK increased the total leaf yield per plant (199.68 g) and also recorded higher chlorophyll content of 0.830 mg/g and total crude protein content of 14.22 and 14.03 in I and III clipping stages in Palak var. Ooty-1.

 

52.  SANTOSH CHOUDHARY*, P. K. YADAV AND ATUL CHANDRA  [Effect of drip irrigation and mulches on the productivity, nutrient uptake and soil moisture regimes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars grown in arid Rajasthan]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 278-285 (2012). Department of Horticulture S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : s.choudhary83@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

             A field experiment was conducted at Bikaner (Rajasthan) during the kharif seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of drip irrigation and different mulches on the productivity, nutrient uptake and soil moisture regimes of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cultivars. The experiment was consisted of four levels of irrigation viz., drip irrigation at 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6 pan evaporation fraction and surface irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio; two cultivars viz., ‘Tulsi’ (hybrid) and ‘Arka Anamika’ (variety); and three mulching treatments viz., no mulch, organic mulch (Aerva persica @ 10 t/ha) and black polyethylene (25 micron). The results of pooled data for two years revealed that number of pickings, pods/plant, length and weight of pod significantly increased in drip irrigation at 0.6 pan evaporation fraction. The highest pod yield (191.2 and 185.5 q/ha during each year) was recorded in drip irrigation at 0.6 pan evaporation fraction which was higher by 44.7 and 49.3% over surface irrigation with 5.51 and 5.63 q/ha-cm water-use efficiency during 2008 and 2009, respectively. Drip irrigation at 0.6 pan evaporation fraction, being at par with drip irrigation at 0.8 PEF, recorded the maximum nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. However, both at vegetative and flowering stage, maximum soil moisture content during each year was observed in drip irrigation at 1.0 pan evaporation fraction. Among cultivars, ‘Tulsi’ recorded significantly higher number of pickings (11.9), number of pods/plant (18.1), pod length and pod weight. ‘Tulsi’ also recorded the higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake and registered 41.1 and 42.3 higher pod yield over ‘Arka Anamika’ during 2008 and 2009, respectively. Among the mulches, organic mulch gave higher pod yield (181.9 and 179.1 q/ha) and yield attributes. This treatment also showed higher nutrient uptake. In the given agro-climatic conditions, maximum pod yield and water-use efficiency were observed under drip irrigation at 0.6 pan evaporation fraction in conjunction with organic mulch.

 

53.  Mehrdad Jafarpour*, Amin Lotfi and Hasan  Borji  [Evaluation of vegetable essential oils and silver nanoparticles as a new factor in extending vase-life of rose variety ‘Shanti’]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 286-292 (2012). Department of Horticulture Science Agricultural Faculty Isfahan  (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, P. O. Box  81595158, Iran *(e-mail : Jafarpour@khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

              The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nanoparticles and essential oils as antimicrobial factor in extending the vase-life of rose variety ‘Shanti’. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted, using sucrose (at the concentration of 0 and 4%) as the first factor and one of the following groups as the second factor; nanosilver preservative solution (0, 5, 10 and 15 ppm ), aniseed essential oil (100 and 200 ppm), thyme essential oil (100 and 400 ppm) and pennyroyal essential oil (200 and 400 ppm). Results indicated that treating the flowers with silver nanoparticles at the concentration of 5 and 10 ppm, pennyroyal essential oil at the concentration of 100 and 200 ppm and thyme essential oil at the concentration of 100 ppm has led to increase the vase-life upto 1.5-2 times compared to the control group (5 days). However, vase-life of flowers treated with pennyroyal essential oil at the concentration of 200 and 400 ppm was similar to control and it was significantly shorter than other treatments containing silver nanoparticles. Moreover, application of either nanosilver or essential oils at various concentrations combined with 4% sucrose had no positive effect on vase-life compared to control group.

 

54.  U. PAVANI, M. PRATAP AND A. SIVA SHANKAR  [Influence of planting dates on vegetative, floral and biochemical parameters of gladiolus]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 293-298 (2012). Department of HorticultureAndhra Pradesh Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.). India

ABSTRACT

 

             An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of four planting dates on performance of four gladiolus varieties. Corms planted on 15 September performed better compared to the late plantings in terms of leaf area, dry matter accumulation, earliness in spike initiation, spike weight, spike length and number of opened florets. Biochemical parameters like nutrient status, nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate status were also more for the plants from 15 September planting.

 

55.  Anop Kumari, K. S. Patel, Mahesh Choudhary and Rakesh Kumar Yadav [Performance of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker F.) cultivars under fan and pad cooled greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 299-301 (2012). Horticulture Research FarmAnand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

 

                      An investigation was carried out to evaluate the five cultivars of gerbera (Dhoni, Zingaro, Roselin, Dune and Balance) under fan and pad cooled greenhouse conditions at the Horticulture Research Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) during August 2008-May 2009. There were significant variations amongst the cultivars for the various growth, yield and quality parameters studied. The results revealed  that  cultivar Balance performed best against all other cultivars studied, with respect to tallest plants (41.05 cm), number of leaves per plant (25.91), leaf area index (5.24), number of suckers per plant (4.88), flower stalk length (62.95 cm), flower stalk diameter (5.09 mm),  flower diameter (11.41 cm), flower fresh weight (14.37 g), flower dry weight (2.51 g), number of flowers per plant (10.59), number of flowers per sq. m (94.04) as well as maximum shelf life of flowers (10.11 and 15.30 days) at ambient (25.12°C) and 18°C temperatures, respectively.

 

56.  M. Vijayalaxmi, A. Manohar Rao, A. S. Padmavatamma and A. Siva Shankar  [Correlation and path coefficient analysis in tuberose]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 302-306 (2012). Department of HorticultureAndhra Pradesh Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India

ABSTRACT

 

                    The field experiment was carried out among seven single cultivars of tuberose at All India Coordinated Research Project on Floriculture, Agricultural Research Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the year 2009-10. The correlation studies revealed that leaf area, dry mater production, number of florets per spike and weight of bulb showed positive and significant association with flower yield, while negative association was with space between florets and among these components, florets per spike played predominant role. The path analysis indicated that leaf area, dry matter production, duration of flowering, number of spikes per plant and fresh weight of spike had direct positive effects on flower yield per plant in tuberose.

 

57.  Jahangir Shams*, Payam Najafi, Nematallah Etemadi and Azita Shams  [ Effects of irrigation levels on morphology and physiology characteristics of Petunia violacea].Res. on Crops13 (1): 307-310 (2012). Young Researchers Club Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : shams.jahangir@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

                  Petuniais one of the most important bedding plants in landscape. Petunia violacea has cultured from old times in Iran and it is famous between producers to native species. Irrigation levels on characteristics in this plant were studied due to deficiency of water sources. In order to survey the effect of irrigation levels on this species, the trial has been executed on the basis of ET-HS software. This experiment performed with three treatments of irrigation (100-75-50% irrigation requirement) on the basis of ET-HS model. The exam was tested in completely randomized design with three repetitions in Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch in 2011. The plant height, the number of accessory shoots, the number of flowers and the leaf area, the canopy, total chlorophyll and proline were measured. The results showed that morphology and physiology characteristics were affected by irrigation treatment. There was a significant difference in number of flowers and canopy between 50% irrigation with two other stresses. Decrease in irrigation caused a significant decline in the leaf area and total chlorophyll. Also the accumulate of proline increased in plant sensible. So, 75% ET-HS was tender for saving in use of water, to keep up flowering and developing of growth.

 

58. BEHROUZ MEHDINEJADIANI*, ABD ALI NASERI, MAJID BEHZAD AND HOSSIEN JAFARI   [Introduction of a mathematical model for calculating sub-surface drains spacing using fractional derivatives]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 311-318 (2012). Water Sciences Engineering Faculty Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : bmehdinejad83@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

 

                     One of the limitations of Boussinesq equation is that its parameters (e. g. hydraulic conductivity) are scale-dependent. In this work, a fractional Boussinesq equation was obtained by assuming power-law changes of flux in a control volume and using a fractional Taylor series. Unlike Boussinesq equation, due to the non-locality property of fractional derivatives, the parameters of fractional Boussinesq equation are constant and scale-invariant. The linear form of fractional Boussinesq equation was solved by using spectral representation and an analytical mathematical model was derived to calculate sub-surface drains spacing. The optimal values of parameters of mathematical model developed in this study and Glover-Dumm’s model were estimated from inverse modelling. In the inverse methodology, water table data between two sub-surface drains and optimisation method of Bees algorithm were used. The accuracy of proposed model was investigated using water table data between the two sub-surface drains and compared to Glover-Dumm’s model. The results indicated that the mathematical model derived in this study predicted the water table profile between two sub-surface drains more exactly than Glover-Dumm’s model.

 

59.  Ali Shahbazi*,  Feridon Radmanesh, ali  mohammad akhoond-ali and Tofigh Sadi   [Developing a simulation model for multipurpose reservoir using system dynamic approach]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 319-326 (2012). Khuzestan Water and Power Authority, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : alish1980@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

                     Simulation is one of the most useful methods in water resources system analyzes. There is still a strong need to explore simulation techniques that not only represent complex dynamic systems in a realistic way but also allow the involvement of end users in model development to increase their confidence in the modelling process. One of these techniques is system dynamics. System dynamic models have four structural units including Levels, Flows, Connectors and Converters. These four units are applied to simulate a variety of simple to very complex systems. In this article, system dynamic approach and Vensim software have been used to simulate a multipurpose reservoir operation. Developed models have been used to evaluate the agricultural demands allocation, hydropower generation and reliability at Abolfares dam. Optimization and sensitivity analyses were used on dam operational properties. Also different dam operations and inflow scenarios were used to evaluate water resource system feedback. Results showed that reservoir could meet the environmental and agricultural demands of existing farms in 100 and 99% of simulation period accordingly. Also results indicated that regulated water by the reservoir could extend existing land upto 1300 ha by shortage of water in only 2% of whole simulation period. Simulation of energy generation as second purpose of dam showed that hydro power plant could generate monthly average of 140 mwh peak energy and 430 mwh non-peak energy.

60.  Hadi Moazed, Masoomeh Farasati* and Hooshang Ghamarneia**   [Dispersivity of chlorine through medium and coarse grained soil materials]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 327-333 (2012). Water Science Engineering FacultyShahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran*(e-mail : farasati2760@gmail.com; **hghamarnia@razi.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

                     Dispersivity is an important property of a porous medium and Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE). It is used in solving problems related to pollutants migration by groundwater. In the present study, the dependence of dispersivity on the thickness and texture of the aquifer materials has been investigated. The physical model used in the study consisted of a cylindrical Plexiglas tank with inner diameter of 72 cm and 130 cm height. Sodium chloride with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 35 dS/m was selected as conservative pollutant. The porous media used consisted of homogenous coarse and medium sand particles. The textures of soils consisted of medium sand particles and medium sand particles with 10, 20 and 30% (by weight) of coarse sand designated by T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Results of the study indicated that : (1) the dispersivity values obtained for T1, T2, T3 and T4 media with thicknesses of 15 to 120 cm were in the range of 0.17 to 1.45, 0.46 to 4.05 cm, 0.85 to 3.6 and 1.6 to 4.6 cm, respectively, and the mean dispersivity values obtained for aquifers were in the range of 0.77 to 3.6 cm, (2) the dispersivity of sandy porous medium was dependent on the particle size, and  (3) in homogeneous sandy aquifers with coarse and medium sand particles, the dispersivity value was dependent on the aquifer thickness.

 

61.  A. P. Mallikarjuna Gowda, Chandrappa, C. S. Ravi and B. Raju   [Conservation of Terminalia chebula through vegetative propagation]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 334-337 (2012). PG & Hi Tech Horticultural Research Centre University of Horticultural Sciences (Bagalkot), GKVK Campus, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

 

                  The both hard wood and soft wood cuttings taken from 10 and 30-year old trees were failed to develop roots when treated with different concentrations of IBA; however, sprouting was observed. None of the air layers produced roots with the treatment of different concentrations of IBA even after 90 days of layering. However, only callusing was formed in all the layers treated with different concentrations of IBA including untreated control. In inter-specific grafting experiments, among the different age groups, 60 days old Terminalia  bellerica  and 45 days old Terminalia arjuna recorded maximum graft union success of 76 and 72%, respectively, with the scion of  T. chebula. The maximum plant height (13.65 and 13.35 cm) and more number of leaves (6.52 and 6.28) were recorded when 60 days old T. bellerica and 45 days T. arjuna were used, respectively. However, Terminalia catappa of different age groups failed to produce grafts.

 

62.  ZHANG JING, CHEN XINFU, LIU WEIGUO AND YANG WENYU* [Stability analysis of yield and quality of Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep by additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 338-345 (2012). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan, China*(e-mail : wenyu.yang @263.net)

ABSTRACT

 

                     Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep is a common traditional Chinese medicine. The objectives of this study were to analyze genotype × environment (GE) interaction on yield and quality of four cultivars in seven environments by additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. Main effects due to environment (E), genotype (G), GE interaction as well as first three interaction principal component axes (IPCA 1 to 3) were found to be significant (P < 0.01). Cluster analysis divided the A. orientale into three main sub-regions and three genotypes. Genotype 2 and genotype 4 could be chosen as excellent resources from these wild resources and used them to breed new and high quality cultivars. Production in Dujiangyan had the best yield and quality output, the region should be acted as the main production region. This classification of locations could be useful in breeding for specific adaptability within sub-regions.

63.  ROSHNI R. SAMARTH AND ASHISH VALA   [ Genetic diversity analysis of Plantago species and their interspecific hybrids through RAPD marker]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 346-351 (2012). Department of Agricultural BotanyAnand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

 

                    The present investigation of genetic diversity analysis of six Plantago species and their interspecific hybrids was carried out using RAPD markers in the molecular genetics laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Botany, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during the year 2008-09. The data collected from random amplification of polymorphic DNA with seven arbitrary oligonucleotide primers produced a total 139 DNA fragments. Among these, 134 fragments were found to be polymorphic. The mean number of polymorphic bands per primer among Plantago genotypes was 19.14. The size of PCR amplified DNA fragments ranged from 145 to 6401 bp. The highest polymorphism (100%) was exhibited by primers OPA-07, OPA-11, OPA-13, OPB-07 and OPB-17, while the lowest polymorphism (80.95%) was detected with OPA-18. The average polymorphism detected by the RAPD loci in the present investigation was 96.63%. Cluster analysis revealed that at about 16% genetic similarities, the genotypes were clustered in their respective groups. The basic information generated in the present study will be very useful in framing new breeding programmes for Plantago.

64.  ROSHNI R. SAMARTH* AND R. S. FOUGAT   [Interspecific hybridization and induction of variability in Plantago species]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 352-359 (2012). Department of Agricultural BotanyAnand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India

ABSTRACT

 

                    Plantago ovata has narrow genetic base on account of low chromosome number, small size of chromosomes, lot of heterochromatin and less recombination frequency. Studies on interspecific relationships in Plantago would be of great help in transfer of desirable genes from wild species to the cultivated types by attempting interspecific crosses followed by repeated back crosses and selection for desirable types. In the present study, interspecific crosses were carried out and hybridity was confirmed by cytogenetical studies. Comparative morphology of parents, interspecific hybrids and their BC1, C1 and M1 progenies were also carried out in the present study. In the present investigation, the  morphological observations i. e. days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), number of tillers or number of branches per plant, number of spikes per plant, spike length (cm), number of flowers per spike, days to maturity, 1000-seed weight (g), seed yield per plant (g) and husk content (%) were recorded. Except days to 50% flowering, all characters showed significant differences. By inducing polyploidy, there is possibility for improvement of P. ovata. Study on morphological and genetical characters also helps in transferring some desirable characteristics from one species to the other. The basic information generated in the present study will be very useful in framing new breeding programmes for Isabgol and shall give new impetus to research efforts directed towards the improvement of Isabgol through conventional plant breeding vis-a-vis.

 

65.  A. I. PATEL*, S. C. MALI, C. G. INTWALA  and J. R. NIZAMA   [In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. using callus culture]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 360-363 (2012). Department of Tree Biology and Improvement Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat), India*(e-mail : akshay742000@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

 

                     An experiment was conducted on in vitro callus of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.–an important non-caloric sweetening herb to explore its potential for micro propagation. Leaf, node and internode segments of selected herb as explants were cultured on MS medium containing 2,4-D at 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/l for callus induction. The highest amount of callus was found in MS medium with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D and MS medium with 5.0 mg/l 2,4-D gave the poorest callus. Internode segments initiated callus earlier than node and leaf.

 

66. Md. Alamgir Kabir, Tapan Kumar Nath and Wook Kim*   [Crops in human life : Comparative medicinal use of plants by Rakhain tribes living in forested and non-forested regions in Bangladesh]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 364-377 (2012). Division of Biotechnology College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea *(e-mail : kwook@korea.ac.kr)

ABSTRACT

 

                     Medicinal plant use of Rakhain tribal community of Bangladesh  living in a forested hilly region and non-forested plain land region was compared in terms of plant parts utilization, mode of administration, use versatility and uniformity in use.  A total of 42 plant species belonging to 26 families distributed over 35 genera were recorded. Forest (59.24%) is the main source of medicinal plants for Rakhain tribal people living in forested region, while it is home garden/homestead agro-forest (61.96%) for non-forested region. Trees were the most frequent growth form (47.62%) and 16 species were found with high use versatility (RI>1) for forested region, while it was 14 for the non-forested region. Only one fruit species has been included in high versatile use category for forested region and three fruit species have been included in the same use category for non-forested region. For 10 ailment categories (among 13), Fic values for non-forested area were higher than the forested area indicating more uniformity and rigidity in traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge of Rakhain tribal community living in non-forested region than the forested region as the first group usually exchanges their knowledge with local people (non-tribal).

 

67.  ALIREZA JALALIZAND*, AZADEH KARIMY, AHMAD ASHOURI, MOJTABA HOSSEINI AND AHMAD REZA GOLPARVAR   [Effect of host plant morphological features on functional response of Orius albidipennis (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Tetranychidae)]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 378-384 (2012). Department of Entomology and Plant Protection Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad  University, Isfahan, Iran
*(e-mail : jalalizand@ khuisf.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

 

                  Effect of host plant on the functional response of Orius albidipennis females to densities of egg or adult female of Tetranychus urticae was investigated using cucumber and strawberry plants that differ in leaf morphological features. The functional response experiments of predatory bugs on egg and adult female of T. urticae were examined over 24 and 8 h periods, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that O. albidipennis predation fitted reasonably well to both type II and III functional response models. Predators showed type II response to adult female of T. urticae on both host plants but they had type III response to T. urticae eggs on their host plants. Attack rates (a) of predatory bug to adult female of T. urticae on cucumber and strawberry were 0.031 and 0.047/h, respectively. Moreover, attack coefficient b, which describes the changes in attack rate with prey densities in a type III response (a=b N), of O. albidipennis to T. urticae eggs on cucumber and strawberry was 0.001 and 0.004/h, respectively. Predator handling times (Th) to adult female and T. urticae eggs on cucumber were greater than those on strawberry, with estimated values of 0.94 vs.1.54 and 0.81 vs. 0.76 h for adult female vs. T. urticae eggs on cucumber and strawberry, respectively. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, prey and predator, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.

 

68.  P. Savitha, M. S. Nandish, Shefali Mishra and M. K. Shivaprakash   [Field performance of Nomuraea rileyi formulations against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in tomato crop]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 385-387 (2012). Department of Agricultural Microbiology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka), India

ABSTRACT

 

                     Tomato is an important commercial vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Among many factors responsible for low yield of tomato in India, insect-pests are major ones. Helicoverpa armigera often causes huge loss in production of tomato, as it damages directly the economic part (fruit). To control this pest without causing turbulence in the ecosystem, various Nomuraea rileyi formulations were tested under field conditions. The results showed that sunflower oil and bentonite formulations were found significantly superior in reducing number of larvae per plant after chemical control (Avant/Indoxicarb). Wherein Avant was found to be best treatment with minimum fruit damage of 5.33% and maximum yield of 17.28 t/acre. This was followed by sunflower oil based formulation of N. rileyi with yield of 15.43 t/acre.

 

69.  S. Debnath, P. Satya and B. C. Saha   [Differential response of different stress related biochemicals and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes in rice-Xanthomonas interaction]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 388-391 (2012). Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingUttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar-736 165 (W. B.), India

ABSTRACT

 

                   Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is gaining importance everyday to the plant breeders and phytopathologists. It has the potential to cause a havoc yield loss upto 60%. So, finding a management strategy is need for today. Genotype selection is not the mere way here. The biochemical response in rice-Xanthomonas interaction is a key area of study to know the fundamental chemistry behind disease resistance. Here a number of near isogenic lines have been evaluated for their resistance potential test. Pyramided lines were most successful in conferring resistance alongwith some other single gene containing lines. Reactive oxygen species were best neutralized in pyramided lines. Study of isozyme banding pattern supports the findings made from measuring different enzymes viz., peroxidase and super oxide-dismutase. The only message came from the study that use of single resistance gene is not always beneficial but gene pyramiding is the only alternative here.

 

70. A. VIJAYALAKSHMI AND ANJU SINGH  [Integrated effect of farm yard manure and sugarcane trash on seedling growth of greengram (Vigna radiata L.)]. Res. on Crops 13 (1): 392-394 (2012). Department of Botany Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore-641 043 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

 

                     Agro-wastes have been used to benefit crop production by improving soil fertility, increasing soil organic matter and reducing the incidence of plant disease. Various combinations of agro-wastes were used in the present studies to analyze the effect of farm yard manure (FYM), sugarcane trash, NPK, ligno-cellulolytic fungi and urea. The sugarcane trash was composted alongwith Pleurotus sajor caju (150 g), Trichoderma (150 g) and 5 kg urea. The seeds of Vigna radiata were soaked at different concentrations of compost extract and farm yard manure (FYM) for 12 and 24 h. The root length of the greengram seedlings was markedly increased with 10% FYM in 12 and 24 h treatment. The shoot length increased significantly in 25% composted sugarcane trash in treatment 12 and 24 h. The higher numbers of lateral roots were recorded in 10% composted sugarcane trash and 10% FYM. A significant increase in dry and fresh weight of the seedling was noted with 25% FYM and composted sugarcane trash combination.

 

71.  A. VIJAYALAKSHMI AND V. SOWMYA   [Effect of farm yard manure and composted sugarcane trash on biometric and yield parameters of greengram (Vigna radiata L.)].Res. on Crops 13 (1): 395-397 (2012). Department of Botany Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore-641 043 (Tamil Nadu), India

ABSTRACT

 

                     A field experiment was conducted in greengram (Vigna radiata L.) at Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore. Agro-waste has been identified to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. The aim of the present investigation was to minimize pollution by utilizing the vast potential of sugarcane trash by composting with Pleurotus sajor caju and Trichoderma. Various combinations of treatments were used to analyze the effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and composted sugarcane trash. The treatments showed an enhanced biomass compared to control. On the 30th and 60th day of growth, there was a significant increase in the characters such as root length, shoot length number of lateral roots, plant fresh and dry weight in the treatments T3 to T7. The treatments T4, T5 and T6 were found to be effective on nodulation, and yield attributing characters such as pod length, pod circumference, number of seeds/pod, weight of seeds/pod and weight of 100 seeds.

 

72. K. K. SINGH, RANJAN KUMAR, SUNITA KUMARI AND Y. SINGH   [Soil fertility status in Kurhani block of Muzaffarpur district of Bihar]. Res. on Crops13 (1): 398-400 (2012). Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Muzaffarpur, Saraiya-848 125 (Bihar), India

ABSTRACT

 

                     The spatial distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was studied by collecting random geo-referenced surface (0-15 cm) soil samples from 332 sites representing Kurhani block in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. These soil samples were analyzed for pH, EC, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and categorized as low, medium and high as per standard procedures. The pH of soil samples varied from 7.80 to 8.42, EC of soil samples varied from 0.05 to 0.16 dS/m and organic carbon varied from 0.41 to 0.54%. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of surface soil samples varied from 163.37 to 190.66 kg N/ha, 11.90 to 15.69 kg P/ha and 121.15 to 153.40 kg K/ha.